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Query Topic: CNR1

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receptor type 1(15)

Cannabinoid receptor type 2 gene is associated with comorbidity of schizophrenia and cannabis dependence and fatty acid amide hydrolase gene is associated with cannabis dependence in the Spanish population.
The endocannabinoid system has been associated with various psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or addictive disorders. Recent studies have found that some polymorphisms in the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CNR2), cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes could play an important role as risk factors in the etiology of these diseases. We analysed different cannabinoid gene polimorphisms from non-substance using patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 379), schizophrenic patients with cannabis use disorders (n = 124), cannabis users who did not have psychoses (n = 71), and 316 controls from various Spanish hospitals and health centres. We found a statistical association between polymorphisms rs35761398 and rs12744386 in the CNR2 gene and comorbidity of schizophrenia and cannabis dependence, as well as an association between loss of heterozygosity (overdominance) for polymorphism rs324420 in the FAAH gene and cannabis dependence in a Spanish population sample. The rs35761398 and rs12744386 polymorphisms in the CNR2 gene are genetic risk factors for schizophrenia in cannabis-dependent subjects. Loss of heterozygosity for polymorphism rs324420 in the FAAH gene is a genetic risk factor for cannabis dependence in this population. El sistema cannabinoide se ha asociado con varios trastornos psiquiátricos como la esquizofrenia y las adicciones. Diversos estudios han observado que algunos polimorfismos del receptor cannabinoide tipo 2 (CNR2), del receptor cannabinoide tipo 1 (CNR1) y del gen de la enzima amido hidrolasa de ácidos grasos (FAAH) pueden ser factores de riesgo de estos trastornos. Hemos analizado diversos polimorfismos del sistema cannabinoide en pacientes diagnosticados de esquizofrenia sin trastorno por uso de sustancias (n = 379), esquizofrenia con trastorno por uso de cannabis (n = 124), dependientes de cannabis sin psicosis asociada (n = 71) y un grupo de control (316) procedentes de diversos hospitales y centros de asistencia sanitaria españoles. Hemos encontrado una asociación entre los polimorfismos rs35761398 y rs12744386 del CNR2 con la presencia de esquizofrenia y trastorno por uso de cannabis comórbido y una pérdida de heterocigosidad en el polimorfismo rs324420 del gen FAAH con la dependencia de cannabis en población española. Los polimorfismos rs35761398 y rs12744386 en CNR2 son factores de riesgo para esquizofrenia en sujetos dependientes de cannabis. La pérdida de heterocigosidad en el polimorfismo rs324420 en el gen FAAH es un factor de riesgo para la dependencia de cannabis.
Publication Date: 2021-06-26
Journal: Adicciones

type 1 cnr1(14)

Dopamine Related Genes Differentially Affect Declarative Long-Term Memory in Healthy Humans.
In humans, monetary reward can promote behavioral performance including response times, accuracy, and subsequent recognition memory. Recent studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an essential role here, but the link to interindividual differences remains unclear. To further investigate this issue, we focused on previously described polymorphisms of genes affecting dopaminergic neurotransmission: DAT1 40 base pair (bp), DAT1 30 bp, DRD4 48 bp, and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1). Specifically, 669 healthy humans participated in a delayed recognition memory paradigm on two consecutive days. On the first day, male vs. female faces served as cues predicting an immediate monetary reward upon correct button presses. Subsequently, participants performed a remember/know recognition memory task on the same day and 1 day later. As predicted, reward increased accuracy and accelerated response times, which were modulated by DAT 30 bp. However, reward did not promote subsequent recognition memory performance and there was no interaction with any genotype tested here. Importantly, there were differential effects of genotype on declarative long-term memory independent of reward: (a) DAT1 40 bp was linked to the quality of memory with a more pronounced difference between recollection and familiarity in the heterozygous and homozygous 10-R as compared to homozygous 9-R; (b) DAT1 30 bp was linked to memory decay, which was most pronounced in homozygous 4-R; (c) DRD4 48 bp was linked to overall recognition memory with higher performance in the short allele group; and (d) CNR1 was linked to overall memory with reduced performance in the homozygous short group. These findings give new insights into how polymorphisms, which are related to dopaminergic neuromodulation, differentially affect long-term recognition memory performance.
Publication Date: 2020-12-18
Journal: Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

cannabinoid type 1(13)

