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Query Topic: ESR1

Query Date:

estrogen receptor alpha(174)

The rs9340799 polymorphism of the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene and its association with breast cancer susceptibility.
The ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism has been frequently investigated with regard to its association with breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, but the findings have been inconclusive. In this work, we aimed to address the inconsistencies in study findings by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified from the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP and Wanfang databases based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was then calculated under five genetic models: homozygous (GG vs. AA), heterozygous (AG vs. AA), dominant (AG + GG vs. AA), recessive (GG vs. AA + AG) and allele (G vs. A). Combined results from 23 studies involving 34,721 subjects indicated a lack of significant association between the polymorphism and BC susceptibility (homozygous model, OR = 1.045, 95% CI 0.887-1.231, P = 0.601; heterozygous model, OR = 0.941, 95% CI 0.861-1.030, P = 0.186; dominant model, OR = 0.957, 95% CI 0.875-1.045, P = 0.327; recessive model, OR = 1.053, 95% CI 0.908-1.222, P = 0.495; allele model, OR = 0.987, 95% CI 0.919-1.059, P = 0.709). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity, menopausal status and study quality also revealed no statistically significant association (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism was not associated with BC susceptibility, suggesting its limited potential as a genetic marker for BC.
Publication Date: 2021-09-22
Journal: Scientific reports

estrogen receptor α(134)

GPR30 Activation by 17β-Estradiol Promotes p62 Phosphorylation and Increases Estrogen Receptor α Protein Expression by Inducing Its Release from a Complex Formed with KEAP1.
Estrogens can elicit rapid cellular responses via the G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), followed by estrogen receptor α (ERα/ESR1)-mediated genomic effects. Here, we investigated whether rapid estrogen signaling via GRP30 may affect ESR1 expression, and we examined the underlying molecular mechanisms. The exposure of human endometrial cancer cells to 17β-estradiol promoted p62 phosphorylation and increased ESR1 protein expression. However, both a GPR30 antagonist and GPR30 silencing abrogated this phenomenon. GPR30 activation by 17β-estradiol elicited the SRC/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Intriguingly, unphosphorylated p62 and ESR1 were found to form an intracellular complex with the substrate adaptor protein KEAP1. Upon phosphorylation, p62 promoted ESR1 release from the complex, to increase its protein expression. Given the critical role played by p62 in autophagy, we also examined how this process affected ESR1 expression. The activation of autophagy by everolimus decreased ESR1 by promoting p62 degradation, whereas autophagy inhibition with chloroquine increased ESR1 expression. The treatment of female C57BL/6 mice with the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine-which promotes p62 expression-increased both phosphorylated p62 and ESR1 expression in uterine epithelial cells. Collectively, our results indicate that 17β-estradiol-mediated GPR30 activation elicits the SRC/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and promotes p62 phosphorylation. In turn, phosphorylated p62 increased ESR1 expression by inducing its release from complexes that included KEAP1. Our findings may lead to novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing ESR1 expression in estrogen-sensitive cells.
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Journal of personalized medicine

nucleotide polymorphisms snps(49)

The correlation of estrogen receptor 1 and progesterone receptor genes polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in a cohort of Egyptian women.
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) represents one of the pregnancy complications affecting 1-3% of women. Sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen play a critical role in the maintenance of pregnancy; they are mediated by estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PR) genes respectively. Polymorphisms of (ESR1) and (PR) genes are linked to RPL. We aimed to explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of (ESR1) gene and (PR) gene with RPL in a cohort of Egyptian population (50 infertile Egyptian women who experienced RPL and 50 healthy women), using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) of (ESR1) gene and DNA sequencing of exons 1 and 5 of (PR) gene. Genotyping of ESR1 gene SNP's: (rs2234693) and (rs9340799) revealed higher significance in cases compared to controls of p value (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001) respectively. However, the frequencies of the two variants in (PG) gene; S344T (rs3740753) (p = 0.0001) and H770H (rs1042839) (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in women compared to the healthy control women. New polymorphism P352Q was observed in 2% of cases (p = 0.0001). There was a significant association of SNP's of ESR1 and PR genes with recurrent pregnancy loss RPL. Further demographics studies should be carried on a larger number of women at risk of recurrent implantation to elucidate this SNP's association and its role in RPL women.
Publication Date: 2021-06-02
Journal: Molecular biology reports

metastatic breast cancer(40)

ESR1 mutations and therapeutic resistance in metastatic breast cancer: progress and remaining challenges.
Breast cancer accounts for 25% of the cancers in women worldwide. The most common subtype of breast cancer diagnosed is hormone receptor positive, which expresses the oestrogen receptor (ER). Targeting of the ER with endocrine therapy (ET) is the current standard of care for ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer, reducing the mortality by up to 40%. Resistance to ET, however, remains a major issue for ER + breast cancer, leading to recurrence and metastasis. One major driver of ET resistance is mutations in the ER gene (ESR1) leading to constitutive transcriptional activity and reduced ET sensitivity. These mutations are particularly detrimental in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) as they are present in as high as 36% of the patients. This review summarises the pre-clinical characterisation of ESR1 mutations and their association with clinical outcomes in MBC and primary disease. The clinically approved and investigational therapeutic options for ESR1 mutant breast cancer and the current clinical trials evaluating ESR1 mutations and ET resistance are also discussed. Finally, this review addresses pre-clinical models and multi-'omics' approaches for developing the next generation of therapeutics for ESR1 mutant and ET-resistant breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-10-09
Journal: British journal of cancer

breast cancer patients(36)

Super-ARMS: A new method for plasma ESR1 mutation detection.
ESR1 mutation is an important mechanism of drug resistance and recurrence in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients during AI treatment. Patient could still benefit from treatment with fulvestrant after ESR1 mutated. At present, there is still no suitable method to detect ESR1 mutation in plasma as clinical promotion method. We aim to improve from ARMS-PCR to get a method with higher sensitivity but no additional cost is incurred. We designed new primers for ESR1. Then positive and negative standard sample was used for sensitivity and specificity tests. Lastly, we collected patient peripheral blood sample and analyzed the performance of Super-ARMS in plasma ctDNA samples. A total of 207 patients were enrolled in this study, including 142 prime breast cancer (PBC) patients and 65 metastasis breast cancer(MBC) patients. The mutation rate was as high as 27.9%(12/43) in MBC patients with AI treatment. But only 2.97%(3/101) in PBC patients with AI and 0% in both MBC or PBC patient without AI. There was no significant difference in Super-ARMS results compared with DDPCR method. Super-ARMS is a method that has sensitivity close to DDPCR and has the convenience and low price of ARMS-PCR for plasma ctDNA ESR1 mutation detection. It has obvious advantages compared with other method such NGS and DDPCR as clinical promotion method.
Publication Date: 2021-05-29
Journal: Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry

growth factor receptor(36)

Exploring anti-liver cancer targets and mechanisms of oxyresveratrol:
The aim of current study was to exhume the potential targets and molecular mechanisms of oxyresveratrol, a structurally re-constructed resveratrol, for treating liver cancer through bioinformatics investigation and experimentative validation. To start with, the network pharmacology approach and molecular docking technology were used to uncover all candidate targets of oxyresveratrol to treat liver cancer, accompanied with identified anti-liver cancer targets including estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, more pharmacological mechanisms of oxyresveratrol against liver cancer were revealed in details. In experimental verification, the clinical samples of liver cancer showed elevated ESR1, EGFR mRNA expressions. The
Publication Date: 2021-10-02
Journal: Bioengineered

breast cancer risk(31)

Impact of ESR1 Polymorphisms on Risk of Breast Cancer in the Chinese Han Population.
The estrogen receptor-1 (ESR1) gene encodes estrogen receptor-α, which is a major biomarker in the development of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ESR1 polymorphisms on breast cancer in Chinese Han women. We genotyped 4 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 among 503 patients with breast cancer and 503 healthy people using the Agena MassARRAY platform. The association between ESR1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk was evaluated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) under 4 genetic models. The HaploReg v4.1 and GEPIA database were used for SNP functional annotation and ESR1 expression analysis, respectively. The T allele of rs9383938 in ESR1 was significantly associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50; P = .013). In genetic models, rs9383938 increased breast cancer risk in the codominant model (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.07-2.22; P = .021), the dominant model (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68; P = .040), and the additive model (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48; P = .017). Stratification analysis showed that rs9383938 and rs2228480 raised the breast cancer susceptibility in individuals aged younger than 52 years old. Rs1801132 of ESR1 was significantly associated with the status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in the allele model and genetic models (P < .05). This study demonstrated that ESR1 polymorphisms might influence breast cancer susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Further mechanism studies are needed to confirm the contribution of ESR1.
Publication Date: 2020-12-08
Journal: Clinical breast cancer

epidermal growth factor(31)

[Mechanism of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Paeoniae Radix Rubra drug pair on intervention of cerebral ischemia based on network pharmacology-molecular docking].
Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common diseases in China, and the drug pair of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra can intervene in cerebral ischemia to reduce the inflammatory response of cerebral ischemia and apoptosis. To reveal the intervention mechanism of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Paeoniae Radix Rubra drug pair on cerebral ischemia systematically, computer network pharmacology technology was used in this paper to predict the target and signaling pathway of the drug pair on the intervention of cerebral ischemia, and then the molecular docking technology was used to further analyze the mechanism of the intervention. The target results were then verified by the rat cerebral ischemia model. The target network results showed that the active compounds of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Paeoniae Radix Rubra for cerebral ischemic disease contained 30 compounds, 38 targets and 9 pathways. The main compounds included phenolic acids in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and monoterpene glycosides in Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The key targets involved mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1), steroid receptor coactivator(SRC), epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14(MAPK14), caspase-3(CASP3), caspase-7(CASP7), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 8(MAPK8), etc. The target gene functions were biased towards protein kinase activity, protein autophosphorylation, peptidyl-serine phosphorylation and protein serine/threonine kinase activity, etc. The important KEGG pathways involved Ras signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway and VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular docking results showed that catechin, oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin had strong binding ability with MAPK1, SRC, EGFR, MAPK14 and CASP7. MCAO rat experimental results showed that Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Paeoniae Radix Rubra significantly improved the cerebral ischemia injury and interstitial edema, and significantly reduced the activation of caspase-7 and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Paeoniae Radix Rubra drug pair alleviated cerebral ischemia injury through a network model of multi-phenotype intervention by promoting cell proliferation and differentiation, reducing inflammatory factor expression, protecting nerve cells from death and figh-ting against neuronal cell apoptosis, with its action signaling pathway most related to Ras signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway and VEGF signaling pathway. This study provides the basis for clinical intervention of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Paeoniae Radix Rubra drug pair on cerebral ischemia, and also provides ideas for the modernization of drug pairs.
Publication Date: 2021-09-02
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica

esr1 esr2(111)

Unravelling the role of 17β-estradiol on advancing uterine luteolytic cascade in cattle.
In cattle, 17β-estradiol (E2) stimulates prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthesis, which causes luteolysis. Except for the well-established upregulation of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), molecular mechanisms of E2-induced PGF2α release in vivo remain unknown. We hypothesized that E2-induced PGF2α release requires de novo transcription of components of the PGF2α synthesis machinery. Beef cows (n = 52) were assigned to remain untreated (Control; n = 10), to receive 50% ethanol infusion intravenously (Placebo; n = 21), or 3 mg E2 in 50% ethanol infusion intravenously (Estradiol; n = 21) on day 15 (D15) after estrus. We collected a single endometrial biopsy per animal at the time of the treatment (0h; Control B0h group), 4 hours (4h; Placebo B4h group and Estradiol B4h group), or 7 hours (7h; Placebo B7h group and Estradiol B7h group) post-treatment. Compared to the Placebo group, the Estradiol group presented significantly greater 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α concentrations between 4h and 7h and underwent earlier luteolysis. At 4h, the qPCR analysis showed a lower abundance of ESR1, ESR2 and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) genes in the Estradiol B4h group, and a greater abundance of OXTR compared to the Placebo B4h group. Similarly, the E2 treatment significantly reduced the abundance of AKR1B1, and AKR1C4 in the Estradiol B7h group, compared to the placebo group. Overall, E2-induced PGF2α release and luteolysis involved an unexpected and transient downregulation of components of the PGF2α-synthesis cascade, except for OXTR, which was upregulated. Collectively, our data suggest that E2 connects newly-synthesized OXTR to pre-existing cellular machinery to synthesize PGF2α and cause luteal regression.
Publication Date: 2021-08-30
Journal: Domestic animal endocrinology

esr1 mutations(99)

