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Query Topic: AKT1

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serine threonine kinase 1(33)

Transcriptome and Function of Novel Immunosuppressive Autoreactive Invariant Natural Killer T Cells That Are Absent in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
The aim of this study was to determine whether natural killer T (NKT) cells, including invariant (i) NKT cells, have clinical value in preventing the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining the mechanisms by which a distinct self-peptide induces a novel, protective invariant natural killer T cell (iNKT cell) subset. We performed a transcriptomic and functional analysis of iNKT cells that were reactive to a human collagen type II self-peptide, hCII707-721, measuring differentially induced genes, cytokines, and suppressive capacity. We report the first transcriptomic profile of human conventional vs novel hCII707-721-reactive iNKT cells. We determined that hCII707-721 induces protective iNKT cells that are found in the blood of healthy individuals but not progressive patients with MS (PMS). By transcriptomic analysis, we observed that hCII707-721 promotes their development and proliferation, favoring the splicing of full-length AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1) and effector function of this unique lineage by upregulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related genes. Furthermore, hCII707-721-reactive iNKT cells did not upregulate interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13, or IL-17 by RNA-seq or at the protein level, unlike the response to the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide. hCII707-721-reactive iNKT cells increased TNFα only at the protein level and suppressed autologous-activated T cells through FAS-FAS ligand (FAS-FASL) and TNFα-TNF receptor I signaling but not TNF receptor II. Based on their immunomodulatory properties, NKT cells have a potential value in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as MS. These significant findings suggest that endogenous peptide ligands can be used to expand iNKT cells, without causing a cytokine storm, constituting a potential immunotherapy for autoimmune conditions, including PMS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-14
Journal: Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation

akt serine threonine kinase(31)

IGF1 receptor inhibition amplifies the effects of cancer drugs by autophagy and immune-dependent mechanisms.
Pharmacological autophagy enhancement constitutes a preclinically validated strategy for preventing or treating most major age-associated diseases. Driven by this consideration, we performed a high-content/high-throughput screen on 65 000 distinct compounds on a robotized fluorescence microscopy platform to identify novel autophagy inducers. Here, we report the discovery of picropodophyllin (PPP) as a potent inducer of autophagic flux that acts on-target, as an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R). Thus, PPP lost its autophagy-stimulatory activity in cells engineered to lack IGF1R or to express a constitutively active AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1) mutant. When administered to cancer-bearing mice, PPP improved the therapeutic efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy with a combination of immunogenic cytotoxicants and programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, better known as PD-1) blockade. These PPP effects were lost when tumors were rendered PPP-insensitive or autophagy-incompetent. In combination with chemotherapy, PPP enhanced the infiltration of tumors by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while reducing regulatory T cells. In human triple-negative breast cancer patients, the activating phosphorylation of IGF1R correlated with inhibited autophagy, an unfavorable local immune profile, and poor prognosis. Altogether, these results suggest that IGF1R may constitute a novel and druggable therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer in conjunction with chemoimmunotherapies.
Publication Date: 2021-06-16
Journal: Journal for immunotherapy of cancer

protein kinase b(88)

Therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism of calycosin for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study was designed to understand the pivotal anti-cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) targets and pathways of calycosin through network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses. In this study, bioinformatics tools were employed to characterize and identify the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of calycosin for CIRI management. The network pharmacology data identified potential, merged CIRI-associated targets of calycosin including tumor protein p53 (TP53), protein kinase B (AKT1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Molecular docking analysis indicated the binding efficacy of calycosin with three of the targets, namely TP53, AKT1, and VEGFA. The biological processes of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI are mainly involved in the improvement of endothelial cell proliferation and growth, inflammatory development, and cellular metabolism. In addition, the anti-CIRI actions of calycosin were primarily through suppression of the toll-like receptor, PI3K-AKT, TNF, MAPK, and VEGF signaling pathways. Taken together, the current bioinformatic findings revealed pivotal targets, biological functions, and pharmacological mechanisms of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI. In conclusion, calycosin, a functional phytoestrogen, can be potentially used for the treatment of CIRI in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Journal: Aging

viral oncogene homolog(41)

MiR-149-3p can improve the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells via targeting AKT1.
The study aims to investigate the role of microRNA-149-3p (miR-149-3p) in regulating osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by targeting v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1). Bioinformatics websites and a dual luciferase reporter assay were used to predict and verify the targeting relationship between miR-149-3p and AKT1. The hADSCs were divided into the blank, negative control (NC), mimic, control siRNA, AKT1 siRNA, and miR-149-3p inhibitors + AKT1 siRNA groups and then subjected to Alizarin Red staining, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity detections, MTT assay, and EdU cell proliferation assay. Gene or protein expression was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) or Western blotting, respectively. The miR-149-3p expression increased gradually and AKT1 expression decreased gradually during osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs. The prediction of bioinformatics websites miRTarBase and TargetScan and the dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-149-3p can directly target AKT1. After hADSCs were transfected with miR-149-3p mimic, AKT1 expression was significantly downregulated. However, transfection with AKT1 siRNA did not have an impact on miR-149-3p in hADSCs. In comparison with the AKT1 siRNA group, the miR-149-3p inhibitors + AKT1 siRNA group showed decreased miR-149-3p expression but increased AKT1 expression. In addition, AKT1 siRNA enhanced the cell viability and proliferation of hADSCs and increased mineral calcium deposition and ALP activity, resulting in higher expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes, which was reversed by miR-149-3p inhibition. The miR-149-3p can increase the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes by targeting AKT1 and thereby enhance the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences

oncogene homolog 1(39)

Molecular alterations in meningioma: prognostic and therapeutic perspectives.
To discuss recent advances in the meningioma biology and their clinical implications. Meningioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor. Mostly benign, 20% of cases display an aggressive behavior despite best standard of care. The genetic landscape of meningiomas is divided according to NF2 mutational status. Although about 60% of meningiomas display NF2 mutations, the other share is more heterogenous. Mutations in TRAF7, SMO, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), PI3KCA and KLF4 are seen mostly in WHO grade 1 meningiomas. In higher grade meningiomas, mutations of the TERT promoter and deletions of CDKN2A/B emerge and have prognostic value. Moreover, mutations in DMD, BAP1 and PBRM1 have recently been discovered and are being further explored. DNA methylation subgroups offer valuable insight into meningioma prognosis and its implementation in clinical setting is under evaluation. Moreover, the study of distinct meningioma populations such as radiation-induced meningioma and progestin-associated meningioma may provide further insight into meningioma oncogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. The mutational landscape of meningioma has expanded following the use of the new genetic sequencing approaches. Novel mutations have been characterized and reveal their prognostic and therapeutic applications. This improved understanding of meningioma biology has promising implications for novel treatment strategies.
Publication Date: 2020-09-06
Journal: Current opinion in oncology

mitogen-activated protein kinase(37)

Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanisms of
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of TwHF on CVD remain elusive. This study revealed the pharmacological mechanisms of TwHF acting on CVD based on a pharmacology approach. The active compounds were selected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database according to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). The potential targets of TwHF were obtained from the SwissTargetPrediction database. The CVD-related therapeutic targets were collected from the DrugBank, the GeneCards database, and the OMIM database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was generated by the STITCH database. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed by R package. The network of drug-targets-diseases-pathways was constructed by the Cytoscape software. The 41 effective ingredients of TwHF and the 178 common targets of TwHF and CVD-related were collected. Furthermore, AKT1, amyloid precursor protein (APP), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), and cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53) were identified as the core targets involved in the mechanism of TwHF on CVD. Top ten GO (biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions) and KEGG pathways were screened with a These findings demonstrate that the main active compound of TwHF, the core targets, and pathways maybe provide new insights into the development of a natural therapy for the prevention and treatment of CVD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: BioMed research international

growth factor receptor(30)

AKT1-CREB stimulation of PDGFRα expression is pivotal for PTEN deficient tumor development.
As evidenced by the behavior of loss-of-function mutants of PTEN in the context of a gain-of-function mutation of AKT1, the PTEN-AKT1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in human cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that a deficiency in PTEN or activation of AKT1 potentiated the expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) based on studies on Pten-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human cancer cell lines, the hepatic tissues of Pten conditional knockout mice, and human cancer tissues. Loss of PTEN enhanced PDGFRα expression via activation of the AKT1-CREB signaling cascade. CREB transactivated PDGFRα expression by direct binding of the promoter of the PDGFRα gene. Depletion of PDGFRα attenuated the tumorigenicity of Pten-null cells in nude mice. Moreover, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway has been shown to positively correlate with PDGFRα expression in multiple cancers. Augmented PDGFRα was associated with poor survival of cancer patients. Lastly, combination treatment with the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 and the PDGFR inhibitor CP-673451 displayed synergistic anti-tumor effects. Therefore, activation of the AKT1-CREB-PDGFRα signaling pathway contributes to the tumor growth induced by PTEN deficiency and should be targeted for cancer treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-02-12
Journal: Cell death & disease

akt1 akt2(154)

Effects of bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate exposure in utero on the development of fetal Leydig cells in rats.
Phthalates are plasticizers widely found in the environment. They are potential endocrine disruptors. Bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate (BBOP) is a unique phthalate that contains oxygen atoms in the carbon backbone. Little is known about its reproductive and developmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BBOP on fetal Leydig cell development after in utero exposure to rats. Sprague Dawley pregnant dams were randomly allocated into 6 groups, and were gavaged with BBOP (0, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day) from gestational day (GD) 14-21. Seven of the 8 dams in the 1000 mg/kg BBOP group died before giving birth. Twelve of the 20 dams in the 500 mg/kg BBOP group had whole litter loss. BBOP significantly reduced the body weight of dams and male offspring and serum testosterone level and anogenital distance of male fetus on GD 21 at 500 mg/kg. BBOP markedly increased fetal Leydig cell proliferation and number at 500 mg/kg while inducing their abnormal aggregation at 250 and 500 mg/kg. BBOP down-regulated the expression of Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Insl3, and Nr5a1 at various doses while up-regulating the expression of Sertoli cell gene Fshr and Sox9. The phosphorylation of AKT1, AKT2, and ERK1/2 was also markedly reduced by BBOP. In conclusion, BBOP in utero exposure can disrupt fetal Leydig cell development, possibly via the mechanism that may include inhibiting the phosphorylation of AKT1, AKT2, and ERK1/2.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Toxicology letters

erk1 2(118)

Synergistic cytotoxicity of the CDK4 inhibitor Fascaplysin in combination with EGFR inhibitor Afatinib against Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
In the absence of suitable molecular markers, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have to be treated with chemotherapy with poor results at advanced stages. Therefore, the activity of the anticancer marine drug fascaplysin was tested against primary NSCLC cell lines established from pleural effusions. Cytotoxicity of the drug or combinations were determined using MTT assays and changes in intracellular phosphorylation by Western blot arrays. Fascaplysin revealed high cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and exhibit an activity pattern different of the standard drug cisplatin. Furthermore, fascaplysin synergizes with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) afatinib to yield a twofold increased antitumor effect. Interaction with the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 confirm the differential effects of fascplysin and cisplatin. Protein phosphorylation assays showed hypophosphorylation of Akt1/2/3 and ERK1/2 as well as hyperphosphorylation of stress response mediators of H1299 NSCLC cells. In conclusion, fascaplysin shows high cytotoxicity against pleural primary NSCLC lines that could be further boosted when combined with the EGFR TKI afatinib.
Publication Date: 2021-10-02
Journal: Investigational new drugs

breast cancer(102)