The associations of CNR1 SNPs and haplotypes with vulnerability and treatment response phenotypes in Han Chinese with major depressive disorder: A case-control association study.
Understanding how genetic polymorphisms are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) may aid in diagnosis and the development of personalized treatment strategies. CNR1 is the gene coding Cannabinoid type 1 receptor which is highly involved in emotional processing and in regulating neurotransmitter releases. We aimed to investigate the associations of CNR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with MDD susceptibility and treatment response. The study reported data on 181 Han Chinese with MDD and 80 healthy controls. The associations of CNR1 genetic polymorphisms with MDD susceptibility and treatment response were examined, wherein the MDD patients were subgrouped further by responding to antidepressant treatment, compared with healthy controls separately. The CNR1 SNPs rs806367 and rs6454674 and haplotype C-T-T-C of rs806366, rs806367, rs806368, and rs806370 were associated with increased susceptibility for MDD and antidepressant treatment resistance, but the association was not detected in other SNPs or the haplotype block of rs806368 and rs806370. The CNR1 is a promising candidate for the genetic association study of MDD. Larger and well-characterized samples are required to confirm the genetic association of CNR1 with MDD because of the limitations such as relatively small sample size and lack of information for correcting confounding factors.
Publication Date: 2021-08-07
Journal: Molecular genetics & genomic medicine

single-nucleotide polymorphisms snps(12)

The association of endocannabinoid receptor genes (CNR1 and CNR2) polymorphisms with depression: A meta-analysis.
Studies investigating the association between gene variants and depression susceptibility found inconsistent data. The present study aimed to clarify whether CNR1rs1049353, CNR1 AAT triplet repeat, and CNR2rs2501432 polymorphisms confer higher risk for depressive disorder.Literature from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrance Library, and Wanfang databases was searched (up to August 20, 2018). Seven case-control studies with various comorbidities were eligible. We targeted CNR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been reported by 2 or more studies to be involved in the current meta-analysis, resulting in a final list of 3 SNPs: CNR1rs1049353, CNR1 AAT triplet repeat polymorphism, and CNR2rs2501432. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for allele and homozygote comparisons, dominant and recessive models, and triplet repeat polymorphism ((AAT)n≥5, ≥5 vs (AAT)n<5, <5 or <5, ≥5) were assessed using a random effect model as measures of association. Heterogeneity among included studies was analyzed using sensitivity test. Publication bias was also explored by Egger and rank correlation test.overall, no significant association was found between depression and CNR1rs1049353 (G vs A: OR [95% CI] = 1.09 [0.61-1.95]; GG vs AA: 1.29 [0.73-2.26]; GG vs GA+AA: 1.10 [0.57-2.10]; GG+GA vs AA: 1.25 [0.72-2.18]; and AAT triplet repeat polymorphism ((AAT)n≥5, ≥5 vs (AAT)n<5, <5 or <5, ≥5): 1.92 [0.59-6.27]. In contrast, a significant association between CNR2rs2501432 and depression was detected, and the ORs and 95% CIs are as follows: allele contrast (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = [1.12-1.72], P = .003); homozygous (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = [1.34-3.59], P = .002); dominant (OR = 1.93,95% CI = [1.23-3.04], P = .005); and recessive (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = [1.04-1.92], P = .03).This meta-analysis revealed that CNR1rs1049353 or AAT triplet repeat polymorphism had no association with susceptibility to depression, while CNR2rs2501432 polymorphism was a remarkable mark for depression patients.
Publication Date: 2019-11-15
Journal: Medicine

body mass index(9)

