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Query Topic: APOE

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apoe ε4 carriers(82)

Arterial stiffening acts synergistically with APOE genotype and AD biomarker status to influence memory in older adults without dementia.
Arterial stiffening has emerged as an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as a non-invasive and reproducible method to assess arterial stiffness. However, the association of pulse wave velocity with performance across multiple cognitive domains as well as interactions with in vivo AD biomarkers and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has received limited study. We studied 193 older adult volunteers (167 with normal cognition and 26 with mild cognitive impairment) who underwent comprehensive medical and neuropsychological evaluation at the University of California, San Diego Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were available on 123 participants (63%). Linear models examined whether pulse wave velocity significantly interacted with APOE ε4 status and CSF AD biomarker positivity (based on the ratio of total tau over beta-amyloid [tau/Aβ After adjusting for demographic characteristics and vascular risk burden, across the entire sample, pulse wave velocity was associated with poorer executive functioning but not the performance in the other cognitive domains. When the modifying effects of AD genetic risk and CSF AD biomarkers were considered, pulse wave velocity interacted with APOE genotype and CSF tau/Aβ ratio such that a stronger association between elevated pulse wave velocity and poorer memory performance was found among those positive for CSF and genetic AD markers. There were no significant interaction effects for non-memory cognitive domains. The findings suggest that pulse wave velocity, a non-invasive method to assess arterial wall properties, may be a useful marker of risk for cognitive decline, particularly among individuals who are APOE ε4 carriers or CSF AD biomarke0r-positive.
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: Alzheimer's research & therapy

apolipoprotein e knockout(71)

Lycopene Reduces Cholesterol Absorption and Prevents Atherosclerosis in ApoE
Our previous study showed that lycopene reduced the absorption of cholesterol in Caco-2 cells through inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. Herein, we aimed to explore whether lycopene supplementation can decrease cholesterol absorption in the intestine and prevent atherosclerosis progression in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

mild cognitive impairment(70)

The Role of Apolipoprotein E ε4 in Early and Late Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is highly associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the specific influence of APOE ε4 status on tau pathology and cognitive decline in early MCI (EMCI) and late MCI (LMCI) is poorly understood. Our goal was to evaluate the association of APOE ε4 with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau levels and cognition in EMCI and LMCI patients in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and whether this association was mediated by amyloid-β (Aβ). Participants were 269 cognitively normal (CN), 262 EMCI, and 344 LMCI patients. They underwent CSF Aβ42 and tau detection, APOE ε4 genotyping, Mini-Mental State Examination, (MMSE), and Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog assessments. Linear regressions were used to examine the relation of APOE ε4 and CSF tau levels and cognitive scores in persons with and without Aβ deposition (Aβ+ and Aβ-). The prevalence of APOE ε4 is higher in EMCI and LMCI than in CN (p < 0.001 for both), and in LMCI than in EMCI (p = 0.001). APOE ε4 allele was significantly higher in Aβ+ subjects than in Aβ- subjects (p < 0.001). Subjects who had a lower CSF Aβ42 level and were APOE ε4-positive experienced higher levels of CSF tau and cognitive scores in EMCI and/or LMCI. An APOE ε4 allele is associated with increased CSF tau and worse cognition in both EMCI and LMCI, and this association may be mediated by Aβ. We conclude that APOE ε4 may be an important mediator of tau pathology and cognition in the early stages of AD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: European neurology

apoe ε4 status(54)

Trans-ethnic Meta-analysis of Interactions between Genetics and Early Life Socioeconomic Context on Memory Performance and Decline in Older Americans.
Later life cognitive function is influenced by genetics as well as early- and later-life socioeconomic context. However, few studies have examined the interaction between genetics and early childhood factors. Using gene-based tests (iSKAT/iSKAT-O), we examined whether common and/or rare exonic variants in 39 gene regions previously associated with cognitive performance, dementia, and related traits had an interaction with childhood socioeconomic context (parental education and financial strain) on memory performance or decline in European ancestry (EA, N=10,468) and African ancestry (AA, N=2,252) participants from the Health and Retirement Study. Of the 39 genes, 22 in EA and 19 in AA had nominally significant interactions with at least one childhood socioeconomic measure on memory performance and/or decline; however, all but one (father's education by SLC24A4 in AA) were not significant after multiple testing correction (FDR <0.05). In trans-ethnic meta-analysis, two genes interacted with childhood socioeconomic context (FDR <0.05): mother's education by MS4A4A on memory performance, and father's education by SLC24A4 on memory decline. Both interactions remained significant (p<0.05) after adjusting for respondent's own educational attainment, APOE ε4 status, lifestyle factors, BMI, and comorbidities. For both interactions in EA and AA, the genetic effect was stronger in participants with low parental education. Examination of common and rare variants in genes discovered through GWAS shows that childhood context may interact with key gene regions to jointly impact later life memory function and decline. Genetic effects may be more salient for those with lower childhood socioeconomic status.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences

apoe ε4 genotype(32)

Adverse effects of hypertension, supine hypertension, and perivascular space on cognition and motor function in PD.
Dilated perivascular space (dPVS) has recently been reported as a biomarker for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, comprehensive interrelationships between various clinical risk factors, dPVS, white-matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, and motor function in PD have not been studied yet. The purpose of this study was to test whether dPVS might mediate the effect of clinical risk factors on WMH, cognition, and motor symptoms in PD patients. A total of 154 PD patients were assessed for vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia), autonomic dysfunction (orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension [SH]), APOE ε4 genotype, rapid eye movement sleep-behavior disorder, motor symptoms, and cognition status. The degree of dPVS was evaluated in the basal ganglia (BG) and white matter using a 5-point visual scale. Periventricular, deep, and total WMH severity was also assessed. Path analysis was performed to evaluate the associations of these clinical factors and imaging markers with cognitive status and motor symptoms. Hypertension and SH were significantly associated with more severe BGdPVS, which was further associated with higher total WMH, consequently leading to lower cognitive status. More severe BGdPVS was also associated with worse motor symptoms, but without mediation of total WMH. Similar associations were seen when using periventricular WMH as a variable, but not when using deep WMH as a variable. In conclusion, BGdPVS mediates the effect of hypertension and SH on cognitive impairment via total and periventricular WMH, while being directly associated with more severe motor symptoms.
Publication Date: 2021-08-12
Journal: NPJ Parkinson's disease

body mass index(31)

Ethnic and Racial Variation in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk Factors and Risk Factor Burden.
Black and Hispanic individuals have an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared with their White counterparts, but no large studies of ICH have been conducted in these disproportionately affected populations. To examine the prevalence, odds, and population attributable risk (PAR) percentage for established and novel risk factors for ICH, stratified by ICH location and racial/ethnic group. The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Study was a case-control study of ICH among 3000 Black, Hispanic, and White individuals who experienced spontaneous ICH (1000 cases in each group). Recruitment was conducted between September 2009 and July 2016 at 19 US sites comprising 42 hospitals. Control participants were identified through random digit dialing and were matched to case participants by age (±5 years), sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic area. Data analyses were conducted from January 2019 to May 2020. Case and control participants underwent a standardized interview, physical measurement for body mass index, and genotyping for the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of APOE, the gene encoding apolipoprotein E. Prevalence, multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR), and PAR percentage were calculated for each risk factor in the entire ICH population and stratified by racial/ethnic group and by lobar or nonlobar location. There were 1000 Black patients (median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 57 [50-65] years, 425 [42.5%] women), 1000 Hispanic patients (median [IQR] age, 58 [49-69] years; 373 [37.3%] women), and 1000 White patients (median [IQR] age, 71 [59-80] years; 437 [43.7%] women). The mean (SD) age of patients with ICH was significantly lower among Black and Hispanic patients compared with White patients (eg, lobar ICH: Black, 62.2 [15.2] years; Hispanic, 62.5 [15.7] years; White, 71.0 [13.3] years). More than half of all ICH in Black and Hispanic patients was associated with treated or untreated hypertension (PAR for treated hypertension, Black patients: 53.6%; 95% CI, 46.4%-59.8%; Hispanic patients: 46.5%; 95% CI, 40.6%-51.8%; untreated hypertension, Black patients: 45.5%; 95% CI, 39.%-51.1%; Hispanic patients: 42.7%; 95% CI, 37.6%-47.3%). Lack of health insurance also had a disproportionate association with the PAR percentage for ICH in Black and Hispanic patients (Black patients: 21.7%; 95% CI, 17.5%-25.7%; Hispanic patients: 30.2%; 95% CI, 26.1%-34.1%; White patients: 5.8%; 95% CI, 3.3%-8.2%). A high sleep apnea risk score was associated with both lobar (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.36-2.06) and nonlobar (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.37-1.91) ICH, and high cholesterol was inversely associated only with nonlobar ICH (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.52-0.70); both had no interactions with race and ethnicity. In contrast to the association between the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of APOE and ICH in White individuals (eg, presence of APOE ɛ2 allele: OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34-2.52), APOE alleles were not associated with lobar ICH among Black or Hispanic individuals. This study found sleep apnea as a novel risk factor for ICH. The results suggest a strong contribution from inadequately treated hypertension and lack of health insurance to the disproportionate burden and earlier onset of ICH in Black and Hispanic populations. These findings emphasize the importance of addressing modifiable risk factors and the social determinants of health to reduce health disparities.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: JAMA network open