Exploration of the Potential Mechanism of Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Based on Network Pharmacology and
Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction (THSWD) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used clinically alone or combined with drugs to treat breast cancer. However, there has been no study to date on the underlying mechanisms of its therapeutic effects. To explore the potential mechanism of THSWD for the treatment of breast cancer using network pharmacology and experimental research. The active ingredients of THSWD were screened according to Lipinski's rule of five based on the 107 ingredients of THSWD identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS In total, 27 active ingredients including 8 core components, were obtained from 107 ingredients and 218 THSWD target genes for the treatment of breast cancer were identified. THSWD is active in the treatment of breast cancer by targeting Ras, FoxO, PI3K-Akt and other signaling pathways. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation was inhibited by THSWD serum in a time and concentration dependent manner. THSWD could regulated the RNA and protein expression of core targets HRAS, MAPK1, AKT1, GRB2, and MAPK14 for treatment of breast cancer. The results of network pharmacology study showed that THSWD is active against breast cancer by intervening with multiple targets and pathways. Luteolin, kaempferol, senkyunolide E, and other 8 compounds may be the core active ingredients of THSWD in the treatment of breast cancer. THSWD treatment of breast cancer may be related to targeting Ras, FoxO, PI3K-Akt, and other signal pathways associated with the core targets HRAS, MAPK1, AKT1, GRB2, and MAPK14.
Publication Date: 2021-09-14
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

constitutively active(82)

Activation of the Akt1-CREB pathway promotes
Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD). This neuronal loss occurs through diverse mechanisms, including a form of programmed cell death dependent on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) called parthanatos. Deficient activity of the kinase Akt1 and aggregation of the protein α-synuclein are also implicated in disease pathogenesis. Here, we found that Akt1 suppressed parthanatos in dopaminergic neurons through a transcriptional mechanism. Overexpressing constitutively active Akt1 in SH-SY5Y cells or culturing cells with chlorogenic acid (a polyphenol found in coffee that activates Akt1) stimulated the CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146. RNF146 inhibited PARP1 not through its E3 ligase function but rather by binding to and sequestering PAR, which enhanced the survival of cultured cells exposed to the dopaminergic neuronal toxin 6-OHDA or α-synuclein aggregation. In mice, intraperitoneal administration of chlorogenic acid activated the Akt1-CREB-RNF146 pathway in the brain and provided neuroprotection against both 6-OHDA and combinatorial α-synucleinopathy in an RNF146-dependent manner. Furthermore, dysregulation of the Akt1-CREB pathway was observed in postmortem brain samples from patients with PD. The findings suggest that therapeutic restoration of
Publication Date: 2021-01-15
Journal: Science signaling

gene expression(74)

miR-26a enhances colorectal cancer cell growth by targeting RREB1 deacetylation to activate AKT-mediated glycolysis.
We previously reported the inhibitory effects of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) on the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A in glucose metabolism by directly targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase protein X component in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (Chen B et al., BMC Cancer 2014). Here, using microRNA in situ hybridization, we confirmed that miR-26a levels were elevated in 77 human CRC tissue samples and further investigated the key miR-26a-mediated metabolic regulation elements and signaling pathways in CRC cells through quantitative proteomic dissection combined with cancer cell biology and biochemical loss-of-function analysis. We found that AKT transcription signaling was a target pathway via miR-26a-mediated deacetylation modification of Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB1) at the Lys-60 residue. miR-26a improved the deacetylation level of RREB1, thus contributing to RREB1 binding to the AKT1 promoter to activate AKT transcription and its related signaling pathway in glycolysis. Moreover, miR-26a promoted CRC tumorigenesis in CRC cells and subcutaneous xenograft mice. Thus, miR-26a is a key regulator of CRC tumorigenesis that mediates the deacetylation modification of RREB1 to enhance AKT1 transcription and downstream target gene expression in glycolysis for CRC growth.
Publication Date: 2021-08-23
Journal: Cancer letters

western blot(74)

[Molecular mechanism of Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills in treating myocardial ischemia:a study based on HIF-1 signaling pathway].
Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills(QSYQ) are used clinically to treat various myocardial ischemic diseases, such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart failure; however, the molecular mechanism of QSYQ remains unclear, and the scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) compatibility has not been systematically explained. The present study attempted to screen the critical pathway of QSYQ in the treatment of myocardial ischemia by network pharmacology and verify the therapeutic efficacy with the oxygen-glucose deprivation(OGD) model, in order to reveal the molecular mechanism of QSYQ based on the critical pathway. The key targets of QSYQ were determined by active ingredient identification and target prediction, and underwent pathway enrichment analysis and functional annotation with David database to reveal the biological role and the critical pathway of QSYQ. Cell counting Kit-8(CCK-8), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), and Western blot tests were launched on high-content active ingredients with OGD cell model to reveal the molecular mechanism of QSYQ based on the critical pathway. The results of network pharmacology indicated that QSYQ, containing 18 active ingredients and 82 key targets, could protect cardiomyocytes by regulating biological functions, such as nitric oxide biosynthesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis, through TNF signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. HIF-1 signaling pathway was the critical pathway. As revealed by CCK-8 and LDH tests, astragaloside Ⅳ, salvianic acid A, and ginsenoside Rg_1 in QSYQ could enhance cell viability and reduce LDH in the cell supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner(P<0.05). As demonstrated by the Western blot test, astragaloside Ⅳ significantly down-regulated the protein expression of serine/threonine-protein kinase(Akt1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α(HIF-1α) in the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and up-regulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA). Salvianic acid A significantly down-regulated the protein expression of upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha(PIK3 CA) and downstream HIF-1α of Akt1. Ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly down-regulated the expression of HIF-1α protein and up-regulated the expression of VEGFA. The therapeutic efficacy of QSYQ on myocardial ischemia was achieved by multiple targets and multiple pathways, with the HIF-1 signaling pathway serving as the critical one. The active ingredients of QSYQ could protect cardiomyocytes synergistically by regulating the targets in the HIF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit its expression.
Publication Date: 2021-09-03
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica

protein levels(67)

[Exploring the therapeutic mechanism of quercetin for heart failure based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].
To investigate the molecular mechanism of quercetin in the treatment of heart failure (HF) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. Quercetin and HF-related targets were obtained using TCMSP, PharmMapper, CTD and GeneCards databases, and quercetin-HF intersection targets were obtained through the online website Venn; the protein interaction network was constructed and imported into Cytoscape 3.7.2 to identify the core targets of quercetin in the treatment of HF.GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed using R package, and molecular docking was performed using Auto Dock Vina.The protein levels of AKT1, phospho-AKT(Ser473), eNOS, MMP9, and caspase-3 in quercetin-treated HF cell models were detected using protein immunoblotting. We identified 80 quercetin-HF intersectional targets (AKT1, CASP3, MAPK1, MMP9, and MAPK8) and 5 core targets of quercetin for treatment of HF.GO analysis suggested that the therapeutic effect of quercetin for HF was mediated mainly by such biological processes as responses to peptide hormones, phosphatidylinositol-mediated signalling, responses to lipopolysaccharides, responses to molecules of bacterial origin and regulation of inflammatory responses.KEGG pathway enrichment analysis identified lipid and atherosclerosis pathway, proteoglycans in cancer, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, diabetic cardiomyopathy and MAPK signaling pathway as the most significantly enriched signaling pathways.Molecular docking showed a good binding activity of quercetin to the 5 core targets.The results of protein immunoblotting showed that 100 μmol/L quercetin significantly reduced AKT1, phospho-AKT (Ser473), eNOS, MMP9 and caspase-3 levels in the cell models of HF ( Quercetin improves the pathological changes in HF possibly by regulating the AKT1-eNOS-MMP9 pathway to inhibit cell apoptosis.
Publication Date: 2021-09-23
Journal: Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University

cell lines(62)

The Role of Akt in Acquired Cetuximab Resistant Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies, such as cetuximab, poses a challenging problem. This study aims to characterize acquired cetuximab resistance mechanisms in HNSCC cell lines by protein phosphorylation profiling. Through this, promising combination treatments can be identified to possibly overcome acquired cetuximab resistance in HNSCC. Protein phosphorylation profiling showed increased phosphorylation of Akt1/2/3 after cetuximab treatment in acquired cetuximab resistant cells compared to cetuximab sensitive cells, which was confirmed by western blotting. Based on this protein phosphorylation profile, a novel combination treatment with cetuximab and the Akt1/2/3 inhibitor MK2206 was designed. Synergy between cetuximab and MK2206 was observed in two cetuximab sensitive HNSCC cell lines and one acquired cetuximab resistant variant in simultaneous treatment schedules. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that increased Akt1/2/3 phosphorylation seems to be characteristic for acquired cetuximab resistance in HNSCC cell lines. Our results also show an additive to synergistic interaction between cetuximab and MK2206 in simultaneous treatment schedules. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of cetuximab with PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition might be a promising novel therapeutic strategy to overcome acquired cetuximab resistance in HNSCC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-09-28
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

cell cycle(54)

[SCP Phosphatases and Oncogenesis].
Small SCP phosphatases CTDSP1, CTDSP2, and CTDSPL specifically dephosphorylate serine and threonine residues in protein molecules. The enzymes are involved in regulating activity of RNA polymerase II at the transition from transcription initiation to elongation, regulating expression of neuron-specific genes, and activating the key cell-cycle protein pRb at the G1/S boundary. In addition, the substrates of SCP phosphatases include SMAD transcription modulators; AKT1 protein kinase, which regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis; the TWIST1 and c-MYC transcription factors; Ras family proteins, which are involved in signaling pathways regulating the cell growth and apoptosis; CDCA3, which is associated with cell division; the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21; and the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), which is involved in regulation of the tumor suppressors p53, PTEN, and mTOR. Dysfunction or inactivation of SCP phosphatases leads to various diseases, including cancer. Recently the increase in interest to SCP phosphatases is due to their their tumor growth-inhibiting properties or role in the development of malignant tumors of various etiology and localization. The review discusses the properties of SCP phosphatases and their role in oncogenesis. Understanding the functions of SCP phosphatases and their regulatory mechanisms can be useful in searching for efficient targets for tumor therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Molekuliarnaia biologiia

including akt1(42)

Insight into Shenqi Jiangtang Granule on the improved insulin sensitivity by integrating in silico and in vivo approaches.
Presently, insulin resistance has been a growing concern that urgently needs to be addressed, because it not only places patients at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus but also results in metabolic syndrome and different aspects of cardiovascular diseases. Shenqi Jiangtang Granule (SJG) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that is widely used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications in clinical practice. While studies have revealed that SJG with multi-ingredients and multi-targets characteristics possesses potential anti-insulin resistance pharmacological properties, its mechanisms of action and molecular targets for the treatment of insulin resistance are still obscure, which prompt us to conduct an in-depth research. This study was purposed to uncover the pharmacological mechanism of SJG against insulin resistance through integrating network pharmacology and experimental validation. The putative ingredients of SJG and its related targets were discerned from the TCMSP database. Subsequently, insulin resistance-associated targets were retrieved from GeneCard, OMIM, and GEO database. Compound-target, protein-protein interaction (PPI), and compound-target-pathway networks were established using Cytoscape software. GO and KEGG pathway analyses were performed to identify possible enrichment of genes with specific biological themes. Molecular docking was used to verify the correlation between the main active ingredients and hub targets. Optimal docking conformation was further analyzed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Finally, the potential molecular mechanisms of SJG acting on insulin resistance, as predicted by the network pharmacology analyses, were validated experimentally in insulin-resistant rat model. 136 active compounds, 211 corresponding targets in addition to 1463 disease-related targets were collected, of which 94 intersection targets were obtained. 29 key targets including AKT1, VEGFA, IL-6, CASP3, and PTGS2 were identified through PPI network analysis. Hub module of PPI network was closely associated with inflammation. GO and KEGG analyses also revealed that inflammation-related pathways may be a central factor for SJG to modulate insulin resistance. Molecular docking test showed a good binding potency between primary active ingredients and core targets, and the binding mode of optimal docking conformation was stable in MD simulation. A rat model of insulin resistance was successfully induced by chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Through a series of in vivo studies, including HEC, ITT, and HOMA-IR measurement, it was revealed that SJG exhibited a beneficial effect on ameliorating insulin resistance, as demonstrated by a significant increase of GIR and a significant decrease of AUC Through in silico and in vivo approaches, the present study not only provides a unique insight into the possible mechanism of SJG in insulin resistance after successfully filtering out associated key target genes and signaling pathways, but also suggests a novel promising therapeutic strategy for curing insulin resistance.
Publication Date: 2021-09-25
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

cyclin d1(38)

