back to the search page

Query Topic: ADCY5

Query Date:


type 2 diabetes risk(2)

Effects of 16 genetic variants on fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in South Asians: ADCY5 and GLIS3 variants may predispose to type 2 diabetes.
The Meta-Analysis of Glucose and Insulin related traits Consortium (MAGIC) recently identified 16 loci robustly associated with fasting glucose, some of which were also associated with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of our study was to explore the role of these variants in South Asian populations of Punjabi ancestry, originating predominantly from the District of Mirpur, Pakistan. Sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1678 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 1584 normoglycaemic controls from two Punjabi populations; one resident in the UK and one indigenous to the District of Mirpur. In the normoglycaemic controls investigated for fasting glucose associations, 12 of 16 SNPs displayed β values with the same direction of effect as that seen in European studies, although only the SLC30A8 rs11558471 SNP was nominally associated with fasting glucose (β = 0.063 [95% CI: 0.013, 0.113] p = 0.015). Of interest, the MTNR1B rs10830963 SNP displayed a negative β value for fasting glucose in our study; this effect size was significantly lower than that seen in Europeans (p = 1.29×10(-4)). In addition to previously reported type 2 diabetes risk variants in TCF7L2 and SLC30A8, SNPs in ADCY5 (rs11708067) and GLIS3 (rs7034200) displayed evidence for association with type 2 diabetes, with odds ratios of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.39; p = 9.1×10(-4)) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.29; p = 3.49×10(-3)) respectively. Although only the SLC30A8 rs11558471 SNP was nominally associated with fasting glucose in our study, the finding that 12 out of 16 SNPs displayed a direction of effect consistent with European studies suggests that a number of these variants may contribute to fasting glucose variation in individuals of South Asian ancestry. We also provide evidence for the first time in South Asians that alleles of SNPs in GLIS3 and ADCY5 may confer risk of type 2 diabetes.
Publication Date: 2011-09-29
Journal: PloS one


deep brain stimulation(3)

Deep brain stimulation reduces (nocturnal) dyskinetic exacerbations in patients with ADCY5 mutation: a case series.
Mutations in the ADCY5 gene can cause a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder. Episodic exacerbations of dyskinesia are a particularly disturbing symptom as they occur predominantly during night and interrupt sleep. We present the clinical short- and long-term effects of pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) in three patients with a confirmed pathogenic ADCY5 mutation. Patients were implanted with bilateral pallidal DBS at the age of 34, 20 and 13 years. Medical records were reviewed for clinical history. Pre- and postoperative video files were assessed using the "Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale" (AIMS) as well as the motor part of the "Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale" (BFMDRS). All patients reported subjective general improvement ranging from 40 to 60%, especially the reduction of nocturnal episodic dyskinesias (80-90%). Objective scales revealed only a mild decrease of involuntary movements in all and reduced dystonia in one patient. DBS-induced effects were sustained up to 13 years after implantation. We demonstrate that treatment with pallidal DBS was effective in reducing nocturnal dyskinetic exacerbations in patients with ADCY5-related movement disorder, which was sustained over the long term.
Publication Date: 2020-07-11
Journal: Journal of neurology


tcf7l2 kcnq1(3)