ε4 allele(216)

APOE4-carrying human astrocytes oversupply cholesterol to promote neuronal lipid raft expansion and Aβ generation.
The ε4 allele of APOE-encoding apolipoprotein (ApoE) is one of the strongest genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the overarching questions is whether and how this astrocyte-enriched risk factor initiates AD-associated pathology in neurons such as amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. Here, we generate neurons and astrocytes from isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carrying either APOE ε3 or APOE ε4 allele and investigate the effect of astrocytic ApoE4 on neuronal Aβ production. Secretory factors in conditioned media from ApoE4 astrocytes significantly increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) levels and Aβ secretion in neurons. We further found that increased cholesterol secretion from ApoE4 astrocytes was necessary and sufficient to induce the formation of lipid rafts that potentially provide a physical platform for APP localization and facilitate its processing. Our study reveals the contribution of ApoE4 astrocytes to amyloidosis in neurons by expanding lipid rafts and facilitating Aβ production through an oversupply of cholesterol.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Stem cell reports

risk factors(146)

Distinct pro-inflammatory properties of myeloid cell-derived apolipoprotein E2 and E4 in atherosclerosis promotion.
Polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene are risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. The gene product apoE is synthesized in many cell types and has both lipid transport-dependent and -independent functions. Previous studies have shown that apoE expression in myeloid cells protects against atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry

apolipoprotein e-deficient(119)

The Role of Exercise in Reducing Hyperlipidemia-Induced Neuronal Damage in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.
Hyperlipidemia causes nervous system-related diseases. Exercise training has developed into an established evidence-based treatment strategy that is beneficial for neuronal injury. This study investigated the effect of exercise on hyperlipidemia-induced neuronal injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: BioMed research international

cognitive decline(114)

APOE E2/E2 Is Associated with Slower Rate of Cognitive Decline with Age.
The E4 allele of the APOE gene is known to be associated with cognitive impairment. However, a limited number of studies have examined the association between the E2 allele and longitudinal changes of cognitive function. To determine whether rates of cognitive change differ in carriers of the APOE E2 allele compared to other genotypes. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from two ongoing longitudinal cohort studies, the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) and New England Centenarian Study (NECS). We included participants who had APOE genotyping data, data from longitudinal administrations of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), and age, sex, and education available. We assessed whether cognitive change as measured by rate of decline in TICS score differed among people with different APOE genotypes. We used a hierarchical mixed effect model with APOE genotypes, their interactions with age, and potential confounders. After adjusting for sex and education, in carriers of the common E3/E3 genotype, TICS score decreased by 0.15 points per year of age. In those with the E2/E2 genotype, TICS score decreased by 0.05 points per year of age, a significantly slower rate of decline (p = 0.017). We observed no protective effect of the E2/E3 genotype on cognitive decline. These results suggest a protective effect of the E2/E2 genotype on a measure of global cognitive function.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

age sex(105)

Population-Based Impact of Smoking, Drinking, and Genetic Factors on HDL-Cholesterol Levels in J-MICC Study Participants.
Environmental and genetic factors are suggested to exhibit factor-based association with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. However, the population-based effects of environmental and genetic factors have not been compared clearly. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study to evaluate the population-based impact of smoking, drinking, and genetic factors on low HDL-C. Data from 11,498 men and women aged 35-69 years were collected for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Sixty-five HDL-C-related SNPs with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10 We found that smoking, drinking, daily activity, habitual exercise, egg intake, BMI, age, sex and the SNPs CETP rs3764261, APOA5 rs662799, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, ABCA1 rs2575876, LIPG rs3786247, and APOE rs429358 were associated with HDL-C levels. The gene-environmental interactions on smoking and drinking were not statistically significant. The PAF for low HDL-C was the highest in men (63.2%) and in rs3764261 (31.5%) of the genetic factors, and the PAFs of smoking and drinking were 23.1% and 41.8%, respectively. The present study showed that the population-based impact of genomic factor CETP rs3764261 for low HDL-C was higher than that of smoking and lower than that of drinking.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Journal of epidemiology

apoe knockout(80)

Propamocarb exposure has the potential to accelerate the formation of atherosclerosis in both WT and ApoE
Propamocarb is a systemic carbamate fungicide used to fight diseases. The effect of propamocarb on the formation of atherosclerosis was evaluated in wild-type (WT) and ApoE knockout (ApoE
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: The Science of the total environment

low-density lipoprotein(74)

Sirtuin 1 is involved in oleic acid-induced calf hepatocyte steatosis via alterations in lipid metabolism-related proteins.
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent protein deacetylase, plays a central role in the control of lipid metabolism in non-ruminants. However, the role of SIRT1 in hepatic lipid metabolism in dairy cows with fatty liver is not well known. Thus, we used isolated primary bovine hepatocytes to determine the role of SIRT1 in protecting cells against oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis. Recombinant adenoviruses to overexpress (AD-GFP-SIRT1-E) or knockdown (AD-GFP-SIRT1-N) SIRT1 were used for transduction of hepatocytes. Calf hepatocytes isolated from 5 female calves (1 d old, 30 to 40 kg) were used to determine both time required and the lowest dose of oleic acid (OA) that could induce triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. Analyses indicated that 0.25 mM OA for 24 h was suitable to induce TAG accumulation. In addition, OA not only led to an increase in TAG, but also upregulated mRNA and protein abundance of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) and downregulated SIRT1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A). Thus, these in vitro conditions were deemed optimal for subsequent experiments. Calf hepatocytes were cultured and incubated with OA (0.25 mM) for 24 h, followed by adenoviral Ad-GFP-SIRT1-E or Ad-GFP-SIRT1-N transduction for 48 h. Overexpression of SIRT1 led to greater protein and mRNA abundance of SIRT1 along with fatty acid oxidation-related genes including PPARGC1A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), retinoid X receptor α (RXRA), and ratio of phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (p-ACACA)/total ACACA. In contrast, it resulted in lower protein and mRNA abundance of genes related to lipid synthesis including SREBF1, fatty acid synthase (FASN), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). The concentration of TAG decreased due to SIRT1 overexpression. In contrast, silencing SIRT1 led to lower protein and mRNA abundance of SIRT1, PPARGC1A, PPARA, RXRA, and greater protein and mRNA abundance of SREBF1, FASN, APOE, and LDLR. Further, those responses were accompanied by greater content of cellular TAG and total cholesterol (TC). Overall, data from these in vitro studies indicated that SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in calf hepatocytes subjected to an increase in the supply of OA. Thus, it is possible that alterations in SIRT1 abundance and activity in vivo contribute to development of fatty liver in dairy cows.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Journal of animal science

ad risk(71)

Probability of Alzheimer's disease based on common and rare genetic variants.
Alzheimer's disease, among other neurodegenerative disorders, spans decades in individuals' life and exhibits complex progression, symptoms and pathophysiology. Early diagnosis is essential for disease prevention and therapeutic intervention. Genetics may help identify individuals at high risk. As thousands of genetic variants may contribute to the genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease, the polygenic risk score (PRS) approach has been shown to be useful for disease risk prediction. The APOE-ε4 allele is a known common variant associated with high risk to AD, but also associated with earlier onset. Rare variants usually have higher effect sizes than common ones; their impact may not be well captured by the PRS. Instead of standardised PRS, we propose to calculate the disease probability as a measure of disease risk that allows comparison between individuals. We estimate AD risk as a probability based on PRS and separately accounting for APOE, AD rare variants and the disease prevalence in age groups. The mathematical framework makes use of genetic variants effect sizes from summary statistics and AD disease prevalence in age groups. The AD probability varies with respect to age, APOE status and presence of rare variants. In age group 65+, the probability of AD grows from 0.03 to 0.18 (without APOE) and 0.07 to 0.7 (APOE e4e4 carriers) as PRS increases. In 85+, these values are 0.08-0.6 and 0.3-0.85. Presence of rare mutations, e.g. in TREM2, may increase the probability (in 65+) from 0.02 at the negative tail of the PRS to 0.3. Our approach accounts for the varying disease prevalence in different genotype and age groups when modelling the APOE and rare genetic variants risk in addition to PRS. This approach has potential for use in a clinical setting and can easily be updated for novel rare variants and for other populations or confounding factors when appropriate genome-wide association data become available.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Alzheimer's research & therapy

older adults(68)