Endocrine resistance in breast cancer: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies.
Estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) breast cancer accounts for approximately 75% of all breast cancers. Endocrine therapies, including selective ER modulators (SERMs), aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and selective ER down-regulators (SERDs) provide substantial clinical benefit by reducing the risk of disease recurrence and mortality. However, resistance to endocrine therapies represents a major challenge, limiting the success of ER + breast cancer treatment. Mechanisms of endocrine resistance involve alterations in ER signaling via modulation of ER (e.g., ER downregulation, ESR1 mutations or fusions); alterations in ER coactivators/corepressors, transcription factors (TFs), nuclear receptors and epigenetic modulators; regulation of signaling pathways; modulation of cell cycle regulators; stress signaling; and alterations in tumor microenvironment, nutrient stress, and metabolic regulation. Current therapeutic strategies to improve outcome of endocrine-resistant patients in clinics include inhibitors against mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6, and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunit, p110α. Preclinical studies reveal novel therapeutic targets, some of which are currently tested in clinical trials as single agents or in combination with endocrine therapies, such as ER partial agonists, ER proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs), next-generation SERDs, AKT inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (EGFR/HER2) dual inhibitors, HER2 targeting antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the established and emerging mechanisms of endocrine resistance, alterations during metastatic recurrence, and discuss the approved therapies and ongoing clinical trials testing the combination of novel targeted therapies with endocrine therapy in endocrine-resistant ER + breast cancer patients.
Publication Date: 2021-10-09
Journal: Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)

estrogen receptors(98)

Role of sex steroids in fish sex determination and differentiation as revealed by gene editing.
The involvement of sex steroids in sex determination and differentiation is relatively conserved among non-mammalian vertebrates, especially in fish. Thanks to the advances in genome sequencing and genome editing, significant progresses have been made in the understanding of steroidogenic pathway and hormonal regulation of sex determination and differentiation in fish. It seems that loss of function study of single gene challenges the traditional views that estrogen is required for ovarian differentiation and androgen is needed for testicular development, but it is not so in essence. Steroidogenic enzymes can be classified into two categories based on expression and enzyme activities in fish. One type, encoded by star2, cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a, is involved in estrogen production and exclusively expressed in the gonads. Mutation of these genes results in the up-regulation of male pathway genes and sex reversal from genetic female to male. The other type, encoded by the duplicated paralogs of the above genes, including star1, cyp11a1, cyp17a2 and cyp19a1b, as well as cyp11c1 gene, is dominantly expressed both in gonads and extra-gonadal tissues. Mutation of these genes alters the steroids (androgen, DHP and cortisol) production and spermatogenesis, fertility, secondary sexual characteristics and sexual behavior, but usually does not affect the sex differentiation. For the estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a and esr2b), single mutation failed to, but double and triple mutation leads to sex reversal from female to male, indicating that at least Esr2a and Esr2b are required to mediate the role of estrogen in sex determination proved by gene editing experiments. Taken together, results from gene editing enrich our understanding of steroid synthesis pathways and further confirm the critical role of estrogen in female sex determination by antagonizing the male pathway in fish.
Publication Date: 2021-08-30
Journal: General and comparative endocrinology

single nucleotide(86)

Landscape of circulating tumour DNA in metastatic breast cancer.
We describe the genomic landscape of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) across pathological subtypes of metastatic breast cancer. 255 clinically annotated patients with ctDNA testing by Guardant360 were stratified into HR+, HER2+, and TNBC cohorts. Frequency and heterogeneity of alterations were reported. Paired ctDNA and tissue sequencing were compared for a subset of patients. The association of ctDNA and metastatic sites of disease on imaging was also assessed. 89% of patients had at least one ctDNA alteration detected. The most common single nucleotide variants (SNVs) for HR+ patients were PIK3CA, ESR1, and TP53. For HER2+, these were TP53, PIK3CA, and ERBB2 with ERBB2 as the most frequent copy number variant (CNV). For TNBC, the most common SNVs were TP53 and PIK3CA, and the most frequent CNVs were MYC, CCNE1, and PIK3CA. TNBC patients had a significantly higher mutant allele frequency (MAF) of the highest variant compared to HR+ or HER2+ patients (P<0.05). Overall, alterations in PIK3CA, ESR1, and ERBB2 were observed in 39.6%, 16.5%, and 21.6% of patients, respectively. Agreement between blood and tissue was 79-91%. MAF and number of alterations were significantly associated with number of metastatic sites on imaging (P<0.0001). These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of metastatic breast cancer in blood, the high prevalence of clinically actionable alterations, and the potential to utilise ctDNA as a surrogate for tumour burden on imaging. Lynn Sage Cancer Research Foundation, OncoSET Precision Medicine Program, and REDCap support was funded by the National Institutes of Health UL1TR001422.
Publication Date: 2020-07-25
Journal: EBioMedicine

progesterone receptor(82)

Sperm storage in the oviduct of the Chinese pond turtle Mauremys reevesii depends on oestrogen-based suppression of the TLR2/4 immune pathway.
The long-term storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract is limited by the innate immune system. Oestrogen plays a role in regulating the innate immune system. Thus, exploring the expression of genes in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 pathway and oestrogen receptors in the oviduct of Mauremys reevesii could contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of sperm storage. In this study, three parts of the oviduct (isthmus, uterus and vagina) in three mated and unmated female turtles were used to perform immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry revealed that the TLR2/4 protein was mainly distributed in epithelial tissues and glandular cell membranes, and that TLR2/4 levels in the oviduct were significantly decreased in mated compared with unmated turtles. Real-time qPCR indicated that TLR2/4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and interleukin 6 (IL6) mRNA expression was significantly higher in the oviduct of unmated than mated turtles, whereas the opposite was true for the expression of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR). These results indicate that when spermatozoa are stored in the oviduct, an increase in oestrogen suppresses the immune response induced by the TLR2/4 pathway so that spermatozoa are not removed as a foreign substance, but stored until fertilisation. The findings of this study are relevant to our understanding of the relationship between sperm storage and the innate immune system in the oviduct of reptiles.
Publication Date: 2021-10-05
Journal: Reproduction, fertility, and development

esr1 mrna(66)

Reduced menin expression leads to decreased ERα expression and is correlated with the occurrence of human luminal B-like and ER-negative breast cancer subtypes.
Menin, encoded by the MEN1 gene, was recently reported to be involved in breast cancers, though the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the current study, we sought to further determine its role in mammary cells. Menin expression in mammary lesions from mammary-specific Men1 mutant mice was detected using immunofluorescence staining. RT-qPCR and western blot were performed to determine the role of menin in ERα expression in human breast cancer cell lines. ChIP-qPCR and reporter gene assays were carried out to dissect the action of menin on the proximal ESR1 promoter. Menin expression in female patients with breast cancer was analyzed and its correlation with breast cancer subtypes was investigated. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that early mammary neoplasia in Men1 mutant mice displayed weak ERα expression. Furthermore, MEN1 silencing led to both reduced ESR1 mRNA and ERα protein expression in MCF7 and T47D cells. To further dissect the regulation of ESR1 transcription by menin, we examined whether and in which way menin could regulate the proximal ESR1 promoter, which has not been fully explored. Using ChIP analysis and reporter gene assays covering - 2500 bp to + 2000 bp of the TSS position, we showed that the activity of the proximal ESR1 promoter was markedly reduced upon menin downregulation independently of H3K4me3 status. Importantly, by analyzing the expression of menin in 354 human breast cancers, we found that a lower expression was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.041). Moreover, among the 294 ER-positive breast cancer samples, reduced menin expression was not only associated with larger tumors (P = 0.01) and higher SBR grades (P = 0.005) but also with the luminal B-like breast cancer subtype (P = 0.006). Consistent with our clinical data, we demonstrated that GATA3 and FOXA1, co-factors in ESR1 regulation, interact physically with menin in MCF7 cells, and MEN1 knockdown led to altered protein expression of GATA3, the latter being a known marker of the luminal A subtype, in MCF7 cells. Taken together, our data provide clues to the important role of menin in ERα regulation and the formation of breast cancer subtypes.
Publication Date: 2021-09-26
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

95 ci(63)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies of pelvic organ prolapse.
Family and twin studies demonstrate that pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is heritable, but the genetic etiology is poorly understood. This review aimed to identify genetic loci and specific polymorphisms associated with POP, while assessing the strength, consistency, and risk of bias among reported associations. Updating an earlier systematic review, PubMed and HuGE Navigator as well as relevant conference abstracts were searched using genetic and phenotype keywords from 2015 to 2020. Screening and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were conducted using co-dominant models of inheritance. We assessed credibility of pooled associations using interim Venice criteria. We screened 504 new abstracts and included 46 published and 7 unpublished studies. In pooled analyses we found significant associations for four polymorphisms: rs2228480 at the ESR1 gene (OR 0.67 95% CI 0.46-0.98, I The genetic contributions to POP remain poorly understood. Several biologically plausible variants have been identified, but much work is required to establish the role of these genes in the pathogenesis of POP or to establish a role for genetic testing in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-04-25
Journal: International urogynecology journal

receptors esr1(56)

Impact of Estrogen Withdrawal and Replacement in Female Mice along the Intestinal Tract. Comparison of E2 Replacement with the Effect of a Mixture of Low Dose Pollutants.
Postmenopausal women represent a vulnerable population towards endocrine disruptors due to hormonal deficit. We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure of ovariectomized C57Bl6/J mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet to a low-dose mixture of chemicals with one dioxin, one polychlorobiphenyl, one phthalate, and bisphenol A triggered metabolic alterations in the liver but the intestine was not explored. Yet, the gastrointestinal tract is the main route by which pollutants enter the body. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic consequences of ovarian withdrawal and E2 replacement on the various gut segments along with investigating the impact of the mixture of pollutants. We showed that genes encoding estrogen receptors (Esr1, Gper1 not Esr2), xenobiotic processing genes (e.g., Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10), and genes related to gut homeostasis in the jejunum (e.g., Cd36, Got2, Mmp7) and to bile acid biosynthesis in the gut (e.g., Fgf15, Slc10a2) and liver (e.g., Abcb11, Slc10a1) were under estrogen regulation. Exposure to pollutants mimicked some of the effects of E2 replacement, particularly in the ileum (e.g., Esr1, Nr1c1) suggesting that the mixture had estrogen-mimetic activities. The present findings have important implications for the understanding of estrogen-dependent metabolic alterations with regards to situations of loss of estrogens as observed after menopause.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health

oestrogen receptor(54)