Tumor-derived exosomal circPSMA1 facilitates the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and migration in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) through miR-637/Akt1/β-catenin (cyclin D1) axis.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are increasingly gaining importance and attention due to their diverse potential functions and their value as diagnostic biomarkers (disease specific). This study aims to explore the novel mechanisms by which exosome-contained circRNAs promote tumor development and metastasis in TNBC. We identified increased circRNA circPSMA1 in TNBC cells, their exosomes, and serum exosomes samples from TNBC patients. The overexpression of circPSMA1 promoted TNBC cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we investigated the tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) or stromal components in immune microenvironment (IME), and identified the significant differences in the immune cells between TNBC and non-TNBC samples. Mechanistically, circPSMA1 acted as a "miRNAs sponge" to absorb miR-637; miR-637 inhibited TNBC cell migration and metastasis by directly targeted Akt1, which recognized as a key immune-related gene and affected downstream genes β-catenin and cyclin D1. Subsequent co-culture experiments also demonstrated that exosomes from TNBC carrying large amounts of circPSMA1 could transmit migration and proliferation capacity to recipient cells. Kaplan-Meier plots showed that high expression of Akt1 and low expression of mir-637 are highly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with lymph node metastasis of TNBC. Collectively, all these results reveal that circPSMA1 functions as a tumor promoter through the circPSMA1/miR-637/Akt1-β-catenin (cyclin D1) regulatory axis, which can facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis, and immunosuppression of TNBC. Our research proposes a fresh perspective on novel potential biomarkers and immune treatment strategies for TNBC.
Publication Date: 2021-04-30
Journal: Cell death & disease

3-kinase pi3k(34)

Mechanism of protective effect of xuan-bai-cheng-qi decoction on LPS-induced acute lung injury based on an integrated network pharmacology and RNA-sequencing approach.
Xuan-bai-cheng-qi decoction (XCD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used to treat a variety of respiratory diseases in China, especially to seriously infectious diseases such as acute lung injury (ALI). Due to the complexity of the chemical constituent, however, the underlying pharmacological mechanism of action of XCD is still unclear. To explore its protective mechanism on ALI, firstly, a network pharmacology experiment was conducted to construct a component-target network of XCD, which identified 46 active components and 280 predicted target genes. Then, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ALI model rats treated with and without XCD and 753 DEGs were found. By overlapping the target genes identified using network pharmacology and DEGs using RNA-seq, and subsequent protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, 6 kernel targets such as vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AKT1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and gene of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromsome ten (PTEN) were screened out to be closely relevant to ALI treatment. Verification experiments in the LPS-induced ALI model rats showed that XCD could alleviate lung tissue pathological injury through attenuating proinflammatory cytokines release such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K, mTOR, HIF-1α, and VEGF in the lung tissues were down-regulated with XCD treatment. Therefore, the regulations of XCD on PI3K/mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway was probably a crucial mechanism involved in the protective mechanism of XCD on ALI treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: Respiratory research

genes akt1(34)

Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanism of Duhuo Jisheng Decoction in Treating Osteoporosis Based on Network Pharmacology.
The purpose of this work is to study the mechanism of action of Duhuo Jisheng Decoction (DHJSD) in the treatment of osteoporosis based on the methods of bioinformatics and network pharmacology. In this study, the active compounds of each medicinal ingredient of DHJSD and their corresponding targets were obtained from TCMSP database. Osteoporosis was treated as search query in GeneCards, MalaCards, DisGeNET, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), and OMIM databases to obtain disease-related genes. The overlapping targets of DHJSD and osteoporosis were identified, and then GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed. Cytoscape was employed to construct DHJSD-compounds-target genes-osteoporosis network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. CytoHubba was utilized to select the hub genes. The activities of binding of hub genes and key components were confirmed by molecular docking. 174 active compounds and their 205 related potential targets were identified in DHJSD for the treatment of osteoporosis, including 10 hub genes (AKT1, ALB, IL6, MAPK3, VEGFA, JUN, CASP3, EGFR, MYC, and EGF). Pathway enrichment analysis of target proteins indicated that osteoclast differentiation, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, and TNF signaling pathway were the specifically major pathways regulated by DHJSD against osteoporosis. Further verification based on molecular docking results showed that the small molecule compounds (Quercetin, Kaempferol, Beta-sitosterol, Beta-carotene, and Formononetin) contained in DHJSD generally have excellent binding affinity to the macromolecular target proteins encoded by the top 10 genes. This study reveals the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway of DHJSD against osteoporosis and provides novel insights for verifying the mechanism of DHJSD in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Publication Date: 2021-04-22
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

isoforms akt1(34)

Immunohistological Examination of AKT Isoforms in the Brain: Cell-Type Specificity That May Underlie AKT's Role in Complex Brain Disorders and Neurological Disease.
Protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) is a central kinase involved in many neurobiological processes. AKT is expressed in the brain as three isoforms, AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. Previous studies suggest isoform-specific roles in neural function, but very few studies have examined AKT isoform expression at the cellular level. In this study, we use a combination of histology, immunostaining, and genetics to characterize cell-type-specific expression of AKT isoforms in human and mouse brains. In mice, we find that AKT1 is the most broadly expressed isoform, with expression in excitatory neurons and the sole detectable AKT isoform in gamma-aminobutyric acid ergic interneurons and microglia. By contrast, we find that AKT2 is the sole isoform expressed in astroglia and is not detected in other neural cell types. We find that AKT3 is expressed in excitatory neurons with AKT1 but shows greater expression levels in dendritic compartments than AKT1. We extend our analysis to human brain tissues and find similar results. Using genetic deletion approaches, we also find that the cellular determinants restricting AKT isoform expression to specific cell types remain intact under
Publication Date: 2021-07-24
Journal: Cerebral cortex communications

pik3ca pten(23)

The polyphenol/saponin-rich Rhus tripartita extract has an apoptotic effect on THP-1 cells through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
Hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cellular growth, proliferation, and more in general, is a common phenomenon in most types of cancers. Thus, natural substances targeting this pathway can be of great therapeutic potential in supporting the treatment of tumor patients. Rhus tripartita (Ucria) Grande is a plant growing in desertic areas which is traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases in Tunisia. In the present work, the biochemical profile of the main compounds present in the plant leaf extract was determined and the anti-leukemic potential of the plant extracts against acute monocytic leukaemia (AML) THP-1 cells was investigated. After HPLC identification of some phenolic compounds present in the plant extract and the quantification of saponin content, the cytotoxic effect of Rhus tripartita extracts on THP-1 cell culture was evaluated using the colorimetric MTT assay for cell viability. THP-1 cells were incubated with medium containing the relative IC Analysis of expression level of some gene (PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, mTOR, EIF4E, RPS6KB1, and TSC1) involved in the mTOR pathway and the phosphorylation of S6 and AKT proteins allowed to observe that a total Rhus tripartita extract and some of the compounds found in the extract controls THP-1 cell proliferation and apoptosis via regulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Rhus tripartita-induced inhibition of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis may involve the mTOR pathway. Therefore, Rhus tripartita extract may be a useful candidate as a natural anti-cancer drug to support the treatment of AML.
Publication Date: 2021-05-29
Journal: BMC complementary medicine and therapies

akt2 akt3(22)

Akt1 genetic variants confer increased susceptibility to thyroid cancer.
The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway plays a central role in the development of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC). Although somatic mutations have been identified in these genes in NMTC patients, the role of germline variants has not been investigated. Here, we selected frequently occurring genetic variants in AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, PIK3CA and MTOR and have assessed their effect on NMTC susceptibility, progression and clinical outcome in a Dutch discovery cohort (154 patients, 188 controls) and a Romanian validation cohort (159 patients, 260 controls). Significant associations with NMTC susceptibility were observed for AKT1 polymorphisms rs3803304, rs2494732 and rs2498804 in the Dutch discovery cohort, of which the AKT1 rs3803304 association was confirmed in the Romanian validation cohort. No associations were observed between PI3K-Akt-mTOR polymorphisms and clinical parameters including histology, TNM staging, treatment response and clinical outcome. Functionally, cells bearing the associated AKT1 rs3803304 risk allele exhibit increased levels of phosphorylated Akt protein, potentially leading to elevated signaling activity of the oncogenic Akt pathway. All together, germline encoded polymorphisms in the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway could represent important risk factors in development of NMTC.
Publication Date: 2020-10-29
Journal: Endocrine connections

akt1 mtor(21)

Suppression of CLEC3A inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation and promotes their chemosensitivity through the AKT1/mTOR/HIF1α signaling pathway.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumor that occurs in bone, and mainly affects children and adolescents. C‑type lectin domain family 3 member A (CLEC3A) is a member of the C‑type lectin superfamily, which regulates various biological functions of cells. The present study aimed to identify the effects and related mechanisms of CLEC3A in the proliferation and chemosensitivity of OS cells. The expression of CLEC3A in OS was analyzed using the Gene Expression Omnibus data profile GSE99671, and its expression in OS samples was verified using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining. The relationship between the expression of CLEC3A and clinical traits in patients with OS was also analyzed, including age, tumor size, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays, colony formation assays and cell cycle distribution analysis were used to determine the roles of CLEC3A in the proliferation and chemosensitivity of OS cells. Finally, RT‑qPCR and western blotting were used to demonstrate the relationship between CLEC3A and the AKT1/mTOR/hypoxia‑inducible factor 1‑α (HIF1α) pathway. Both the mRNA and protein expression levels of CLEC3A were increased in OS tissues compared with adjacent non‑tumor tissues, and this was positively associated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. The genetic knockdown of CLEC3A with small interfering RNA decreased OS cell proliferation and colony formation, and induced G1 phase arrest, whereas the overexpression of CLEC3A increased OS cell proliferation and colony formation, and alleviated G1 phase arrest. The suppression of CLEC3A also promoted enhanced the chemosensitivity of OS cells to doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (CDDP); it also inhibited the expression of AKT1, mTOR and HIF1α, further to the nuclear localization of HIF1α, and HIF1α target gene expression levels, including VEGF, GLUT1 and MCL1 were also decreased. Furthermore, treatment with the AKT activator SC79 blocked the inhibitory effects of CLEC3A silencing in OS cells. In conclusion, these findings suggested that CLEC3A may function as an oncogene in OS, and that the suppression of CLEC3A may inhibit OS cell proliferation and promote chemosensitivity through the AKT1/mTOR/HIF1α signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2020-04-23
Journal: Molecular medicine reports

egfr kras(21)

Clinical Validation of Coexisting Activating Mutations Within EGFR, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathways in Lung Cancers.
Mutations within the same signature transduction pathway are redundant and, therefore, most are mutually exclusive. Laboratory errors, however, may introduce unexpected coexisting mutations. To validate coexisting mutations within epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. In this retrospective study for quality assessment of next-generation sequencing in a clinical diagnostics setting, coexisting mutations within EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, AKT1, and PIK3CA genes were examined in 1208 non-small cell lung cancers. EGFR mutations did not coexist with BRAF mutations, neither kinase-activated nor kinase-impaired mutations. There was a low but similar incidence (3.3%-5.1%) of PIK3CA mutations in BRAF-, EGFR-, and KRAS-mutated lung cancers and a rare incidence of coexisting KRAS and EGFR mutations detected in 1 of 1208 lung cancers (0.08%) or 1 of 226 EGFR-mutated lung cancers (0.4%). Coexisting BRAF p.V600E mutation was observed in 3 of 4 AKT1 p.E17K-mutated lung cancers. Mutational profiling of DNA reisolated from subareas with the same or different histomorphology, using an alternative assay, confirmed that coexisting mutations might present within the same (whole or subclonal) population or different populations and clarified that the so-called coexisting activating KRAS and BRAF mutations originally reported in a specimen were indeed present in separate lung nodules submitted in the same block. The results supported that EGFR and BRAF mutations are early driver mutations in lung cancers. Guidelines from official organizations to establish standard operating procedures are warranted to validate unexpected coexisting mutations and, if clinically indicated, to determine their presence in the same or different tumor populations.
Publication Date: 2018-11-30
Journal: Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine

tp53 akt1(19)