Interactive effects of the APOE and BDNF polymorphisms on functional brain connectivity: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures pathological alterations in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Disruption in functional connectivity may be a potential biomarker of ageing and early brain changes associated with AD-related genes, such as APOE and BDNF. The objective of this study was to identify group differences in resting-state networks between individuals with BDNF Val66Met and APOE polymorphisms in cognitively healthy older persons. Dual regression following Independent Components Analysis were performed to examine differences associated with these polymorphisms. APOE ε3 homozygotes showed stronger functional connectivity than APOE ε4 carriers. Males showed stronger functional connectivity between the Default Mode Network (DMN) and grey matter premotor cortex, while females showed stronger functional connectivity between the executive network and lateral occipital cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Additionally, we found that with increasing cognitive reserve, functional connectivity increased within the Dorsal Attention Network (DAN), but decreased within the DMN. Interaction effects indicated stronger functional connectivity in Met/ε3 carriers than in Met/ε4 and Val/ε4 within both the DMN and DAN. APOE/BDNF interactions may therefore influence the integrity of functional brain connections in older adults, and may underlie a vulnerable phenotype for subsequent Alzheimer's-type dementia.
Publication Date: 2021-07-17
Journal: Scientific reports

apoe gene(65)

The APOE4 allele is associated with a decreased risk of retinopathy in type 2 diabetics.
Common polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene are suggested to be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the potential association with T2DM complications (nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) remains unclear. We perform the case-control study to analyse the association between the APOE polymorphism and risk of T2DM and to analysed the potential relationship between the APOE and T2DM complications. APOE variants (rs429358 and rs7412) were genotyped by TaqMan assay in T2DM patients (N = 1274; N = 829 with complications including retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy status) and with PCR-RFLP in healthy nondiabetic controls (N = 2055). The comparison of subjects with genotypes associated with low plasma cholesterol (APOE2/E2 and APOE2/E3 carriers vs. others) did not show an association with T2DM (OR [95% CI] = 0.88 [0.71-1.08). The differences remained insignificant after adjusting for diabetes duration, sex and BMI. Carriers of at least one APOE4 allele (rs429358) are protected against T2DM related retinopathy (OR [95% CI] = 0.65 [0.42-0.99]. Protection against retinopathy is driven mostly by females (OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25-0.99]); and remains significant (P = 0.044) after adjustment for diabetes duration and BMI. Common APOE polymorphism was not associated with T2DM in the Czech population. Yet, APOE4 allele revealed an association with retinopathy. In particular, female T2DM patients with at least one APOE4 allele exhibit lower prevalence of retinopathy in our study subjects.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Molecular biology reports

carrier status(58)

The influence of a 16-week exercise program, APOE status, and age on executive function task performance: A randomized trial.
Previous research has shown beneficial cognitive changes following exercise training in older adults. However, the work on the potential moderating effects of Apoliprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status has been mixed, and the role of exercise intensity remains largely unexplored. The present study sought to examine the influence of APOE ε4 status and exercise intensity on measures of cognitive performance in a group of older adults. Cross-sectional comparisons between a group of younger inactive adults (n = 44, age = 28.86 ± 0.473 SD, 60.5% female) and a group of older inactive adults (n = 142, age = 67.8 ± 5.4, 62.7% female) were made on baseline measurements of APOE ε4 status, VO
Publication Date: 2021-06-02
Journal: Experimental gerontology

ɛ4 allele(51)

APOE gene ɛ4 allele (388C-526C) effects on serum lipids and risk of coronary artery disease in southern Chinese Hakka population.
To analyze the relationship of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD). 1,129 CAD patients and 1,014 non-CAD controls were included in the study, and relevant information and medical records were collected. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed, including rs429358, rs7412 in APOE gene and rs2306283, rs4149056 in SLCO1B1 gene. The CAD patients' average age was 66.3 ± 10.7 years, while 65.5 ± 12.0 years in controls. The frequencies of APOE allele ɛ3, ɛ4, and ɛ2 were 83.01%, 10.08%, and 6.91% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in genotype ɛ3/ɛ4 (χ APOE ε4 allele may be associated with susceptibility to CAD in southern Chinese Hakka population. It indicated that the APOE SNPs rs429358 and rs7412 are associated with CAD, but not SNPs rs2306283 and rs4149056 of SLCO1B1 gene.
Publication Date: 2021-07-28
Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis

oxidative stress(47)

Effect of electroacupuncture on inhibition of inflammatory response and oxidative stress through activating ApoE and Nrf2 in a mouse model of spinal cord injury.
Electroacupuncture protects neurons and myelinated axons after spinal cord injury by mitigating the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but how it exerts these effects is unclear. Spinal cord injury was induced in C57BL/6 wild-type and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (ApoE These results suggest that electroacupuncture protects neurons and myelinated axons following spinal cord injury through an ApoE-dependent mechanism.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Brain and behavior

apoe4 carriers(45)

Region-Specific Differences in the Apoe4-dependent Response to Focal Brain Injury.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a role in various physiological functions including lipid transport, synaptic plasticity, and immune modulation. Epidemiological studies suggest that the apoE4 allele increases the risk of post-traumatic sequelae. This study was performed to investigate regionspecific effects of the apoE4 isoform on post-traumatic neurodegeneration. Two focal brain injuries were introduced separately in the motor cortex and hippocampus of apoE4 knock-in, apoE3 knock-in, apoE knockout, and wild-type (WT) mice. Western blotting showed that the expression levels of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic markers at the recovery stage were lower in the hippocampal injury core in apoE4 mice, compared with apoE3 and WT mice. Fast glial activation (determined by immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, and cluster of differentiation 45 antibodies) was characteristic of apoE4 mice with hippocampal injury penumbra. apoE4-specific changes were not observed after cortical injury. The intensity of microglial activation in the hippocampus was inversely correlated with the volume of injury reduction on sequential magnetic resonance imaging examinations, when validated using matched samples. These findings indicate that the effects of the interaction between apoE4 and focal brain damage are specific to the hippocampus. Manipulation of inflammatory cell responses could be beneficial for reducing post-traumatic hippocampal neurodegeneration in apoE4 carriers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-12
Journal: Experimental neurobiology

sex education(41)

Alzheimer's Disease-Related Neuropathology Among Patients with Medication Treated Type 2 Diabetes in a Community-Based Autopsy Cohort.
Diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). Epidemiologic evidence shows an association between diabetes medications and ADRD risk; cell and mouse models show diabetes medication association with AD-related neuropathologic change (ADNC). This hypothesis-generating analysis aimed to describe autopsy-measured ADNC for individuals who used diabetes medications. Descriptive analysis of ADNC for Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study autopsy cohort who used diabetes medications, including sulfonylureas, insulin, and biguanides; total N = 118. ADNC included amyloid plaque distribution (Thal phasing), neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) distribution (Braak stage), and cortical neuritic plaque density (CERAD score). We also examined quantitative measures of ADNC using the means of standardized Histelide measures of cortical PHF-tau and Aβ 1-42. Adjusted analyses control for age at death, sex, education, APOE genotype, and diabetes complication severity index. Adjusted analyses showed no significant association between any drug class and traditional neuropathologic measures compared to nonusers of that class. In adjusted Histelide analyses, any insulin use was associated with lower mean levels of Aβ 1-42 (-0.57 (CI: -1.12, -0.02)) compared to nonusers. Five years of sulfonylureas and of biguanides use was associated with lower levels of Aβ 1-42 compared to nonusers (-0.15 (CI: -0.28, -0.02), -0.31 (CI: -0.54, -0.07), respectively). Some evidence exists that diabetes medications are associated with lower levels of Aβ 1-42, but not traditional measures of neuropathology. Future studies are needed in larger samples to build understanding of the mechanisms between diabetes, its medications, and ADRD, and to potentially repurpose existing medications for prevention or delay of ADRD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

95 confidence(40)

Serum apolipoprotein E levels predict residual cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic coronary syndrome undergoing first percutaneous coronary intervention and on-statin treatment.
Little is known about the long-term impact of apolipoprotein E (apoE) on residual cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) receiving statin treatment. A total of 1109 consecutive patients (mean age, 67 ± 10 years; 83% men) with CCS who underwent their first intervention between 2000 and 2016 were included in this study. All patients had achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL on statin treatment and were divided into two groups based on median serum apoE values. We evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal acute coronary syndrome, and target vessel revascularization. A total of 552 and 557 patients were categorized to the higher and lower apoE groups, respectively. There were significant relationships between apoE levels and total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and estimated remnant cholesterol, except for LDL-C levels. During the median follow-up period of 5.1 years, 195 patients (17.6%) developed MACEs. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of MACEs in the higher apoE group was significantly higher than in the lower apoE group (29.5% vs.23.8% log-rank test, p = 0.019). Using multivariable Cox hazard analysis, serum apoE level (1-mg/dL increase) (hazard ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.29, p = 0.013) was the strongest independent predictor of MACEs. Serum apoE level could be a strong predictor of residual cardiovascular risk in patients with CCS long-term, even if LDL-C levels are controlled with statin treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Atherosclerosis

amyloid-β aβ(38)