Oestrogen receptor alpha in papillary thyroid carcinoma: association with clinical features and BRAFV600E mutation.
Papillary thyroid cancer cells can express oestrogen receptor alpha, which is encoded by the ESR1 gene and may bind to oestrogen to induce the occurrence and development of papillary thyroid cancer. The BRAFV600E mutation is also an important biomarker for the occurrence and progression of papillary thyroid cancer. However, the association between the BRAFV600E mutation and oestrogen receptor alpha expression has not been identified. This study aims to investigate the association between ESR1 expression and the BRAFV600E mutation and its clinical significance. Oestrogen receptor alpha and BRAFV600E proteins were detected by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 1105 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at our institution. Messenger RNA expression counts of ESR1 and clinicopathologic information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Oestrogen receptor alpha protein expression was significantly associated with BRAFV600E protein. The positive rate of oestrogen receptor alpha protein in papillary thyroid cancer patients was significantly higher in males, younger patients and patients with the multifocal type. In papillary thyroid cancer patients with positive BRAFV600E protein, oestrogen receptor alpha expression was significantly correlated with central lymph node metastasis. Data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas database also suggested that the ESR1 messenger RNA level was associated with the BRAFV600E mutation. Furthermore, classification analysis performed according to a tree-based classification method demonstrated that higher ESR1 messenger RNA expression indicated poorer overall survival in papillary thyroid cancer patients with the BRAFV600E mutation. The percentage of BRAFV600E mutations is increased in patients with higher ESR1 messenger RNA levels, and the BRAFV600E protein might be co-expressed with oestrogen receptor alpha, which could be an indicator of cervical lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-04-25
Journal: Japanese journal of clinical oncology

receptor pgr(52)

High expression of ERBB2 is an independent risk factor for reduced recurrence-free survival in patients with stage T1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Molecular markers associated with breast cancer are assumed to be associated with outcome in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We retrospectively investigated the association of the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), progesterone receptor (PGR), MKI67, and HER2 (ERBB2) with recurrence-free (RFS), cancer-specific (CSS), and overall survival (OS) in 80 patients with stage T1 NMIBC. High expression of ESR2 (P = 0.003), ERBB2 (P < 0.001), and MKI67 (P = 0.029) was associated with shorter RFS. Only high ERBB2 was an independent prognostic factor for reduced RFS (HR = 2.98; P = 0.009). When sub stratifying the cohort, high ESR2 was associated with reduced RFS (P < 0.001), CSS (P = 0.037) and OS (P = 0.006) in patients without instillation therapy. High ESR2 was associated with reduced CSS (P = 0.018) and OS (P = 0.029) in females and with shorter RFS in both sexes (males: P = 0.035; females: P = 0.010). Patients with high ERBB2 showed reduced CSS (P = 0.011) and OS (P = 0.042) in females and reduced CSS (P = 0.012) in those without instillation, while RFS was significantly reduced irrespective of sex or instillation. High mRNA expression of ERBB2 is an independent predictor of reduced RFS in patients with stage T1 NMIBC. High ERBB2 and ESR2 are associated with reduced outcomes, especially in females and patients without instillation therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-01
Journal: Urologic oncology

gene polymorphisms(50)

Polymorphism of
The prevalence of hypospadias ranges between 1: 250 to 300 per live birth. Estrogen exposure has been associated with the increasing incidence of hypospadias in humans and a significant relationship between Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) polymorphisms and hypospadias was determined from the previous study. This study aims to determine the proportion of ESR1 polymorphism. This was a descriptive study aimed to find the incidence of ESR1 gene polymorphism in hypospadias patients visiting the Urology Outpatient Unit of the Hasan Sadikin Bandung Hospital who will undergo hypospadias surgery. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was performed using foreskin of hypospadias patient during the surgery then being extracted and will be analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing. Thirty eight samples of hypospadias were identified, 5 samples were unable to sequence and 33 samples were successfully sequenced using the PCR method. The Pvull ESR1 gene was dominated by the T allele which is a wild-type allele and the genotype containing the T allele, namely TT + TC (57,2%). Normal genotype (TT) were more frequent in distal hypospadias, and Heterozygous polymorphisms (TC) was higher in proximal hypospadias. The ESR1 Xba1 gene polymorphism was dominated by the A allele which is a wild-type allele and the AA + AG genotype (76,1%). Normal genotype (AA) was more frequent in distal hypospadias, and both heterozygous hypospadias (AG) and homozygous hypospadias (GG) were found only in proximal hypospadias. The ESR1 SNP 12 gene polymorphisms were found in the combination of genotypes that played a role, namely GA + AA (81%) and the G allele which is a wild-type allele. Heterozygous polymorphisms (GA) was the most finding genotype and more frequent in proximal hypospadias. ESR1 gene polymorphisms (PvuII, XbaI, and SNP 12) were found in hypospadias patients. ESR1 polymorphisms may correlate with the severity of hypospadias. Further research with a larger sample and better hypospadias grouping is needed to confirm.
Publication Date: 2021-03-05
Journal: Research and reports in urology

significantly associated(49)

Genetic Association Analysis Implicates Six MicroRNA-Related SNPs With Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Australian Caucasian Women.
Breast cancer (BC), a heterogeneous disease, features microRNA-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) as underlying factors of BC development, thus providing targets for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This study investigated miRSNPs in BC susceptibility in Australian Caucasian women. The study population included patients 33 to 80 years of age stratified by molecular subtypes of breast tumors (luminal A, 47.59%), stage (stage I, 36.96%), tumor-type (ductal, 44.95%), grading (intermediate, 35.52%), size (10.1-25 mm, 31.14%), and lymph node (sentinel negative, 38.93%). Sixty-five miRSNPs underwent allelic analysis in two independent case-control cohorts (GU-CCQ-BB, 377 cases and 521 controls; GRC-BC, 267 cases and 201 controls) using a MassARRAY platform. GU-CCQ-BB, GRC-BC, and the combined populations (BC-CA) (644 cases and 722 controls) underwent independent statistical analysis. In the GU-CCQ-BB population, miRSNPs TET2-rs7670522, ESR1-rs2046210, FGFR2-rs1219648, MIR210-rs1062099, HIF1A-rs2057482, and CASC16-rs4784227 were found to be associated with increased BC risk (P ≤ .05). Only ESR1-rs2046210 was also significantly associated (P ≤ .05) when replicated in the GRC-BC and BC-CA populations. No significant association was correlated with BC-clinical features (pathological types and ER/PR/HER2 status); however, MIR210-rs1062099 was found to be significantly associated (P ≤ .05) with age (>50 years) in the GU-CCQ-BB cohort. This is the first study to demonstrate the association of MIR210-rs1062099 and TET2-rs7670522 with increased BC risk. Additionally, four previously reported SNPs (ESR1-rs2046210, FGFR2-rs1219648, HIF1A-rs2057482, and CASC16-rs4784227) were confirmed as BC risk variants. Replication and functional studies in larger Caucasian cohorts are necessary to elucidate the role of these miRSNPS in the development of BC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: Clinical breast cancer

endocrine therapy(46)

Breast Cancer Endocrine Therapy Promotes Weight Gain With Distinct Adipose Tissue Effects in Lean and Obese Female Mice.
Breast cancer survivors treated with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors report weight gain and have an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, especially if they have obesity. These patient experiences are inconsistent with, preclinical studies using high doses of tamoxifen which reported acute weight loss. We investigated the impact of breast cancer endocrine therapies in a preclinical model of obesity and in a small group of breast adipose tissue samples from women taking tamoxifen to understand the clinical findings. Mature female mice were housed at thermoneutrality and fed either a low-fat/low-sucrose (LFLS) or a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Consistent with the high expression of Esr1 observed in mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue, endocrine therapy was associated with adipose accumulation and more preadipocytes compared with estrogen-treated control mice but resulted in fewer adipocyte progenitors only in the context of HFHS. Analysis of subcutaneous adipose stromal cells revealed diet- and treatment-dependent effects of endocrine therapies on various cell types and genes, illustrating the complexity of adipose tissue estrogen receptor signaling. Breast cancer therapies supported adipocyte hypertrophy and associated with hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance, particularly in obese females. Current tamoxifen use associated with larger breast adipocyte diameter only in women with obesity. Our translational studies suggest that endocrine therapies may disrupt adipocyte progenitors and support adipocyte hypertrophy, potentially leading to ectopic lipid deposition that may be linked to a greater type 2 diabetes risk. Monitoring glucose tolerance and potential interventions that target insulin action should be considered for some women receiving life-saving endocrine therapies for breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Endocrinology

receptor ar(43)

Steroidogenic Enzyme and Steroid Receptor Expression in the Equine Accessory Sex Glands.
The expression pattern and distribution of sex steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes during development of the equine accessory sex glands has not previously been described. We hypothesized that equine steroidogenic enzyme and sex steroid receptor expression is dependent on reproductive status. Accessory sex glands were harvested from mature stallions, pre-pubertal colts, geldings, and fetuses. Expression of mRNA for estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2), androgen receptor (AR), 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3βHSD), P450,17α hydroxylase, 17-20 lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19) were quantified by RT-PCR, and protein localization of AR, ER-α, ER-β, and 3βHSD were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of AR, ESR2, CYP17, or CYP19 in the ampulla was not different across reproductive statuses (
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Animals : an open access journal from MDPI

dna methylation(41)

Antitumoral activity of liraglutide, a new DNMT inhibitor in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and second leading cause of death. Despite the discovery of many antineoplastic drugs for BC, the current therapy is not totally efficient. In this study, we investigated the potential of repurposing the well-known diabetes type II drug liraglutide to modulate epigenetic modifications in BC cells lines in vitro and in vivo via Ehrlich mice tumors models. The in vitro results revealed a significant reduction on cell viability, migration, DNMT activity and displayed lower levels of global DNA methylation in BC cell lines after liraglutide treatment. The interaction between liraglutide and the DNMT enzymes resulted in a decrease profile of DNA methylation for the CDH1, ESR1 and ADAM33 gene promoter regions and, consequently, increased their gene and protein expression levels. To elucidate the possible interaction between liraglutide and the DNMT1 protein, we performed an in silico study that indicates liraglutide binding in the catalytic cleft via hydrogen bonds and salt bridges with the interdomain contacts and disturbs the overall enzyme conformation. The in vivo study was also able to reveal that liraglutide and the combined treatment of liraglutide and paclitaxel or methotrexate were effective in reducing tumor growth. Moreover, the modulation of CDH1 and ADAM33 mouse gene expression by DNA demethylation suggests a role for liraglutide in DNMT activity in vivo. Altogether, these results indicate that liraglutide may be further analysed as a new adjuvant treatment for BC.
Publication Date: 2021-09-18
Journal: Chemico-biological interactions

esr1 pvuii(31)

Influence of ESR1 Variants on Clinical Characteristics and Fibromyalgia Syndrome in Turkish Women.
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain. It is more common in women than in men, and sex hormones may play a role in this predominance. Therefore, this research investigated the clinical findings among Turkish females and whether Estrogen-α (ESR1) gene variants are associated with FMS. A total of 219 individuals were enrolled in this study. ESR1 variants (PvuII/XbaI) were genotyped using PCR-RFLP methods. The results of the analyses were evaluated for statistical significance. There was a significant association between the ESR1 PvuII and FMS risk among Turkish women. The ESR1 PvuII CC genotype and C allele were higher in the patients than those in the controls (p=0.021, p=0.007, respectively). A more statistically significant association was observed between the patients and the controls in terms of TT genotype vs. TC+CC genotypes (p=0.022). Also, there was a statistically significant association between the patients and the controls in terms of TT+TC genotype vs. CC genotypes (p =0.028). There was no significant association between patients and the control group concerning the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of ESR1 XbaI (p>0.05). Headache was seen more frequently in the XbaI GA genotype (p=0.025), while XbaI AA genotype was associated with dysmenorrhea in patients with FMS (p=0.041). Our results indicate that ESR1 PvuII/XbaI variants are possibly effective in the development of FMS and some clinical features.
Publication Date: 2020-09-12
Journal: Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets

genes esr1(29)