Racial and sex differences in the polymorphisms of the endocannabinoid receptor genes in obesity.
Obesity is a global epidemic and prevalence of obesity is higher in African Americans (AAs) compared to Caucasians. The endocannabinoid system (EC) and polymorphism in the endocannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1) gene 3813A/G and 4895A/G and in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are associated with obesity. The objective was to explore racial and sex differences in these polymorphisms and the biochemical abnormalities seen in obesity. A cross-sectional study of 667 subjects (53.67% female; 49.18% AA; 69.72% were obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30)) were screened for CNR1 3813, 4895 and FAAH 385 polymorphisms using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Subjects with FAAH 385 polymorphisms were more likely to be obese (75.14% vs. 67.81, P = 0.046). There were no significant sex differences for CNR1 3813 and CNR1 4895; or between obese and control group. AAs had higher prevalence of CNR1 3813 (OR, 2.80, 95% CI, 1.95-4.04) and FAAH 385 (OR, 2.48, 95% CI, 1.82-3.38). Association between African American race and the three genotypes persisted after adjustment of all the variables (P < 0.001). FAAH 385 polymorphism is more likely seen in obese and in older subjects. AAs had higher prevalence of CNR1 3813 and FAAH 385 polymorphisms; and lower prevalence of CNR1 4895 polymorphism. These findings may explain some of the racial differences, but not the sex differences in the clinical expression of obesity.
Publication Date: 2020-08-01
Journal: Journal of diabetes and its complications

1 receptor gene(8)

Overactive cannabinoid 1 receptor in podocytes drives type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease, and overactivity of the endocannabinoid/cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) system contributes to diabetes and its complications. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats develop type 2 diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration, activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative/nitrative stress, podocyte loss, and increased CB1R expression in glomeruli. Peripheral CB1R blockade initiated in the prediabetic stage prevented these changes or reversed them when animals with fully developed diabetic nephropathy were treated. Treatment of diabetic ZDF rats with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor-1 (Agtr1) antagonist, attenuated the development of nephropathy and down-regulated renal cortical CB1R expression, without affecting the marked hyperglycemia. In cultured human podocytes, CB1R and desmin gene expression were increased and podocin and nephrin content were decreased by either the CB1R agonist arachydonoyl-2'-chloroethylamide, angiotensin II, or high glucose, and the effects of all three were antagonized by CB1R blockade or siRNA-mediated knockdown of CNR1 (the cannabinoid type 1 receptor gene). We conclude that increased CB1R signaling in podocytes contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy and represents a common pathway through which both hyperglycemia and increased RAS activity exert their deleterious effects, highlighting the therapeutic potential of peripheral CB1R blockade.
Publication Date: 2014-11-26
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

1 cannabinoid receptor(8)

Maternal high-fat diet up-regulates type-1 cannabinoid receptor with estrogen signaling changes in a sex- and depot- specific manner in white adipose tissue of adult rat offspring.
Obesity and high-fat (HF) diet are associated with over activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). We have demonstrated that maternal HF diet induces early obesity and modulates cannabinoid signaling in visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SUB) white adipose tissue (WAT) in weanling rat offspring. We hypothesized that perinatal maternal HF diet would program the expression of ECS in adipose tissue in a long-term way in parallel to alterations in epigenetic markers and sex hormone signaling. Progenitor female rats received control diet (C, 9% fat) or isocaloric high-fat diet (HF, 28% fat) for 8 weeks before mating, gestation, and lactation. All pups were weaned to C diet and they were euthanized at 180 days old. Maternal HF diet induced overweight and increased SUB WAT mass of male and female adult offspring. Maternal HF diet induced hypertrophy of VIS and SUB adipocytes only in female offspring associated with increased type 1 cannabinoid receptor protein (CB1) and mRNA (Cnr1) levels. These changes were associated with increased estrogen receptor α binding to Cnr1 promoter in SUB WAT of adult female offspring, which may contribute to higher expression of Cnr1. Increased CB1 signaling in adipose tissue might contribute to higher adiposity programmed by maternal HF diet because endocannabinoids stimulate the accumulation of fat in the adipose tissue. Our findings provide molecular insights into sex-specific targets for anti-obesity therapies based on the endocannabinoid system.
Publication Date: 2020-07-17
Journal: European journal of nutrition

homeostasis model assessment(3)

G1359A polymorphism in the cannabinoid receptor-1 gene is associated with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Previous studies demonstrated that G1359A polymorphism of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CNR1) was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, which are also risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study was aimed to determine whether G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 is associated with T2DM and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with T2DM. A total of 450 patients with T2DM (259 patients with CAD and 191 patients without CAD) and 94 healthy subjects were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. No significant differences in genotype frequency of CNR1 were found between normal controls and patients with T2DM without CAD. GG genotype frequency of CNR1 was significantly higher in the patients with T2DM with CAD compared with those without CAD and healthy subjects (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005, respectively). Unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that GG genotype was significantly associated with the presence of CAD in the patients with T2DM compared with GA and AA genotypes (odds ratio, 2.632; 95% confidence interval, 1.481-4.678; P < 0.001). In addition, GG genotype of CNR1 was significantly correlated with elevated levels of body mass index, systolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein, as well as decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with T2DM. G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 may be not associated with T2DM but may contribute to the genetic risk for the presence of CAD in patients with T2DM of Chinese Han population.
Publication Date: 2011-12-06
Journal: Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research