Developmental Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure as a potential risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease in CD-1 mice and SH-SY5Y cells.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accounts for approximately 60-80% of dementia cases worldwide and is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular senile plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Sporadic or late-onset AD (LOAD) represents 95 % of the AD cases and its etiology does not appear to follow Mendelian laws of inheritance, thus, implicating the role of epigenetic programming and environmental factors. Apolipoprotein allele 4 (ApoE4), the only established genetic risk factor for LOAD, is suggested to accelerate the pathogenesis of AD by increasing tau hyperphosphorylation, inhibiting the clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ), and promoting Aβ aggregation. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, with potential neurotoxic effects, that poses a major threat to the ecosystem and human health. By employing in vivo and in vitro models, the present study investigated PFOS as a potential risk factor for LOAD by assessing its impact on amyloidogenesis, tau pathology, and rodent behavior. Our behavioral analysis revealed that developmentally exposed male and female mice exhibited a strong trend of increased rearing and significantly increased distance traveled in the open field test. Biochemically, GSK3β and total ApoE were increased following developmental exposure, in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro, low concentrations of PFOS elevated protein levels of APP, tau, and its site-specific phosphorylation. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to a series of PFOS concentrations, also, had elevated protein expression of GSK3β. These data suggest that total ApoE is inducible by environmental exposure to PFOS.
Publication Date: 2021-07-06
Journal: Neurotoxicology

odds ratio(37)

Interaction of Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Genetic Risk with Indicators of Socioeconomic Position on Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is reported to be a strong genetic risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional genetic loci have been detected that influence the risk for late-onset AD. As socioeconomic position (SEP) is also strongly related to cognitive decline, SEP has been suggested to be a possible modifier of the genetic effect on MCI. To investigate whether APOEɛ4 and a genetic sum score of AD-associated risk alleles (GRSAD) interact with SEP indicators to affect MCI in a population-based cohort. Using data of 3,834 participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, APOEɛ4 and GRSAD by SEP interactions were assessed using logistic regression models, as well as SEP-stratified genetic association analysis. Interaction on additive scale was calculated using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). All analysis were additionally stratified by sex. Indication for interaction on the additive scale was found between APOEɛ4 and low education on MCI (RERI: 0.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01; 1.03]). The strongest genetic effects of the APOEɛ4 genotype on MCI were observed in groups of low education (Odds ratio (OR): 1.46 [95% CI: 0.79; 2.63] for≤10 years of education versus OR: 1.00 [95% CI: 0.43; 2.14] for≥18 years of education). Sex stratified results showed stronger effects in women. No indication for interaction between the GRSAD and SEP indicators on MCI was observed. Results indicate that low education may have an impact on APOEɛ4 expression on MCI, especially among women.
Publication Date: 2021-07-06
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

fluid csf(37)

Diabetes mellitus contributes to higher cerebrospinal fluid tau levels selectively in Alzheimer's disease patients with the APOE4 genotype.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and shares some pathological pathways, such as activation of amyloid cascade and tau phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent DM could impact on neurodegeneration within the AD continuum, using β amyloid (A: Aβ For this retrospective observational study, 1350 patients were recruited. The patients underwent a complete clinical investigation, neuropsychological assessment, lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers analysis and APOE genotyping. A total of 607 patients fulfilled the clinical criteria of mild cognitive impairment or early dementia. In A+T- patients (n = 350), DM did not influence CSF biomarker levels, while among A+T+ patients (n = 257) those with DM showed increased total tau (t-tau) levels compared to non-DM patients (DM: 919.4 ± 444 vs. non-DM: 773.1 ± 348.2; p = 0.04), but similar p-tau (p = 0.72) and Aβ The present study shows a clear dependency of CSF t-tau levels on DM for APOE E4+ AD patients, suggesting important differences between APOE E4-related and non-related disease, with key implications for AD pathophysiology and treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: European journal of neurology

confidence interval(36)

High Apolipoprotein E Levels Predict Adverse Limb Events in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Due to Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Endovascular Treatment and On-Statin Treatment.
Little is known about the association between limb prognosis in peripheral artery disease and apolipoprotein E (apoE). We evaluated the long-term impact of apoE on adverse limb events in patients with intermittent claudication receiving statin treatment.A total of 218 consecutive patients (mean age, 73 ± 8 years; 81% men) with intermittent claudication who underwent their first intervention between 2009 and 2020 were included in this study. All patients had achieved LDL-C < 100 mg/dL on statin treatment and were divided into two groups based on the apoE value (≥ 4.7 or < 4.7 mg/dL). We evaluated the incidence of major adverse limb events (MALEs), including vessel revascularization and limb ischemia development.A total of 39 and 179 patients were allocated to the higher and lower apoE groups, respectively. Compared to the lower apoE group, the higher apoE group had a significantly higher total cholesterol level, triglyceride level, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. During the median follow-up period of 3.6 years, 30 patients (13.8%) developed MALEs. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of MALEs in the higher apoE group was significantly higher than that in the lower apoE group (44.0% versus 21.6%, log-rank test, P = 0.002). During multivariable Cox hazard analysis, higher apoE level (≥ 4.7 mg/dL) (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-5.70, P = 0.019) was the only strong independent predictor of MALEs.ApoE levels could be a strong predictor and residual risk for long-term limb prognosis in patients with intermittent claudication and achieving LDL-C < 100 mg/dL with statin treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-20
Journal: International heart journal

lipoprotein cholesterol(34)

The relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and the efficacy of statins controlling hyperlipidemia.
To explore the relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and clinical efficacy of statins on lipidemia. Peripheral venous blood was obtained from 220 patients with hyperlipidemia who were admitted to the outpatient department of our hospital. The potential relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and clinical effect of statins was analyzed. In the three isomers (E2, E3, E4) of ApoE, expression level of ApoE protein in ApoE4 gene carriers was significantly different from that in E2 or E3 gene carriers (both P<0.05). At the same time, both the decrease rate of total cholesterol (TC) in blood lipid and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the rise rate of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in ApoE4 carriers after taking statins were much lower than those in non-ApoE4 patients (P<0.05). ApoE gene polymorphism is associated with hyperlipidemia and has certain influence on the clinical efficacy of statins in treatment of hyperlipidemia.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: American journal of translational research

hazard ratio(28)

Short leukocyte telomeres predict 25-year Alzheimer's disease incidence in non-APOE ε4-carriers.
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been shown to predict Alzheimer's disease (AD), albeit inconsistently. Failing to account for the competing risks between AD, other dementia types, and mortality, can be an explanation for the inconsistent findings in previous time-to-event analyses. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that the association between LTL and AD is non-linear and may differ depending on apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele carriage, the strongest genetic AD predictor. We analyzed whether baseline LTL in interaction with APOE ε4 predicts AD, by following 1306 initially non-demented subjects for 25 years. Gender- and age-residualized LTL (rLTL) was categorized into tertiles of short, medium, and long rLTLs. Two complementary time-to-event models that account for competing risks were used; the Fine-Gray model to estimate the association between the rLTL tertiles and the cumulative incidence of AD, and the cause-specific hazard model to assess whether the cause-specific risk of AD differed between the rLTL groups. Vascular dementia and death were considered competing risk events. Models were adjusted for baseline lifestyle-related risk factors, gender, age, and non-proportional hazards. After follow-up, 149 were diagnosed with AD, 96 were diagnosed with vascular dementia, 465 died without dementia, and 596 remained healthy. Baseline rLTL and other covariates were assessed on average 8 years before AD onset (range 1-24). APOE ε4-carriers had significantly increased incidence of AD, as well as increased cause-specific AD risk. A significant rLTL-APOE interaction indicated that short rLTL at baseline was significantly associated with an increased incidence of AD among non-APOE ε4-carriers (subdistribution hazard ratio = 3.24, CI 1.404-7.462, P = 0.005), as well as borderline associated with increased cause-specific risk of AD (cause-specific hazard ratio = 1.67, CI 0.947-2.964, P = 0.07). Among APOE ε4-carriers, short or long rLTLs were not significantly associated with AD incidence, nor with the cause-specific risk of AD. Our findings from two complementary competing risk time-to-event models indicate that short rLTL may be a valuable predictor of the AD incidence in non-APOE ε4-carriers, on average 8 years before AD onset. More generally, the findings highlight the importance of accounting for competing risks, as well as the APOE status of participants in AD biomarker research.
Publication Date: 2021-07-17
Journal: Alzheimer's research & therapy

interval ci(19)