Intra- and Interlaboratory Reproducibility of the Sensitivity to Endocrine Therapy Assay for Stage II/III Breast Cancer.
The sensitivity to endocrine therapy assay (SET2,3) predicts treatment outcomes in Stage II-III breast cancer. SET2,3 measures transcription related to estrogen and progesterone receptors (SETER/PR index) and the molecular subtype (RNA4: ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, AURKA) from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. We designed a nested study across 3 pathology laboratories, each testing 60 breast cancers twice in controlled batches. Laboratories macrodissected and directly homogenized the unstained FFPE tumor sections, then performed the QuantiGene Plex bead-based hybridization assay. SET2,3 was calculated centrally using predefined statistical R-scripts and applying pre-defined cutpoints. Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was calculated from continuous measurements and Kappa statistic from categorical results. A mixed-effects model estimated contributions to bias (fixed effects) and variance (random effects) from the replicated design. Intralaboratory (CCC 0.96-0.99) and interlaboratory (CCC 0.98-0.99) SET2,3 results were concordant, with rates of agreement for high/low categorization within (Kappa 0.83-0.93) and between laboratories (Kappa 0.87-0.88). The relative contributions to overall variance of SET2,3 measurements were 96.90% from biological differences between cancers, 0.67% from interlaboratory variability, and 2.44% from residual causes including intralaboratory replicates. Similar results were obtained with SETER/PR, the baseline prognostic index calculated using pathological or clinical tumor and nodal staging information, and the 4 individual genes (ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and AURKA). Intra- and interpathology laboratory measurements of SET2,3 and its components were highly reproducible when tested from FFPE tumor sections.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Clinical chemistry

signaling pathway(24)

A network pharmacology approach to investigate the anticancer mechanism of cinobufagin against hepatocellular carcinoma via downregulation of EGFR-CDK2 signaling.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers with high mortality and poor prognosis, and the investigation on new approaches and effective drugs for HCC therapy is of great significance. In our study, we demonstrate that treatment with cinobufagin, a natural compound isolated from traditional chinese medicine Chansu, reduces proliferation and the colony formation capacity of the human hepatoma cells in vitro, in addition, cinobufagin induces mitotic arrest in human hepatoma cells. The results of a network pharmacology-based analysis show that EGFR, MAPK1, PTK2, CDK2, MAPK3, ESR1, CDK1, PRKCA, AR, and CSNK2A1 are the key targets involved in the anti-tumor activities of cinobufagin, additionally, several signaling pathways such as proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, HIF-1 signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway are identified as the potential pathways involved in the inhibitory effects of cinobufagin against HCC. Furthermore, at the molecular level, we find that cinobufagin decreases EGFR expression and CDK2 activity in human hepatoma cells. Inhibition of EGFR or CDK2 expression could not only suppress the growth of tumor cells but also enhance the inhibitory effects of cinobufagin on the proliferative potential of human hepatoma cells. We also demonstrate that EGFR positively regulates CDK2 expression. Furthermore, EGFR inhibitor gefitinib or CDK2 inhibitor CVT-313 synergistically enhances anticancer effects of cinobufagin in human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that cinobufagin may exert antitumor effects by suppressing EGFR-CDK2 signaling, and our study suggests that cinobufagin may be a novel, promising anticancer agent for the treatment of HCC.
Publication Date: 2021-10-08
Journal: Toxicology and applied pharmacology

beta esr2(24)

Ontogeny of estrogen receptors in human male and female fetal reproductive tracts.
This paper reviews and provides new observations on the ontogeny of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) in developing human male and female internal and external genitalia. Included in this study are observations on the human fetal uterine tube, the uterotubal junction, uterus, cervix, vagina, penis and clitoris. We also summarize and report on the ontogeny of estrogen receptors in the human fetal prostate, prostatic urethra and epididymis. The ontogeny of ESR1 and ESR2, which spans from 8 to 21 weeks correlates well with the known "window of susceptibility" (7-15 weeks) for diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced malformations of the human female reproductive tract as determined through examination of DES daughters exposed in utero to this potent estrogen. Our fairly complete mapping of the ontogeny of ESR1 and ESR2 in developing human male and female internal and external genitalia provides a mechanistic framework for further investigation of the role of estrogen in normal development and of abnormalities elicited by exogenous estrogens.
Publication Date: 2020-11-13
Journal: Differentiation; research in biological diversity

95 confidence(23)

The variant T allele of PvuII in ESR1 gene is a prognostic marker in early breast cancer survival.
The PvuII (rs2234693) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for the estrogen receptor-1 (ESR1), has been found associated with outcome in tamoxifen treated patients with early hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this SNP is a predictive marker for tamoxifen efficacy or a prognostic marker for breast cancer outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic potential of this SNP in postmenopausal early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant exemestane. Dutch postmenopausal patients randomised to 5 years of adjuvant exemestane of whom tissue was available (N = 807) were selected from the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial database. The SNP rs2234693 in the ESR1 gene was genotyped on DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue using Taqman assays and related to the primary endpoint disease-free survival (DFS) and secondary endpoint overall survival (OS). Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression analysis. In total 805 patients were included in the analyses (median follow up of 5.22 years) and genotypes were obtained in 97% of the samples. The variant T allele of PvuII in ESR1 (rs2234693) was associated with a better DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 0.689, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.480-0.989, P = 0.044) in univariate analysis only, and a better OS in both univariate (HR 0.616, 95%, CI 0.411-0.923, P = 0.019) and multivariate analyses (HR 0.571, 95% CI 0.380-0.856, P = 0.007), consistent with a prognostic rather than a predictive drug response effect. Variation of PvuII in the ESR1 gene is related to OS in postmenopausal, early HR + breast cancer patients treated with exemestane in the TEAM study. Variation in the ESR1 gene may therefore be a prognostic marker of early breast cancer survival, and warrants further research.
Publication Date: 2021-02-07
Journal: Scientific reports

receptor-α esr1(23)

Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) endometrial explant cryopreservation and in vitro culture.
Assisted reproduction of endangered equids, such as Persian onagers (Equus hemionus onager), is vital for species conservation. Little is known about Persian onager reproductive functions, including functions of the uterine endometrium. Recently, successful cryopreservation of the domestic mare endometrium was reported, but there is no information on cryo-sensitivity or in vitro culture of endometrial tissues of any non-domestic equid. In the present study, endometrial explants from Persian onagers were cryopreserved and cultured in vitro for 5 days. There was no difference between endometrial explants when 10% and 20% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used for cryopreservation. Cell viability and structural integrity were comparable to fresh tissue. Abundance of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) mRNA transcript in endometrial explants was less in most treatment groups compared to the fresh tissue control. There was variation in E-cadherin mRNA abundance in endometrial explants among treatment groups with some treatment groups having a lesser abundance compared to the control group. The abundance of Ki67 mRNA transcript of endometrial explants was not different among treatment groups compared to the control group. Results indicate that DMSO is a suitable cryoprotectant for the Persian onager endometrium, and in vitro culture in a liquid-gas interface can maintain Persian onager endometrial explants for as long as 5 days. Findings allow for a greater understanding of reproductive mechanisms in vitro for this endangered species and other domestic equids including donkeys.
Publication Date: 2020-05-16
Journal: Animal reproduction science

esr1 rs2234693(22)

Estrogen Receptor 1 Gene (ESR1) rs2234693 Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk in Saudi Women.
The present study aimed to determine the role of ESR1 gene rs2234693 T/C polymorphism (PvuII) in the susceptibility to breast cancer and to assess the association of this polymorphism within presence or absence of estrogen, progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and with premenopausal and postmenopausal age in Saudi women. The study was a retrospective case-control study. In this study, 137 breast cancer and 98 normal breast paraffin embedded tissues were included.  DNA was extracted and ESR1 gene rs2234693 T/C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Genetic association tests were performed. The results showed no significant difference in distribution of rs2234693 T/C alleles and genotypes frequencies. Odd ratios (95% CI) were 1.15 (0.8-1.66) and 1.06 (0.5-1.98) and p values were 0.51 and 0.87, respectively. The genotypes and alleles frequencies within different hormonal receptors groups and ages of menopause showed no signification association   (odd ratios were less or close to 1 and p values > 0.05). ESR1 gene rs2234693 T/C polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to breast cancer and different menopausal, hormone receptors, and HER2 status in breast cancer patients.  Further analysis using larger sample size will be needed to assess the association of different polymorphisms within the gene and risk of breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2020-11-29
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP

esr1 erα(18)

Acetylation of histone H3K27 signals the transcriptional elongation for estrogen receptor alpha.
As approximately 70% of human breast tumors are estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive, estrogen and ERα play essential roles in breast cancer development. By interrupting the ERα signaling pathway, endocrine therapy has been proven to be an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we identified a mechanism by which Transcription Start Site (TSS)-associated histone H3K27 acetylation signals the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to regulate transcriptional elongation of the ESR1 (ERα) gene. SEC interacts with H3K27ac on ESR1 TSS through its scaffold protein AFF4. Depletion of AFF4 by siRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 dramatically reduces expression of ESR1 and its target genes, consequently inhibiting breast cancer cell growth. More importantly, a AFF4 mutant which lacks H3K27ac interaction failed to rescue ESR1 gene expression, suggesting H3K27 acetylation at TSS region is a key mark bridging the transition from transcriptional initiation to elongation, and perturbing SEC function can be an alternative strategy for targeting ERα signaling pathway at chromatin level.
Publication Date: 2020-04-09
Journal: Communications biology

receptor-alpha esr1(18)

Experimental models of endocrine responsive breast cancer: strengths, limitations, and use.
Breast cancers characterized by expression of estrogen receptor-alpha; ESR1) represent approximately 70% of all new cases and comprise the largest molecular subtype of this disease. Despite this high prevalence, the number of adequate experimental models of ER+ breast cancer is relatively limited. Nonetheless, these models have proved very useful in advancing understanding of how cells respond to and resist endocrine therapies, and how the ER acts as a transcription factor to regulate cell fate signaling. We discuss the primary experimental models of ER+ breast cancer including 2D and 3D cultures of established cell lines, cell line- and patient-derived xenografts, and chemically induced rodent models, with a consideration of their respective general strengths and limitations. What can and cannot be learned easily from these models is also discussed, and some observations on how these models may be used more effectively are provided. Overall, despite their limitations, the panel of models currently available has enabled major advances in the field, and these models remain central to the ability to study mechanisms of therapy action and resistance and for hypothesis testing that would otherwise be intractable or unethical in human subjects.
Publication Date: 2021-09-18
Journal: Cancer drug resistance (Alhambra, Calif.)

confidence interval(17)

Palbociclib in combination with endocrine therapy versus capecitabine in hormonal receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2-negative, aromatase inhibitor-resistant metastatic breast cancer: a phase III randomised controlled trial-PEARL.
Palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (ET) is the standard treatment of hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, its efficacy has not been compared with that of chemotherapy in a phase III trial. PEARL is a multicentre, phase III randomised study in which patients with aromatase inhibitor (AI)-resistant MBC were included in two consecutive cohorts. In cohort 1, patients were randomised 1 : 1 to palbociclib plus exemestane or capecitabine. On discovering new evidence about estrogen receptor-1 (ESR1) mutations inducing resistance to AIs, the trial was amended to include cohort 2, in which patients were randomised 1 : 1 between palbociclib plus fulvestrant and capecitabine. The stratification criteria were disease site, prior sensitivity to ET, prior chemotherapy for MBC, and country of origin. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) in cohort 2 and in wild-type ESR1 patients (cohort 1 + cohort 2). ESR1 hotspot mutations were analysed in baseline circulating tumour DNA. From March 2014 to July 2018, 296 and 305 patients were included in cohort 1 and cohort 2, respectively. Palbociclib plus ET was not superior to capecitabine in both cohort 2 [median PFS: 7.5 versus 10.0 months; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.50] and wild-type ESR1 patients (median PFS: 8.0 versus 10.6 months; aHR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.87-1.41). The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities with palbociclib plus exemestane, palbociclib plus fulvestrant and capecitabine, respectively, were neutropenia (57.4%, 55.7% and 5.5%), hand/foot syndrome (0%, 0% and 23.5%), and diarrhoea (1.3%, 1.3% and 7.6%). Palbociclib plus ET offered better quality of life (aHR for time to deterioration of global health status: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.53-0.85). There was no statistical superiority of palbociclib plus ET over capecitabine with respect to PFS in MBC patients resistant to AIs. Palbociclib plus ET showed a better safety profile and improved quality of life.
Publication Date: 2021-01-02
Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology

× 10(17)

Japanese GWAS identifies variants for bust-size, dysmenorrhea, and menstrual fever that are eQTLs for relevant protein-coding or long non-coding RNAs.
Traits related to primary and secondary sexual characteristics greatly impact females during puberty and day-to-day adult life. Therefore, we performed a GWAS analysis of 11,348 Japanese female volunteers and 22 gynecology-related phenotypic variables, and identified significant associations for bust-size, menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea) severity, and menstrual fever. Bust-size analysis identified significant association signals in CCDC170-ESR1 (rs6557160; P = 1.7 × 10
Publication Date: 2018-06-02
Journal: Scientific reports

pgr erbb2(12)

ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67 mRNA expression in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer: results from ABCSG Trial 6.
The purpose of this study was to assess the concordance of real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67 messenger RNA (mRNA) in breast cancer tissues with central immunohistochemistry (IHC) in women treated within the prospective, randomized Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) Trial 6. We evaluated ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67 mRNA expression by Xpert® Breast Cancer STRAT4 (enables cartridge-based RT-qPCR detection of mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues) and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 protein expression by IHC [in situ hybridization (ISH) for HER2 IHC 2+] in 1115 surgical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients of ABCSG Trial 6. Overall percent agreement (concordance), positive percent agreement (sensitivity), and negative percent agreement (specificity) between STRAT4 and IHC were determined for each marker. The primary objective of the study was concordance between STRAT4 mRNA measurements of ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67 with central reference laboratory IHC (and ISH for HER2 IHC 2+ cases). Time to distant recurrence was analyzed by Cox models. All performance targets for ER, PR, and Ki67 were met. For HER2, the negative percent agreement target but not the positive percent agreement target was met. Concordance between STRAT4 and IHC was 98.9% for ER, 89.9% for PR, 98.2% for HER2, and 84.8% for Ki67 (excluding intermediate IHC 10%-20% staining). In univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses, all four biomarkers tested by either STRAT4 RT-qPCR or by central IHC (ISH) had a comparable time to distant recurrence indicating similar prognostic value. With the exception of HER2, we demonstrate high concordance between centrally assessed IHC and mRNA measurements of ER, PR, and Ki67 as well as a high correlation of the two methods with clinical outcome. Thus, mRNA-based assessment by STRAT4 is a promising new tool for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: ESMO open

esr2 pgr(11)

Role of gene polymorphisms related to progesterone elevation in women undergoing long GnRH agonist protocols.
Can single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of genes related to progesterone synthesis predict the risk of premature serum progesterone elevation in women undergoing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocols for ovarian stimulation? A total of 765 women were divided into high progesterone and normal progesterone groups according to progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration, with the 75th percentile as the threshold between the group. Associations were analysed of genetic information from whole exome sequencing and the clinical characteristics of the two groups to identify the relationship between SNP, haplotypes and serum progesterone elevation. Among 40 common SNP of eight genes (FSHR, LHCGR, ESR1, ESR2, PGR, HSD3B1, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1), no statistical significance between the high and normal progesterone groups was identified in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies after multiple test correction to adjust the false discovery rate (P Polymorphism in genes involved in enzymes or hormone receptors in the progesterone synthesis pathway may have a role in modifying risk of serum progesterone elevation.
Publication Date: 2020-03-25
Journal: Reproductive biomedicine online


ESR1 gene variants affect FSHR-depended risk of fibrocystic mastopathy in infertile women.
The infertile women have an increased risk of developing benign and malignant tumors, in particular, breast cancer. Most studies have examined the role of gene variants in the risk of developing breast cancer, but there is little evidence of genetic risk factors for benign tumors. To assess the combined genetic risk of developing mastopathy in women with FSHR (rs6165, rs6166) and ESR1 (rs9340799, rs2234693) gene variants. The study included 87 infertile women (45 with concomitant fibrocystic mastopathy and 42 without mastopathy). For rs9340799 and rs2234693 variants of the ESR1 gene, we did not find any significant differences in the distribution of genotypes in infertile women with or without mastopathy. In patients with mastopathy, there was a reliable increase in the frequency of 307Ala/Ala and 680Ser/Ser genotypes of FSHR gene (χ Our study did not find an association of ESR1 gene variants with the risk of developing of mastopathy in infertile women although heterozygous variants of the ESR1 gene enhanced the "protective" effect of FSHR gene variants and reduced the risk of mastopathy.
Publication Date: 2021-10-01
Journal: Experimental oncology


Estrogen Hormone Is an Essential Sex Factor Inhibiting Inflammation and Immune Response in COVID-19.
Although vaccines have been evaluated and approved for SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention, there remains a lack of effective treatments to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients already infected with SARS-CoV-2. The global data of COVID-19 showed that men have a higher mortality rate than women. We further observed that the proportion of mortality of female increases starting from around the age of 55 significantly. Thus, sex is an essential factor associated with COVID-19 mortality, and sex related genetic factors could be interesting mechanisms and targets for COVID-19 treatment. However, the associated sex factors and signaling pathways remain unclear. Here, we propose to uncover the potential sex associated factors using systematic and integrative network analysis. The unique results indicated that estrogen hormones (ER), e.g., estrone and estriol, 1) interacting with ESR1/2 receptors, 2) can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 caused inflammation and immune response signaling in host cells; and 3) estrogen hormone is associated with the distinct fatality rates between male and female COVID-19 patients. Specifically, a high level of estradiol protecting young female COVID-19 patients, and estrogen loss to an extremely low level in females after about 55 years of age causing the increased fatality rate of women. In conclusion, estrogen hormone, interacting with ESR1/2 receptors, is an essential sex factor that protects COVID-19 patients by inhibiting inflammation and immune response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Medications perturb the down-stream of ESR1/ESR2 to inhibit the inflammation and immune response can be effective or synergistic combined with other existing drugs for COVID-19 treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-10-07
Journal: Research square


Novel insights into the regulation of LATS2 kinase in prehierarchical follicle development via the Hippo pathway in hen ovary.
The large tumor suppressor homolog 2 (LATS2), one of the central regulators of the Hippo/MST signaling pathway, plays an inhibitory role in ovarian function and different organ development and growth in mammals. However, the exact roles and molecular regulatory mechanisms of LATS2 in chicken granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, differentiation, and steroidogenesis required for ovarian follicle growth, development, and follicular selection remain poorly understood. This study demonstrated that the LATS2 protein was predominantly localized in the oocytes and undifferentiated GCs of various-sized prehierarchical follicles of the hen ovary. Expression levels of LATS2 mRNA were significantly higher in the smaller follicles (from 1 mm to 5.9 mm in diameter) and the GCs than in the larger follicles (6-6.9 mm in diameter up to F1). Moreover, we found that high levels of LATS2 suppressed the GC proliferation and the mRNA and protein expression of the genes serving as the biomarkers of follicle selection, GC differentiation, and steroidogenesis in the GCs, including FSHR, STAR, CYP11A1, ESR1, and ESR2. Interestingly, the LATS2 significantly downregulated SAV1 and YAP1 transcripts but upregulated the expression of STK3, STK4, TEAD1, and TEAD3 mRNA. Our study provided evidences that STK3/4-LATS2-YAP1 not only acts as a suppressor of cell proliferation and follicle selection but also LATS2 may serve as an enhancer in cell proliferation and follicle selection through the YAP1-LATS2 and the LATS2-STK3/4 feedback loops by promoting the expression of TEAD1/3 but inhibiting the expression of SAV1 transcripts in the prehierarchical follicle development of hen ovary. Taken together, the present study initially revealed the pivotal role and molecular mechanism of LATS2 in the regulation of hen prehierarchical follicle development by controlling GC proliferation, differentiation, steroidogenesis, and follicle selection via the Hippo/MST signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-10-15
Journal: Poultry science


Androgen receptor splice variant-7 in breast cancer: clinical and pathologic correlations.
Androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor therapy is a developing treatment for AR-positive breast cancer (BC) with ongoing clinical trials. AR splice variant-7 (AR-V7) is a truncated variant of AR that leads to AR inhibitor therapy resistance in prostate cancer; recent studies have identified AR-V7 in BC and theorized that AR-V7 can have a similar impact. This study assessed the prevalence and clinicopathologic features associated with AR-V7 in a large BC cohort. BC samples were evaluated by MSK-Fusion targeted RNAseq for AR-V7 detection and MSK-IMPACT targeted DNAseq, including triple-negative tumors with no driver alteration and estrogen receptor-positive/ESR1 wildtype tumors progressing on therapy. Among 196 primary and metastatic/recurrent cases (196 RNAseq, 194DNAseq), 9.7% (19/196) were AR-V7 positive and 90.3% (177/196) AR-V7 negative. All AR-V7 positive BC were AR-positive by immunohistochemistry (19/19). The prevalence of AR-V7 by receptor subtype (N = 189) was: 18% (12/67) in ER-/PgR-/HER2-negative BC, 3.7% (4/109) in ER-positive/HER2-negative BC, and 15.4% (2/13) in HER2-positive BC; AR-V7 was detected in one ER-positive/HER2-unknown BC. Apocrine morphology was observed in 42.1% (8/19) of AR-V7 positive BC and 3.4% (6/177) AR-V7 negative BC (P < 0.00001). Notably, AR-V7 was detected in 2 primary BC and 7 metastatic/recurrent BC patients with no prior endocrine therapy. We conclude that positive AR IHC and apocrine morphology are pathologic features that may indicate testing for AR-V7 is warranted in both primary and metastatic BC in the appropriate clinical context. The study findings further encourage the assessment of AR-V7 as a predictive biomarker for AR antagonist benefit in ongoing clinical BC trials.
Publication Date: 2021-10-02
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc


Survival analysis in breast cancer using proteomic data from four independent datasets.
Breast cancer clinical treatment selection is based on the immunohistochemical determination of four protein biomarkers: ESR1, PGR, HER2, and MKI67. Our aim was to correlate immunohistochemical results to proteome-level technologies in measuring the expression of these markers. We also aimed to integrate available proteome-level breast cancer datasets to identify and validate new prognostic biomarker candidates. We searched studies involving breast cancer patient cohorts with published survival and proteomic information. Immunohistochemistry and proteomic technologies were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated to validate discriminative power. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were calculated to assess prognostic power. False Discovery Rate was computed to correct for multiple hypothesis testing. We established a database integrating protein expression data and survival information from four independent cohorts for 1229 breast cancer patients. In all four studies combined, a total of 7342 unique proteins were identified, and 1417 of these were identified in at least three datasets. ESR1, PGR, and HER2 protein expression levels determined by RPPA or LC-MS/MS methods showed a significant correlation with the levels determined by immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001). PGR and ESR1 levels showed a moderate correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.17, p = 0.0399). An additional panel of candidate proteins, including apoptosis-related proteins (BCL2,), adhesion markers (CDH1, CLDN3, CLDN7) and basal markers (cytokeratins), were validated as prognostic biomarkers. Finally, we expanded our previously established web tool designed to validate survival-associated biomarkers by including the proteomic datasets analyzed in this study ( ). In summary, large proteomic studies now provide sufficient data enabling the validation and ranking of potential protein biomarkers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Scientific reports