Genomic profiling using the UltraSEEK panel identifies discordancy between paired primary and breast cancer brain metastases and an association with brain metastasis-free survival.
Brain metastases (BM) are an increasing clinical problem. This study aimed to assess paired primary breast cancers (BC) and BM for aberrations within TP53, PIK3CA, ESR1, ERBB2 and AKT utilising the MassARRAY® UltraSEEK® technology (Agena Bioscience, San Diego, USA). DNA isolated from 32 paired primary BCs and BMs was screened using the custom UltraSEEK® Breast Cancer Panel. Data acquisition and analysis was performed by the Agena Bioscience Typer software v4.0.26.74. Mutations were identified in 91% primary BCs and 88% BM cases. TP53, AKT1, ESR1, PIK3CA and ERBB2 genes were mutated in 68.8%, 37.5%, 31.3%, 28.1% and 3.1% respectively of primary BCs and in 59.4%, 37.5%, 28.1%, 28.1% and 3.1% respectively of BMs. Differences in the mutations within the 5 genes between BC and paired BM were identified in 62.5% of paired cases. In primary BCs, ER-positive/HER2-negative cases harboured the most mutations (70%), followed by ER-positive/HER2-positive (15%) and triple-negatives (13.4%), whereas in BMs, the highest number of mutations was observed in triple-negative (52.5%), followed by ER-positive/HER2-negative (35.6%) and ER-negative/HER2-positive (12%). There was a significant association between the number of mutations in the primary BC and breast-to-brain metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0001) but not with overall survival (p = 0.056). These data demonstrate the discordancy between primary BC and BM, as well as the presence of clinically important, actionable mutations in BCBM. The UltraSEEK® Breast Cancer Panel provides a tool for BCBM that can be utilised to direct more tailored treatment decisions and for clinical studies investigating targeted agents.
Publication Date: 2021-09-10
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

95 ci(18)

Combined effects of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 polymorphisms and environment on congenital heart disease risk: A case-control study.
This study aimed to explore the combined association between AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1) polymorphisms and congenital heart disease (CHD) risk, meanwhile, the role of AKT1 single polymorphism on CHD was also analyzed.In the first, AKT1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 130 CHD patients and 145 healthy people with the way of polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing. The clinical data and genotypes, alleles between 2 groups were compared by χ test and the genotype distributions in the control group were checked by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The relative risk strength of disease based on genetic variant was revealed using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI).In 3 polymorphisms of AKT1 (rs1130214, rs2494732, rs3803300), the GT/TT genotype of rs1130214 in cases and controls had a significant frequency difference (P = .04) and was 1.71 times risk developing CHD, compared with AA (OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.02-2.86), and T allele had 1.63 times risk for carriers (OR = 1.63, 95%CI = 1.05-2.54). Similarly, both rs3803300 GG genotype and G allele had obvious differences between case and control groups (P < .05) and it was closely associated with CHD susceptibility. At the same time, the combined effects of rs1130214, rs3803300 and family history, smoking were found in our study.AKT1 rs1130214, rs3803300 polymorphisms are associated with the increased susceptibility to CHD. Environmental factors are found the interaction with AKT1 polymorphisms. Further study is needed to verify this conclusion.
Publication Date: 2020-06-27
Journal: Medicine

akt1 egfr(18)

[Potential hepatotoxic compounds and mechanisms of Epimedii Folium based on network toxicology and cell experimental validation].
To probe the potential hepatotoxic components of Epimedii Folium and investigate its mechanism based on network toxicology and cell experimental validation. According to the previous results of component measurement and cytotoxicity evaluation, 11 active compounds related to hepatotoxicity in Epimedii Folium were chosen as research object in this study. Through SwissTargetPrediction database and GeneCards database, the potentially hepatotoxic targets of Epimedii Folium were obtained. Subsequently, the protein-target interaction network and active compounds-hepatotoxic targets network were established to analyze the core targets and screen the key hepatotoxic compounds in Epimedii Folium. Meanwhile, the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms were inferred with GO functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis on the core targets. At last, the effect of icaritin as the chief hepatotoxic compound on the indexes related to hepatotoxicity in HL-7702 cells and HepG2 cells was investigated to validate the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Epimedii Folium. Through the network toxicology analysis, 190 action targets and 991 hepatotoxic targets were collected, then 64 potentially hepatotoxic targets of Epimedii Folium including AKT1, EGFR, MAPK3, TNF and so on were obtained, and icaritin was screened as the key hepatotoxic compound. GO functional enrichment analysis indicated 160 biological process terms such as protein phosphorylation and negative regulation of apoptotic process, 41 molecular function terms such as protein binding and ATP binding, and 32 cellular component terms such as cytosol and cell surface. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis inferred 75 signaling pathways involving PI3 K-Akt and HIF-1. After comprehensive analysis, it was inferred that the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Epimedii Folium was related with regulating oxidative stress and apoptosis. The results of cell biology experiments showed that icaritin could significantly increase the level of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, reduce the level of glutathione, improve the quality of reactive oxygen species and reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that it could cause hepatotoxicity by destroying cell membrane structure, inhibiting antioxidant enzyme activity, activating oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. These results proved the reliability of results of network pharmacology. This study preliminarily clarified the material base and the mechanism of potential hepatotoxicity of Epimedii Folium, which provided important information for further research and safe application.
Publication Date: 2021-05-29
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica

akt1 braf(16)

KRAS/GNAS-testing by highly sensitive deep targeted next generation sequencing improves the endoscopic ultrasound-guided workup of suspected mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cysts or dilated pancreatic ducts are often found by cross-sectional imaging, but only mucinous lesions can become malignant. Therefore, distinction between mucinous and non-mucinous lesions is crucial for adequate patient management. We performed a prospective study including targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of cell-free DNA in the diagnostic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided workup. Pancreatic cyst(s) or main duct fluid obtained by EUS-guided FNA was analysed by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytology and deep targeted NGS of 14 known gastrointestinal cancer genes (AKT1, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, GNAS, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4, TP53, APC) with a limit of detection down to variant allele frequency of 0.01%. Results were correlated to histopathology and clinical follow-up. One hundred and thirteen patients with pancreatic cyst(s) and/or a dilated pancreatic main duct (≥5 mm) were screened. Sixty-six patients had to be excluded, mainly due to inoperability or small cyst size (≤10 mm). Forty-seven patients were enrolled for further analysis. A final diagnosis was available in 27 cases including 8 negative controls. In 43/47 (91.5%) of patients a KRAS- and/or GNAS-mutation was diagnosed by NGS. 27.0% of the KRAS-mutated and 10.0% of the GNAS-mutated lesions harbored multiple mutations. KRAS/GNAS-testing by NGS, cytology, and CEA had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.7/100%, 38.1/100%, and 42.1/75.0%, respectively. KRAS/GNAS-testing was significantly superior to CEA (P = .0209) and cytology (P = .0016). In conclusion, KRAS/GNAS-testing by deep targeted NGS is a suitable method to distinguish mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic lesions, suggesting its usage as a single diagnostic test. Results must be confirmed in a larger cohort.
Publication Date: 2021-03-10
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer

akt1 vegfa(11)

Immune Mechanism, Gene Module, and Molecular Subtype Identification of Astragalus Membranaceus in the Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: An Integrated Bioinformatics Study.
Astragalus membranaceus has complex components as a natural drug and has multilevel, multitarget, and multichannel effects on dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the immune mechanism, gene module, and molecular subtype of astragalus membranaceus in the treatment of DCM are still not revealed. Microarray information of GSE84796 was downloaded from the GEO database, including RNA sequencing data of seven normal cardiac tissues and ten DCM cardiac tissues. A total of 4029 DCM differentially expressed genes were obtained, including 1855 upregulated genes and 2174 downregulated genes. GO/KEGG/GSEA analysis suggested that the activation of T cells and B cells was the primary cause of DCM. WGCNA was used to obtain blue module genes. The blue module genes are primarily ADCY7, BANK1, CD1E, CD19, CD38, CD300LF, CLEC4E, FLT3, GPR18, HCAR3, IRF4, LAMP3, MRC1, SYK, and TLR8, which successfully divided DCM into three molecular subtypes. Based on the CIBERSORT algorithm, the immune infiltration profile of DCM was analyzed. Many immune cell subtypes, including the abovementioned immune cells, showed different levels of increased infiltration in the myocardial tissue of DCM. However, this infiltration pattern was not obviously correlated with clinical characteristics, such as age, EF, and sex. Based on network pharmacology and ClueGO, 20 active components of Astragalus membranaceus and 40 components of DMCTGS were obtained from TCMSP. Through analysis of the immune regulatory network, we found that Astragalus membranaceus effectively regulates the activation of immune cells, such as B cells and T cells, cytokine secretion, and other processes and can intervene in DCM at multiple components, targets, and levels. The above mechanisms were verified by molecular docking results, which confirmed that AKT1, VEGFA, MMP9, and RELA are promising potential targets of DCM.
Publication Date: 2021-09-28
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

pakt1 ser473(4)

Correlation of expression of Akt1 and E2F1 and their phosphorylated forms in breast cancer patients with clinicopathological parameters.
Breast cancer is the leading cancer worldwide among women. Traditional clinicopathological prognostic and predictive markers need refining to improve clinical outcomes. This study explored the association between traditional clinicopathological factors and the expression of Akt1 and E2F1 transduction proteins and their phosphorylated forms in breast cancer, to determine their value as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Tumor tissues from 94 female breast cancer patients were examined for immunophenotypic expression of total Akt1, pAkt1 (Serine 473), pAkt1 (Threonine 308), total E2F1, pE2F1 (Thr433) and pE2F1 (Ser337). The expression of pAkt1 (Ser473) was significantly associated with ER/PR positive status and total E2F1 with older age (> 50), lymph node involvement and HER2 positivity. There was a significant association between triple negative cancers and total and pAkt1 (Thr308). pAkt1 (Ser473) showed an inverse relationship with Luminal B cancers and pE2F1 (Thr433) showed an inverse association with triple negative cancers. Higher expression of pE2F1 (Ser337) was associated with better OS. Both pAkt1 (Ser473 and Thr308) proteins showed significant association with poorer patient outcomes. E2F1 (Ser337) showed a significant positive correlation with response to chemotherapy. The study suggests that a pAkt1
Publication Date: 2021-04-14
Journal: Journal of molecular histology


The role and the signal pathways of Yes-associated protein 2 in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous myocardial disease characterized by myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial mechanical and electrical activity obstacles. This study aimed to explore the relationship between YAP2 (Yes-associated protein 2) and HCM and clarify a signaling path about the pathogenesis of HCM. Our study confirms that YAP2 can promote myocardial cell hypertrophy at the molecular level (myocardial lineage cell H9C2), organ level (clinical specimens of human HCM), and an animal model (a mouse model of HCM with cardiac-specific transgenic and knockout YAP2). The detailed molecular mechanisms linking YAP2 to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and HCM were investigated. This study proved that YAP2, as the final reaction factor in Hippo pathways, influences Akt1 activity to affect the downstream genes, which participate in the formation of HCM by promoting myocardial cell proliferation and cardiac hypertrophy.
Publication Date: 2021-10-05
Journal: General physiology and biophysics