Investigating Effects of Plasma Apolipoprotein E on Ischemic Heart Disease Using Mendelian Randomization Study.
Observationally plasma apolipoprotein E (apoE) is positively associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD). A Mendelian randomization (MR) study suggesting apoE is unrelated to cardiovascular mortality did not consider specific isoforms. We used MR to obtain estimates of plasma apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 on IHD, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B (apoB). We obtained independent genetic instruments from proteome genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and applied them to large outcome GWAS. We used univariable MR to assess the role of each isoform and multivariable MR to assess direct effects. In univariable MR, apoE4 was positively associated with IHD (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09), but apoE2 and apoE3 were less clearly associated. Using multivariable MR an association of apoE2 with IHD (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.38) could not be excluded, and associations of apoE3 and apoE4 with IHD were not obvious. In univariable MR, apoE2 and apoE4 were positively associated with apoB, and a positive association of apoE2 with LDL cholesterol could not be excluded. Using multivariable MR apoE2 was positively associated with LDL cholesterol, and associations with apoB could not be excluded. After adjusting for apoB, no direct effects of apoE isoforms on IHD were evident. Plasma apoE2 and apoE4 may play a role in lipid modulation and IHD. Whether apoE could be a potential therapeutic target requires further clarification when larger genetic studies of apoE isoforms are available.
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: Nutrients


Apolipoprotein E regulates lipid metabolism and α-synuclein pathology in human iPSC-derived cerebral organoids.
APOE4 is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies; however, how its expression impacts pathogenic pathways in a human-relevant system is not clear. Here using human iPSC-derived cerebral organoid models, we find that APOE deletion increases α-synuclein (αSyn) accumulation accompanied with synaptic loss, reduction of GBA levels, lipid droplet accumulation and dysregulation of intracellular organelles. These phenotypes are partially rescued by exogenous apoE2 and apoE3, but not apoE4. Lipidomics analysis detects the increased fatty acid utilization and cholesterol ester accumulation in apoE-deficient cerebral organoids. Furthermore, APOE4 cerebral organoids have increased αSyn accumulation compared to those with APOE3. Carrying APOE4 also increases apoE association with Lewy bodies in postmortem brains from patients with Lewy body disease. Our findings reveal the predominant role of apoE in lipid metabolism and αSyn pathology in iPSC-derived cerebral organoids, providing mechanistic insights into how APOE4 drives the risk for synucleinopathies.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Acta neuropathologica


Association of ApoE isoforms with COVID-19 outcomes: a world-wide epidemiological study.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Human cell


Salsalate reduces atherosclerosis through AMPKβ1 in mice.
Salsalate is a pro-drug of salicylate that lowers blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an αβγ heterotrimer which inhibits macrophage inflammation and the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver through phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), respectively. Salicylate binds to and activates AMPKβ1 containing heterotrimers, that are highly expressed in both macrophages and liver, but whether salsalate reduces atherosclerosis and the potential importance of AMPK has not been evaluated. ApoE Salsalate reduced atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic roots of ApoE These data indicate that salsalate suppresses macrophage proliferation and atherosclerosis through an AMPKβ1-dependent pathways and this may involve the phosphorylation of HMGCR and cholesterol synthesis. Since rapidly proliferating macrophages are a hallmark of atherosclerosis these data suggest further evaluation of salsalate as a potential therapeutic agent for treating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Molecular metabolism


Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most important cause of liver disease worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver and is closely associated with abdominal obesity. In addition, oxidative stress and inflammation are significant features involved in MAFLD. Recently, our group demonstrated that lupin protein hydrolysates (LPHs) had lipid lowering, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Sixty male mice fed with a Western diet were intragastrically treated with LPHs (or vehicle) for 12 weeks. Liver and adipose tissue lipid accumulation and hepatic inflammatory and oxidant status were evaluated. A significant decrease in steatosis was observed in LPHs-treated mice, which presented a decreased gene expression of CD36 and LDL-R, crucial markers in MAFLD. In addition, LPHs increased the hepatic total antioxidant capacity and reduced the hepatic inflammatory status. Moreover, LPHs-treated mice showed a significant reduction in abdominal adiposity. This is the first study to show that the supplementation with LPHs markedly ameliorates the generation of the steatotic liver caused by the intake of a Western diet and reduces abdominal obesity in ApoE
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)


Apolipoprotein and LRP1-Based Peptides as New Therapeutic Tools in Atherosclerosis.
Apolipoprotein (Apo)-based mimetic peptides have been shown to reduce atherosclerosis. Most of the ApoC-II and ApoE mimetics exert anti-atherosclerotic effects by improving lipid profile. ApoC-II mimetics reverse hypertriglyceridemia and ApoE-based peptides such as Ac-hE18A-NH2 reduce cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels in humans. Conversely, other classes of ApoE and ApoA-I mimetic peptides and, more recently, ApoJ and LRP1-based peptides, exhibit several anti-atherosclerotic actions in experimental models without influencing lipoprotein profile. These other mimetic peptides display at least one atheroprotective mechanism such as providing LDL stability against mechanical modification or conferring protection against the action of lipolytic enzymes inducing LDL aggregation in the arterial intima. Other anti-atherosclerotic effects exerted by these peptides also include protection against foam cell formation and inflammation, and induction of reverse cholesterol transport. Although the underlying mechanisms of action are still poorly described, the recent findings suggest that these mimetics could confer atheroprotection by favorably influencing lipoprotein function rather than lipoprotein levels. Despite the promising results obtained with peptide mimetics, the assessment of their stability, atheroprotective efficacy and tissue targeted delivery are issues currently under progress.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of clinical medicine


Immunoinflammatory role of apolipoprotein E4 in malnutrition and enteric infections and the increased risk for chronic diseases under adverse environments.
Apolipoprotein E plays a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism. The immunomodulatory functions of the human polymorphic APOE gene have gained particular interest because APOE4, a well-recognized risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, has also been recently linked to increased risk of COVID-19 infection severity in a large UK biobank study. Although much is known about apoE functions in the nervous system, much less is known about APOE polymorphism effects on malnutrition and enteric infections and the consequences for later development in underprivileged environments. In this review, recent findings are summarized of apoE's effects on intestinal function in health and disease and the role of APOE4 in protecting against infection and malnutrition in children living in unfavorable settings, where poor sanitation and hygiene prevail, is highlighted. The potential impact of APOE4 on later development also is discussed and gaps in knowledge are identified that need to be addressed to protect children's development under adverse environments.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Nutrition reviews


Fine Particulate Matter and Dementia Incidence in the Adult Changes in Thought Study.
Air pollution may be associated with elevated dementia risk. Prior research has limitations that may affect reliability, and no studies have evaluated this question in a population-based cohort of men and women in the United States. We evaluated the association between time-varying, 10-y average fine particulate matter ( Using the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) population-based prospective cohort study in Seattle, we linked spatiotemporal model-based We report 1,136 cases of incident dementia among 4,166 individuals with nonmissing APOE status. Mean [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] 10-y average In this prospective cohort study with extensive exposure data and consensus-based outcome ascertainment, elevated long-term exposure to
Publication Date: 2021-08-05
Journal: Environmental health perspectives


Neurovascular imaging with QUTE-CE MRI in APOE4 rats reveals early vascular abnormalities.
Cerebrovascular abnormality is linked to Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRDs). ApoE-Ɛ4 (APOE4) is known to play a critical role in neurovascular dysfunction, however current medical imaging technologies are limited in quantification. This cross-sectional study tested the feasibility of a recently established imaging modality, quantitative ultra-short time-to-echo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (QUTE-CE MRI), to identify small vessel abnormality early in development of human APOE4 knock-in female rat (TGRA8960) animal model. At 8 months, 48.3% of the brain volume was found to have significant signal increase (75/173 anatomically segmented regions; q<0.05 for multiple comparisons). Notably, vascular abnormality was detected in the tri-synaptic circuit, cerebellum, and amygdala, all of which are known to functionally decline throughout AD pathology and have implications in learning and memory. The detected abnormality quantified with QUTE-CE MRI is likely a result of hyper-vascularization, but may also be partly, or wholly, due to contributions from blood-brain-barrier leakage. Further exploration with histological validation is warranted to verify the pathological cause. Regardless, these results indicate that QUTE-CE MRI can detect neurovascular dysfunction with high sensitivity with APOE4 and may be helpful to provide new insights into health and disease.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: PloS one