Pharmacokinetic study of Tangwang Mingmu granule for the management of diabetic retinopathy based on network pharmacology.
Tangwang Mingmu granule (TWMM), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus. To establish a method to select target compounds from herbs for a pharmacokinetic study using network pharmacology, which could be applied in clinical settings. First, UPLC/Q Exactive Q-Orbitrap and GCMS 2010 were used to determine the non-volatile and volatile ingredients of TWMM. Based on the identified compounds, network pharmacology was used to screen the key compounds and targets of TWMM in the treatment of DR. Based on the compound-target-pathway network and identification of components emigrant into blood, the potential compound markers Ninety and forty-five compounds were identified by UPLC-MS and GC-MS, respectively. Based on the network pharmacology, nine compounds with a degree value above 15 were screened and implied that these compounds are the most active in DR treatment. Moreover, criteria of degree value greater than 7 were applied, and PTGS2, NOS2, AKT1, ESR1, TNF, and MAPK14 were inferred as the core targets in treating DR. After identification of components absorbed into blood, luteolin and formononetin were selected and used to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of TWMM after its oral administration. The reported strategy provides a method that combines ingredient profiling, network pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics to determine luteolin and formononetin as the pharmacokinetic markers of TWMM. This strategy provides a clinically relevant methodology that allows for the screening of pharmacokinetic markers in Chinese medicines.
Publication Date: 2021-10-01
Journal: Pharmaceutical biology


Genomic profiling using the UltraSEEK panel identifies discordancy between paired primary and breast cancer brain metastases and an association with brain metastasis-free survival.
Brain metastases (BM) are an increasing clinical problem. This study aimed to assess paired primary breast cancers (BC) and BM for aberrations within TP53, PIK3CA, ESR1, ERBB2 and AKT utilising the MassARRAY® UltraSEEK® technology (Agena Bioscience, San Diego, USA). DNA isolated from 32 paired primary BCs and BMs was screened using the custom UltraSEEK® Breast Cancer Panel. Data acquisition and analysis was performed by the Agena Bioscience Typer software v4.0.26.74. Mutations were identified in 91% primary BCs and 88% BM cases. TP53, AKT1, ESR1, PIK3CA and ERBB2 genes were mutated in 68.8%, 37.5%, 31.3%, 28.1% and 3.1% respectively of primary BCs and in 59.4%, 37.5%, 28.1%, 28.1% and 3.1% respectively of BMs. Differences in the mutations within the 5 genes between BC and paired BM were identified in 62.5% of paired cases. In primary BCs, ER-positive/HER2-negative cases harboured the most mutations (70%), followed by ER-positive/HER2-positive (15%) and triple-negatives (13.4%), whereas in BMs, the highest number of mutations was observed in triple-negative (52.5%), followed by ER-positive/HER2-negative (35.6%) and ER-negative/HER2-positive (12%). There was a significant association between the number of mutations in the primary BC and breast-to-brain metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0001) but not with overall survival (p = 0.056). These data demonstrate the discordancy between primary BC and BM, as well as the presence of clinically important, actionable mutations in BCBM. The UltraSEEK® Breast Cancer Panel provides a tool for BCBM that can be utilised to direct more tailored treatment decisions and for clinical studies investigating targeted agents.
Publication Date: 2021-09-10
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment


Congenital disorders of estrogen biosynthesis and action.
Estrogens regulate pubertal development and reproductive function in women, spermatogenesis in men, and bone turnover and metabolic conditions in individuals of both sexes. Estradiol, the major estrogen in humans, is synthesized from testosterone by the action of aromatase and exerts its effects though binding to estrogen receptors. Germline loss- and gain-of-function variants in CYP19A1, the gene encoding aromatase, lead to aromatase deficiency and aromatase excess syndrome, respectively. Germline loss-of-function variants in ESR1, the gene encoding estrogen receptor α, are known to cause of estrogen insensitivity/resistance. In addition, rare variants in ESR1 and ESR2 have been implicated in various disease phenotypes. Clinical studies on these rare endocrine disorders provided clues to understand the biological functions of estrogens in the human body. This review introduces the genetic basis, phenotypes, and current management procedures of congenital disorders in estrogen biosynthesis and action.
Publication Date: 2021-09-21
Journal: Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism


Estrogen Receptor 1 Gene rs22346939 and rs9340799 Variants are Associated with Major Depressive Disorder and its Clinical Features.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a major health problem worldwide. Estrogen interacts with the central nervous system and has been shown to affect anxiety and depressive behavior. Estrogen mediates its effects by connecting its receptors, estrogen receptors 1 and 2. The purpose of this case-control study was to clarify the association between MDD risk and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene variants. This study included 245 individuals (125 MDD patients and 120 healthy controls). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technics were used for genotypingESR1XbaII (rs9340799) and PvuII (rs22346939) variants. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of genotype frequencies of the ESR1PvuII (-397 T > C) variant (p = 0.049) but not for the XbaII (-351 A > G) variant (p > 0.05). However, a correlation was observed between MDD and ESR1XbaII variant after male participants were excluded (p = 0.028). Also, the high pain score of MDD patients was associated with the ESR1PvuII variant, especially in female patients (p = 0.021). According to the results of combined genotype analysis, AA-TC combined genotype was correlated with a decreased risk in patients with MDD compared to controls (p = 0.016), while the combined genotype of GGCC was associated with increased risk in the patients with MDD compared to controls (p = 0.042). The two ESR1 variants were associated with MDD risk and its features in both individual and combined forms.
Publication Date: 2021-06-02
Journal: Current neurovascular research


Co-exposure to BPA and DEHP enhances susceptibility of mammary tumors via up-regulating Esr1/HDAC6 pathway in female rats.
Breast cancer (BrCa) as one of the major malignancies threatening women's health worldwide occurs due to the genetic and environmental interactions. Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can elevate the risk of breast cancer. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are known as two typical EDCs. Although several studies have implied that there appear to have adverse effects of exposure to BPA or DEHP alone on breast development, no study to date has demonstrated the exact toxic effect of combined exposure to DEHP and BPA on breast tumorigenesis. In the present study, we performed an in vivo experiment including 160 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, in which 80 rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups including control group given to normal diet, DEHP (150 mg/kg body weight/day), BPA (20 mg/kg body weight/day), and DEHP (150 mg/kg body weight/day) combined with BPA (20 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 30 weeks. Additionally, a DEN/MNU/DHPN (DMD)-induced carcinogenesis animal model was also established to assess their effect on tumor promotion. Namely, the other 80 SD rats were separated into another 4 groups: in addition to DMD initiation each group treated with vehicle, DEHP, BPA and the combination of BPA and DEHP respectively. Our data demonstrated that BPA alone or in combination with DEHP may induce hyperplasia of mammary glands, including the proliferation of ductal epithelial cells and an increase in the number of lobules and acinus after a 30-week exposure. Notably, co-exposure to DEHP and BPA increased the incidence and reduced the latency of mammary tumor, which seemed to enhance the susceptibility of carcinogens-induced tumor. Mechanistically, our results supported the hypothesis that exposure to BPA and DEHP might promote breast cancer dependent on Esr1 and HDAC6 as pivotal factors, and further lead to the activation of oncogene c-Myc. Our study suggested that BPA combined with DEHP facilitate the occurrence of mammary tumors, which contributed to advance our understanding in the complex effects of compound exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety


Bisphenol A, S, and F exposure, ESR1/2, CAT, and eNOS genetic polymorphisms, and the risk of hypertension.
While bisphenol A (BPA) exposure was inconsistently associated with hypertension risk, little is known about whether its alternatives bisphenol S and F (BPS and BPF) have similar hypertensive effects. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies on the genetic susceptibility to the hypertensive effects of bisphenols are scarce. We conducted a case-control study in 439 pairs of hypertension cases and matched controls. Urinary bisphenols concentrations were measured to characterize the internal exposure levels. The genotyping of ESR1/2, CAT, and eNOS was performed by a multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction. BPA exposure was positively associated with hypertension risk. Carriers of rs2234693 C allele in ESR1 were associated with increased hypertension risk. Significant associations of BPA exposure with increased hypertension risk were suggested in individuals with the major allele of rs1256049 in ESR2, rs769214 in CAT, and rs1799983 in eNOS. Besides, rs4755374 in CAT might modify the association of BPA exposure with hypertension risk. Individuals with specific genotypes in ESR1/2, CAT, and eNOS might be more susceptible to the hypertensive effects of BPA.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety


Gene expression analysis of invasive breast carcinoma yields differential patterns in luminal subtypes of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and new biomarkers are needed for more accurate classification and prediction of prognosis. The goal of this study is to assess the expression of breast cancer classification genes, to identify new molecular signatures in different intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer and to correlate their expression with different clinical variables. The study included 84 female patients newly diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer at the outpatient clinic at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt. Detection of 17 breast cancer classification genes was done using RT-PCR in tumor and normal tissues. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, and Ki67 expression were assessed using IHC assay for intrinsic subtyping. Combined expression of FOXA1 and GATA3 was statistically higher in luminal subtypes in comparison to non-luminal subtypes. In Luminal A subtype; GRB7, EGFR, PTGS2, ID1, and KRT5 were significantly downregulated. FOXA1 and GATA3 were significantly upregulated in luminal B subtype, where EGFR and PTGS2 were significantly downregulated. While ESR1, EGFR, KRT5 and PTGS2 showed significantly low expression in tumor tissue in Her2 enriched subtype, TFF3 was significantly downregulated in triple negative subtype. GATA3 and FOXA1 expression exhibited significant correlation with tumor grade. Furthermore, GATA3, FOXA1, ESR1, and ID1 were also correlated significantly with staging of the tumor. Combined expression of ESR1, FOXA1 and GATA3 represents a molecular signature of luminal subtypes. Long term follow-up is needed to investigate the prognostic effect of breast cancer classification genes found in this study.
Publication Date: 2021-09-14
Journal: Annals of diagnostic pathology


A combination of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, estrogen receptor alpha and human papillomavirus status predicts outcomes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma following chemoradiotherapy.
Previous work indicates that mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) status provide prognostic utility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We sought to assess whether the combination of these three objective biomarkers could provide better prognostication for patients who receive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). 156 patients (75 oral cavity, 44 oropharyngeal and 37 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cancer patients) who received CRT as primary therapy or adjuvant to surgery were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MATH values were calculated from TCGA whole exome sequencing data, HPV status was determined by mapping RNA-seq reads, and ERα expression was determined from ESR1 mRNA expression data. Relationships among clinical characteristics were assessed by Fisher exact tests. Relationships of clinical characteristics and MATH, ERα and HPV to overall survival were evaluated with Cox proportional hazard analysis. The combination of poor-prognosis values for all 3 biomarkers (high MATH, low ERα and HPV-negative status) has a predicted hazard ratio of 28.2 (95% CI: 5.4-148, p = 0.0001) versus the combination of their good-prognosis values (low MATH, high ERα and HPV-positive status). Addition of N classification to the combination of these three biomarkers added further prognostic value. A combination of these three biomarkers, readily determined on pretreatment biopsy specimens, can stratify patients into prognostic groups. Their application potentially offers numerous opportunities to optimize treatment or explore de-intensification strategies in the clinical trial setting.
Publication Date: 2021-07-02
Journal: Oral oncology


High gene expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors is associated with decreased t cell infiltration in patients with NSCLC.
Prior studies have demonstrated that signaling via the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) may affect prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The precise impact of hormone signaling on clinical outcomes in NSCLC, especially in the context of immune checkpoint blockade, remains unclear. We obtained RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to determine mRNA expression levels of ESR1 (ER-α), ESR2 (ER-β), PGR (PR), CYP19A1 (aromatase), and immune-related genes. Tumor infiltration by activated T cells was predicted based on expression of immune metagenes. High levels of both ESR1 and PGR were associated with significantly decreased tumor infiltration by CD4+ and CD8+ activated T cells. CYP19A1 expression was associated with decreased CD4+ but not CD8+ T cell infiltration. There were no significant differences based on ESR2. These findings persisted after stratifying patients based on sex and tumor histology. In addition, increased ESR1 was associated with high gene expression of immune checkpoint markers, while increased PGR was associated with high levels of TGF-β genes. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, ESR1, PGR, TGFB1, and the total number of somatic variants were identified as independent factors predicting T cell infiltration. Increased gene expression of ER-α and PR was associated with decreased activated T cell infiltration in patients with NSCLC. The relevance of hormone receptor status should be validated clinically, including in the context of immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Publication Date: 2021-03-13
Journal: Cancer treatment and research communications