ATAC-seq reveals alterations in open chromatin in pancreatic islets from subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic islets is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Altered chromatin structure may contribute to the disease. We therefore studied the impact of T2D on open chromatin in human pancreatic islets. We used assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) to profile open chromatin in islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We identified 57,105 and 53,284 ATAC-seq peaks representing open chromatin regions in islets of non-diabetic and diabetic donors, respectively. The majority of ATAC-seq peaks mapped near transcription start sites. Additionally, peaks were enriched in enhancer regions and in regions where islet-specific transcription factors (TFs), e.g. FOXA2, MAFB, NKX2.2, NKX6.1 and PDX1, bind. Islet ATAC-seq peaks overlap with 13 SNPs associated with T2D (e.g. rs7903146, rs2237897, rs757209, rs11708067 and rs878521 near TCF7L2, KCNQ1, HNF1B, ADCY5 and GCK, respectively) and with additional 67 SNPs in LD with known T2D SNPs (e.g. SNPs annotated to GIPR, KCNJ11, GLIS3, IGF2BP2, FTO and PPARG). There was enrichment of open chromatin regions near highly expressed genes in human islets. Moreover, 1,078 open chromatin peaks, annotated to 898 genes, differed in prevalence between diabetic and non-diabetic islet donors. Some of these peaks are annotated to candidate genes for T2D and islet dysfunction (e.g. HHEX, HMGA2, GLIS3, MTNR1B and PARK2) and some overlap with SNPs associated with T2D (e.g. rs3821943 near WFS1 and rs508419 near ANK1). Enhancer regions and motifs specific to key TFs including BACH2, FOXO1, FOXA2, NEUROD1, MAFA and PDX1 were enriched in differential islet ATAC-seq peaks of T2D versus non-diabetic donors. Our study provides new understanding into how T2D alters the chromatin landscape, and thereby accessibility for TFs and gene expression, in human pancreatic islets.
Publication Date: 2019-05-28
Journal: Scientific reports


gipr adcy5(3)

Genetic variants in GCKR, GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C and the risk of severe sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Severe hypoglycaemia (SH) induced by sulfonylureas is a life-threatening condition. We hypothesized that recently identified polymorphisms associated with insulin secretion in GCKR, GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C genes affect the response to sulfonylureas in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and so, result in reduced risk for SH. We assessed the prevalence of GCKR, GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C polymorphisms in a case-control study including 111 patients with SH and 100 patients with T2D but without a history of SH. All patients were treated with the sulfonylurea drugs glimepiride, glibenclamide or gliquidon. SH was defined as a symptomatic event with blood glucose of <50 mg/dl requiring treatment with intravenous glucose. In logistic regression analyses, a low HbA(1c) and a higher sulfonylurea dose appeared to be the only predictors of SH (P=0.001 and P=0.04, respectively). There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution between the control group and the cases with SH for any of the investigated polymorphisms (OR and 95% confidence intervals - 0.90 (0.59-1.38) for GCKR; 1.11 (0.67-1.85) for GIPR; 0.75 (0.48-1.17) for ADCY5; 1.43 (0.95-2.15) for VPS13C; all P-values >0.05). Also, there was no significant effect of the examined genetic variants on HbA1c levels (all P-values >0.05 adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, sulfonylurea dose). We found no detectable effect (with an OR >2.1) of the variants in GCKR, GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C on the response to sulfonylurea treatment, indicating that these variants are not significantly contributing to the risk of SH in patients with T2D.
Publication Date: 2012-09-08
Journal: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association


glis3 prox1(3)

Association of genetic Loci with glucose levels in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analysis of over 6,000 children.
To investigate whether associations of common genetic variants recently identified for fasting glucose or insulin levels in nondiabetic adults are detectable in healthy children and adolescents. A total of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose were genotyped in six studies of children and adolescents of European origin, including over 6,000 boys and girls aged 9-16 years. We performed meta-analyses to test associations of individual SNPs and a weighted risk score of the 16 loci with fasting glucose. Nine loci were associated with glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents, with four of these associations reported in previous studies and five reported here for the first time (GLIS3, PROX1, SLC2A2, ADCY5, and CRY2). Effect sizes were similar to those in adults, suggesting age-independent effects of these fasting glucose loci. Children and adolescents carrying glucose-raising alleles of G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, and GLIS3 also showed reduced β-cell function, as indicated by homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Analysis using a weighted risk score showed an increase [β (95% CI)] in fasting glucose level of 0.026 mmol/L (0.021-0.031) for each unit increase in the score. Novel fasting glucose loci identified in genome-wide association studies of adults are associated with altered fasting glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents with effect sizes comparable to adults. In nondiabetic adults, fasting glucose changes little over time, and our results suggest that age-independent effects of fasting glucose loci contribute to long-term interindividual differences in glucose levels from childhood onwards.
Publication Date: 2011-04-26
Journal: Diabetes


madd adra2a(3)