- mice(12)

Differential role of cannabinoids in the pathogenesis of skin cancer.
Cannabinoids (CB) like ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can induce cancer cell apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. However, the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of malignant diseases is discussed controversially because of their immunomodulatory effects which can suppress anti-tumor immunity. Here we investigated the role of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids in mouse skin cancer. First we examined the effect of THC, which binds to CB receptors (CB1, CB2), on the growth of the mouse melanoma cell lines B16 and HCmel12 in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT) and CB1/CB2-receptor deficient mice (Cnr1/2(-/-)). Next we evaluated the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system by studying the growth of chemically induced melanomas, fibrosarcoma and papillomas in WT and Cnr1/2(-/-) mice. THC significantly inhibited tumor growth of transplanted HCmel12 melanomas in a CB receptor-dependent manner in vivo through antagonistic effects on its characteristic pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Chemically induced skin tumors developed in a similar manner in Cnr1/2(-/-) mice when compared to WT mice. Our results confirm the value of exogenous cannabinoids for the treatment of melanoma but do not support a role for the endogenous cannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of skin cancer.
Publication Date: 2015-04-30
Journal: Life sciences

g1359a polymorphism(12)

Effects of a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors during 9 Months: Role of a Genetic Variation in the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) (G1359A Polymorphism).
We decided to investigate the role of this polymorphism on cardiovascular risk factors and weight loss secondary to a high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. a standard hypocaloric diet (1,000 kcal/day) over a period of 9 months. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 9-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet HP: high protein/low carbohydrate vs. S: standard diet). One hundred and four patients (54.7%) had the genotype G1359G and 86 (45.3%) patients had G1359A (77 patients, 25.8%) or A1359A (9 patients, 3.7%) (A-allele-carriers). In subjects with both genotypes, the body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressures decreased with both diets. After the diet type HP and in subjects with both genotypes, the glucose, leptin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin and HOMA-R levels decreased. After diet S and in all subjects, the total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and leptin levels decreased, too. Our interventional study didn't show a relationship between the rs1049353 CNR-1 polymorphism and body weight response after two different hypocaloric (low carbohydrate/high protein vs. standard) diets over a period of 9 months. However, a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet for 9 months improved glucose metabolism in subjects with both genotypes.
Publication Date: 2015-03-15
Journal: Annals of nutrition & metabolism

candidate genes(11)

Single-step genome-wide association study for social genetic effects and direct genetic effects on growth in Landrace pigs.
In livestock social interactions, social genetic effects (SGE) represent associations between phenotype of one individual and genotype of another. Such associations occur when the trait of interest is affected by transmissible phenotypes of social partners. The aim of this study was to estimate SGE and direct genetic effects (DGE, genetic effects of an individual on its own phenotype) on average daily gain (ADG) in Landrace pigs, and to conduct single-step genome-wide association study using SGE and DGE as dependent variables to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and their positional candidate genes. A total of 1,041 Landrace pigs were genotyped using the Porcine SNP 60K BeadChip. Estimates of the two effects were obtained using an extended animal model. The SGE contributed 16% of the total heritable variation of ADG. The total heritability estimated by the extended animal model including both SGE and DGE was 0.52. The single-step genome-wide association study identified a total of 23 QTL windows for the SGE on ADG distributed across three chromosomes (i.e., SSC1, SSC2, and SSC6). Positional candidate genes within these QTL regions included PRDM13, MAP3K7, CNR1, HTR1E, IL4, IL5, IL13, KIF3A, EFHD2, SLC38A7, mTOR, CNOT1, PLCB2, GABRR1, and GABRR2, which have biological roles in neuropsychiatric processes. The results of biological pathway and gene network analyses also support the association of the neuropsychiatric processes with SGE on ADG in pigs. Additionally, a total of 11 QTL windows for DGE on ADG in SSC2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 17 were detected with positional candidate genes such as ARL15. We found a putative pleotropic QTL for both SGE and DGE on ADG on SSC6. Our results in this study provide important insights that can help facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of SGE for socially affected traits.
Publication Date: 2020-09-13
Journal: Scientific reports

receptor-1 cnr1(10)