Legacy of a 10-Year Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention on the Cognitive Trajectories of Individuals with Overweight/Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Weight loss and increased physical activity interventions are commonly recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and overweight or obesity. We examined the impact of randomization to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on trajectories of cognitive function over 10 years in a cohort of participants in a randomized clinical trial who had T2D and overweight/obesity at baseline. Participants aged 45-76 years were enrolled in 2001-2004 and were randomized to the ILI or a diabetes support and education (DSE) condition. Cognitive function was assessed in 3,938 participants at up to 4 time points 8-18 years after randomization. General linear mixed effects models examined cognitive trajectories over time. Subgroup analyses focused on sex, individuals with baseline body mass index >30, those carrying the APOE ε4 allele, and those with a baseline history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Overall, there were no differences in the rate of cognitive decline by intervention arm. Subgroup analyses showed that participants who had a baseline history of CVD and were randomized to the ILI arm of the study performed significantly worse on the Stroop Color Word Test than those in the DSE arm. The ILI did not result in preserved cognitive function or slower rates of cognitive decline in this cohort of individuals who had T2D and were overweight or obese at baseline.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders


Relationships between β-amyloid and tau in an elderly population: An accelerated failure time model.
Using positron emission tomography (PET)-derived amyloid and tau measurements from 1,495 participants, we explore the evolution of these values over time via an accelerated failure time (AFT) model. The AFT model assumes a shared pattern of progression, but one which is shifted earlier or later in time for each individual; an individual's time shift for amyloid and for tau are assumed to be linked. The resulting pattern for each outcome consists of an earlier indolent phase followed by sharp progression of the accumulation rate. APOE ε4 shifts the amyloid curve leftward (earlier) by 6.1 years, and the tau curve leftward by 2.6 years. Female sex shifts the amyloid curve leftward by 2.4 years and the tau curve leftward by 2.6 years. Per-person shifts (i.e., the individual's deviation from the population mean) for the onset of amyloid accumulation ranged from 13 years earlier to 13 years later (10th to 90th percentile) than average and 11 years earlier to 14 years later for tau, with an estimated correlation of 0.49. The average delay between amyloid increase and tau increase was 13.3 years.
Publication Date: 2021-08-02
Journal: NeuroImage


The effect of cold exposure on serum cholesterol is dependent upon ApoE.
Several lines of evidence indicate that cold stimulation may not only activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the white adipose tissue (WAT), but also regulate the lipid metabolism and influence the development of atherosclerosis. However, the study of cold exposure affecting cholesterol metabolism have opposite results in different experiments, and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) may play an important role. There is still a lack of complete research to illustrate this problem. In this study, we first analyzed and discussed the activation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) under cold exposure (4 °C) in male wild-type C57BL/6 J (WT) and ApoE-deficient mice (ApoE In both WT and ApoE Based on these findings, we conclude that cold exposure decreases serum cholesterol is dependent upon the existence of ApoE.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Journal of thermal biology


Gene-Specific DNA Methylation Linked to Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Apolipoprotein E3 and E4 Mice.
Geriatric surgical patients are at higher risk of developing postoperative neurocognitive disorders (NCD) than younger patients. The specific mechanisms underlying postoperative NCD remain unknown, but they have been linked to genetic risk factors, such as the presence of APOE4, compared to APOE3, and epigenetic modifications caused by exposure to anesthesia and surgery. To test the hypothesis that compared to E3 mice, E4 mice exhibit a more pronounced postoperative cognitive impairment associated with differential DNA methylation in brain regions linked to learning and memory. 16-month-old humanized apolipoprotein-E targeted replacement mice bearing E3 or E4 were subjected to surgery (laparotomy) under general isoflurane anesthesia or sham. Postoperative behavioral testing and genome-wide DNA methylation were performed. Exposure to surgery and anesthesia impaired cognition in aged E3, but not E4 mice, likely due to the already lower cognitive performance of E4 prior to surgery. Cognitive impairment in E3 mice was associated with hypermethylation of specific genes, including genes in the Ephrin pathway implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning in adults and has been linked to Alzheimer's disease. Other genes, such as the Scratch Family Transcriptional Repressor 2, were altered after surgery and anesthesia in both the E3 and E4 mice. Our findings suggest that the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of surgery and anesthesia depend on baseline neurocognitive status and are associated with APOE isoform-dependent epigenetic modifications of specific genes and pathways involved in memory and learning.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD


Effect of Dysferlin Deficiency on Atherosclerosis and Plasma Lipoprotein Composition Under Normal and Hyperlipidemic Conditions.
Dysferlinopathies are a group of muscle disorders caused by mutations to dysferlin, a transmembrane protein involved in membrane patching events following physical damage to skeletal myofibers. We documented dysferlin expression in vascular tissues including non-muscle endothelial cells, suggesting that blood vessels may have an endogenous repair system that helps promote vascular homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we generated dysferlin-null mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a common model of atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia and endothelial injury when stressed with a high fat, and cholesterol-rich diet. Despite high dysferlin expression in mouse and human atheromatous plaques, loss of dysferlin did not affect atherosclerotic burden as measured in the aortic root, arch, thoracic, and abdominal aortic regions. Interestingly, we observed that dysferlin-null mice exhibit lower plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than their WT controls at all measured stages of the disease process. Western blotting revealed abundant dysferlin expression in protein extracts from mouse livers, the main regulator of plasma lipoprotein levels. Despite abnormal lipoprotein levels, Dysf/ApoE double knockout mice responded to cholesterol absorption blockade with lower total cholesterol and blunted atherosclerosis. Our study suggests that dysferlin does not protect against atherosclerosis or participate in cholesterol absorption blockade but regulates basal plasma lipoprotein composition. Dysferlinopathic patients may be dyslipidemic without greater atherosclerotic burden while remaining responsive to cholesterol absorption blockade.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Frontiers in physiology


Sleep Time Estimated by an Actigraphy Watch Correlates With CSF Tau in Cognitively Unimpaired Elders: The Modulatory Role of APOE.
There is increasing evidence of the relationship between sleep and neurodegeneration, but this knowledge is not incorporated into clinical practice yet. We aimed to test whether a basic sleep parameter, as total sleep estimated by actigraphy for 1 week, was a valid predictor of CSF Alzheimer's Disease core biomarkers (amyloid-β-42 and -40, phosphorylated-tau-181, and total-tau) in elderly individuals, considering possible confounders and effect modifiers, particularly the
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Frontiers in aging neuroscience


Cognitive impairment and associations with structural brain networks, endocrine status, and risk genotypes in newly orchiectomized testicular cancer patients.
A higher incidence of cognitive impairment (CI) has previously been reported among orchiectomized testicular cancer patients (TCPs), but little is known about the underlying pathophysiology. The present study assessed CI in newly orchiectomized TCPs and explored the structural brain networks, endocrine status, and selected genotypes. Forty TCPs and 22 healthy controls (HCs) underwent neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging, and provided a blood sample. CI was defined as a z-score ≤ -2 on one neuropsychological test or ≤ -1.5 on two neuropsychological tests, and structural brain networks were investigated using graph theory. Associations of cognitive performance with brain networks, endocrine status (including testosterone levels and androgen receptor CAG repeat length), and genotypes (APOE, BDNF, COMT) were explored. Compared with HCs, TCPs performed poorer on 6 out of 15 neuropsychological tests, of which three tests remained statistically significant when adjusted for relevant between-group differences (p < 0.05). TCPs also demonstrated more CI than HCs (65% vs. 36%; p = 0.04). While global brain network analysis revealed no between-group differences, regional analysis indicated differences in node degree and betweenness centrality in several regions (p < 0.05), which was inconsistently associated with cognitive performance. In TCPs, CAG repeat length was positively correlated with delayed memory performance (r = 0.36; p = 0.02). A COMT group × genotype interaction effect was found for overall cognitive performance in TCPs, with risk carriers performing worse (p = 0.01). No effects were found for APOE, BDNF, or testosterone levels. In conclusion, our results support previous findings of a high incidence of CI in newly orchiectomized TCPs and provide novel insights into possible mechanisms.
Publication Date: 2021-08-16
Journal: Brain imaging and behavior


Protective association of the ε2/ε3 heterozygote with Alzheimer's disease is strengthened by TOMM40-APOE variants in men.
Despite advances, understanding the protective role of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 allele in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive. We examined associations of variants comprised of the TOMM40 rs8106922 and APOE rs405509, rs440446, and ε2-encoding rs7412 polymorphisms with AD in a sample of 2862 AD-affected and 169,516 AD-unaffected non-carriers of the ε4 allele. Association of the ε2/ε3 heterozygote of men with AD is 38% (P = 1.65 × 10 Combination of TOMM40 and APOE variants defines a more homogeneous AD-protective ε2/ε3-bearing profile in men.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association