Variants from GIPR, TCF7L2, DGKB, MADD, CRY2, GLIS3, PROX1, SLC30A8 and IGF1 are associated with glucose metabolism in the Chinese.
Recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in European descent samples identified novel loci influencing glucose and insulin related traits. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the association between these loci and traits related to glucose metabolism in the Chinese. We genotyped seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from fifteen loci including GIPR, ADCY5, TCF7L2, VPS13C, DGKB, MADD, ADRA2A, FADS1, CRY2, SLC2A2, GLIS3, PROX1, C2CD4B, SLC30A8 and IGF1 in 6,822 Shanghai Chinese Hans comprising 3,410 type 2 diabetic patients and 3,412 normal glucose regulation subjects. MADD rs7944584 showed strong association to type 2 diabetes (p = 3.5×10(-6), empirical p = 0.0002) which was not observed in the European descent populations. SNPs from GIPR, TCF7L2, CRY2, GLIS3 and SLC30A8 were also associated with type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0487∼2.0×10(-8)). Further adjusting age, gender and BMI as confounders found PROX1 rs340874 was associated with type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0391). SNPs from DGKB, MADD and SLC30A8 were associated with fasting glucose while PROX1 rs340874 was significantly associated with OGTT 2-h glucose (p = 0.0392∼0.0014, adjusted for age, gender and BMI), the glucose-raising allele also showed association to lower insulin secretion. IGF1 rs35767 showed significant association to both fasting and 2-h insulin levels as well as insulin secretion and sensitivity indices (p = 0.0160∼0.0035, adjusted for age, gender and BMI). Our results indicated that SNPs from GIPR, TCF7L2, DGKB, MADD, CRY2, GLIS3, PROX1, SLC30A8 and IGF1 were associated with traits related to glucose metabolism in the Chinese population.
Publication Date: 2010-11-26
Journal: PloS one


adra2a fads1(3)

Effects of genetic variants previously associated with fasting glucose and insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P = 0.002) and GCKR (P = 0.001). We noted impaired β-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired β-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
Publication Date: 2012-09-18
Journal: PloS one


adcy5 rs11708067(3)

Nonfasting glucose, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction: a Mendelian randomization study.
The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Elevated fasting plasma glucose levels associate with increased risk of IHD, but whether this is also true for nonfasting levels and whether this is a causal relationship is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 80,522 persons from Copenhagen, Denmark. Of those, IHD developed in 14,155, and MI developed in 6,257. Subjects were genotyped for variants in GCK (rs4607517), G6PC2 (rs560887), ADCY5 (rs11708067), DGKB (rs2191349), and ADRA2A (rs10885122) associated with elevated fasting glucose levels in genome-wide association studies. Risk of IHD and MI increased stepwise with increasing nonfasting glucose levels. The hazard ratio for IHD in subjects with nonfasting glucose levels ≥11 mmol/l (≥198 mg/dl) versus <5 mmol/l (<90 mg/dl) was 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2 to 11.2) adjusted for age and sex, and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3 to 4.2) adjusted multifactorially; corresponding values for MI were 9.2 (95% CI: 4.6 to 18.2) and 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1 to 11.2). Increasing number of glucose-increasing alleles was associated with increasing nonfasting glucose levels and with increased risk of IHD and MI. The estimated causal odds ratio for IHD and MI by instrumental variable analysis for a 1-mmol/l (18-mg/dl) increase in nonfasting glucose levels due to genotypes combined were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.52) and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.28 to 2.23), and the corresponding observed hazard ratio for IHD and MI by Cox regression was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.22) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.11), respectively. Like common nonfasting glucose elevation, plasma glucose-increasing polymorphisms associate with increased risk of IHD and MI. These data are compatible with a causal association.
Publication Date: 2012-06-16
Journal: Journal of the American College of Cardiology


diabetes t2d(3)