Mechanism of Cordyceps Cicadae in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking Analysis.
To systematically study the mechanism of cordyceps cicadae in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) with the method of network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis, so as to provide theoretical basis for the development of new drugs for the treatment of DN. TCMSP, Symmap, PubChem, PubMed, and CTD database were used to predict and screen the active components and therapeutic targets for DN. The network of active components and targets was drawn by Cytoscape 3.6.0, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) was analyzed by the STRING database, and the DAVID database was used for the enrichment analysis of intersection targets. Molecular docking studies were finished by Discovery Studio 3.5. A total of 36 active compounds, including myriocin, guanosine, and inosine, and 378 potential targets of cordyceps cicadae were obtained. PPI network analysis showed that AKT1, MAPK8, and TP53 and other targets were related to both cordyceps cicadae and DN. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that these targets were mostly involved in R-HSA-450341, 157.14-3-3 cell cycle, and PDGF pathways. Docking studies suggested that myriocin can fit in the binding pocket of two target proteins (AKT1 and MAPK8). Active ingredients of cordyceps cicadae such as myriocin may act on DN through different targets such as AKT1, MAPK8, and TP53 and other targets, which can help to develop innovative drugs for effective treatment of DN.
Publication Date: 2021-10-09
Journal: Journal of diabetes research


A role for AKT1 in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a highly regulated quality control mechanism through which mRNAs harboring a premature termination codon are degraded. It is also a regulatory pathway for some genes. This mechanism is subject to various levels of regulation, including phosphorylation. To date only one kinase, SMG1, has been described to participate in NMD, by targeting the central NMD factor UPF1. Here, screening of a kinase inhibitor library revealed as putative NMD inhibitors several molecules targeting the protein kinase AKT1. We present evidence demonstrating that AKT1, a central player in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, plays an essential role in NMD, being recruited by the UPF3X protein to phosphorylate UPF1. As AKT1 is often overactivated in cancer cells and as this should result in increased NMD efficiency, the possibility that this increase might affect cancer processes and be targeted in cancer therapy is discussed.
Publication Date: 2021-10-12
Journal: Nucleic acids research


Protective effect of carvacrol on liver injury in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of carvacrol on liver injury in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess its potential molecular mechanism. Mice were divided into three groups (n=15/group): Non‑diabetic db/m+ mice group, db/db mice group and db/db mice + carvacrol group. In the db/db mice + carvacrol group, db/db mice were administered 10 mg/kg carvacrol daily by gavage for 6 weeks. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were separately examined. Pathological changes were observed using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, periodic acid Schiff and reticular fiber staining. In addition, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to examine the expression levels of Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4), NF‑κB, NALP3, AKT1, phosphorylated (p)‑AKT1, insulin receptor (INSR), p‑INSR, mTOR, p‑mTOR, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and p‑IRS1 in the liver tissues. The results revealed that carvacrol improved blood glucose and insulin resistance of T2DM db/db mice. After treatment with carvacrol for 6 weeks, the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL‑C were markedly reduced, whereas HDL‑C levels were significantly increased in db/db mice. Furthermore, carvacrol administration significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels in db/db mice. Serum BUN, Cre and UA levels were markedly higher in db/db mice compared with those in the control group; however, carvacrol treatment markedly reduced their serum levels in db/db mice. Furthermore, histological examinations confirmed that carvacrol could protect the liver of db/db mice. Carvacrol could ameliorate liver injury induced by T2DM via mediating insulin, TLR4/NF‑κB and AKT1/mTOR signaling pathways. The present findings suggested that carvacrol exerted protective effects on the liver in T2DM db/db mice, which could be related to insulin, TLR4/NF‑κB and AKT1/mTOR signaling pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Molecular medicine reports


A Network Pharmacology Study on the Molecular Mechanism of Protocatechualdehyde in the Treatment of Diabetic Cataract.
Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a phenolic compound found in the roots of Through collecting relevant targets from the databases, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on the potential targets. Moreover, core genes were identified by topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and gene-phenotype correlation analysis. The results indicated that protocatechualdehyde may be closely related to targets such as AKT1, MAPK3 and HDAC3, as well as signal pathways such as MAPK signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications. Together, the present study systematically clarified the possible mechanisms of protocatechualdehyde in the treatment of diabetic cataract and provided new ideas for the drug research of this disease.
Publication Date: 2021-10-02
Journal: Drug design, development and therapy


Akt isoforms differentially provide for chemoresistance in prostate cancer.
Early prostate cancer micrometastatic foci undergo a mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transition, not only aiding seeding and colonization, but also rendering the tumor cells generally chemoresistant. We previously found that upregulated E-cadherin in the epithelial micrometastases activated canonical survival pathways, including PI3K-Akt, that protected the tumor cells from death; however, the extent of protection from blocking the pathway in its entirety was modest, because different isoforms may have alternately affected cell functioning. Here, we characterized Akt isoform expressions in primary and metastatic prostate cancers, as well as their individual contributions to chemoresistance. Akt isoforms and E-cadherin were manipulated with drugs, knocked down, and over expressed. Tumor cell killing was determined Pan-Akt inhibition sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapy, and specific blockade of Akt1 or/and Akt2 caused cells to be more chemoresponsive. Overexpression of Akt3 induced apoptosis. A low dose of Akt1 or Akt2 inhibitor enabled standard chemotherapies to significantly eradicate metastatic prostate tumors in a mouse model, acting as chemosensitizers. In human specimens, we found Akt1 and Akt2 positively correlated, whereas Akt3 inversely correlated, with the overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Akt1high/Akt2high/Akt3low tumors had the worst outcomes. E-cadherin-induced activation of Akt1/2 isoforms was the essential mechanism of chemoresistance, whereas Akt3 made cells more fragile. These findings emphasized the need to target Akt1/2, rather than pan-Akt, as a rational therapeutic approach.
Publication Date: 2021-10-01
Journal: Cancer biology & medicine


A panel of miRNAs as prognostic markers for African-American patients with triple negative breast cancer.
To investigate the global expression profile of miRNAs, their impact on cellular signaling pathways, and their association with poor prognostic parameters in African-American (AA) patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Twenty-five samples of AA TNBC patients were profiled for global miRNA expression and stratified considering three clinical-pathological parameters: tumor size, lymph node (LN), and recurrence (REC) status. Differential miRNA expression analysis was performed for each parameter, and their discriminatory power was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. KMplotter was assessed to determine the association of the miRNAs with survival, and functional enrichment analysis to determine the main affected pathways and miRNA/mRNA target interactions. A panel of eight, 23 and 27 miRNAs were associated with tumor size, LN, and REC status, respectively. Combined ROC analysis of two (miR-2117, and miR-378c), seven (let-7f-5p, miR-1255b-5p, miR-1268b, miR-200c-3p, miR-520d, miR-527, and miR-518a-5p), and three (miR-1200, miR-1249-3p, and miR-1271-3p) miRNAs showed a robust discriminatory power based on tumor size (AUC = 0.917), LN (AUC = 0.945) and REC (AUC = 0.981) status, respectively. Enrichment pathway analysis revealed their involvement in proteoglycans and glycan and cancer-associated pathways. Eight miRNAs with deregulated expressions in patients with large tumor size, positive LN metastasis, and recurrence were significantly associated with lower survival rates. Finally, the construction of miRNA/mRNA networks based in experimentally validated mRNA targets, revealed nodes of critical cancer genes, such as AKT1, BCL2, CDKN1A, EZR and PTEN. Altogether, our data indicate that miRNA deregulated expression is a relevant biological factor that can be associated with the poor prognosis in TNBC of AA patients, by conferring to their TNBC cells aggressive phenotypes that are reflected in the clinical characteristics evaluated in this study.
Publication Date: 2021-07-29
Journal: BMC cancer


HRAS is a therapeutic target in malignant chemo-resistant adenomyoepithelioma of the breast.
Malignant adenomyoepithelioma (AME) of the breast is an exceptionally rare form of breast cancer, with a significant metastatic potential. Chemotherapy has been used in the management of advanced AME patients, however the majority of treatments are not effective. Recent studies report recurrent mutations in the HRAS Q61 hotspot in small series of AMEs, but there are no preclinical or clinical data showing H-Ras protein as a potential therapeutic target in malignant AMEs. We performed targeted sequencing of tumours' samples from new series of 13 AMEs, including 9 benign and 4 malignant forms. Samples from the breast tumour and the matched axillary metastasis of one malignant HRAS mutated AME were engrafted and two patient-derived xenografts (PDX) were established that reproduced the typical AME morphology. The metastasis-derived PDX was treated in vivo by different chemotherapies and a combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitors (trametinib and dabrafenib). All malignant AMEs presented a recurrent mutation in the HRAS G13R or G12S hotspot. Mutation of PIK3CA were found in both benign and malignant AMEs, while AKT1 mutations were restricted to benign AMEs. Treatment of the PDX by the MEK inhibitor trametinib, resulted in a marked anti-tumor activity, in contrast to the BRAF inhibitor and the different chemotherapies that were ineffective. Overall, these findings further expand on the genetic features of AMEs and suggest that patients carrying advanced HRAS-mutated AMEs could potentially be treated with MEK inhibitors.
Publication Date: 2021-09-10
Journal: Journal of hematology & oncology


Comprehensive Analysis of Potential miRNA-Target mRNA-Immunocyte Subtype Network in Cerebral Infarction.
Cerebral infarction (CI) is one of the leading causes of serious long-term disability and mortality. We aimed to identify potential miRNAs and target mRNAs and assess the involvement of immunocyte infiltration in the process of CI. First, miRNA and mRNA data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, followed by differential expression analysis. Second, correlation analysis between differentially expressed mRNAs and differential immunocyte subtypes was performed through the CIBERSORT algorithm. Third, the regulatory network between miRNAs and immunocyte subtype-related mRNAs was constructed followed by the functional analysis of these target mRNAs. Fourth, correlation validation between differentially expressed mRNAs and differential immunocyte subtypes was performed in the GSE37587 dataset. Finally, the diagnostic ability of immunocyte subtype-related mRNAs was tested. Up to 17 differentially expressed miRNAs and 3,267 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified, among which 310 differentially expressed mRNAs were significantly associated with immunocyte subtypes. Several miRNA-target mRNA-immunocyte subtype networks including hsa-miR-671-3p-ZC3HC1-neutrophils, hsa-miR-625-CD5-monocytes, hsa-miR-122-ACOX1/DUSP1/NEDD9-neutrophils, hsa-miR-455-5p-SLC24A4-monocytes, and hsa-miR-455-5p-SORL1-neutrophils were identified. LAT, ACOX1, DUSP1, NEDD9, ZC3HC1, BIN1, AKT1, DNMT1, SLC24A4, and SORL1 had a potential diagnostic value for CI. The network including miRNA, target mRNA, and immunocyte subtype may be novel regulators and diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CI.
Publication Date: 2021-09-21
Journal: European neurology


AKT1/FOXP3 axis-mediated expression of CerS6 promotes p53 mutant pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Ceramide synthases (CerSs) catalyze the formation of ceramides from sphingoid bases and acyl-CoA substrates. Increasing evidence suggests that cancer cells generally exhibit altered sphingolipid metabolism in the tumorigenesis of multiple cancers. However, there is no evidence that CerSs are associated with pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC). In the present study, we examined CerS expression in clinical tissue and conducted data mining to investigate the clinical significance of CerSs in the TCGA-PAAD database. We found that high CerS6 expression positively correlated with progression and predicted worse prognosis in PDAC patients, establishing CerS6 as a potential biomarker for PDAC. Furthermore, CerS6 promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion by producing C16-ceramide and was required for tumor formation. Mechanistically, AKT1 interacted with and phosphorylated FOXP3 at S418, which decreased the binding of FOXP3 to the CERS6 promoter and in turn induced CerS6 expression by reconstituting an activated state on the CERS6 promoter. The AKT1/FOXP3 axis mediated the CerS6 expression and promoted p53 mutant pancreatic tumorigenesis by producing excessive C16-ceramide, which induced the accumulation of mutant p53. Thus, our study explores the relationship between PI3K/AKT signaling and sphingolipid metabolism, revealing an oncogenic role for CerS6, which may represent a potential target for PDAC treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-08-04
Journal: Cancer letters