Childhood obesity and the role of dopamine D2 receptor and cannabinoid receptor-1 gene polymorphisms.
The dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems are involved in regulation of feeding behavior. The aim of the study is to examine the possible relation between polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and cannabinoid receptor-1 (CNR1) genes and childhood obesity. A hundred obese children and 100 healthy controls were analyzed for DRD2 Taq1A and Taq1B and CNR1 1359G/A polymorphisms. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were no statistically significant differences in DRD2 Taq1A and DRD2 Taq1B genotypes or allelic frequencies between obese children and controls (p>0.05). In patients with Taq1B2 allele, morbid obesity was less frequent (p=0.010). The frequency of the A allele of CNR1 1359G/A polymorphism was significantly higher in obese children than in controls (21.0% vs. 13.0%, p=0.0166). The frequency of genotypes AG and GG of the CNR1 1359G/A SNP was different between obese children and control subjects (for AG: 34.0% vs. 22.0%, p=0.0294; for GG: 62.0% vs. 76.0%, p=0.0162, respectively). No significant difference was found between genotypes and alleles of DRD2 Taq1A and DRD2 Taq1B polymorphism in patients and controls, while the CNR1 receptor 1359G/A polymorphism and the presence of the A allele may be one risk factor for susceptibility to obesity.
Publication Date: 2012-10-13
Journal: Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers

insulin resistance(10)

Knockout of CNR1 prevents metabolic stress-induced cardiac injury through improving insulin resistance (IR) injury and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by promoting AMPK-alpha activation.
Obesity and diabetes are associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the pathogenesis of DCM is not fully understood. Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we reported that CNR1 expression was increased in high fat diet (HFD)-induced heart of mice. Following, the wild type (CNR1
Publication Date: 2018-06-18
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications

receptors cnr1(10)

Characterisation and localisation of the endocannabinoid system components in the adult human testis.
Heavy use of cannabis (marijuana) has been associated with decreased semen quality, which may reflect disruption of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the male reproductive tract by exogenous cannabinoids. Components of ECS have been previously described in human spermatozoa and in the rodent testis but there is little information on the ECS expression within the human testis. In this study we characterised the main components of the ECS by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on archived testis tissue samples from 15 patients, and by in silico analysis of existing transcriptome datasets from testicular cell populations. The presence of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the human testis was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging analysis. Endocannabinoid-synthesising enzymes; diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) and N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), were detected in germ cells and somatic cells, respectively. The cannabinoid receptors, CNR1 and CNR2 were detected at a low level in post-meiotic germ cells and Leydig- and peritubular cells. Different transcripts encoding distinct receptor isoforms (CB1, CB1A, CB1B and CB2A) were also differentially distributed, mainly in germ cells. The cannabinoid-metabolising enzymes were abundantly present; the α/β-hydrolase domain-containing protein 2 (ABHD2) in all germ cell types, except early spermatocytes, the monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) in Sertoli cells, and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in late spermatocytes and post-meiotic germ cells. Our findings are consistent with a direct involvement of the ECS in regulation of human testicular physiology, including spermatogenesis and Leydig cell function. The study provides new evidence supporting observations that recreational cannabis can have possible deleterious effects on human testicular function.
Publication Date: 2019-09-21
Journal: Scientific reports

cb1 cnr1(7)

Cannabinoid receptor 1/2 double-knockout mice develop epilepsy.
The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened seizure sensitivity, but not overt seizures. Given overlapping and complementary functions of CB1 and CB2 receptors, we queried whether double-knockout mice would show an exacerbated neurological phenotype. Strikingly, 30% of double-knockout mice exhibited provoked behavioral seizures, and 80% were found to be epileptic following 24/7 video-electroencephalographic monitoring. Single-knockout animals did not exhibit seizures. These findings highlight the importance of the endocannabinoid system for maintaining network stability.
Publication Date: 2017-11-07
Journal: Epilepsia

waist circumference(5)