ADCY5 gene expression in adipose tissue is related to obesity in men and mice.
Genome wide association studies revealed an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs11708067 within the ADCY5 gene--encoding adenylate cyclase 5--with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and higher fasting glucose. However, it remains unclear whether the association between ADCY5 variants and glycemic traits may involve adipose tissue (AT) related mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ADCY5 mRNA expression in human and mouse AT is related to obesity, fat distribution, T2D in humans and high fat diet (HFD) in mice. We measured ADCY5 mRNA expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from 244 individuals with a wide range of body weight and parameters of hyperglycemia, which have been genotyped for rs11708067. In addition, AT ADCY5 mRNA was assessed in C57BL/6NTac which underwent a 10 weeks standard chow (n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD, n = 6). In humans, visceral ADCY5 expression is significantly higher in obese compared to lean individuals. ADCY5 expression correlates with BMI, body fat mass, circulating leptin, fat distribution, waist and hip circumference, but not with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Adcy5 expression in mouse AT is significantly higher after a HFD compared to chow (p<0.05). Importantly, rs11708067 is not associated with ADCY5 mRNA expression levels in either fat depot in any of the genetic models tested. Our results suggest that changes in AT ADCY5 expression are related to obesity and fat distribution, but not with impaired glucose metabolism and T2D. However, altered ADCY5 expression in AT does not seem to be the mechanism underlying the association between rs11708067 and increased T2D risk.
Publication Date: 2015-03-21
Journal: PloS one


adcy5 srr(2)

Positive Association Between Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alleles Near CDKAL1 and Reduced Birthweight in Chinese Han Individuals.
Fetal insulin hypothesis was proposed that the association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is principally genetically mediated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether common variants in genes CDKAL1, HHEX, ADCY5, SRR, PTPRD that predisposed to type 2 diabetes were also associated with reduced birthweight in Chinese Han population. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7756992/rs10946398 in CDKAL1, rs1111875 in HHEX, rs391300 in SRR, rs17584499 in PTPRD, rs1170806/rs9883204/rs4678017/rs9881942/rs7641344/rs6777397/rs6226243 in ADCY5) were genotyped in 1174 unrelated individuals born in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1921 to 1954 by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays, of which 645 had normal glucose tolerance, 181 had developed type 2 diabetes and 348 impaired glucose regulation. Associations of these 12 genetic variants with birthweight and glucose metabolism in later life were analyzed. Birthweight was inversely associated with CDKAL1-rs10946398 (β = -41 g [95% confidence interval [CI]: -80, -3], P = 0.034), common variants both associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism and decreased insulin secretion index later in life. After adjusting for sex, gestational weeks, parity and maternal age, the risk allele of CDKAL1-rs7756992 was associated with reduced birthweight (β = -36 g [95% CI: -72, -0.2], P = 0.048). The risk allele in SRR showed a trend toward a reduction of birthweight (P = 0.085). This study identified the association between type 2 diabetes risk variants in CDKAL1 and birthweight in Chinese Han individuals, and the carrier of risk allele within SRR had the trend of reduced birthweight. This demonstrates that there is a clear overlap between the genetics of type 2 diabetes and fetal growth, which proposes that lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes may be two phenotypes of one genotype.
Publication Date: 2015-07-15
Journal: Chinese medical journal


prox1 slc2a2(2)

c 2176g(2)