Assessment of Correlation between Craniofacial Proportions and Genetic Indicators.
To assess correlation among craniofacial proportions and genetic indicators using estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). A total of 128 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with age range 12-18 years of both genders were included. Lateral cephalogram of all subjects were taken. Vertical and sagittal parameters were studied on these cephalogram. Saliva was used for DNA extraction. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for assessment of genetic indicators in ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) and in ESR2 (rs4986938 and rs1256049). The mean SN cranial base was 68.4 mm, ANB (sagittal jaw relationship) was 2.8°, Ptm-A maxillary length was 46.2 mm, Go-Pg (mandibular body length) was 68.2 mm, Co-Gn (total mandibular length) was 112.8 mm, lower anterior facial height (ANS-Me) was 58.4 mm, N-Me (total anterior facial height) was 108.4 mm, lower posterior facial height (Co-Go) was 58.7 mm, and S-Go (total posterior facial height) was 72.4 mm. It was found that rs4986938 in ESR2 was linked with S-N dimension, with patients having CC genotype possessing negative correlation values ( Evaluation of ESR1 and ESR2 may show role of genetic markers in disparity of craniofacial dimensions in individuals. This study provides an outlay and supports the concept of possible correlation between genetic markers and craniofacial measurements.
Publication Date: 2021-02-12
Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice


Transcriptional alterations of protein coding and noncoding RNAs in triple negative breast cancer in response to DNA methyltransferases inhibition.
DNA methylation plays a crucial role in multiple cellular processes such as gene regulation, chromatin stability, and genetic imprinting. In mammals, DNA methylation is achieved by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). A number of studies have associated alterations in DNMT activity to tumorigenesis; however, the exact role of DNMTs in shaping the genome in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still being unraveled. In the current study, we employed two DNMT inhibitors (Decitabine and 5-Azacytidine), two TNBC models (MDA-MB-231 and BT-549) and whole transcriptome RNA-Seq and characterized the transcriptional alterations associated with DNMT inhibition. Colony forming unit (CFU), flow cytometry, and fluorescent microscopy were used to assess cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell death, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used for network and pathway analyses. Remarkably, DNMT inhibition induced the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum response to stress, response to unfolder protein, as well as cobalamin metabolic processes. In contrast, suppression of cellular processes related to cell cycle and mitosis were hallmarks of DNMT inhibition. Concordantly, DNMT inhibition led to significant inhibition of TNBC cell proliferation, G2-M cell cycle arrest and induction of cell death. Mechanistically, DNMT inhibition activated TP53, NUPR1, and NFkB (complex) networks, while RARA, RABL6, ESR1, FOXM1, and ERBB2 networks were suppressed. Our data also identified the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptional portrait associated with DNMT inhibition and identified 25 commonly upregulated and 60 commonly downregulated lncRNAs in response to Decitabine and 5-Azacytidinec treatment in both TNBC models. TPT1-AS1 was the most highly induced (6.3 FC), while MALAT1 was the most highly suppressed (- 7.0 FC) lncRNA in response to DNMT inhibition. Taken together, our data provides a comprehensive view of transcriptome alterations in the coding and noncoding transcriptome in TNBC in response to DNMT inhibition.
Publication Date: 2021-09-28
Journal: Cancer cell international


Effects of Resveratrol on Receptor Expression and Serum Levels of Estrogen and Progesterone in the Rat Endometritis Model.
Endometritis is characterized by inflammation of the endometrial lining that leads to reduced reproductive potential. Restoring the impaired hormonal balance is an important component of endometritis treatment. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on estrogen and progesterone hormone status in endometritis. Mature female Sprague Dawley rats were used, and endometritis was induced by intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli. Animals were treated with resveratrol alone or combined with marbofloxacin. Compared to the non-treated endometritis group, resveratrol treatment reduced serum oestradiol levels, increased serum progesterone levels, enhanced estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the uterine stroma, decreased ESR1 gene expression, and raised ESR2 gene expression. Resveratrol administration combined with marbofloxacin also increased ER expression in the uterine gland and progesterone receptor expression in the uterine epithelium. The findings of this study suggest that the actions of resveratrol on progesterone levels and estrogen receptor expression might be responsible for its beneficial effect in rats with endometritis.
Publication Date: 2021-05-10
Journal: Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)


Use of the Xpert Breast Cancer STRAT4 for Biomarker Evaluation in Tissue Processed in a Developing Country.
Breast cancer immunohistochemistry (IHC) biomarker testing is limited in low-resource settings, and an alternative solution is needed. A point-of-care mRNA STRAT4 breast cancer assay for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67, for use on the GeneXpert platform, has been recently validated on tissues from internationally accredited laboratories, showing excellent concordance with IHC. We evaluated STRAT4/IHC ESR1/estrogen receptor (ER), ERBB2/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) concordance rates of 150 breast cancer tissues processed in Rwanda, with undocumented cold ischemic and fixation time. Assay fail/indeterminate rate was 2.6% for ESR1 and ERBB2. STRAT4 agreement with ER IHC was 92.5% to 93.3% and 97.8% for HER2, for standard (1x) and concentrated (4x) reagent-conserving protocols, respectively. Eleven of 12 discordant ER/ESR1 cases were ESR1- negative/IHC-positive. These had low expression of ER by IHC in mostly very small tumor areas tested (7/12; <25 mm2). In two of three discordant HER2 cases, the STRAT4-ERBB2 result correlated with the subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) result. STRAT4-ERBB2 results in 9 of 10 HER2-IHC equivocal cases were concordant with FISH. The STRAT4 assay is an alternative for providing quality-controlled breast cancer biomarker data in laboratories unable to provide quality and/or cost-efficient IHC services.
Publication Date: 2021-05-30
Journal: American journal of clinical pathology


KRT20, KRT5, ESR1 and ERBB2 Expression Can Predict Pathologic Outcome in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical Cystectomy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.
Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) that underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to radical cystectomy (RC) show improved overall survival, especially those with pathological complete response (pCR). The response to NAC according to molecular subtypes has been discussed. Molecular targets such as estrogen receptor (ESR1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2) play an important role in breast cancer management and have also been associated with urothelial bladder cancer. Hence, the association of Keratin 20 (KRT20) Keratin 5 (KRT5), ESR1, and ERBB2 mRNA expression in MIBC at transurethral resection (TUR-BT) with pCR after NAC was analyzed retrospectively. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue samples from TUR-BT of 54 patients (42 males, 12 females, median age of 64) with MIBC were analyzed for KRT20, KRT5, ESR1, and ERBB2 mRNA expression. After NAC, RC was performed, and the specimens were evaluated for pCR. Statistical analyses comprised nonparametric and chi
Publication Date: 2021-06-03
Journal: Journal of personalized medicine


Comparison of two targeted ultra-deep sequencing technologies for analysis of plasma circulating tumour DNA in endocrine-therapy-resistant breast cancer patients.
There is growing interest in the application of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a sensitive tool for monitoring tumour evolution and guiding targeted therapy in patients with cancer. However, robust comparisons of different platform technologies are still required. Here we compared the InVisionSeq™ ctDNA Assay with the Oncomine™ Breast cfDNA Assay to assess their concordance and feasibility for the detection of mutations in plasma at low (< 0.5%) variant allele fraction (VAF). Ninety-six plasma samples from 50 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive metastatic breast cancer (mBC) were profiled using the InVision Assay. Results were compared to the Oncomine assay in 30 samples from 26 patients, where there was sufficient material and variants were covered by both assays. Longitudinal samples were analysed for 8 patients with endocrine resistance. We detected alterations in 59/96 samples from 34/50 patients analysed with the InVision assay, most frequently affecting ESR1, PIK3CA and TP53. Complete or partial concordance was found in 28/30 samples analysed by both assays, and VAF values were highly correlated. Excellent concordance was found for most genes, and most discordant calls occurred at VAF < 1%. In longitudinal samples from progressing patients with endocrine resistance, we detected consistent alterations in sequential samples, most commonly in ESR1 and PIK3CA. This study shows that both ultra-deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can detect genomic alternations even at low VAFs in plasma samples of mBC patients. The strong agreement of the technologies indicates sufficient reproducibility for clinical use as prognosic and predictive biomarker.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment


A network pharmacology approach to determine the underlying mechanisms of action of Yishen Tongluo formula for the treatment of oligoasthenozoospermia.
Oligoasthenozoospermia is a complex disease caused by a variety of factors, and its incidence is increasing yearly worldwide. Yishen Tongluo formula (YSTLF), created by Professor Sun Zixue, has been used to treat oligoasthenozoospermia in clinical practice for several decades with a good therapeutic effect. However, the chemical and pharmacological profiles of YSTLF remain unclear and need to be elucidated. In this study, a network pharmacology approach was applied to explore the potential mechanisms of YSTLF in oligoasthenozoospermia treatment. All of the compounds in YSTLF were retrieved from the corresponding databases, and the bioactive ingredients were screened according to their oral bioavailability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL). The potential proteins of YSTLF were obtained from the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP) database and the Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-TCM) database, while the potential genes of oligoasthenozoospermia were obtained from the GeneCards database and the DisGeNET database. The STRING database was used to construct an interaction network according to the common targets identified by the online tool Venny for YSTLF and oligoasthenozoospermia. The topological characteristics of nodes were visualized and analyzed through Cytoscape. Biological functions and significant pathways were determined and analyzed using the Gene Ontology (GO) knowledgebase, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Metascape. Finally, the disease-formula-compound-target-pathway network was constructed by Cytoscape. A total of 106 bioactive ingredients and 134 potential targets from YSTLF were associated with oligoasthenozoospermia or considered to be therapeutically relevant. Pathway analysis indicated that the PI3K/Akt, MAPK and apoptosis signaling pathways were significant pathways involved in oligoasthenozoospermia. In conclusion, the current study expounded the pharmacological actions and molecular mechanisms of YSTLF in treating oligoasthenozoospermia from a holistic viewpoint. The potential molecular mechanisms were closely related to antioxidative stress, antiapoptosis and anti-inflammation, with TNF, CCND1, ESR1, NFKBIA, NR3C1, MAPK8, and IL6 being possible targets. This network pharmacology prediction may offer a helpful tool to illustrate the molecular mechanisms of the Chinese herbal compound YSTLF in oligoasthenozoospermia treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-06-22
Journal: PloS one


Application of multivariate statistical analysis and network pharmacology to explore the mechanism of Danggui Liuhuang Tang in treating perimenopausal syndrome.
Danggui Liuhuang Tang (DGLHT), first recorded in "Lan-Shi-Mi-Cang" (written in 1276 AD), is a famous classical formula. In 2018, it was listed in the Catalogue of Ancient Classic and Famous Prescriptions (First Batch) formulated by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the National Medical Products Administration. Perimenopausal syndrome (PMS) refers to a series of syndromes with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and neuropsychological symptoms. The treatment of PMS demands non-hormonal drugs. Natural products are considered to be effective substitutes for the treatment of PMS. It is reported that DGLHT has not only good therapeutic effects but also higher safety and fewer side effects in the treatment of PMS. However, the mechanism of DGLHT in treating PMS is not clear. To explore the chemical basis and the mechanism of DGLHT in treating PMS. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyze the difference of components in supernatant before and after compatibility of DGLHT based on LC-MS data. The qualitative analysis was performed on the precipitate formed in the decocting process using LC-MS while the quantitative analysis on the potential markers using LC-UV. Then, the potential markers were analyzed by network pharmacology. The regulatory effect of DGLHT on FSH, P and E Five potential markers, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine and baicalin, were screened from the analysis of compounds in the supernatant. Four complexes, composed of potential marker monomers, were identified in the sediment, including two that have not been reported. The key targets of potential markers include TNF, NOS3, EGFR, ESR1, PTGS2, AR, CDC42 and RPS6KB1. The top signaling pathways include the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathway. DGLHT could call back the hormone levels of P and E DGLHT active ingredients, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine and baicalin contribute a lot to the therapeutic effect. And DGLHT takes effect by regulating hormones secreted by the ovary.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology


[Active components and action mechanism of Shenmai Injection in treatment of atrial fibrillation based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].
This study aims to explore the active components and molecular mechanism of Shenmai Injection in the treatment of atrial fibrillation(AF) based on the application of network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. The chemical components of single herbs of Shenmai Injection were collected from TCMSP and TCMID, with the standard chemical name and PubChem CID(referred to as CID) obtained from PubChem database. The active components were screened using SwissADME, and their targets were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. Targets related to AF treatment were identified using GeneCards, OMIM, and other databases. Venn diagram was constructed using Venny 2.1 to obtain the intersection targets. The single herb-active component-potential target network was constructed using Cytoscape, and the clusterProfiler R function package was used to perform the gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of intersection targets was generated based on the STRING database. The hub target protein was identified by visualization using Cytoscape, and then docked to its reverse-selected active components. The analysis showed that there were 65 active components with 681 corresponding targets in Shenmai Injection, 2 798 targets related to AF treatment, and 235 intersection targets involving 2 549 GO functions and 153 KEGG pathways. Finally, hub target proteins, including RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha(PIK3 CA), and estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), were screened out by PPI network visualization. The molecular docking was performed for 39 active components screened out in reverse, among which 30 active components de-monstrated high affinity. Among them, homoisoflavanoids CID 10871974, CID 5319742, and CID 10361149 had stronger affinity docking with AKT1. This study preliminarily indicates that Shenmai Injection treats AF through multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways. Homoisoflavonoids of Ophiopogon japonicus are its important active components, which target AKT1 to regulate metabolism, inflammation, and apoptosis in AF treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica


Clinicopathologic and Genomic Landscape of Breast Carcinoma Brain Metastases.
Among patients with breast carcinoma who have metastatic disease, 15%-30% will eventually develop brain metastases. We examined the genomic landscape of a large cohort of patients with breast carcinoma brain metastases (BCBMs) and compared it with a cohort of patients with primary breast carcinomas (BCs). We retrospectively analyzed 733 BCBMs tested with comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) and compared them with 10,772 primary breast carcinomas (not-paired) specimens. For a subset of 16 triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC)-brain metastasis samples, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed concurrently. A total of 733 consecutive BCBMs were analyzed. Compared with primary BCs, BCBMs were enriched for genomic alterations in TP53 (72.0%, 528/733), ERBB2 (25.6%, 188/733), RAD21 (14.1%, 103/733), NF1 (9.0%, 66/733), BRCA1 (7.8%, 57/733), and ESR1 (6.3%,46/733) (p < .05 for all comparisons). Immune checkpoint inhibitor biomarkers such as high tumor mutational burden (TMB-high; 16.2%, 119/733); high microsatellite instability (1.9%, 14/733); CD274 amplification (3.6%, 27/733); and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like mutational signature (5.9%, 43/733) were significantly higher in the BCBM cohort compared with the primary BC cohort (p < .05 for all comparisons). When using both CGP and PD-L1 IHC, 37.5% (6/16) of patients with TNBC brain metastasis were eligible for atezolizumab based on PD-L1 IHC, and 18.8% (3/16) were eligible for pembrolizumab based on TMB-high status. We found a high prevalence of clinically relevant genomic alterations in patients with BCBM, suggesting that tissue acquisition (surgery) and/or cerebrospinal fluid for CGP in addition to CGP of the primary tumor may be clinically warranted. This study found a high prevalence of clinically relevant genomic alterations in patients with breast carcinoma brain metastasis (BCBM), suggesting that tissue acquisition (surgery) and/or cerebrospinal fluid for comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) in addition to CGP of the primary tumor may be clinically warranted. In addition, this study identified higher positive rates for FDA-approved immunotherapy biomarkers detected by CGP in patients with BCBM, opening a possibility of new on-label treatments. Last, this study noted limited correlation between tumor mutational burden and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC), which shows the importance of testing patients with triple-negative BCBM for immune checkpoint inhibitor eligibility with both PD-L1 IHC and CGP.
Publication Date: 2021-06-10
Journal: The oncologist


Suspended solids-associated toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW), which contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and numerous other potential contaminants, is a complex wastewater produced during the recovery of tight hydrocarbon resources. Previous studies on HF-FPW have demonstrated various toxicological responses of aquatic organisms as consequences of combined exposure to high salinity, dissolved organic compounds and particle/suspended solids-bound pollutants. Noteworthy is the lack of studies illustrating the potentially toxic effects of the FPW suspended solids (FPW-SS). In this study, we investigated the acute and sublethal toxicity of suspended solids filtered from six authentic FPW sample collected from two fracturing wells, using a sediment contact assay based on early-life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). PAHs profiles and acute toxicity tests provided initial information on the toxic potency of the six samples. Upon exposure to sediment mixture at two selected doses (1.6 and 3.1 mg/mL), results showed adverse effects in larval zebrafish, as revealed by increased Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Transcriptional alterations were also observed in xenobiotic biotransformation (ahr, pxr, cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1, cyp1c2, cyp3a65, udpgt1a1, udpgt5g1), antioxidant response (sod1, sod2, gpx1a, gpx1b) and hormone receptor signaling (esr1, esr2a, cyp19a1a, vtg1) genes. The results demonstrated that even separated from the complex aqueous FPW mixture, FPW-SS can induce toxicological responses in aquatic organisms' early life stages. Since FPW-SS could sediment to the bottom of natural wetland acting as a continuous source of contaminants, the current findings imply the likelihood of long-term environmental risks of polluted sediments on aquatic ecosystems due to FPW spills.
Publication Date: 2021-06-26
Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)


Detection of Multiple Breast Cancer ESR1 Mutations on an ISFET Based Lab-on-Chip Platform.
ESR1 mutations are important biomarkers in metastatic breast cancer. Specifically, p.E380Q and p.Y537S mutations arise in response to hormonal therapies given to patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC). This paper demonstrates the efficacy of an ISFET based CMOS integrated Lab-on-Chip (LoC) system, coupled with variant-specific isothermal amplification chemistries, for detection and discrimination of wild type (WT) from mutant (MT) copies of the ESR1 gene. Hormonal resistant cancers often lead to increased chances of metastatic disease which leads to high mortality rates, especially in low-income regions and areas with low healthcare coverage. Design and optimization of bespoke primers was carried out and tested on a qPCR instrument and then benchmarked versus the LoC platform. Assays for detection of p.Y537S and p.E380Q were developed and tested on the LoC platform, achieving amplification in under 25 minutes and sensitivity of down to 1000 copies of DNA per reaction for both target assays. The LoC system hereby presented, is cheaper and smaller than other standard industry equivalent technologies such as qPCR and sequencing. The LoC platform proposed, has the potential to be used at a breast cancer point-of-care testing setting, offering mutational tracking of circulating tumour DNA in liquid biopsies to assist patient stratification and metastatic monitoring.
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems


Expression Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNAs Related With FOXM1, GATA3, FOXA1 and ESR1 in Breast Tissues.
Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm among females. Estrogen receptor (ESR) signaling has a prominent impact in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Among the transcription factors associated with ESR signaling, FOXM1, GATA3, FOXA1 and ESR1 have been suggested as a candidate in the pathogenesis of this neoplasm. In the current project, we have designed an
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


Therapeutic Targets and Mechanism of Xingpi Jieyu Decoction in Depression: A Network Pharmacology Study.
Depression is a common mental disease that lacks effective therapeutic drugs with good curative effects and few adverse reactions. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the advantages of multiple components, multiple channels, and fewer adverse reactions in the treatment of depression. Although Xingpi Jieyu Decoction (XPJYD) demonstrates a good therapeutic effect on depression, the pharmacological mechanism underlying its antidepressant effect is still unclear. We used a network pharmacology strategy, including the construction and analysis of a complex drug-disease network, to explore the complex mechanism of XPJYD treatment of depression. In addition, molecular docking technology was used to preliminarily study the binding ability of the potential active components and core therapeutic targets of XPJYD. The network pharmacology results showed 42 targets of XPJYD that are involved in depression. PPI network analysis demonstrated that the top 10 core targets were AKT1, VEGFA, MAPK8, FOS, ESR1, NR3C1, IL6, HIF1A, NOS3, and AR. The molecular docking results showed that the binding energies of beta sitosterol with AR, FOS, AKT1, VEGFA, NR3C1, and NOS3 were less than -7.0 kcal·mol This study reflects the characteristics of the mechanism of action by which XPJYD treats depression, which includes multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways, and provides a biological basis for further verification and a novel perspective for drug discovery in depression.
Publication Date: 2021-07-15
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


DNA Methylation as a Diagnostic Biomarker for Malignant Mesothelioma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer type linked to asbestos exposure. Because of several intrinsic challenges, mesothelioma is often diagnosed in an advanced disease stage. Therefore, there is a need for diagnostic biomarkers that may contribute to early detection. Recently, the epigenome of tumors is being extensively investigated to identify biomarkers. This manuscript is a systematic review summarizing the state-of-the-art research investigating DNA methylation in mesothelioma. Four literature databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE) were systematically searched for studies investigating DNA methylation in mesothelioma up to October 16, 2020. A meta-analysis was performed per gene investigated in at least two independent studies. A total of 53 studies investigated DNA methylation of 97 genes in mesothelioma and are described in a qualitative overview. Furthermore, ten studies investigating 13 genes (APC, CDH1, CDKN2A, DAPK, ESR1, MGMT, miR-34b/c, PGR, RARβ, RASSF1, SFRP1, SFRP4, WIF1) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. In this meta-analysis, the APC gene is significantly hypomethylated in mesothelioma, whereas CDH1, ESR1, miR-34b/c, PGR, RARβ, SFRP1, and WIF1 are significantly hypermethylated in mesothelioma. The three genes that are the most appropriate candidate biomarkers from this meta-analysis are APC, miR-34b/c, and WIF1. Nevertheless, both study number and study objects comprised in this meta-analysis are too low to draw final conclusions on their clinical applications. The elucidation of the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of mesothelioma is desirable in the future, using a standardized genome-wide methylation analysis approach. The most informative CpG sites from this signature could then form the basis of a panel of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers that can be used for the diagnosis of mesothelioma and even for the screening of an at high-risk population of asbestos-exposed individuals.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer


Genomic profile of advanced breast cancer in circulating tumour DNA.
The genomics of advanced breast cancer (ABC) has been described through tumour tissue biopsy sequencing, although these approaches are limited by geographical and temporal heterogeneity. Here we use plasma circulating tumour DNA sequencing to interrogate the genomic profile of ABC in 800 patients in the plasmaMATCH trial. We demonstrate diverse subclonal resistance mutations, including enrichment of HER2 mutations in HER2 positive disease, co-occurring ESR1 and MAP kinase pathway mutations in HR + HER2- disease that associate with poor overall survival (p = 0.0092), and multiple PIK3CA mutations in HR + disease that associate with short progression free survival on fulvestrant (p = 0.0036). The fraction of cancer with a mutation, the clonal dominance of a mutation, varied between genes, and within hotspot mutations of ESR1 and PIK3CA. In ER-positive breast cancer subclonal mutations were enriched in an APOBEC mutational signature, with second hit PIK3CA mutations acquired subclonally and at sites characteristic of APOBEC mutagenesis. This study utilises circulating tumour DNA analysis in a large clinical trial to demonstrate the subclonal diversification of pre-treated advanced breast cancer, identifying distinct mutational processes in advanced ER-positive breast cancer, and novel therapeutic opportunities.
Publication Date: 2021-04-25
Journal: Nature communications