G1359A polymorphism in the cannabinoid receptor-1 gene is associated with metabolic syndrome in the Chinese Han population.
Recent studies suggest that endocannabinoids modulate food intake and lipogenesis through cannabinoid receptor-1 (CNR1). This study aims to determine the association between G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Chinese Han population. A total of 382 subjects at risk for MetS and 136 healthy subjects from Tianjin, China were genotyped for the G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 using TaqMan assay. Anthropometric measurements and serum analyses were done for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and plasma insulin levels. GG genotype of CNR1 has a higher incidence in MetS subjects than in control subjects. Logistic regression analysis shows that the GG genotype was significantly associated with the increased risk of developing MetS (OR 2.204, 95% CI 1.277-3.803, p = 0.005). Compared with CNR1 GG genotype in MetS subjects, CNR1 GA and AA genotypes in subjects with MetS had relatively lower levels of BMI, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and TG. Results suggest that the G1359A polymorphism of the CNR1 gene may contribute to MetS susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Publication Date: 2010-09-21
Journal: Archives of medical research

faah genes(5)

Impulsivity, variation in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes, and marijuana-related problems.
Impulsivity is associated with increased marijuana use and subsequent marijuana-related problems among marijuana users. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes have been associated with cannabis-related phenotypes. This exploratory study tested whether the association between different aspects of impulsivity and the number of marijuana-related problems among users is explicated by variation in these putative cannabinoid-related genes. A total of 151 young adult regular marijuana users (used on M= 41.4% of the prior 60 days, SD = 24.3%) provided DNA and completed measures of trait (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and behavioral impulsivity (Stop Signal Task and Delay Discounting Questionnaire), as well as a self-report of marijuana-related problems. Three CNR1 and five FAAH SNPs were genotyped, tested for haplotype blocks, and subsequently examined for association with phenotypes described above. CNR1 variation significantly moderated the association between trait-level, but not behavioral, impulsivity and marijuana-related problems, such that the combination of higher trait impulsivity and CNR1 variation was associated with a greater number of marijuana-related problems. In contrast, there were no significant FAAH by impulsivity interactions; however, there was a main effect of FAAH on marijuana-related problems. These findings support an association with CNR1 and FAAH genes and marijuana-related problems among regular marijuana users. CNR1 variation emerged as a moderator of the relationship between trait impulsivity and marijuana problems, thus suggesting that marijuana users with CNR1 risk variants and a higher trait impulsivity are at greater risk for developing marijuana-related problems and supporting a role for CNR1 in a broader impulsivity phenotype.
Publication Date: 2013-11-01
Journal: Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs

rs10485170 rs6454674(4)

Uremic Pruritus Is Not Associated with Endocannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms.
Uremic pruritus (UP) is a frequent and bothersome symptom in hemodialysis patients. Its etiology is not fully understood and that is why there is no specific treatment. The endocannabinoid system plays a role in many pathological conditions. There is reliable evidence on the association between cannabinoid system and pruritus. In our study, we aimed to evaluate whether genetic variations in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene can affect UP. The rs12720071, rs806368, rs1049353, rs806381, rs10485170, rs6454674, and rs2023239 polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene were genotyped in 159 hemodialysis patients and 150 healthy controls using two multiplex polymerase chain reactions and the minisequencing technique. No statistically significant relationship was found in any of the evaluated genotypes between patients with and without UP, even after excluding patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia. There were no differences between patients with UP and the control group. However, in the group of all HD patients, a significantly higher incidence of GA genotype and lower incidence in GG genotype in the polymorphism rs806381s were revealed versus the control group (p = 0.04). It seems that polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene are not associated with uremic pruritus.
Publication Date: 2016-04-02
Journal: BioMed research international

cnr1 comt(3)