Gain-of-function ADCY5 mutations in familial dyskinesia with facial myokymia.
To identify the cause of childhood onset involuntary paroxysmal choreiform and dystonic movements in 2 unrelated sporadic cases and to investigate the functional effect of missense mutations in adenylyl cyclase 5 (ADCY5) in sporadic and inherited cases of autosomal dominant familial dyskinesia with facial myokymia (FDFM). Whole exome sequencing was performed on 2 parent-child trios. The effect of mutations in ADCY5 was studied by measurement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation under stimulatory and inhibitory conditions. The same de novo mutation (c.1252C>T, p.R418W) in ADCY5 was found in both studied cases. An inherited missense mutation (c.2176G>A, p.A726T) in ADCY5 was previously reported in a family with FDFM. The significant phenotypic overlap with FDFM was recognized in both cases only after discovery of the molecular link. The inherited mutation in the FDFM family and the recurrent de novo mutation affect residues in different protein domains, the first cytoplasmic domain and the first membrane-spanning domain, respectively. Functional studies revealed a statistically significant increase in β-receptor agonist-stimulated intracellular cAMP consistent with an increase in adenylyl cyclase activity for both mutants relative to wild-type protein, indicative of a gain-of-function effect. FDFM is likely caused by gain-of-function mutations in different domains of ADCY5-the first definitive link between adenylyl cyclase mutation and human disease. We have illustrated the power of hypothesis-free exome sequencing in establishing diagnoses in rare disorders with complex and variable phenotype. Mutations in ADCY5 should be considered in patients with undiagnosed complex movement disorders even in the absence of a family history.
Publication Date: 2014-04-05
Journal: Annals of neurology


ebf1 eefsec(2)

EBF1 Gene mRNA Levels in Maternal Blood and Spontaneous Preterm Birth.
Genetic variants of six genes (EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, WNT4, ADCY5, and RAP2C) have been linked recently to gestational duration and/or spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Our goal was to examine sPTB in relation to maternal blood mRNA levels of these genes. We used a public gene expression dataset (GSE59491) derived from maternal blood in trimesters 2 and 3 that included women with sPTB (n = 51) and term births (n = 106) matched for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking during pregnancy, and parity. T tests were used to examine mRNA mean differences (sPTB vs term) within and across trimesters, and logistic regression models with mRNA quartiles were applied to assess associations between candidate gene mRNA levels and sPTB. Based on these analyses, one significant candidate gene was used in a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to identify related gene sets. These gene sets were then compared with the ones previously linked to sPTB in the same samples. Our results indicated that among women in the lowest quartile of EBF1 mRNA in the 2nd or 3rd trimester, the odds ratio for sPTB was 2.86 (95%CI 1.08, 7.58) (p = 0.0349, false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.18) and 4.43 (95%CI 1.57, 12.50) (p = 0.0049, FDR = 0.06), respectively. No other candidate gene mRNAs were significantly associated with sPTB. In GSEA, 24 downregulated gene sets were correlated with 2nd trimester low EBF1 mRNA and part of previous sPTB-associated gene sets. In conclusion, mRNA levels of EBF1 in maternal blood may be useful in detecting increased risk of sPTB as early as 2nd trimester. The potential underlying mechanism might involve maternal-fetal immune and cell cycle/apoptosis pathways.
Publication Date: 2020-02-13
Journal: Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)


x 10(2)

Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight.
To identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 x 10(-35)) and rs9883204 in ADCY5 (P = 7 x 10(-15)) were robustly associated with birth weight. Correlated SNPs in ADCY5 were recently implicated in regulation of glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, providing evidence that the well-described association between lower birth weight and subsequent type 2 diabetes has a genetic component, distinct from the proposed role of programming by maternal nutrition. Using data from both SNPs, we found that the 9% of Europeans carrying four birth weight-lowering alleles were, on average, 113 g (95% CI 89-137 g) lighter at birth than the 24% with zero or one alleles (P(trend) = 7 x 10(-30)). The impact on birth weight is similar to that of a mother smoking 4-5 cigarettes per day in the third trimester of pregnancy.
Publication Date: 2010-04-08
Journal: Nature genetics