Hepatic paraoxonase 1 ameliorates dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B type I deficient mice.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an antiatherogenic role by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and endothelial cell protection. Recently, series of evidence have shown that HDL can also convert to proatherogenic HDL under certain circumstances. Plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as an HDL-bound esterase, is responsible for most of the antioxidant properties of HDL. However, whether PON1 can serve as a therapeutic target of dysfunctional HDL-related atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, scavenger receptor class B type I deficient ( The results showed the relative levels of PON1 in liver and plasma were increased by 1.1-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, and mean plasma PON1 activity was increased by 63%. High-level PON1 increased the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, promoted HDL maturation and macrophage cholesterol efflux through increasing HDL functional proteins components apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), while decreased inflammatory protein markers, such as serum amyloid A (SAA), apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) and alpha 1 antitrypsin (A1AT). Furthermore, hepatic PON1 overexpression linked the effects of antioxidation and anti-inflammation with HDL metabolism regulation mainly through up-regulating liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and its downstream genes. The pleiotropic effects involved promoting HDL biogenesis by raising the level of APOA1, increasing cholesterol uptake by the liver through the APOE-low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway, and increasing cholesterol excretion into the bile, thereby reducing hepatic steatosis and aorta atherosclerosis in Western diet-fed mice. Our study reveals that high-level PON1 improved dysfunctional HDL and alleviated the development of atherosclerosis in
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Annals of translational medicine


Long-term administration of low-dose selenium nanoparticles with different sizes aggravated atherosclerotic lesions and exhibited toxicity in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
Exploration of long-term in vivo effects of nanomaterials, particularly those with potential biomedical applications, is quite important for better understanding and evaluating their biosafety. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been considered as a good candidate in biomedical applications due to its high bioavailability, considerable biological activity, and low toxicity. However, its long-term biological effects and biosafety remain unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that 8-week supplementation with SeNPs (50 μg Se/kg/day) was safe and had an anti-atherosclerotic activity in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE
Publication Date: 2021-07-30
Journal: Chemico-biological interactions


Cortical hypometabolism reflects local atrophy and tau pathology in symptomatic Alzheimer's disease.
Posterior cortical hypometabolism measured with [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is a well-known marker of Alzheimer's disease-related neurodegeneration, but its associations with underlying neuropathological processes are unclear. We assessed cross-sectionally the relative contributions of three potential mechanisms causing hypometabolism in the retrosplenial and inferior parietal cortices: local molecular (amyloid and tau) pathology and atrophy, distant factors including contributions from the degenerating medial temporal lobe or molecular pathology in functionally connected regions, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. Two hundred and thirty-two amyloid-positive cognitively impaired patients from two cohorts (University of California, San Francisco, UCSF, and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADNI) underwent MRI and PET with FDG, amyloid-PET using [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B, [18F]-Florbetapir, or [18F]-Florbetaben, and [18F]-Flortaucipir tau-PET within one year. Standard uptake value ratios (SUVR) were calculated using tracer-specific reference regions. Regression analyses were run within cohorts to identify variables associated with retrosplenial or inferior parietal FDG SUVR. On average, ADNI patients were older and were less impaired than UCSF patients. Regional patterns of hypometabolism were similar between cohorts, though there were cohort differences in regional gray matter atrophy. Local cortical thickness and tau-PET (but not amyloid-PET) were independently associated with both retrosplenial and inferior parietal FDG SUVR (ΔR2 = .09 to .21) across cohorts in models that also included age and disease severity (local model). Including medial temporal lobe volume improved the retrosplenial FDG model in ADNI (ΔR2 = .04, p = .008) but not UCSF (ΔR2 < .01, p = .52), and did not improve the inferior parietal models (ΔR2s < .01, ps > .37). Interaction analyses revealed that medial temporal volume was more strongly associated with retrosplenial FDG SUVR at earlier disease stages (p = .06 in UCSF, p = .046 in ADNI). Exploratory analyses across the cortex confirmed overall associations between hypometabolism and local tau pathology and thickness and revealed associations between medial temporal degeneration and hypometabolism in retrosplenial, orbitofrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices. Finally, our data did not support hypotheses of a detrimental effect of pathology in connected regions or of an effect of the APOE ε4 allele in impaired participants. Overall, in two independent groups of patients at symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease, cortical hypometabolism mainly reflected structural neurodegeneration and tau, but not amyloid, pathology.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Brain : a journal of neurology


Race-Related Association between APOE Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
The global race-dependent association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is not well understood. Transethnic analysis of APOE could clarify the role of genetics in AD risk across populations. This study aims to determine how race and APOE genotype affect the risks for AD. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library since 1993 to Aug 25, 2020. A total of 10,395 reports were identified, and 133 were eligible for analysis with data on 77,402 participants. Studies contained AD clinical diagnostic and APOE genotype data. Homogeneous data sets were pooled in case-control analyses. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for developing AD were calculated for populations of different races and APOE genotypes. The proportion of APOE genotypes and alleles differed between populations of different races. Results showed that APOEɛ4 was a risk factor for AD, whereas APOEɛ2 protected against it. The effects of APOEɛ4 and ɛ2 on AD risk were distinct in various races, they were substantially attenuated among Black people. Sub-group analysis found a higher frequency of APOEɛ4/ɛ4 and lower frequency of APOEɛ3/ɛ3 among early-onset AD than late-onset AD in a combined group and different races. Our meta-analysis suggests that the association of APOE genotypes and AD differ between races. These results enhance our understanding of APOE-related risk for AD across race backgrounds and provide new insights into precision medicine for AD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD


APOE genotype moderates the relationship between LRP1 polymorphism and cognition across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum via disturbing default mode network.
This study aims to investigate the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modulates the relationship between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) rs1799986 variant on the default mode network (DMN) and cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum populations. Cross-sectional 168 subjects of AD spectrum were obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database with resting-state fMRI scans and neuropsychological scores data. Multivariable linear regression analysis was adopted to investigate the main effects and interaction of LRP1 and disease on the DMN. Moderation and interactive analyses were performed to assess the relationships among APOE, LRP1, and cognition. A support vector machine model was used to classify AD spectrum with altered connectivity as an objective diagnostic biomarker. The main effects and interaction of LRP1 and disease were mainly focused on the core hubs of frontal-parietal network. Several brain regions with altered connectivity were correlated with cognitive scores in LRP1-T carriers, but not in non-carriers. APOE regulated the effect of LRP1 on cognitive performance. The functional connectivity of numerous brain regions within LRP1-T carriers yielded strong power for classifying AD spectrum. These findings suggested LRP1 could affect DMN and provided a stage-dependent neuroimaging biomarker for classifying AD spectrum populations.
Publication Date: 2021-08-14
Journal: CNS neuroscience & therapeutics


Aggregate Trends of Apolipoprotein E on Cognition in Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mice.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes typically increase risk of amyloid-β deposition and onset of clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, cognitive assessments in APOE transgenic AD mice have resulted in discord. Analysis of 31 peer-reviewed AD APOE mouse publications (n = 3,045 mice) uncovered aggregate trends between age, APOE genotype, gender, modulatory treatments, and cognition. T-tests with Bonferroni correction (significance = p <  0.002) compared age-normalized Morris water maze (MWM) escape latencies in wild type (WT), APOE2 knock-in (KI2), APOE3 knock-in (KI3), APOE4 knock-in (KI4), and APOE knock-out (KO) mice. Positive treatments (t+) to favorably modulate APOE to improve cognition, negative treatments (t-) to perturb etiology and diminish cognition, and untreated (t0) mice were compared. Machine learning with random forest modeling predicted MWM escape latency performance based on 12 features: mouse genotype (WT, KI2, KI3, KI4, KO), modulatory treatment (t+, t-, t0), mouse age, and mouse gender (male = g_m; female = g_f, mixed gender = g_mi). KI3 mice performed significantly better in MWM, but KI4 and KO performed significantly worse than WT. KI2 performed similarly to WT. KI4 performed significantly worse compared to every other genotype. Positive treatments significantly improved cognition in WT, KI4, and KO compared to untreated. Interestingly, negative treatments in KI4 also significantly improved mean MWM escape latency. Random forest modeling resulted in the following feature importance for predicting superior MWM performance: [KI3, age, g_m, KI4, t0, t+, KO, WT, g_mi, t-, g_f, KI2] = [0.270, 0.094, 0.092, 0.088, 0.077, 0.074, 0.069, 0.061, 0.058, 0.054, 0.038, 0.023]. APOE3, age, and male gender was most important for predicting superior mouse cognitive performance.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD


Effects of baseline serum uric acid and apolipoprotein E4 on longitudinal cognition and cerebral metabolism.
Serum uric acid, a natural antioxidant, may have a protective effect on the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the effect of serum uric acid on longitudinal cognitive and brain metabolic changes, we utilized data on baseline serum uric acid levels, APOE genotyping, and longitudinal cognitive scores from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative for 1,343 participants with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia. In 979 participants, brain metabolism was measured using
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Neurobiology of aging