Symptom Science: Omics Supports Common Biological Underpinnings Across Symptoms.
For precision health care to be successful, an in-depth understanding of the biological mechanisms for symptom development and severity is essential. Omics-based research approaches facilitate identification of the biological underpinnings of symptoms. We reviewed literature for omics-based approaches and exemplar symptoms (sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, fatigue, gastrointestinal [GI] distress, and pain) to identify genes associated with the symptom or symptoms across disease processes. The review yielded 27 genes associated with more than one symptom. ABCB1 (MDR1), APOE, BDNF, CNR1, COMT, DAT1 (SLC6A3), DRD4, ESR1, HLA-DRB1, IL10, IL1B, IL6, LTA, PTGS2 (COX-2), SLC6A4, and TNF were associated with cognitive impairment and pain, which had the most genes in common. COMT and TNF were related to all symptoms except sleep disruption. IL1B was associated with all symptoms except cognitive impairment. IL10, IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, and IL8 (CXCL8) were linked with all the exemplar symptoms in various combinations. ABCB1 (MDR1) and SLC6A4 were associated with cognitive impairment, GI distress, and pain. IL10 and IL6 were linked to cognitive impairment, fatigue, and pain. APOE and BDNF were associated with sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, and pain. The 27 genes were associated with canonical pathways including immune, inflammatory, and cell signaling. The pathway analysis generated a 15-gene model from the 27 as well as 3 networks, which incorporated new candidate genes. The findings support the hypothesis of overlapping biological underpinnings across the exemplar symptoms. Candidate genes may be targeted in future omics research to identify mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms for potential precision treatments.
Publication Date: 2018-01-13
Journal: Biological research for nursing

drd2 drd3(3)

[Searching for Tourette's syndrome gene. Part 2. Patient's genome variability].
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a complex, heterozygous genetic disorder. Twenty chromosomal rearrangements (7q22-q31, 8q13-q22, and 18q22) indicating genomic regions which may be involved in the etiology of the disorder have been reported in families with GTS. Moreover, pathogenic mutations responsible for GTS were found in the SLITRK1 and the L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) genes. The W317X mutation in the HDC gene points to a possible role for histaminergic neurotransmission in the mechanism and modulation of tic disorder. The distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was examined in at least 14 candidate genes (DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DAT1, MAOA, 5HTR2A, 5HTR3A, TDO2, CNR1, HLA-DRB, IL1RA, MOG, and SGCE) using a case-control genetic association analysis. Still, a lack of replicated and consistent results was observed. Recently, rare structural variants of different genes involved in neurodevelopment determined by recurrent exonic copy number variations (CNVs) have been found in a subset of patients suffering from GTS.
Publication Date: 2012-03-01
Journal: Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)

cnr1 2(2)

Cannabinoid Receptors Are Overexpressed in CLL but of Limited Potential for Therapeutic Exploitation.
The cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CNR1&2) are overexpressed in a variety of malignant diseases and cannabinoids can have noteworthy impact on tumor cell viability and tumor growth. Patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) present with very heterogeneous disease characteristics translating into highly differential risk properties. To meet the urgent need for refinement in risk stratification at diagnosis and the search for novel therapies we studied CNR expression and response to cannabinoid treatment in CLL. Expression levels of CNR1&2 were determined in 107 CLL patients by real-time PCR and analyzed with regard to prognostic markers and survival. Cell viability of primary CLL cells was determined in suspension and co-culture after incubation in increasing cannabinoid concentrations under normal and reduced serum conditions and in combination with fludarabine. Impact of cannabinoids on migration of CLL cells towards CXCL12 was determined in transwell plates. We found CNR1&2 to be overexpressed in CLL compared to healthy B-cells. Discriminating between high and low expressing subgroups, only high CNR1 expression was associated with two established high risk markers and conferred significantly shorter overall and treatment free survival. Viability of CLL primary cells was reduced in a dose dependent fashion upon incubation with cannabinoids, however, healthy cells were similarly affected. Under serum reduced conditions, no significant differences were observed within suspension and co-culture, respectively, however, the feeder layer contributed significantly to the survival of CLL cells compared to suspension culture conditions. No significant differences were observed when treating CLL cells with cannabinoids in combination with fludarabine. Interestingly, biologic activity of cannabinoids was independent of both CNR1&2 expression. Finally, we did not observe an inhibition of CXCL12-induced migration by cannabinoids. In contrast to other tumor entities, our data suggest a limited usability of cannabinoids for CLL therapy. Nonetheless, we could define CNR1 mRNA expression as novel prognostic marker.
Publication Date: 2016-06-02
Journal: PloS one

cnr1 faah(2)