LncRNA LBX2-AS1 promotes colorectal cancer progression and 5-fluorouracil resistance.
Recent reports suggest that the long non-coding RNA LBX2 antisense RNA 1 (LBX2-AS1) acts as an important regulator in cancer progression, but its significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains undetermined. LBX2-AS1 expression levels in CRC were determined from the GEPIA database and CRC tissues to investigate clinical relevance. meRIP-PCR assays investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of m6A in LBX2-AS1. Loss of function experiments was used to define the role of LBX2-AS1 in the progression of CRC. The ceRNA function of LBX2-AS1 was evaluated by RNA immunoprecipitation. In vitro and PDX models were used to determine if LBX2-AS1 promotes 5-fluorouracil resistance. Data from the TCGA and our institutional patient cohorts established that LBX2-AS1 levels were significantly upregulated in most CRC tissues relative to normal adjacent colon tissues. Moreover, LBX2-AS1 levels were positively correlated with aggressive disease characteristics, constituting an independent prognostic indicator of overall patient survival. Mechanistic investigations suggested that the increased LBX2-AS1 in CRC was mediated by METTL3-dependent m6A methylation. In vitro experiments indicated that knockdown of LBX2-AS1 inhibited CRC proliferation, migration and invasion with this phenotype linked to LBX2-AS1-mediated regulation of AKT1, acting as a ceRNA to sponge miR-422a. Ex vivo analysis of patient-derived CRC xenografts showed that low LBX2-AS1 expression cases exhibited 5-FU responsiveness and clinical investigations confirmed that low LBX2-AS1 expression was associated with improved clinical benefits from 5-FU therapy. Together these results suggest that LBX2-AS1 may serve as a therapeutic target and predictor of 5-FU benefit in CRC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-09-19
Journal: Cancer cell international


(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevents aminoglycosides-induced ototoxicity via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.
Aminoglycoside-induced cochlear ototoxicity causes inner ear hair cells (HCs) loss and leads to hearing impairment in patients, but no treatment completely eliminates the ototoxic effect. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a protective agent against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. Zebrafish were exposed to EGCG for 24 h and then co-treated with EGCG and ototoxic agent (amikacin and gentamicin) for 5 h to explore the protective effect of EGCG on zebrafish HCs. Network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking simulation were conducted to explore its potential mechanism, and in vitro cell experiments were used to validate the outcome of the result. EGCG against ototoxicity of aminoglycosides in zebrafish HCs. Network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking showing that molecules related to cellular response regulation to oxidative stress, including AKT1, DHFR, and MET, may be the target proteins of EGCG, which were verified in vitro experiments. Further experiments demonstrated thatEGCG can antagonize the death of HCs caused by amikacin and gentamicin by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and anti-apoptosis. EGCG can be an otoprotective drug against aminoglycosides-induced ototoxicity, prevent cellular apoptosis and significantly reduce oxidative stress.
Publication Date: 2021-09-10
Journal: International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology


Associations between brain abnormalities and common genetic variants for schizophrenia: a narrative review of structural and functional neuroimaging findings.
Schizophrenia is a common psychotic disease worldwide, and several genetic variants have been suggested to influence susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, the exact genetic and neural mechanisms underlying such relationships remain unclear. Neuroimaging endophenotypes have been considered to be desirable for finding genes influencing brain structure and function. Because of its high penetrance of genetic variants and wide applications in clinic practice, neuroimaging could be a great option in schizophrenia study. In this narrative review, we aim to provide a summary of current progress in neuroimaging findings to detect genetic variants that may influence the brain's structure and function, and thus improve understanding of how this interaction affects the onset of schizophrenia. Multiple common genetic variants for schizophrenia including the ZNF804A, DTNBP1, DAOA, AKT1, NTRK3, and ERBB4 genes are reviewed. In summary, the current investigations have reported effects of these genetic variants on both structural and functional brain abnormalities (e.g., altered grey matter volumes, white matter integrity and functional connectivity patterns) in schizophrenia within multiple brain regions, especially the frontal, temporal and hippocampal areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of schizophrenia and helping us with early diagnosis, prognosis prediction and medication. However, a deep insight into this field necessitate further investigations and there are a number of challenges to be settled, such as enlarging the sample size; solving the statistical, methodological, and technological limitations; performing not only cross-sectional but also longitudinal observations; focusing on the effect of copy number variants; figuring out the complexity of epistasis and gene-environment interaction; achieving clinical translations; and depict the effect of a polygenic risk score beyond those of single genetic markers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: Annals of palliative medicine


Immunoregulatory mechanism studies of ginseng leaves on lung cancer based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.
Panax ginseng is one of the oldest and most generally prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat diseases. Several studies had documented that ginseng leaves have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties similar to those of ginseng root. The aim of this research was to forecast of the molecular mechanism of ginseng leaves on lung cancer by molecular docking and network pharmacology so as to decipher ginseng leaves' entire mechanism. The compounds associated with ginseng leaves were searched by TCMSP. TCMSP and Swiss Target Prediction databases were used to sort out the potential targets of the main chemical components. Targets were collected from OMIM, PharmGKB, TTD, DrugBank and GeneCards which related to immunity and lung cancer. Ginseng leaves exert its lung cancer suppressive function by regulating the several signaling proteins, such as JUN, STAT3, AKT1, TNF, MAPK1, TP53. GO and KEGG analyses indicated that the immunoreaction against lung cancer by ginseng leaves might be related to response to lipopolysaccharide, response to oxidative stress, PI3K-Akt, MAPK and TNF pathway. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated that hydrogen bonding was interaction's core forms. The results of CCK8 test and qRT-PCR showed that ginseng leaves inhibit cell proliferation and regulates AKT1 and P53 expression in A549. The present study clarifies the mechanism of Ginseng leaves against lung cancer and provides evidence to support its clinical use.
Publication Date: 2021-09-16
Journal: Scientific reports


Intermittent Bolus Compared With Continuous Feeding Enhances Insulin and Amino Acid Signaling to Translation Initiation in Skeletal Muscle of Neonatal Pigs.
Nutrition administered as intermittent bolus feeds rather than continuously promotes greater protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and enhances lean growth in a neonatal piglet model. The molecular mechanisms responsible remain unclear. We aimed to identify the insulin- and/or amino acid-signaling components involved in the enhanced stimulation of skeletal muscle by intermittent bolus compared to continuous feeding in neonatal pigs born at term. Term piglets (2-3 days old) were fed equal amounts of sow milk replacer [12.8 g protein and 155 kcal/(kg body weight · d)] by orogastric tube as intermittent bolus meals every 4 hours (INT) or by continuous infusion (CTS). After 21 days, gastrocnemius muscle samples were collected from CTS, INT-0 (before a meal), and INT-60 (60 minutes after a meal) groups (n = 6/group). Insulin- and amino acid-signaling components relevant to mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 activation and protein translation were measured. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, PDK1, mTORC2, pan-Akt, Akt1, Akt2, and TSC2 was 106% to 273% higher in the skeletal muscle of INT-60 piglets than in INT-0 and CTS piglets (P  < 0.05), but phosphorylation of PTEN, PP2A, Akt3, ERK1/2, and AMPK did not differ among groups, nor did abundances of PHLPP, SHIP2, and Ubl4A. The association of GATOR2 with Sestrin1/2, but not CASTOR1, was 51% to 52% lower in INT-60 piglets than in INT-0 and CTS piglets (P  < 0.05), but the abundances of SLC7A5/LAT1, SLC38A2/SNAT2, SLC38A9, Lamtor1/2, and V-ATPase did not differ. Associations of mTOR with RagA, RagC, and Rheb and phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4EBP1, but not eIF2α and eEF2, were 101% to 176% higher in INT-60 piglets than in INT-0 and CTS piglets (P < 0.05). The enhanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and growth with intermittent bolus compared to continuous feeding in a neonatal piglet model can be explained by enhanced activation of both the insulin- and amino acid-signaling pathways that regulate translation initiation.
Publication Date: 2021-06-24
Journal: The Journal of nutrition


Cocculus hirsutus ameliorates gastric and lung injuries by suppressing Src/Syk.
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W. Thedo., a traditionally well-known plant, has confirmed antitumor properties as well as acute and chronic diuretic effects. However, little is known about its inflammatory activities and the potential effect on inflammatory disease treatment. Our aim in this study was to explore additional beneficial properties of C. hirsutus ethanol extract (Ch-EE) such as anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo as well as its underlying mechanisms and to provide a theoretical basis for its role as a candidate natural drug in clinical gastritis and lung disease therapy. RAW264.7 cells, HEK293T cells, peritoneal macrophages, and mouse models of acute gastritis and acute lung injury were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of Ch-EE. Decreases in LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine expression by RAW264.7 cells after Ch-EE treatment were evaluated by Griess assays and PCR, respectively. Transcription factor activity was assessed through luciferase reporter gene assay, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting analysis. Overexpression assays and cellular thermal shift assays were executed in HEK293T cells. Our two in vivo models were an HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis model and an LPS-induced lung injury model. Changes in stomach lesions, lung edema, and lung histology were examined upon treatment with Ch-EE. Components of Ch-EE were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. LPS-induced nitric oxide production and Pam3CSK4- and L-NAME-induced NO production were inhibited by Ch-EE treatment of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, LPS-induced increases in transcript levels of iNOS, COX2, CCL12, and IL-1β were reduced by Ch-EE treatment. Ch-EE decreased both MyD88- and TRIF-induced NF-κB promotor activity. Proteins upstream of NF-κB, namely p-p50, p-p65, p-IκBα, p-AKT1, p-Src, and p-Syk, were all downregulated by Ch-EE. Moreover, Src and Syk were targets of Ch-EE. Ch-EE treatment reduced the size of inflammatory stomach lesions induced by HCl/EtOH, lung edema, and accumulation of activated neutrophils caused by LPS. These results strongly suggest that Cocculus hirsutus can be developed as a promising anti-inflammatory remedy with Src- and Syk-inhibitory functions targeting diseases related to gastritis and lung injury.
Publication Date: 2021-10-11
Journal: Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology


Elucidating the Effects of Curcumin against Influenza Using In Silico and In Vitro Approaches.
The influenza virus is a constantly evolving pathogen that challenges medical and public health systems. Traditionally, curcumin has been used to treat airway inflammatory diseases, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. To elucidate common targets of curcumin and influenza infection and underlying mechanisms, we employed network pharmacology and molecular docking approaches and confirmed results using in vitro experiments. Biological targets of curcumin and influenza were collected, and potential targets were identified by constructing compound-disease target (C-D) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. The ligand-target interaction was determined using the molecular docking method, and in vitro antiviral experiments and target confirmation were conducted to evaluate curcumin's effects on influenza. Our network and pathway analyses implicated the four targets of AKT1, RELA, MAPK1, and TP53 that could be involved in the inhibitory effects of curcumin on influenza. The binding energy calculations of each ligand-target interaction in the molecular docking showed that curcumin bound to AKT1 with the highest affinity among the four targets. In vitro experiments, in which influenza virus-infected MDCK cells were pre-, co-, or post-treated with curcumin, confirmed curcumin's prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Influenza virus induction increased the level of mRNA expression of AKT in MDCK cells, and the level was attenuated by curcumin treatment. Collectively, our findings identified potential targets of curcumin against influenza and suggest curcumin as a potential therapy for influenza infection.
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland)