Functional co-activation of the default mode network in APOE ε4-carriers: A replication study.
Structural and functional alterations of the brain in persons genetically at-risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are crucial in unravelling AD development. Filippini et al. found that the default mode network (DMN) is already affected in young APOE ε4-carriers, with increased co-activation of the DMN during rest and increased hippocampal task activation. We aimed to replicate the early findings of Filippini et al, using the APOE gene, still the principal AD risk gene, and extended this with a polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis for AD, using the Human Connectome Project dataset (HCP). We included participants from the HCP S1200 dataset (age range: 22-36 years). We studied morphometric features, functional DMN co-activation and functional task activation of recollection performance. Permutation Analysis of Linear Models (PALM) was used to test for group differences between APOE ε4-carriers and non-carriers, and to test the association with PRS. PALM controls for biases induced by the family structure of the HCP sample. Results were family-wise error rate corrected at p < 0.05. Our primary analysis did not replicate the early findings of Filippini et al. (2009). However, compared with non-carriers, APOE ε4-carriers showed increased functional activation during the encoding of subsequently recollected items in areas related to facial recognition (p<0.05, t>756.11). This increased functional activation was also positively associated with PRS (APOE variants included) (p<0.05, t>647.55). Our results are supportive for none to limited genetic effects on brain structure and function in young adults. Taking the methodological considerations of replication studies into account, the true effect of APOE ε4-carriership is likely smaller than indicated in the Filippini paper. However, it still holds that we may not yet be able to detect already present measurable effects decades before a clinical expression of AD. Since the mechanistic pathway of AD is likely to encompass many different factors, further research should be focused on the interactions of genetic risk, biomarkers, aging and lifestyle factors over the life course. Sensitive functional neuroimaging as used here may help disentangling these complex interactions.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: NeuroImage


Recurrent Lobar Hemorrhages and Multiple Cortical Superficial Siderosis in a Patient of Alzheimer's Disease With Homozygous APOE ε2 Allele Presenting Hypobetalipoproteinemia and Pathological Findings of
In Alzheimer's disease, the apolipoprotein E gene
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Frontiers in neurology


Tear dynamics testing and quantitative proteomics analysis in patients with chronic renal failure.
Ocular surface changes may develop in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. In recent years, an association of CRF with dry eye syndrome has been emphasized. However, tear proteomics of CRF patients has not been analyzed. Here, we performed systematic profiling of the tear film proteins in CRF patients through use of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ) MS/MS, aiming to identify associations between dry eye symptoms and expression of tear proteomic changes in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. Twenty CRF patients and ten healthy subjects underwent a series of ophthalmic examinations. Tear samples from the participants were analyzed by iTRAQ approach. A total of 1139 tear proteins were screened, and 212 differentially expressed proteins were identified. The pattern changes included 77 whose expression levels were upregulated (fold increase >1.2) whereas 135 others that were downregulated (fold decrease <1/1.2). Bioinformatics analysis showed that these proteins were significantly enriched in lipid metabolism, inflammatory, and immune response pathways. Furthermore, APOA1, APOA4, APOB, APOE, S100A8, S100A9, S100A4, HSP90B and other molecules were significantly changed. Our study elucidated the characteristics of tear dynamics and protein markers in CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis. Significance: Despite the association of chronic renal failure (CRF) with dry eye disease, there are no reports describing potentially important differentially expressed tear proteins in CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis. It is still a challenge to obtain a comprehensive description of the pathogenesis of dry eye in CRF patients which hinders establishing a patient specific therapeutic scheme. Our study is the first iTRAQ proteomics analysis of the tears of patients with CRF, which reveals the changes in the protein expression profile in CRF patients afflicted with dry eye disease. The identity was verified of some relevant differentially expressed proteins, and they may be candidate diagnostic markers of dry eye disease in patients with CRF. These tear film protein constituents found in hemodialysis patients can be of important clinical significance in treating this condition. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the association of chronic renal failure (CRF) with dry eye disease, there are no reports describing potentially important differentially expressed tear proteins in CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis. It is still a challenge to obtain a comprehensive description of the pathogenesis of dry eye in CRF patients which hinders establishing a patient specific therapeutic scheme. Our study is the first iTRAQ proteomics analysis of the tears of patients with CRF, which reveals the changes in the protein expression profile in CRF patients afflicted with dry eye disease. The identity was verified of some relevant differentially expressed proteins, and they may be candidate diagnostic markers of dry eye disease in patients with CRF. These tear film protein constituents found in hemodialysis patients can be of important clinical significance in treating this condition.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Journal of proteomics


ApoE and immunity in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies: Low-density lipoprotein receptor to the rescue.
In this issue of Neuron, Shi et al. (2021) show a protective role for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in tau pathology. Brain overexpression of LDLR lowers apolipoprotein E (apoE), suppresses microglial activation, preserves myelin, and ameliorates neurodegeneration, pointing the way toward potential new therapies.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Neuron


Features of Lipid Metabolism in Humanized ApoE Knockin Rat Models.
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an essential plasma apolipoprotein, has three isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) in humans. E2 is associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. E4 is the major susceptibility gene to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated lipid metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions of novel humanized ApoE knockin (hApoE KI) rats in comparison to wide-type (WT) and ApoE knockout (ApoE KO) rats. The hApoE2 rats showed the lowest bodyweight and white fat mass. hApoE2 rats developed higher serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), and low- and very low density lipoprotein (LDL-C&VLDL-C). ApoE KO rats also exhibited elevated TC and LDL-C&VLDL-C. Only mild atherosclerotic lesions were detected in hApoE2 and ApoE KO aortic roots. Half of the hApoE2 rats developed hepatic nodular cirrhosis. A short period of the Paigen diet (PD) treatment led to the premature death of the hApoE2 and ApoE KO rats. Severe vascular wall thickening of the coronary and pulmonary arteries was observed in 4-month PD-treated hApoE4 rats. In conclusion, hApoE2 rats develop spontaneous hyperlipidemia and might be suitable for studies of lipid metabolism-related diseases. With the PD challenge, hApoE4 KI rats could be a novel model for the analysis of vascular remodeling.
Publication Date: 2021-08-08
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Cognitive changes and brain connectomes, endocrine status, and risk genotypes in testicular cancer patients-A prospective controlled study.
Previous research has indicated cognitive decline (CD) among testicular cancer patients (TCPs), even in the absence of chemotherapy, but little is known about the underlying pathophysiology. The present study assessed changes in cognitive functions and structural brain connectomes in TCPs and explored the associations between cognitive changes and endocrine status and hypothesized risk genotypes. Thirty-eight newly orchiectomized TCPs and 21 healthy controls (HCs) comparable to TCPs in terms of age and years of education underwent neuropsychological testing, structural MRI, and a biological assessment at baseline and 6 months later. Cognitive change was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery and determined using a standardized regression-based approach, with substantial change defined as z-scores ≤-1.64 or ≥1.64. MRI scans and graph theory were used to evaluate changes in structural brain connectomes. The associations of cognitive changes with testosterone levels, androgen receptor gene (AR) CAG repeat length, and genotypes (APOE, COMT, and BDNF) were explored. Compared with HCs, TCPs showed higher rates of substantial decline on processing speed and visuospatial ability and higher rates of substantial improvement on verbal recall and visuospatial learning (p < 0.05; OR = 8.15-15.84). Brain network analysis indicated bilateral thalamic changes in node degree in HCs, but not in TCPs (p < 0.01). In TCPs, higher baseline testosterone levels predicted decline in verbal memory (p < 0.05). No effects were found for AR CAG repeat length, APOE, COMT, or BDNF. The present study confirms previous findings of domain-specific CD in TCPs following orchiectomy, but also points to domain-specific improvements. The results do not indicate changes in brain connectomes or endocrine status to be the main drivers of CD. Further studies evaluating the mechanisms underlying CD in TCPs, including the possible role of the dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, are warranted.
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
Journal: Cancer medicine


Interaction between genetic predisposition, smoking, and dementia risk: a population-based cohort study.
We evaluated whether the association between cigarette smoking and dementia risk is modified by genetic predisposition including apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and polygenic risk (excluding the APOE region). We included 193,198 UK Biobank participants aged 60-73 years without dementia at baseline. Of non-APOE-ε4 carriers, 0.89% (95% CI 0.73-1.08%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 0.49% (95% CI 0.44-0.55%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 1.78; 95% CI 1.39-2.29). In contrast, of one APOE-ε4 allele carriers, 1.69% (95% CI 1.31-2.12%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 1.40% (95% CI 1.25-1.55%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.77-1.45); of two APOE-ε4 alleles carriers, 4.90% (95% CI 2.92-7.61%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 3.87% (95% CI 3.11-4.74%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.49-1.79). Of participants with high polygenic risk, 1.77% (95% CI 1.35-2.27%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 1.05% (95% CI 0.91-1.21%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.16-2.28). A significant interaction was found between APOE genotype and smoking status (P = 0.002) while no significant interaction was identified between polygenic risk and smoking status (P = 0.25). APOE genotype but not polygenic risk modified the effect of smoking on dementia risk.
Publication Date: 2021-06-23
Journal: Scientific reports