Moderation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain by energy balance gene variants in the RUPP autism network risperidone studies.
Second-generation antipsychotic exposure, in both children and adults, carries significant risk for excessive weight gain that varies widely across individuals. We queried common variation in key energy balance genes (FTO, MC4R, LEP, CNR1, FAAH) for their association with weight gain during the initial 8 weeks in the two NIMH Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials (N=225) of risperidone for treatment of irritability in children/adolescents aged 4-17 years with autism spectrum disorders. Variants in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR)-1 promoter (P=1.0 × 10(-6)), CNR1 (P=9.6 × 10(-5)) and the leptin (LEP) promoter (P=1.4 × 10(-4)) conferred robust-independent risks for weight gain. A model combining these three variants was highly significant (P=1.3 × 10(-9)) with a 0.85 effect size between lowest and highest risk groups. All results survived correction for multiple testing and were not dependent on dose, plasma level or ethnicity. We found no evidence for association with a reported functional variant in the endocannabinoid metabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, whereas body mass index-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R showed only trend associations. These data suggest a substantial genetic contribution of common variants in energy balance regulatory genes to individual antipsychotic-associated weight gain in children and adolescents, which supersedes findings from prior adult studies. The effects are robust enough to be detected after only 8 weeks and are more prominent in this largely treatment naive population. This study highlights compelling directions for further exploration of the pharmacogenetic basis of this concerning multifactorial adverse event.
Publication Date: 2013-06-27
Journal: Translational psychiatry


Association between gene polymorphisms and obesity and physical fitness in Korean children.
Obesity is affected by genetic factors and environmental influences. This research was undertaken to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to obesity and physical fitness and then to analyse and compare interactions between physical fitness and obesity-associated genotypes. To investigate relationships between physical fitness and major SNPs previously reported to be related to obesity, 68 SNPs in 32 genes were genotyped in 71 Korean children. Tests were conducted to evaluate five elements of physical fitness (speed, aerobic endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility). The results obtained showed significant (P<0.02) differences in physical fitness scores for the following genotypes: CNR1 (rs1049353; GG), LEP (rs7799039; AA+AG), HHEX (rs1111875; TT), GC (rs16847015; TG+GG), LRP5 (rs4988300; GG+GT), NPY2R (rs2880415; CT+CC), PPY (rs231472; GG), UCP2 (rs660339; CT+TT), CDKN2B (rs10811661; AA+AG), and ADIPOQ (rs266729; CG+GG). Ten physical fitness-related genotypes were newly identified during the present study. This study suggests that classification of genotypes by physical fitness level could be used as an index for predicting the risk of obesity and for selecting individuals for intervention programmes. Furthermore, the study shows that even children participating in the same physical fitness improvement programme can exhibit different genotype dependencies.
Publication Date: 2018-09-22
Journal: Biology of sport


Variability in cannabinoid receptor genes is associated with psychiatric comorbidities in anorexia nervosa.
The endocannabinoid system plays a key role in eating behavior regulating appetite and reward mechanisms, but the impact of its genetic variability has been scarcely studied in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We aimed to analyze the association of genetic variants in cannabinoid receptors with the risk for AN and with psychiatric comorbidities that are commonplace in these patients. We screened 221 AN patients and 396 controls for 14 tag-SNPs in the CNR1 and CNR2 genes, coding for cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, respectively. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and interviewed with the SCL-90R and the EDI-2 inventories to identify AN-coupled and general psychopathology. None of the tag-SNPs was significantly related to AN risk. However, the rs806369-TT genotype and haplotype rs806368/rs1049353/rs806369 of CNR1 were respectively associated with lower weight (mean difference = - 4.92 kg, FDR-q = 0.044) and BMI (FDR-q = 0.042) in AN patients. CNR1 rs806374-TT and CNR2 rs3003335-AA and rs6658703-GG genotypes correlated with higher scores in the Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI, FDR-q = 0.011 and 0.009, respectively). These three genotypes were also linked to increased Hostility in the patients (FDR-q < 0.05). Remarkably, a proximal area of the CNR1 gene locus (positions 88,143,916-88,149,832) correlated with PSDI, Hostility, Asceticism and EDI-2 total scores after correcting by multiple testing (FDR-q < 0.05 in all instances). Finally, significant CNR1/CNR2 epistasis was observed in relation to Hostility (p < 0.01) and Maturity Fears (p < 0.001). The CNR1 and CNR2 genes, coding for cannabinoid receptors, may constitute important loci regarding psychiatric comorbidities in AN patients. Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies.
Publication Date: 2021-02-13
Journal: Eating and weight disorders : EWD