Gene expression profiling utilizing extremely sensitive CDNA arrays and enrichment-based network study of major bone cancer genes.
The gene interaction network is a set of genes interconnected by functional interactions among the genes. The gene interaction networks are studied to determine pathways and regulatory mechanisms in model organisms. In this research, the enrichment study of bone cancer-causing genes is undertaken to identify several hub genes associated to the development of bone cancer. Data on bone cancer is obtained from mutated gene samples; highly mutated genes are selected for the enrichment analysis. Due to certain interactions with each other the interaction network model for the hub genes is developed and simulations are produced to determine the levels of expression. For the array analyses, a total of 100 tumor specimens are collected. Cell cultures are prepared, RNA is extracted, cDNA arrays probes are generated, and the expressions analysis of Hub genes is determined. Out of cDNA array findings, only 7 genes: CDKN2A, AKT1, NRAS, PIK3CA, RB1, BRAF, and TP53 are differentially expressed and shown as significant in the development of bone tumors, approximately 15 pathways have been identified, including pathways for non-small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia, and glioma, consisting of all the identified 7 genes. After clinical validations of tumor samples, the IDH1 and TP53 gene revealed significant number of mutations similar to other genes. Specimens analysis showed that RB1, P53, and NRAS are amplified in brain tumor, while BRAF, CDKN2A, and AKT1 are amplified in sarcoma. Maximum deletion mutations of the PIK3CA gene are observed in leukemia. CDKN2A gene amplifications have been observed in virtually all tumor specimens. This study points to a recognizable evidence of novel superimposed pathways mechanisms strongly linked to cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-09-07
Journal: Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences


Arteriovenous Fistula-induced Cardiac Remodeling Shows Cardioprotective Features in Mice.
Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) placed for hemodialysis have high flow rates that can stimulate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy generally portends poor cardiac outcomes, yet clinical studies point to superior cardiac-specific outcomes for patients with AVF when compared to other dialysis modalities. We hypothesize that AVF induce physiologic cardiac hypertrophy with cardioprotective features. 9-11 week C57Bl/6 male and female mice were treated with sham laparotomy or an aortocaval fistula via a 25Ga needle. Cardiac chamber size and function were assessed with serial echocardiography, and cardiac CTA. Hearts were harvested at 5 weeks post-operatively, and collagen content assessed with Masson's trichrome. Bulk mRNA sequencing was performed from LV of sham and AVF mice at 10 days. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) to identify affected pathways and predict downstream biological effects. Mice with AVF had similar body weight and wet lung mass, but increased cardiac mass compared to sham-operated mice. AVF increased cardiac output while preserving LV systolic and diastolic function, as well as indices of right heart function; all 4 cardiac chambers were enlarged, with slight decrement in relative LV wall thickness. Histology showed preserved collagen density within each of the 4 chambers without areas of fibrosis. RNA sequencing captured 19,384 genes, of which 857 were significantly differentially expressed, including transcripts from extracellular matrix-related genes, ion channels, metabolism, and cardiac fetal genes. Top upstream regulatory molecules predicted include activation of angiogenic (Vegf, Akt1), pro-cardiomyocyte survival (Hgf, Foxm1, Erbb2, Lin9, Areg), and inflammation-related (CSF2, Tgfb1, TNF, Ifng, Ccr2, IL6) genes, as well as the inactivation of cardiomyocyte antiproliferative factors (Cdkn1a, FoxO3, α-catenin). Predicted downstream effects include reduction to heart damage, and increased arrhythmia, angiogenesis, and cardiogenesis. There were no significant sex-dependent differences in the AVF-stimulated cardiac adaptation. AVF stimulate adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type mice without heart failure or pathological fibrosis. Transcriptional correlates suggest AVF-induced cardiac remodeling has some cardioprotective, although also arrhythmogenic features.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: JVS-vascular science


Pharmacokinetic study of Tangwang Mingmu granule for the management of diabetic retinopathy based on network pharmacology.
Tangwang Mingmu granule (TWMM), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus. To establish a method to select target compounds from herbs for a pharmacokinetic study using network pharmacology, which could be applied in clinical settings. First, UPLC/Q Exactive Q-Orbitrap and GCMS 2010 were used to determine the non-volatile and volatile ingredients of TWMM. Based on the identified compounds, network pharmacology was used to screen the key compounds and targets of TWMM in the treatment of DR. Based on the compound-target-pathway network and identification of components emigrant into blood, the potential compound markers Ninety and forty-five compounds were identified by UPLC-MS and GC-MS, respectively. Based on the network pharmacology, nine compounds with a degree value above 15 were screened and implied that these compounds are the most active in DR treatment. Moreover, criteria of degree value greater than 7 were applied, and PTGS2, NOS2, AKT1, ESR1, TNF, and MAPK14 were inferred as the core targets in treating DR. After identification of components absorbed into blood, luteolin and formononetin were selected and used to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of TWMM after its oral administration. The reported strategy provides a method that combines ingredient profiling, network pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics to determine luteolin and formononetin as the pharmacokinetic markers of TWMM. This strategy provides a clinically relevant methodology that allows for the screening of pharmacokinetic markers in Chinese medicines.
Publication Date: 2021-10-01
Journal: Pharmaceutical biology


Sclerosing Polycystic Adenoma of Salivary Glands: A Novel Neoplasm Characterized by PI3K-AKT Pathway Alterations-New Insights Into a Challenging Entity.
Sclerosing polycystic adenoma (SPA) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm originally thought to represent a non-neoplastic lesion. Recently we have encountered an index case of apocrine intraductal carcinoma of parotid gland of 62-year-old man with invasive salivary duct carcinoma component arising from SPA, a combination of tumor entities that has never been published so far. Here, we further explore the nature of SPA by evaluating 36 cases that were identified from the authors' consultation files. The patients were 25 females and 11 males aged 11 to 79 years (mean, 47.8 y). All tumors originated from the parotid gland. Their size ranged from 11 to 70 mm (mean, 28 mm). Histologically, all cases revealed characteristic features of SPA, such as lobulated well-circumscribed growth, focal hyalinized sclerosis, presence of large acinar cells with abundant brightly eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules, and ductal components with variable cytomorphologic characteristics, including foamy, vacuolated, apocrine, mucous, clear/ballooned, squamous, columnar and oncocyte-like cells. In all cases, there were foci of intraluminal solid and cribriform intercalated duct-like epithelial proliferations with variable dysplasia which were positive for S100 protein and SOX10, and fully enveloped by an intact layer of myoepithelial cells. In addition, 14/36 cases (39%) had focal intraductal cribriform and micropapillary apocrine-type dysplastic epithelial structures composed of cells positive for androgen receptors and negative for S100/SOX10. The intraductal proliferations of both types showed focal mild to severe dysplasia in 17 cases (17/36; 47%). Two cases showed overt malignant morphology ranging from high-grade intraductal carcinoma to invasive carcinoma with an apocrine ductal phenotype. Next generation sequencing using ArcherDX panel targeting RNA of 36 pan-cancer-related genes and/or a TruSight Oncology 170/500 Kit targeting a selection of DNA from 523 genes and RNA from 55 genes was performed. Tumor tissue was available for molecular analysis in 11 cases, and 9 (9/11; 82%) of them harbored genetic alterations in the PI3K pathway. Targeted sequencing revealed HRAS mutations c.37G>C, p.(Gly13Arg) (2 cases) and c.182A>G, p.(Gln61Arg) (2 cases), and PIK3CA mutations c.3140A>G, p.(His1047Arg) (3 cases), c.1633G>A, p.(Glu545Lys) (1 case), and c.1624G>A, p.(Glu542Lys) (1 case). Moreover, mutations in AKT1 c.49G>A, p.(Glu17Lys) and c.51dup, p.(Tyr18ValfsTer15); c.49_50delinsAG, p.(Glu17Arg) (as a double hit) were found (2 cases). In addition, germinal and somatic mutation of PTEN c.1003C>T, p.(Arg335Ter); c.445C>T, p.(Gln149Ter), respectively, were detected. Gene fusions were absent in all cases. These prevalent molecular alterations converging on one major cancer-related pathway support the notion that SPA is a true neoplasm with a significant potential to develop intraluminal epithelial proliferation with apocrine and/or intercalated duct-like phenotype. The name SPA more correctly reflects the true neoplastic nature of this enigmatic lesion.
Publication Date: 2021-09-13
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology


A Network Pharmacology Approach for Exploring the Mechanisms of
PNS were identified from the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology (TCMSP) database, and their possible targets were predicted using the PharmMapper database. IS-related targets were identified from the GeneCards database, OMIM database, and DisGeNET database. A herb-compound-target-disease network was constructed using Cytoscape, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were established with STRING. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis were performed using DAVID. The binding of the compounds and key targets was validated by molecular docking studies using AutoDock Vina. The neuroprotective effect of TFCJ was substantiated in terms of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and malondialdehyde) and the levels of IGF1/PI3K/Akt pathway proteins. A total of 375 PNS targets and 5111 IS-related targets were identified. Among these targets, 241 were common to PNS, and IS network analysis showed that MAPK1, AKT1, PIK3R1, SRC, MAPK8, EGFR, IGF1, HRAS, RHOA, and HSP90AA1 are key targets of PNS against IS. Furthermore, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that PNS probably exert therapeutic effects against IS by regulating many pathways, such as the Ras, oestrogen, FoxO, prolactin, Rap1, PI3K-Akt, insulin, PPAR, and thyroid hormone signalling pathways. Molecular docking studies further corroborated the experimental results.The network pharmacology results were further verified by molecular docking and in vivo experiments. The ameliorative effects of PNS against IS were predicted to be associated with the regulation of the IGF1-PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. Ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 may play an important role in the treatment of IS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


Dysregulated Immunological Functionome and Dysfunctional Metabolic Pathway Recognized for the Pathogenesis of Borderline Ovarian Tumors by Integrative Polygenic Analytics.
The pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of ovarian low malignant potential (LMP) tumors or borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) have not been fully elucidated to date. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment for this disease, and diagnosis is mainly made by histopathology to date. However, there is no integrated analysis investigating the tumorigenesis of BOTs with open experimental data. Therefore, we first utilized a functionome-based speculative model from the aggregated obtainable datasets to explore the expression profiling data among all BOTs and two major subtypes of BOTs, serous BOTs (SBOTs) and mucinous BOTs (MBOTs), by analyzing the functional regularity patterns and clustering the separate gene sets. We next prospected and assembled the association between these targeted biomolecular functions and their related genes. Our research found that BOTs can be accurately recognized by gene expression profiles by means of integrative polygenic analytics among all BOTs, SBOTs, and MBOTs; the results exhibited the top 41 common dysregulated biomolecular functions, which were sorted into four major categories: immune and inflammatory response-related functions, cell membrane- and transporter-related functions, cell cycle- and signaling-related functions, and cell metabolism-related functions, which were the key elements involved in its pathogenesis. In contrast to previous research, we identified 19 representative genes from the above classified categories (IL6, CCR2 for immune and inflammatory response-related functions; IFNG, ATP1B1, GAS6, and PSEN1 for cell membrane- and transporter-related functions; CTNNB1, GATA3, and IL1B for cell cycle- and signaling-related functions; and AKT1, SIRT1, IL4, PDGFB, MAPK3, SRC, TWIST1, TGFB1, ADIPOQ, and PPARGC1A for cell metabolism-related functions) that were relevant in the cause and development of BOTs. We also noticed that a dysfunctional pathway of galactose catabolism had taken place among all BOTs, SBOTs, and MBOTs from the analyzed gene set databases of canonical pathways. With the help of immunostaining, we verified significantly higher performance of interleukin 6 (IL6) and galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) among BOTs than the controls. In conclusion, a bioinformatic platform of gene-set integrative molecular functionomes and biophysiological pathways was constructed in this study to interpret the complicated pathogenic pathways of BOTs, and these important findings demonstrated the dysregulated immunological functionome and dysfunctional metabolic pathway as potential roles during the tumorigenesis of BOTs and may be helpful for the diagnosis and therapy of BOTs in the future.
Publication Date: 2021-05-01
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


FBXL20 promotes breast cancer malignancy by inhibiting apoptosis through degradation of PUMA and BAX.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that efficiently removes damaged cells to maintain tissue homeostasis. Defect in apoptotic machinery can lead to tumor development, progression, and resistance to chemotherapy. PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and BAX (BCL2 associated X protein) are among the most well-known inducers of apoptosis. It has been reported that expression levels of BAX and PUMA are controlled at the post-translational level by phosphorylation. However, the post-translational regulation of these pro-apoptotic proteins remains largely unexplored. In this study, using biochemical, molecular biology, flow cytometric, and immunohistochemistry techniques, we show that PUMA and BAX are the direct target of the F-box protein FBXL20, which restricts their cellular levels. FBXL20 directs the proteasomal degradation of PUMA and BAX in a protein kinase AKT1-dependent manner to promote cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Interestingly, inactivation of AKT1 results in activation of another protein kinase GSK3α/β, which facilitates the proteasomal degradation of FBXL20 by another F-box protein, FBXO31. Thus, a switch between two signaling kinases AKT1 and GSK3α/β modulates the functional activity of these pro-apoptotic regulators, thereby determining cell survival or death. RNAi-mediated ablation of FBXL20 results in increased levels of PUMA as well as BAX, which further enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. We showed that high level expression of FBXL20 in cancer cells reduces therapeutic drug-induced apoptosis and promotes chemo-resistance. Overall, this study highlights the importance of targeting FBXL20 in cancers in conjunction with chemotherapy and may represent a promising anti-cancer strategy to overcome chemoresistance.
Publication Date: 2021-09-30
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry


N6-Methyladenosine Regulators Are Involved in the Progression of and Have Clinical Impact on Breast Cancer.
BACKGROUND N6-methyladenosine (m⁶A) modification has been widely studied in various cancers, and m6A regulators, such as METTL3, METTL14, WTAP, and YTHDF1, play crucial roles in breast cancer. However, a comprehensive study of m6A regulators in breast cancer is still lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression data of m⁶A regulators and clinicopathological information were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. Protein interaction was collected from the STRING database. Data on tumor purity and correlation among m6A regulators were obtained from the TIMER database. LASSO, consensus clustering, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used to evaluate the role of m⁶A regulators. Moreover, the prognostic value of m⁶A-related genomic targets in breast cancer was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. RESULTS We found most m⁶A regulators were associated with key clinicopathological parameters, such as tumor staging, Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), and cellularity. Also, consensus clustering analysis-based grouping could effectively predict patients' overall survival. Correlation analysis also showed that these regulators interacted with each other. Patients were further split into a high-risk group and low-risk group based on Cox and LASSO analysis. High-risk patients had a significantly worse overall survival than did low-risk patients. Moreover, AKT1 and MYC were enriched in patients in the high-risk group, according to GSEA analysis. The patients in the high-risk group also displayed resistance to chemoradiotherapy or hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS The m⁶A regulators are critical participants in the development and progression of breast cancer and are likely to be used to predict prognosis and develop treatment strategies.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research


An integrated analysis of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis involved in bovine endometritis.
In dairy cattle, endometritis is a severe infectious disease that occurs following parturition. It is clear that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of endometritis, however, the molecular pathogenesis of endometritis is not entirely understood. In this study, a system biology approach was used to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of endometritis. Forty transcriptomic datasets comprising of 20 RNA-Seq (GSE66825) and 20 miRNA-Seq (GSE66826) were obtained from the GEO database. Next, the co-expressed modules were constructed based on RNA-Seq (Rb-modules) and miRNA-Seq (mb-modules) data, separately, using a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) approach. Preservation analysis was used to find the non-preserved Rb-modules in endometritis samples. Afterward, the non-preserved Rb-modules were assigned to the mb-modules to construct the integrated regulatory networks. Just highly connected genes (hubs) in the networks were considered and functional enrichment analysis was used to identify the biological pathways associated with the development of the disease. Furthermore, additional bioinformatic analysis including protein-protein interactions network and miRNA target prediction were applied to enhance the reliability of the results. Thirty-five Rb-modules and 10 mb-modules were identified and 19 and 10 modules were non-preserved, respectively, which were enriched in biological pathways related to endometritis like inflammation and ciliogenesis. Two non-preserved Rb-modules were significantly assigned to three mb-modules and three and two important sub-networks in the Rb-modules were identified, respectively, including important mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs genes like IRAK1, CASP3, CCDC40, CCDC39, ZMYND10, FOXJ1, TLR4, IL10, STAT3, FN1, AKT1, CD68, ENSBTAG00000049936, ENSBTAG00000050527, ENSBTAG00000051242, ENSBTAG00000049287, bta-miR-449, bta-miR-484, bta-miR-149, bta-miR-30b and bta-miR-423. The potential roles of these genes have been previously demonstrated in endometritis or related pathways, which reinforced putative functions of the suggested integrated regulatory networks in the endometritis pathogenesis. These findings may help further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of bovine endometritis.
Publication Date: 2021-09-12
Journal: Scientific reports


[Active components and action mechanism of Shenmai Injection in treatment of atrial fibrillation based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].
This study aims to explore the active components and molecular mechanism of Shenmai Injection in the treatment of atrial fibrillation(AF) based on the application of network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. The chemical components of single herbs of Shenmai Injection were collected from TCMSP and TCMID, with the standard chemical name and PubChem CID(referred to as CID) obtained from PubChem database. The active components were screened using SwissADME, and their targets were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. Targets related to AF treatment were identified using GeneCards, OMIM, and other databases. Venn diagram was constructed using Venny 2.1 to obtain the intersection targets. The single herb-active component-potential target network was constructed using Cytoscape, and the clusterProfiler R function package was used to perform the gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of intersection targets was generated based on the STRING database. The hub target protein was identified by visualization using Cytoscape, and then docked to its reverse-selected active components. The analysis showed that there were 65 active components with 681 corresponding targets in Shenmai Injection, 2 798 targets related to AF treatment, and 235 intersection targets involving 2 549 GO functions and 153 KEGG pathways. Finally, hub target proteins, including RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha(PIK3 CA), and estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), were screened out by PPI network visualization. The molecular docking was performed for 39 active components screened out in reverse, among which 30 active components de-monstrated high affinity. Among them, homoisoflavanoids CID 10871974, CID 5319742, and CID 10361149 had stronger affinity docking with AKT1. This study preliminarily indicates that Shenmai Injection treats AF through multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways. Homoisoflavonoids of Ophiopogon japonicus are its important active components, which target AKT1 to regulate metabolism, inflammation, and apoptosis in AF treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica


Cell specific tumor suppressor effect of Hsa-miR-1226-3p through downregulation of HER2, PIK3R2, and AKT1 genes.
PI3K/AKT signaling has a crucial role in breast cancer incidence and finding the miRNAs that regulate this pathway enhances our understanding of breast cancer regulation. Firstly, our bioinformatics analysis suggested miR-1226-3p as a bona fide regulator of HER2, PIK3R2, and AKT1 putative target genes. Secondly, RT-qPCR, ELISA test and western blotting showed that overexpression of miR-1226 was followed by reduced expression of HER2, PIK3R2, and AKT1 putative targets genes in SKBR3 cells. Third, dual luciferase assay verified direct interaction of miR-1226-3p with 3'UTR sequences of these target genes. Then, overexpression of miR-1226 in SKBR3 cells brought about increased population of sub-G1 and decreased populations of G1 cells, measured by flow cytometry. This was consistent to the reduction of p-AKT protein and increased BAX protein levels, detected by western analysis and consistent to decreased CCND1 genes expression, detected by RT-qPCR. The reduced survival and increased apoptosis rate of these cells was also verified through MTT, Annexin V-FITC and Live-Dead cell staining assays. Our results suggest that miR-1226-3p is a tumor suppressor in SKBR3 cells. However, following the overexpression of miR-1226 in MDA-MB-231 cells, Bax/Bcl2 ratio and CCND1 genes expression levels were not significantly changed, sub-G1 and G1 cell cycle population were reduced while, S and G2/M cell populations were increased, consistent to the results acquired from the apoptosis and staining assays. Finally, TCGA data analysis and RT-qPCR against 20 pairs of Normal/Tumor breast tissues indicated that miR-1226-3p has been downregulated in breast cancer. Overall, the present study gathered shreds of evidence that suggest miR-1226-3p as a tumor suppressor that exerts its inhibitory effect on SKBR3 cells through targeting of HER2, PIK3R2, and AKT1 genes and downregulates PI3K/AKT pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-03-07
Journal: The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology


3-Epipachysamine B suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of breast cancer cell via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
3-Epipachysamine B is a natural steroidal alkaloid isolated from Pachysandra terminalis Sieb. et Zucc. (known locally as Kunxianqi). Kunxianqi contains numerous compounds with demonstrated activity against breast cancer (BRCA). However, it is unknown whether 3-epipachysamine B also has anti-BRCA efficacy. In the present study, we employed network pharmacology technology to search and find potential molecular targets of 3-epipachysamine B. We applied cell proliferation, apoptosis, and western blotting assays to test the predicted key targets and the effects of 3-epipachysamine B against BRCA. Network pharmacology disclosed 80 potential BRCA-related targets of 3-epipachysamine B and assigned them to 75 signaling pathways. Of these, the most highly enriched was the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PIK3R1, AKT1, and mTOR had high degrees and betweenness centrality in protein-protein interaction network and are associated with PI3K/AKT signaling. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation indicated strong binding between 3-epipachysamine B and PIK3R1, AKT1, and mTOR. 3-Epipachysamine B repressed the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of BRCA cells, as well as downregulated P-AKT/AKT, P-mTOR/mTOR, and P-PI3K/PI3K in the cells. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 augmented these changes. Hence, 3-epipachysamine could also prove effective as an anticancer agent in future animal tumor model and human clinical breast cancer trials. Successful validation results could lead to a safe and effective new breast cancer treatment that improves patient prognosis and quality of life.
Publication Date: 2021-10-01
Journal: Life sciences


Genetic and epigenetic bases of prostate tumor cell radioresistance.
Radiation therapy plays a leading role in the treatment of prostate cancer, but the emergence of radioresistant forms of this disease dictates the need for a personalized ap-proach based on the data from genetic and epigenetic markers. Such markers include the copy number variation as well as gene and microRNA expression. The aim of the study was to validate the list of potential predictors of radioresistance of prostate tumor cells in a model experiment based on the determination of gene copy number variation, gene transcriptional activity and microRNA expression. The study used a PC-3 prostate cancer cell culture. The determination of the relative copy number variation and expression of 32 genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, CASP3, CASP8, BAX, BCL2, CASP9, P53, MDM2, AKT1, ATM, BRIP1, CDK1, CDKN1B, CCND1, CCND3, FGFR2, KU70, RAD50, RAP80, Rif1, RNF168, TopBP1, HIST, H2AX, EXO1, XRCC4, RBBP8, EP300, LIG4, C-FLIP), as well as 15 microRNAs (let-7, miR15a/ 16, miR-17, miR-18a, miR-21, miR-24, miR-26b, miR-99a, miR-100, miR-101, miR-106a, miR-663a, miR-143, miR-145) was performed using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. It was found that daily irradiation of PC-3 cells on a Novalis TX linear accelerator at doses of 6 and 7 Gy for 5 days leads to a significant decrease in the total number of cells and the number of viable cells. Nevertheless, after 5 days of irradiation, about 15% of the initial number of prostate tumor cells retained their viability, which is due to their special genetic and epigenetic characteristics: increased copy number and expression of genes BRCA2, CDK1, CDKN1B, H2AX, RAD50, XRCC4, RBBP8 and EP300 and reduced copy number and expression of CCND3, TP53, and BCL2 genes, as well as differential expression of six microRNAs (hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-24-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-100-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-let-7a-3p). This study enabled to identify genetic and epigenetic markers of prostate tumor cells resistance to radiation therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-08
Journal: Klinicka onkologie : casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti