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Query Topic: Hyperprolactinemia

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case report(149)

Hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary metastasis: A case report.
Pituitary metastasis is an uncommon manifestation of systemic malignant tumors. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia and overall hypopituitarism caused by metastatic spread leading to the initial symptoms are rare. A 53-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of bilateral blurred vision, dizziness, polyuria, nocturia, severe fatigue and somnolence, decreased libido, and intermittent nausea and vomiting for more than 6 mo. During the last 7 d, the dizziness had worsened. Laboratory investigations revealed overall hypofunction of the pituitary gland, but the patient had an elevated serum prolactin level (703.35 mg/mL). Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the sellar region, accompanied by intratumoral hemorrhage and calcification. Thus, transnasal subtotal resection of the lesion in the sellar region was performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the resected lesion revealed metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma to the pituitary gland. Oral hydrocortisone (30 mg/d) and levothyroxine (25 mg/d) were given both pre- and postoperatively. Post-operatively, the clinical symptoms were significantly improved. However, 4 mo following the surgery, the patient succumbed due to multiple organ failure. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the markers of poor prognosis in patients with carcinoma that metastasizes to the pituitary gland. Exogenous hormone supplementation plays a positive role in relieving the symptoms of patients and improving quality of life.
Publication Date: 2021-01-30 00:00:00
Journal: World journal of clinical cases

systemic lupus erythematosus(78)

Autoimmune Hypophysitis With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) is a primary autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland, which usually presents as a mass in the sella turcica. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is another inflammatory disorder in which the immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues throughout the body. Although both diseases are autoimmune disorders, they rarely coexist, and the relationship between them is unclear. A 66-year-old man was evaluated at the endocrinology clinic because of worsening fatigue, anorexia, drowsiness, and leg oedema. Examination revealed alertness impairment and lower limb oedema. Laboratory tests showed anterior pituitary hypofunction. The treatment approach, with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents, resulted in long-term remission of symptoms of hypopituitarism and hyponatraemia. Our case demonstrates a potential association between AH and SLE. AH may need to be considered in the evaluation of SLE patients with headache, hyperprolactinemia, a pituitary mass, and hypopituitarism.
Publication Date: 2020-10-30 00:00:00
Journal: Frontiers in endocrinology


Common endocrine disorders associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome.
Screening of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women for hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia was suggested, because the undiagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia can aggravate the PCOS symptoms. To determine whether the insulin resistance (IR), hypothyroidism, and hyperprolactinemia are common endocrine disorders associated with the PCOS. One hundred and twenty PCOS women were compared to 120 non-PCOS controls in this study. Participants' day 2-3 hormonal profile and insulin resistance (IR) using the fasting glucose and fasting insulin were evaluated. Collected data were analyzed to determine whether the IR, hypothyroidism, and hyperprolactinemia are common endocrine disorders associated with the PCOS. TSH and prolactin were significantly high in PCOS women (6.4 ±4.2 and 934 ±102.3, respectively) than controls (3.5 ±3.3 and 445 ±77.5 mIU/ml, respectively) ( TSH and prolactin were significantly high in studied PCOS women, and 47.5% of the studied PCOS women had IR. The PCOS women had significantly higher odds and relative risks of IR, hypothyroidism, and hyperprolactinemia than controls. IR, hypothyroidism, and hyperprolactinemia are common endocrine disorders associated with PCOS.
Publication Date: 2021-01-26 00:00:00
Journal: Przeglad menopauzalny = Menopause review


Anti-hyperprolactinemic activities of aqueous extract of Uvaria chamae (P. Beauv) roots and associated biochemical changes in chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinemic female Wistar rats.
The age-long folkloric use of Uvaria chamae roots in the management of nipple discharge that is not related to pregnancy, childbirth or nursing but as a result of excessive production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) is yet to be substantiated with scientific data. This study investigated the anti-hyperprolactinemic activities of aqueous extract of Uvaria chamae roots (AEUCR) and associated biochemical changes in chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced hyperprolactinemic female Wistar rats A total of sixty female rats (207.40 ± 2.69 g) were assigned into 6 groups. Animals in Group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water only whilst the 7 days CPZ-treated female rats (to induce hyperprolactinemia) in groups B, C, D, E, and F also received distilled water, 2.5 mg/kg body weight of bromocriptine (reference drug), 0.71, 1.41 2.83 mg/kg body weight of AEUCR for 28 days. AEUCR contained a total of 15 (75%) amino acids with seven (46.67%) being essential amino acids and eight (53.33%) as non-essential amino acids. Administration of CPZ increased (p<0.05) the levels of prolactin and testosterone, and reduced (p<0.05) the levels of estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dopamine, triiodothyronine (T The study concluded that aqueous extract of Uvaria chamae root exhibited anti-hyperprolactinemic activity by restoring prolactin and dopamine levels and tubule-alveolar female pattern in female rats It also ameliorated CPZ-induced changes in the liver and kidney function indices. This study justifies the folkloric use of Uvaria chamae root in the management of abnormal discharge by the nipples that is unrelated to pregnancy, childbirth and nursing.
Publication Date: 2021-01-25 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

prolactin levels(151)

Status of Serum Prolactin Levels among Male Cohort in Infertile Couples.
Abnormalities of serum prolactin adversely impact the reproductive functions among infertile men. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the influence of prolactin abnormalities on gonadal functions of male cohorts of infertile unions in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a retrospective survey of 1845 males of infertile unions who presented in a health-care facility for reproductive endocrine evaluation following abnormal semen parameters between 2007 and 2018. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were evaluated among study cohorts. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 16.7% of the study cohorts with 9.6%, 5.0%, and 2.1% of mild, moderate, and severe grades, respectively. The hyperprolactinemic cohorts had depressed levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormones (LH), and total testosterone (TT) which worsened further with worsening grades of hyperprolactinemia. Inverse relationship of prolactin levels existed with FSH (crude β: -0.651; The present study revealed a high frequency of hyperprolactinemia among studied participants. Since the hyperprolactinemia was associated with a large number of cases with other endocrine and sexual dysfunctions, diagnostic and treatment protocols should include prolactin measurement and management during infertility evaluation in males.
Publication Date: 2020-12-31 00:00:00
Journal: International journal of applied & basic medical research


Pelvic floor parameters in women with gynecological endocrinopathies: a systematic review.
There is no pooled information about pelvic floor parameters (muscle assessment, disorders) of women with gynecologicaL endocrinopathies (eg. polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, premature ovarian insufficiency). Given that, a systematic review was performed on the Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Scielo and PEDro databases regarding the main gynecological endocrinopathies [polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and hyperprolactinemia (HPL)] since their inception to April 2020. Data quality assessment was made by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) adapted for cross-sectional studies. A total of 4,272 results were retrieved from all databases. After excluding duplicate results and screening by title and abstract, nine studies were selected for quantitative analysis. Seven studies were performed with women with PCOS and two studies with POI. Women with PCOS presented a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among obese women, a higher thickness of the levator ani muscle, and higher levels of muscle activity measured by surface electromyograph when compared to the control women. Regarding POI, there was no association with UI, FI, and POP. NOS found that the quality assessment for these selected studies ranged from 5 to 8. We concluded that higher pelvic muscle activity and volume were found in women with PCOS, with further studies needed to confirm this data. Literature was scant about POI, CAH, and HPL.
Publication Date: 2020-12-18 00:00:00
Journal: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira (1992)

serum prolactin(127)

Increase in serum prolactin levels in females improves the performance of spatial learning by promoting changes in the circuital dynamics of the hippocampus.
Beyond the direct physiological functions associated with motherhood in mammals, previous studies have suggested the potential role of prolactin (Prl) in distinct brain processes such as neuroprotection, neurogenesis, and stress responses. However, the cognitive influence of Prl remains unclear, particularly regarding the mechanisms of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of information in the brain. Using chronic implanted electrodes in freely moving female mice combined with behavioral tests, we investigated the rhythmic activity changes induced by Prl in a model of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Our results show that Prl improves the learning of a spatial memory task in the acquisition stage. The main variations at the circuitry level were in the theta frequency band (4-8 Hz and 8-12 Hz), marked by a faster change in oscillatory activity with no modifications to higher frequencies. These results show that Prl plays a significant role in the acquisition of information during learning of a spatial memory task, suggesting that an increase in Prl levels may induce changes in circuital network plasticity.
Publication Date: 2020-11-30 00:00:00
Journal: Psychoneuroendocrinology

polycystic ovary syndrome(53)

Abdelazim and Sakiyeva endocrinopathy associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: Case reports.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multiple endocrine disorder associated with significant reproductive and metabolic manifestations. A genetic variation at the level of aromatase enzyme gene (CYP19 gene) and/or androgen receptors with subsequent increased ovarian androgen was suggested in PCOS. Recently, researchers noted that 56% of the PCOS women had evidence of hypothyroidism and this report represents three case of PCOS with hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia (Abdelazim and Sakiyeva endocrinopathy associated with PCOS) to highlight the hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia as a common endocrinopathy associated with PCOS. PCOS women should be screened for the endocrinopathy associated with PCOS especially the hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia because the undiagnosed endocrinopathy aggravates the PCOS symptoms.
Publication Date: 2019-11-05 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of family medicine and primary care

pituitary adenomas(66)

Depression and Impulsivity Self-Assessment Tools to Identify Dopamine Agonist Side Effects in Patients With Pituitary Adenomas.
Publication Date: 2020-11-17 00:00:00
Journal: Frontiers in endocrinology


Predictors of the Response to Dopaminergic Therapy in Patients With Prolactinoma.
Withdrawal of dopamine agonist (DA) therapy in patients with prolactinoma who are controlled by a small dose of medication is recommended by several guidelines. So far, the likelihood of reaching withdrawal conditions based on baseline characteristics remains uncertain. We retrospectively examined early clinical, radiological, or biochemical features that may predict the likelihood of reaching withdrawal conditions in prolactinoma patients. Data were obtained in a single academic medical center in the United States from patients seen between 2000 and 2018. Using multiple logistic regression, we compared patients who reached withdrawal conditions with those who did not. Of 213 patients, 78 (36.6%) reached withdrawal conditions after at least 2 years of DA treatment. Initial maximal tumor diameter was significantly smaller in those who reached withdrawal conditions than in those who did not. Percent prolactin change at the first check from initiation of DA therapy and parasellar invasiveness were predictors of reaching withdrawal conditions. With constant independent variables, there was a 7% increase in odds for reaching withdrawal conditions for every 1% decrease in percent prolactin change at first check after DA therapy start (P = 0.0000). Parasellar invasion decreased the odds of reaching withdrawal conditions by 84% (P = 0.0000). DA remains a potential life-long treatment modality for most prolactinoma patients. Patients with parasellar invasiveness and low prolactin percent change from baseline to first prolactin check are more likely to require long-term treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-09-16 00:00:00
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism


Biochemical Remission after Cabergoline Withdrawal in Hyperprolactinemic Patients with Visible Remnant Pituitary Adenoma.
Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line therapy for prolactinomas. Although pituitary tumors often do not completely disappear, discontinuing DAs in patients with no visible tumor on magnetic resonance imaging is advised. To analyze biochemical remission after cabergoline (CAB) withdrawal in patients with visible remnant pituitary tumors. Retrospective cohort study. Severance Hospital. We identified 734 patients with prolactinomas undergoing CAB therapy for at least 12 months from 2005 to 2018. We selected 44 patients with prolactinomas who discontinued CAB with normal prolactin levels; they were receiving a minimal CAB dose but had visible remnant tumors. Median age at diagnosis was 32 (18-58) years, and most patients were women (95.45%). Median treatment duration was 32 (12-120) months. Of 44 patients, 33 continued to have normoprolactinemia, but 11 patients developed hyperprolactinemia after drug withdrawal within 26 (12-97) months. Age, sex, maximal and remnant tumor size, and treatment duration were similar between the groups. The initial prolactin level and chances of cavernous sinus (CS) invasion were higher in the recurrence group. CS invasion at diagnosis was associated with an increased recurrence rate. Although treatment response did not correlate with the initial and final signal intensity assessments, a significant decrease in T2 intensity ratio after 6 months of CAB therapy was observed in the remission group (P = .043). In patients with visible tumors, the presence of CS invasion at diagnosis may be an unfavorable predictor for biochemical remission after CAB discontinuation.
Publication Date: 2020-10-21 00:00:00
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism


Hypothalamitis: A Novel Autoimmune Endocrine Disease. A Literature Review and Case Report.
The relationship between the endocrine system and autoimmunity has been recognized for a long time and one of the best examples of autoimmune endocrine disease is autoimmune hypophysitis. A better understanding of autoimmune mechanisms and radiological, biochemical, and immunological developments has given rise to the definition of new autoimmune disorders including autoimmunity-related hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. However, whether hypothalamitis may occur as a distinct entity is still a matter of debate. Here we describe a 35-year-old woman with growing suprasellar mass, partial empty sella, central diabetes insipidus, hypopituitarism, and hyperprolactinemia. Histopathologic examination of surgically removed suprasellar mass revealed lymphocytic infiltrate suggestive of an autoimmune disease with hypothalamic involvement. The presence of antihypothalamus antibodies to arginine vasopressin (AVP)-secreting cells (AVPcAb) at high titers and the absence of antipituitary antibodies suggested the diagnosis of isolated hypothalamitis. Some similar conditions have sometimes been reported in the literature but the simultaneous double finding of lymphocytic infiltrate and the presence of AVPcAb so far has never been reported. We think that the hypothalamitis can be considered a new isolated autoimmune disease affecting the hypothalamus while the lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis can be a consequence of hypothalamitis with subsequent autoimmune involvement of the pituitary. To our knowledge this is the first observation of autoimmune hypothalamic involvement with central diabetes insipidus, partial empty sella, antihypothalamic antibodies and hypopituitarism.
Publication Date: 2020-10-27 00:00:00
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism


Pimozide augments bromocriptine lethality in prolactinoma cells and in a xenograft model via the STAT5/cyclin D1 and STAT5/Bcl‑xL signaling pathways.
As hyperprolactinemia is observed in patients with bromocriptine resistant prolactinoma, prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in the development of bromocriptine resistance. Since PRL primarily mediates cell survival and drug resistance via the Janus kinase‑2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5) signaling pathway, the STAT5 inhibitor, pimozide, may inhibit cell proliferation and reverse bromocriptine resistance in prolactinoma cells. In the present study, compared with bromocriptine or pimozide alone, the combination of pimozide and bromocriptine exerted enhanced reduction in cell growth and proliferation, and increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in bromocriptine resistant prolactinoma cells. A reduction in phospho‑STAT5, cyclin D1 and B‑cell lymphoma extra‑large (Bcl‑xL) expression levels were observed in cells treated with the combination of drugs. In addition, pimozide suppressed spheroid formation of human pituitary adenoma stem‑like cells, and reduced the protein expression of the cancer stem cell markers, CD133 and nestin. Pimozide did not exert any additional antitumor activity in STAT5‑knockdown primary culture cells of human bromocriptine resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, Pimozide combined with bromocriptine treatment significantly reduced human prolactinoma xenograft growth. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also demonstrated significant inhibition of cell proliferation and stem cell marker proteins in vivo. Collectively, these data indicated that pimozide treatment reduced prolactinoma growth by targeting both proliferating cells and stem cells, at least in part, by inhibiting the STAT5/Bcl‑xL and STAT5/cyclin D1 signaling pathways.
Publication Date: 2020-11-07 00:00:00
Journal: International journal of molecular medicine


Hyperprolactinemia and association with prolactinoma in transwomen receiving gender affirming hormone treatment.
Approximately 0.6% of the adult population identifies as transgender. Gender affirming hormone treatment (GAHT) is required by many to develop physical and psychological characteristics that align with their gender identity. Once started, GAHT is continued lifelong and at higher doses than conventionally used in the management of cis-gendered women. Hyperprolactinemia and pituitary lactotroph adenomas are a potential consequence of GAHT. Case series of three transfeminine women with hyperprolactinemia during gender affirming hormone treatment. We report two new cases of prolactinoma and one new case of marked hyperprolactinemia without pituitary adenoma associated with GAHT in transwomen at different stages of hormonal transition. Novel aspects of our case series include the first report of a prolactinoma in a transwoman associated with spironolactone and the alternate progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate and documentation of the transient changes in prolactin from baseline (prior to feminizing hormone ) in two transwomen which demonstrate that marked hyperprolactinemia develops early in the course of GAHT. Transgender women receiving GAHT may be at increased risk for prolactinoma. As the number of transwomen seeking GAHT continues to increase, hyperprolactinemia and GAHT-associated prolactinoma may become an increasingly important component of endocrine practice. Screening of prolactin levels in transwomen receiving GAHT could potentially prevent morbidity related to hyperprolactinemia and allow for early detection of prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas.
Publication Date: 2021-01-06 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrine


Increased prevalence of impulse control disorder symptoms in endocrine diseases treated with dopamine agonists: a cross-sectional study.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists (DAs) in neurological as well as endocrine conditions. Few studies have evaluated the neuropsychological effect of DAs in hyperprolactinemic patients, and these have reported a relationship between DAs and ICDs. Our objective was to screen for ICD symptoms in individuals with DA-treated endocrine conditions. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 132 patients with pituitary disorders treated with DAs (DA exposed), as well as 58 patients with pituitary disorders and no history of DA exposure (non-DA exposed). Participants responded to the full version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease (QUIP). Compared with the non-DA-exposed group, a higher prevalence of DA-exposed patients tested positive for symptoms of any ICD or related behavior (52% vs. 31%, p < 0.01), any ICD (46% vs. 24%, p < 0.01), any related behavior (31% vs. 17%, p < 0.05), compulsive sexual behavior (27% vs. 14%, p < 0.04), and punding (20% vs. 7%, p < 0.02) by QUIP. On univariate analysis, DA treatment was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of any ICD or related behavior [odds ratio (OR) 2.43] and any ICD (OR 2.70). In a multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for any ICD or related behavior were DA use (adjusted OR 2.22) and age (adjusted OR 6.76). Male gender was predictive of the risk of hypersexuality (adjusted OR 3.82). Despite the QUIP limitations, a clear sign of increased risk of ICDs emerges in individuals with DA-treated pituitary disorders. Our data contribute to the growing evidence of DA-induced ICDs in endocrine conditions.
Publication Date: 2020-12-15 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of endocrinological investigation

prolactin secretion(85)

Prolactin secretion pattern among female flight attendants.
Epidemiological observations indicate that female flight attendants are exposed to some reproductive and endocrine system disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of hyperprolactinemia among female flight attendants, and to identify factors affecting the secretion of prolactin in female flight attendants working within 1 time zone as well as on long-distance flights. The cross-sectional study covered 103 women aged 23-46 years. The study group (I) was divided into 2 subgroups: subgroup Ia comprising female flight attendants flying within 1 flight zone, and subgroup Ib composed of female flight attendants working on long-distance flights. The control group (II) included women of reproductive age who sought medical assistance due to marital infertility in whom the male factor was found to be responsible for problems with conception in the course of the diagnostic process. The assessment included: age, the body mass index, menstrual cycle regularity, the length of service, the frequency of flying, the prolactin, estradiol and progesterone concentrations, and the result of endometrial biopsy. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used to compile the data. The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in the female flight attendants (46%) was significantly higher than in the control group (9%), p < 0.001. Differences between subgroups Ia and Ib regarding individual concentrations were not statistically significant (p = 0.425). Hyperprolactinemia among the female flight attendants working ≥15 years is present slightly more often than in those working <15 years: 46% vs. 45% (p > 0.05). No significant difference was revealed in the secretion of prolactin between the study participants spending <60 h/month flying and those spending ≥60 h/month flying (p > 0.05). Hyperprolactinemia is more common in female flight attendants than in the general population. High values of prolactin concentration in flight attendants are rarely manifested in clinical symptoms. The frequency of flying and the length of service do not affect the development of hyperprolactinemia or the mean prolactin concentration.
Publication Date: 2020-12-18 00:00:00
Journal: International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health

pituitary adenoma(62)

Subclinical hemorrhagic nonfunctionning pituitary adenoma: pituitary gland function status, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, and outcomes.
How do subclinical hemorrhages into nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPAs) influence the hormonal status and surgical outcomes remains unclear, our study aim at evaluating its definite effects on pituitary gland function and surgical outcomes. All 103 consecutive patients who underwent initial endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for NFPAs resection from June 2016 to June 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, depending on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), operative and pathological findings, patients were divided into the non-hemorrhagic NFPAs group and the subclinical hemorrhagic NFPAs group. A comparative analysis was conducted between these two groups to investigate the effects of subclinical hemorrhages in NFPAs on pituitary endocrine function and surgical outcomes. The incidence of subclinical hemorrhage on NFPAs was 22.3% (23/103), which was more frequently observed in larger adenomas (28.9 ± 9.6 mm vs 19.2 ± 9.2 mm, Subclinical hemorrhage in NFPAs does not aggravate pituitary gland function. A surgical management strategy by EEA with the technology of extra-pseduocapusual dissection for the subclinical hemorrhagic NFPAs usually yields satisfactory endocrine and surgical outcomes, but it does not necessitate emergent tumor decompression.
Publication Date: 2020-09-09 00:00:00
Journal: British journal of neurosurgery


Dose-dependent effects of antipsychotics on efficacy and adverse effects in schizophrenia.
Antipsychotics are a cornerstone of pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Improved understanding of the dose-response relationship of antipsychotics in terms of efficacy, adverse effects, and mortality can help to optimize the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. This narrative literature review summarizes current evidence on the relationship of antipsychotic dose with efficacy, adverse effects, and mortality in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacy of antipsychotics generally appeared to be highly dose-dependent in the acute phase of schizophrenia, with each antipsychotic having a specific dose-response curve. The presence or absence of dose-dependency and its extent varied according to the type of adverse effect. Parkinsonism, hyperprolactinemia, weight gain, and neurocognitive impairment appeared to be dose-related. The following adverse effects might be at least somewhat dose-dependent: akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, thromboembolism, QT interval prolongation, anticholinergic adverse effects, somnolence, pneumonia, hip fracture, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In contrast, the relationships of antipsychotic dose with dyslipidemia, hypotension, seizure, sialorrhea, and neutropenia and agranulocytosis remained unclear due to mixed findings and/or limited data. Although a higher lifetime cumulative antipsychotic dose might contribute to higher mortality, it is still difficult to conclude whether mortality increases in a dose-dependent manner. These findings could help clinicians to optimize antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia by balancing risks and benefits in clinical practice. However, further investigations with larger sample sizes and more robust study designs that focus on each antipsychotic agent are needed.
Publication Date: 2021-01-09 00:00:00
Journal: Behavioural brain research


Pituitary Dysfunction in Patients with Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated with Radiotherapy.
To evaluate the endocrine abnormalities in intracranial germ cell tumors (iGCTs) treated with radio-therapy (RT), and to discuss the effects of RT on pituitary functions. Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with iGCTs who had received RT and endocrine follow-up in Huashan Hospital between January 2010 and July 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, consisting of 49 germinomas and 28 NGGCTs. The median follow-up period was 50.0 months. Fifty-one patients had radiologically proved suprasellar/sellar lesions. The male to female ratio was 62/15. The median endocrine follow-up period was 19 (4, 42) months. The median age at the last endocrine visit was 18 (16, 20) years old. The 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival were both 98.7%. The overall prevalence of central adrenal insufficiency (CAI), central hypothyroidism (CHT), central hypogonadism (CHG), hyperprolactinemia, and central diabetes insipidus (CDI) was 57.3%, 56%, 56.6%, 35.3%, and 52.1%, respectively, after RT. Patients having suprasellar/sellar lesions showed significantly higher post-therapeutic prevalence of hypopituitarism than those who didn't. Compared to that before RT, CAI, CHT, and CHG weren't significantly improved while the levels of prolactin and the prevalence of CDI declined significantly (P =.03 and.001). The radiation doses to pituitary and hypothalamus between those with and without CAI, CHT, and CHG weren't significantly different. The prevalence of hypopituitarism was high in iGCTs, especially in those with suprasellar/sellar involvement. The levels of prolactin and the prevalence of CDI declined significantly after RT. The hypopituitarism in iGCTs was mainly induced by tumor effects, and RT showed no additional damage to pituitary functions in our study. AFP = alpha-fetoprotein; CAI = central adrenal insufficiency; CDI = central diabetes insipidus; CHG = central hypogonadism; CHT = central hypothyroidism; CT = computed tomography; DA = dopamine; GH = growth hormone; βHCG = beta-human chorionic gonadotropin; HPA = hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal; HPG = hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal; HPL = hyperprolactinemia; HPT = hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid; iGCT = intracranial germ cell tumor; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1; NGGCT = nongerminomatous germ cell tumors; OS = overall survival; PFS = progression-free survival; PRL = hypothalamus-pituitary-prolactin; RT = radiotherapy.
Publication Date: 2021-01-21 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists


Hyperprolactinemia associated with psychiatric disorders.
Hyperprolactinemia may be associated with psychiatric disorders in the context of two scenarios: antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and psychiatric disorders arising from the medical treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Both situations are particularly common in psychiatric and endocrine clinical practice, albeit generally underestimated or unrecognized. The aim of this article is to provide tools for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia associated with psychiatric disorders to raise awareness, especially among psychiatrists and endocrinologists, so that these professionals can jointly focus on the appropriate management of this clinical entity. La hiperprolactinemia puede asociarse con trastornos psiquiátricos en el contexto de dos escenarios: la hiperprolactinemia inducida por antipsicóticos y trastornos psiquiátricos surgidos por el tratamiento médico de la hiperprolactinemia. Ambas situaciones son particularmente comunes en la práctica clínica psiquiátrica y endocrinológica, aunque generalmente subestimadas o inadvertidas. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar herramientas de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la hiperprolactinemia asociada a trastornos psiquiátricos, para concientizar particularmente a psiquiatras y endocrinólogos a enfocar en conjunto el manejo apropiado de esta entidad.
Publication Date: 2020-12-01 00:00:00
Journal: Medicina

female rats(47)

Estradiol Potentiates But Is Not Essential for Prolactin-Induced Suppression of Luteinizing Hormone Pulses in Female Rats.
Hyperprolactinemia causes infertility by suppressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Because effects of prolactin (PRL) on the hypothalamus usually require estradiol (E2), we investigated the role of E2 in PRL-induced suppression of LH pulses. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with oil or E2 (OVX + E2) received a subcutaneous injection of ovine PRL (oPRL) 30 minutes before serial measurement of LH in the tail blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. E2 reduced pulsatile LH secretion. oPRL at 1.5 mg/kg further reduced LH pulse frequency in OVX + E2 but had no effect in OVX rats. The higher dose of 6-mg/kg oPRL decreased LH pulse frequency in both OVX and OVX + E2 rats, whereas pulse amplitude and mean LH levels were lowered only in OVX + E2 rats. Kisspeptin immunoreactivity and Kiss1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were decreased in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of OVX + E2 rats. oPRL decreased both kisspeptin peptide and gene expression in the ARC of OVX rats but did not alter the already low levels in OVX + E2 rats. In the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, oPRL did not change kisspeptin immunoreactivity and, paradoxically, increased Kiss1 mRNA only in OVX + E2 rats. Moreover, oPRL effectively reduced Gnrh expression regardless of E2 treatment. In this study we used tail-tip blood sampling to determine the acute effect of PRL on LH pulsatility in female rats Our findings characterize the role of E2 in the PRL modulation of hypothalamic components of the gonadal axis and LH release, demonstrating that E2 potentiates but is not essential for the suppression of pulsatile LH secretion caused by hyperprolactinemia.
Publication Date: 2020-02-14 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrinology


Differential Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Testosterone Suppressive Agents in Transgender Women.
Suppression of testosterone secretion and/or action in transgender women using cyproterone acetate (CPA), spironolactone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GA) is achieved through various mechanisms. Our objective was to characterize possible differential effects of these compounds on metabolic and endocrine variables. We conducted a historic cohort study of transgender patients treated in a tertiary referral center. A longitudinal analysis of treatment naïve patients and a cross-sectional analysis of the whole cohort at the last visit was carried out. Among 126 transgender women (75 treatment-naïve), CPA was the predominant androgen suppressive therapy (70%), followed by spironolactone (17.6%), and GA (10.2%). Among those who were treatment-naïve, the increase in serum prolactin levels over baseline was greater at 3 months following CPA initiation (mean change 397 ± 335 mIU/L) than following spironolactone (20.1 ± 87 mIU/L) or GA initiation (64.6 ± 268 mIU/L; P = .0002). Prolactin levels remained higher in the CPA-treated group throughout follow-up, irrespective of estradiol levels, which were similar between the groups. A worse metabolic profile was associated with treatment with CPA than with spironolactone or GA. In the CPA compared to the spironolactone and GA groups, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were lower (47.1 ± 10.4, 54.4 ± 12.2, and 60.3 ± 13, respectively; P = .0076), while body mass index levels (24.3 ± 5, 21.7 ± 2.3, and 20.7±3.1 kg/m Treatment of transgender women with CPA was associated with hyperprolactinemia and a worse cardiovascular risk profile than treatment with spironolactone or GA. BMI = body mass index; CPA = cyproterone acetate; E2 = estradiol; FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone; GA = gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues; LH = luteinizing hormone.
Publication Date: 2021-01-21 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists


Reflex and reflective testing for macroprolactinaemia in cases of hyperprolactinaemia.
Publication Date: 2020-10-13 00:00:00
Journal: Annals of clinical biochemistry


Association between 8 P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) gene polymorphisms and antipsychotic drug-induced hyperprolactinaemia.
Hyperprolactinaemia, a common adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs, is primarily linked to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland. Certain antipsychotic drugs, such as, for example risperidone and paliperidone, are more likely to induce hyperprolactinaemia compared to others. This effect is probably caused by a relatively high blood/brain concentration ratio, a consequence of being a substrate of P-glycoprotein. Genetic variants of P-glycoprotein with changed functional activity might influence the potential of risperidone and paliperidone to cause hyperprolactinaemia as the altered blood/brain concentration ratio would lead to a reduced therapeutic drug level within essential brain areas making dose adaptations necessary. This increases exposure of dopamine D2 receptors within the pituitary gland. To investigate possible associations between MDR1/ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and antipsychotic drug-induced hyperprolactinaemia in Russian patients with schizophrenia and to determine possible differences between risperidone/paliperidone and other antipsychotic . In total, 446 patients with schizophrenia were included from 3 psychiatric hospitals in Siberia. Blood samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study design for DNA extraction and prolactin measurement. Associations between hyperprolactinaemia and 8 MDR1/ABCB1 gene-polymorphisms were assessed using logistic regression analysis accounting for covariates. The analysis was repeated in a patient subgroup using risperidone or paliperidone. We did not observe an association between any of the 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the prevalence of antipsychotic induced hyperprolactinaemia in the total patient population. However, in the risperidone/paliperidone subgroup, the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2032582 (G2677T) was found to be negatively associated with risperidone/paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinaemia. This study revealed a significant association between the ABCB1 gene polymorphism rs2032582 (G2677T) and risperidone/paliperidone-induced hyperprolactinaemia.
Publication Date: 2020-03-22 00:00:00
Journal: British journal of clinical pharmacology


Efficacy and safety of once-monthly Risperidone ISM
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Risperidone ISM
Publication Date: 2020-11-27 00:00:00
Journal: NPJ schizophrenia


Metabolic Effects of Aripiprazole and Olanzapine Multiple-Dose Treatment in a Randomised Crossover Clinical Trial in Healthy Volunteers: Association with Pharmacogenetics.
Aripiprazole and olanzapine are atypical antipsychotics. Both drugs can induce metabolic changes; however, the metabolic side effects produced by aripiprazole are more benign. The aim of the study was to evaluate if aripiprazole and olanzapine alter prolactin levels, lipid and glucose metabolism and hepatic, haematological, thyroid and renal function. Twenty-four healthy volunteers received a daily oral dose of 10 mg aripiprazole and 5 mg olanzapine tablets for 5 days in a crossover randomised clinical trial and were genotyped for 51 polymorphisms in 18 genes by qPCR. Drug plasma concentrations were measured by LC-MS. The biochemical and haematological analyses were performed by enzymatic methods. Olanzapine induced hyperprolactinaemia but aripiprazole did not. Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) Ser/Gly and ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) rs10280101, rs12720067 and rs11983225 polymorphisms and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) phenotype had an impact on plasma prolactin levels. C-peptide concentrations were higher after aripiprazole administration and were influenced by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 and rs13306278 polymorphisms. Olanzapine and the UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 (UGT1A1) rs887829 polymorphism were associated with elevated glucose levels. CYP3A poor metabolizers had increased insulin levels. Volunteers' weight decreased significantly during aripiprazole treatment and a tendency for weight gain was observed during olanzapine treatment. Triglyceride concentrations decreased as a result of olanzapine and aripiprazole treatment, and varied on the basis of CYP3A phenotypes and the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) rs4520 genotype. Cholesterol levels were also decreased and depended on 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A) rs6314 polymorphism. All hepatic enzymes, platelet and albumin levels, and prothrombin time were altered during both treatments. Additionally, olanzapine reduced the leucocyte count, aripiprazole increased free T4 and both decreased uric acid concentrations. Short-term treatment with aripiprazole and olanzapine had a significant influence on the metabolic parameters. However, it seems that aripiprazole provokes less severe metabolic changes. Clinical trial registration number (EUDRA-CT): 2018-000744-26.
Publication Date: 2020-12-06 00:00:00
Journal: Advances in therapy


Prolactin-to-Testosterone Ratio Predicts Pituitary Abnormalities in Mildly Hyperprolactinemic Men with Symptoms of Hypogonadism.
We aimed to identify predictor variables associated with pituitary abnormalities in hypogonadal men with mild hyperprolactinemia. We also sought to develop a decision-making aid to select patients for evaluation with pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. We retrospectively examined men with mild hyperprolactinemia (15.1-50.0 ng/ml) who presented with symptoms of hypogonadism and underwent pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. Demographics, laboratory values and clinical data were obtained from the electronic medical record. Selected predictor variables were included in multivariable logistic regression and partitioning models. Cost avoidance analysis was performed on models achieving sensitivities ≥90%. A total of 141 men were included in the study, of whom 40 (28%) displayed abnormalities on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with pituitary abnormalities exhibited higher prolactin (p=0.01), lower testosterone (p=0.0001) and lower luteinizing hormone (p=0.03) levels than those with normal anatomy, as well as higher prolactin-to-testosterone ratios (p <0.0001) and lower luteinizing hormone-to-follicle-stimulating hormone ratios (p=0.0001). These serological variables were identified as the best performing predictor variables. The partition incorporating a prolactin-to-testosterone ratio cutoff of 0.10 and prolactin cutoff of 25 ng/ml achieved 90% sensitivity and 48% specificity, and reduced diagnostic expenses by 28%. Hypogonadal men presenting with mild hyperprolactinemia and pituitary abnormalities declare themselves via endocrine studies routinely ordered to evaluate these conditions. The prolactin-to-testosterone ratio is the best independent predictor of finding a pituitary abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, although sensitivity improves by referencing additional serological parameters. Significant cost avoidance may result from screening this population prior to ordering pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.
Publication Date: 2020-10-21 00:00:00
Journal: The Journal of urology


HAART and anti-Koch's impair sexual competence, sperm quality and offspring quality when used singly and in combination in male Wistar rats.
This study investigated the impact of the administration of HAART and anti-Koch's, singly and in combination, on sexual competence and birth statistics. Adult male Wistar rats were randomised into distilled water-treated control, HAART-treated, anti-Koch's-treated and HAART + anti-Koch's-treated groups. The 56-day oral treatment led to impaired sexual competence evident by significantly reduced motivation to mate, prolonged latencies of mount, intromissions, ejaculations and post-ejaculatory interval, as well as reduced frequencies of mount, intromissions and ejaculations. This was accompanied by significant reductions in penile erection reflex and penile grooming. HAART and anti-Koch's, when administered singly or in combination, also led to significant reductions in the circulatory follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and intratesticular testosterone, but a significant rise in prolactin. Also, HAART and/or anti-Koch's significantly reduced sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and spermatozoa with normal morphology. Furthermore, HAART and anti-Koch's, separately or in combination, significantly lowered fertility capacity, litter size and litter weight and offspring survival. The deleterious effects of these drugs were more pronounced when combined. Findings of the present study revealed that HAART and/or anti-Koch's impair sexual competence via a testosterone-dependent hyperprolactinemia-mediated mechanism. These events are associated with reduced fertility capacity, poor sperm quality and lowered offspring survival.
Publication Date: 2021-01-06 00:00:00
Journal: Andrologia

literature review(35)

Sellar Cholesterol Granuloma Mimicking Cystic Sellar Lesions: A Report of Three Cases and Literature Review.
Cystic lesions in the sellar region include a variety of entities, such as craniopharyngioma, Rathke cleft cyst (RCC), intrasellar arachnoid cyst, cystic pituitary adenomas, cholesterol granulomas (CGs), and xanthogranulomas (XGs). The distinction among them remains a preoperative challenge due to similarities in their clinical and radiologic findings. We describe 3 cases with cystic sellar lesions. The first patient is a woman who presented with headache and hormonal disturbances, including high levels of prolactin, with a sellar and suprasellar cystic lesion discovered on magnetic resonance imaging. She was initially treated with dopamine agonists with normalization of prolactin levels but no changes on the size of the lesion. She underwent an endoscopic endonasal resection and the histology resulted in a CG/XG. The second patient is a woman who consulted for an incidentally discovered sellar cyst. During the follow-up, the lesion demonstrated enlargement with compression of the optic chiasm. With a preoperative diagnosis of RCC, the lesion was removed through an endoscopic endonasal transsellar approach. Final pathologic diagnosis was consistent with CG/XG. The third case was that of a man who presented with refractory headaches and vision loss, with a sellar/suprasellar cystic lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent endoscopic endonasal transsellar surgery for resection of what preoperatively was thought to be a giant RCC; final pathology again was consistent with CG/XG. CG/XG is an uncommon pathology with unspecific clinical and radiologic features. However, this pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mixed cystic/solid lesions in the sellar region.
Publication Date: 2020-08-12 00:00:00
Journal: World neurosurgery

systematic review(49)

Pharmacogenomic Studies in Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review: Études Pharmacogénomiques en Déficiences Intellectuelles et Trouble du Spectre de L'autisme: Une Revue Systématique.
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often receive psychotropic medications such as antipsychotics and antidepressants to treat aberrant behaviors and mood symptoms, frequently resulting in polypharmacy and drug-related adverse effects. Pharmacogenomic (PGx) studies with ASD and/or ID (ASD/ID) have been scarce despite the promise of optimizing treatment outcomes. We reviewed the literature on PGx studies with antipsychotics and antidepressants (e.g., treatment response and adverse effects) in ASD/ID. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO, including peer-reviewed original articles in English referring to PGx in the treatment of ASD/ID in any age groups (e.g., treatment response and adverse effects). A total of 28 PGx studies using mostly candidate gene approaches were identified across age groups. Notably, only 3 studies included adults with ASD/ID while the other 25 studies focused specifically on children/adolescents with ASD/ID. Twelve studies primarily investigated treatment response, of which 5 and 6 studies included patients treated with antipsychotics and antidepressants, respectively. Most interesting results for response were reported for 2 sets of candidate gene studies, namely: (1) The There is limited data available on PGx in individuals with ASD/ID and in particular in adults. Given the potential for PGx testing in improving treatment outcomes, additional PGx studies for psychotropic treatment in ASD/ID across age groups are warranted.
Publication Date: 2020-11-24 00:00:00
Journal: Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie

dopamine agonists(43)

Dopamine agonists and antipsychotics.
There can potentially be a number of clinical interactions that could adversely affect patient outcomes in a patient with a prolactinoma and psychiatric disease that might require antipsychotic and dopamine agonist treatment. Dopamine agonists stimulate the dopamine D2 receptor, resulting in a decrease in prolactin (PRL) levels and in prolactinoma size but action on dopamine receptors in the meso-limbic system may rarely cause psychosis and more commonly cause impulse control disorders. The psychiatric benefits of antipsychotic agents involve blocking the D2 and other dopamine receptors but this blockade often also causes hyperprolactinemia. In patients with macroprolactinomas and psychosis, observation, estrogen/progestin replacement, and surgery can be considered in addition to dopamine agonists In those who require dopamine agonists for PRL and tumor size control, the introduction of antipsychotics may blunt this effect, so that higher doses of the dopamine agonists may be needed. Alternatively, antipsychotics that have less of a blocking effect at the D2 receptor, such as aripiprazole, can be tried, if appropriate. For patients already on antipsychotic drugs who are found to have a macroprolactinoma for which dopamine agonists are required, dopamine agonists can be initiated at low dose and the dose escalated slowly. However, such patients require careful monitoring of psychiatric status to avoid the rare complication of exacerbation of the underlying psychosis. Again, if appropriate, use of antipsychotics that have less of a blocking effect at the D2 receptor may allow lower doses of dopamine agonists to be used in this situation.
Publication Date: 2020-06-09 00:00:00
Journal: European journal of endocrinology


Global Prevalence of Macroprolactinemia among Patients with Hyperprolactinemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Hyperprolactinemia (hPRL) often poses a diagnostic dilemma due to the presence of macroprolactin. Understanding the prevalence of macroprolactinemia (mPRL) has an important implication in managing patients with hPRL. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mPRL globally and to explore selected factors influencing the prevalence estimate. Studies with original data related to the prevalence of mPRL among patients with hPRL from inception to March 2020 were identified, and a random effects meta-analysis was performed. Of the 3770 records identified, 67 eligible studies from 27 countries were included. The overall global prevalence estimate was 18.9% (95% CI: 15.8%, 22.1%) with a substantial statistical heterogeneity (I
Publication Date: 2020-11-12 00:00:00
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health


Role of hypothyroidism and associated pathways in pregnancy and infertility: Clinical insights.
Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine problems in women. In most of the cases, thyroid can lead to infertility or miscarriages. The etiology of infertility is multifactorial with thyroid disorders as the most common presenting factor, hypothyroidism in particular. Infertility in women can lead to emotional and psychological stress. The prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is estimated to be 0.3%-0.5%. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can result in menstrual irregularities and anovulatory cycles, thus affecting the fertility. There is a significant high prolactin (PRL) level in infertile women with hypothyroidism when compared to euthyroid patients, indicating the relation between hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. The amount of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus is markedly increased by inhibition of pyroglutamyl peptidase II, the enzyme catalyzing TRH. The increased TRH in hypothyroidism causes increased thyroid-stimulating hormone and PRL secretion by pituitary, leading to infertility and galactorrhea. In recent years, a neuropeptide called kisspeptin, encoded by
Publication Date: 2020-11-10 00:00:00
Journal: Tzu chi medical journal

growth hormone(44)

Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.
Growth hormone (GH) is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD). Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.
Publication Date: 2017-04-27 00:00:00
Journal: Annals of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism

primary hypothyroidism(35)

Effect of Adequate Thyroid Hormone Replacement on the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Premenopausal Women with Primary Hypothyroidism.
While the effects of thyroxine (T4) replacement on improving gonadal function in hypothyroid men has been well documented, the same has not been adequately studied in hypothyroid premenopausal women. Premenopausal women with overt hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] > 15 IU/L) were tested in the early follicular phase of their natural menstrual cycles or after a progesterone challenge for gonadotropins, estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL). They were then treated adequately with T4 replacement and retested under similar circumstances for the same parameters ≥2 months after the restoration of euthyroidism. Forty premenopausal hypothyroid women were evaluated at baseline and ≥2 months after adequate T4 replacement. At baseline, there was an inverse correlation of the gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) and TSH, prolactin (PRL) and free T4 (fT4), and E2 and PRL. After normalization of the thyroid function, there was a significant fall in PRL ( Hypothyroidism is associated with a reversible partial suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in premenopausal women, demonstrated by lower E2 along with a mild elevation of PRL. Treatment of hypothyroidism improves the level of estrogen and lowers the level of PRL.
Publication Date: 2019-07-02 00:00:00
Journal: European thyroid journal

hyperprolactinemic patients(39)

Resolution of headache after reduction of prolactin levels in hyperprolactinemic patients.
Prolactin (PRL) secreting adenomas are associated with high incidence of headache. The role of hyperprolactinemia in the headache context is not clear, nor is the effect of its treatment on headache. The present longitudinal study evaluated hyperprolactinemic patients (69), in terms of presence and characteristics of headache before and after hyperprolactinemia treatment. Headache was reported by 45 (65.2%) patients, independent of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. The migraine phenotype was the most prevalent (66.6%). Medications used in the treatment of headache not changed during the study. The first line of treatment of hyperprolactinemia was dopaminergic agonists. In the last reevaluation, PRL level under treatment was within the reference range in 54.7% of the cases, and it was observed complete or partial resolution of the headache in 75% of the cases. The median PRL at this time in patients with complete headache resolution was 17 ng/mL, in those who reported partial recovery was 21 ng/mL, and in those in whom the headache did not change was 66 ng/mL, with a significant difference between the group with complete headache resolution vs. the group with unchanged headache (p=0.022). In the cases with complete headache resolution, the median fall on PRL levels was 89% and in those cases with partial headache resolution 86%, both significantly different (p<0.001) from the fall in the cases with an unchanged headache. Data allow us to conclude that, in this series, in the majority of cases the reduction in the level of PRL was followe3d by cessation or relief of the pain.
Publication Date: 2020-02-20 00:00:00
Journal: Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria

sexual dysfunction(43)

Management of Antipsychotic-Related Sexual Dysfunction: Systematic Review.
Sexual dysfunction is one of the most frequently occurring side-effects of antipsychotic medication, impacting both quality of life and adherence to treatment. Despite this, limited evidence-based guidance on treatment options is available. To synthesize and analyze the evidence on management of antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction specifically taking note of the more recently developed antipsychotics that have been incorporated in studies over the past decade. EMBASE, Medline, and PsychINFO databases were searched using search terms related to sexual or erectile dysfunction, treatments, and antipsychotics. 2 reviewers independently assessed papers for the inclusion criteria for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction including adjunctive medications and a switch of antipsychotic. Studies were excluded if participants did not have recorded sexual dysfunction at baseline. The primary outcome measure was any change in sexual function. 6 RCTs were identified, all of which investigated different interventions; hence, it was not possible to synthesize the data quantitatively. Results were overall limited by small sample size, brief treatment duration, and the potential for bias. 2 studies, one assessing adjunctive sildenafil and the other adjunctive aripiprazole, reported a reduction in antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction Due to the lack of high-quality data, no clinical recommendations can be made. A comprehensive search strategy was used with an extensive number of relevant search terms including "erectile dysfunction" and newer antipsychotics such as aripiprazole. In light of evidence that prolactin is not a reliable marker for sexual dysfunction this review focused its inclusion criteria on participants presenting with sexual dysfunction rather than with hyperprolactinemia, which should give its recommendations more validity. However, only 6 RCTs were identified, and results were overall limited by small sample size, brief treatment duration, and the potential for bias. Our findings highlight the paucity of high-quality research in this area, and conjecture that it may be difficult to recruit participants with antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction Future research may be necessary to unlock and address these difficulties. Furthermore, fully powered future studies should focus on the management of sexual dysfunction rather than the surrogate marker of hyperprolactinemia. Allen K, Baban A, Munjiza J, et al. Management of Antipsychotic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Systematic Review. J Sex Med 2019;16:1978-1987.
Publication Date: 2019-10-06 00:00:00
Journal: The journal of sexual medicine


Primary Pituitary Lymphoma As Rare Cause Of A Pituitary Mass And Hypopituitarism In Adulthood.
Differential diagnosis of nonadenomatous sellar masses causing hypopituitarism is still a challenge. Among these masses, growing evidence has demonstrated that primary pituitary lymphoma is a specific and emerging entity. The aim of our study was to describe our experience with a case of primary pituitary lymphoma and to perform a review of the available literature. We searched relevant databases up to March 2020, identifying 36 suitable articles basing on inclusion criteria ( primary pituitary lymphoma in adult immunocompetent subjects). Overall, 43 cases were included in the review, adding a new case diagnosed and treated in our hospital. Epidemiologic data, clinical presentation, hormonal status, radiologic findings, pathology, treatment, and outcome were extracted. Mean age at diagnosis was 58.9 years, without gender difference. Symptoms related to mass were common (52.3%), in particular cranial nerve palsy (70.5%), headache (56.8%), and alteration in visual field (40.9%). Impaired hormonal status was detected in 89.7% of patients; of them, 58.9% presented with anterior pituitary failure (partial or total), while 25.6% presented with panhypopituitarism. Overall, diabetes insipidus was present in 30.8% and hyperprolactinemia in 41.0% of patients. The majority of patients presented a radiologically invasive mass in the suprasellar region and cavernous sinus (65.9% and 40.9%, respectively) and histologic diagnosis of diffuse B-cell lymphoma (54.5%). The differential diagnosis of sellar and parasellar masses causing hypopituitarism should include primary pituitary lymphoma, even in absence of systemic symptoms or posterior pituitary dysfunction. The disease has a heterogeneous pattern, so a collaboration between endocrinologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and hematologists is desirable.
Publication Date: 2021-01-21 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists


Hyperprolactinemia as a prognostic factor for menstrual disorders in female adolescents with advanced chronic kidney disease.
In adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD), menstrual disorders (MD) are common, which can make the management of CKD difficult and can sometimes delay renal transplantation. This study aimed to identify the usefulness of hormonal measurements in adolescents with CKD and their relationships with MD during a 1-year follow-up. A prospective cohort study was designed. Adolescents with CKD stages IV and V were included. Through clinical files and via interview, the ages at puberty onset, menarche and the date of last menstruation were identified. A 1-year follow-up was conducted over a menstrual cycle calendar. At the beginning of follow-up, routine hormonal profiles (thyroid profiles, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol) were assessed. We compared the hormonal profiles of the patients with and without MD (wMD vs. woMD). Comparisons between groups were made by Wilcoxon and Fisher's tests. Logistic regression analysis was used. Fifty-seven patients, including 30 patients classified as wMD, were analyzed. The median age was 15 years, and the median time of CKD evolution was 18 months. There were no differences in general and biochemical characteristics between patients wMD and woMD. In terms of hormonal measurements, the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin were higher in the wMD patients. A prolactin level ≥ 36.8 ng/ml was a risk factor for presenting with MD (RR 34.4, p = 0.002). Hyperprolactinemia is correlated with MD in adolescents with CKD.
Publication Date: 2020-02-11 00:00:00
Journal: Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)

breast cancer(38)

Unilateral nipple discharge in a man without a palpable mass diagnosed as breast cancer.
A 69-year-old man without a family history of breast cancer presented to his primary care physician with a 1-year history of clear, unilateral nipple discharge (ND) without an associated palpable breast mass. His laboratory findings were significant for hyperprolactinaemia at 28 ng/mL. Diagnostic work up including mammography, ultrasound and core needle biopsy ultimately revealed a ductal carcinoma in situ and a rare papillary variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary oncology team and underwent a right total mastectomy followed by adjuvant hormonal therapy. The patient made a good postoperative recovery and remains without evidence of recurrence 6 months from surgery. Male breast cancer is rare, but its incidence is increasing. Male breast cancer presenting as ND without a palpable mass is uncommon. Early recognition of breast symptoms in men can lead to earlier diagnoses and improved outcomes.
Publication Date: 2020-12-02 00:00:00
Journal: BMJ case reports


The regulatory effect of bromocriptine on cardiac hypertrophy by prolactin and D2 receptor modulation.
Bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, type 2 diabetes, ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome, has also effects on the cardiac remodeling process, but the mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this work was to determinate the effect during hypertrophic process through molecular mechanisms that include prolactin receptor (Prlr) and receptor of dopamine 2 (D2 r) expression. We used a model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by an aortocaval fistula (ACF) surgery in rats. Protein concentrations of D2 r and Prlr were determined by western blotting. The treatment consisted in water (control), captopril (50 mg/kg/day), bromocriptine (3 mg/kg/day), and ACF group (n = 6 per group). Our results showed that bromocriptine treatment decreases the hypertrophy index. Treatment with bromocriptine increases the protein expression of Prlr and D2 r in the cardiac tissue of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. We concluded that bromocriptine has a protective effect on cardiac hypertrophy, and due to this effect, it may modulate the expression of Prlr and D2 r, which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
Publication Date: 2020-06-02 00:00:00
Journal: Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993)

dopamine agonist(49)

To describe 2 spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks complicating treatment of macroprolactinoma (MPRL) with dopamine agonist (DA) therapy. We present the 2 cases of spontaneous, DA-related CSF leaks. Prolactin levels were used to assess hyperprolactinemia. Beta-2 transferrin was tested in rhinorrhea fluid, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the sella. Case 1 was a 45-year-old woman with a history of MPRL, recently started on bromocriptine at 15 mg/day, presented with clear rhinorrhea, headache, and nuchal rigidity. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large sellar lesion extending into the cavernous sinuses, posterior sphenoid sinuses, and suprasellar cistern. Computed tomography revealed areas concerning for bony erosion, likely representing leak sites, and the rhinorrhea fluid was positive for beta-2 transferrin, confirming the CSF source. Empiric antibiotics for meningitis were given and she underwent urgent neuroendoscopic, transsphenoidal CSF leak repair and debulking of the pituitary mass. Case 2 was a 55-year-old man with a 10-year history of untreated MPRL who was started on bromocriptine at 5 mg/day 2 weeks prior to admission. He presented with clear rhinorrhea and a metallic taste in his mouth, worse with the Valsalva maneuver. Imaging confirmed clinical suspicion and he was taken for surgery. A high-flow CSF leak was encountered once the tumor was debulked. This was repaired with an abdominal fat pad graft. Both patients developed diabetes insipidus and required postoperative adjuvant DA therapy. Spontaneous CSF leaks can complicate medical therapy of large MPRL with underlying skull defects, typically within weeks of initiation of DA. This should prompt clinicians to educate patients about the symptoms of potential CSF rhinorrhea and encourage them to promptly report them.
Publication Date: 2020-06-12 00:00:00
Journal: AACE clinical case reports


Safety of switching to brexpiprazole in Japanese patients with schizophrenia: A post-hoc analysis of a long-term open-label study.
To determine the long-term safety of switching to brexpiprazole from aripiprazole or non-aripiprazole dopamine antagonists. Post-hoc analysis of 56-week study of Japanese outpatients with schizophrenia switched to brexpiprazole 2 mg/day over 4-week switching period with further titration (1-4 mg/day) allowed during the 52-week, open-label period. Major assessment items: total/low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, body weight and prolactin. Secondary evaluations were related to efficacy, treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs), extrapyramidal symptoms, and corrected QT interval (QTc). 84/186 (45.2%) patients (aripiprazole, 32.9%; non-aripiprazole, 54.8%) discontinued treatment over 56 weeks mainly because of consent withdrawal/adverse events. From baseline to Week 56, both groups showed minimal mean changes in total/LDL-/HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and a slight increase in mean (SD) body weight (aripiprazole, 1.1 [4.4] kg; non-aripiprazole, 0.4 [4.6] kg). Mean prolactin levels increased slightly in the aripiprazole group, but decreased in the non-aripiprazole group. Symptom severity scores decreased similarly in both groups. TEAEs occurred in 161/186 (86.6%) patients (aripiprazole, 84.1% [serious, 9.8%]; non-aripiprazole, 88.5% [serious, 14.4%]). Few changes occurred in extrapyramidal symptom scales or QTc interval. Switching to brexpiprazole is associated with a low long-term risk for metabolic abnormalities (including weight gain), hyperprolactinemia, extrapyramidal symptoms and QTc changes and minimal changes in psychiatric symptoms.
Publication Date: 2021-01-27 00:00:00
Journal: Human psychopharmacology

bone mineral density(33)

Serum Prolactin and Bone Mineral Density in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.
The relationship between serum prolactin and bone mineral density (BMD) in schizophrenia is unclear. We conducted a literature review of databases from inception until December 2018 for cross-sectional, case-control, prospective and retrospective studies analyzing correlations between serum prolactin and BMD measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or quantitative ultrasound at any skeletal site in people with schizophrenia. Data was summarized with a best evidence synthesis. This review identified 15 studies (1 longitudinal study, 10 cross-sectional and 4 case-control studies; 1,360 individuals with a psychotic disorder; mean age 45.1 ± 9.4 [standard deviation] years, female 742 [54.6%], mean illness duration 17.7 ± 11.3 years) assessing the relationship between serum prolactin and BMD in schizophrenia. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum prolactin and BMD identified in eight of the studies (53% of all studies), suggesting mixed evidence for an association between serum prolactin and BMD. Of those studies which identified a significant inverse correlation between serum prolactin and BMD (n = 5), 152 (52.1%) of patients were treated with prolactin raising antipsychotics, compared to 197 (48.1%) of patients in those studies which did not identify a significant correlation between prolactin and BMD. Available studies cannot resolve the link between excess prolactin and reduced BMD in schizophrenia. Future studies should be longitudinal in design and combine measures of serum prolactin along with other risk factors for reduced BMD such as smoking and vitamin D and sex hormone levels in assessing the relationship between prolactin and BMD in schizophrenia.
Publication Date: 2019-07-30 00:00:00
Journal: Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology

antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia(37)

Association of ANKK1 polymorphism with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia.
Schizophrenia is a severe highly heritable mental disorder. Genetic polymorphisms of dopaminergic pathways are related to pathogenesis of drug response. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL), a common adverse effect of antipsychotics, is attributed to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors. Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene is closely related to Dopamine Receptor D2 type (DRD2) gene functioning. We examined whether the functional polymorphism rs2734849 in the ANKK1 gene is associated with antipsychotic-induced HPRL. We recruited 446 patients with schizophrenia from among the Russian population of the Siberian region. The polymorphism rs2734849 in the ANKK1 gene was genotyped with The MassARRAY® Analyzer 4 by Agena Bioscience™, using the kit SEQUENOM Consumables iPLEXGold 384. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between groups of schizophrenia patients with and without HPRL using the χ A comparison between schizophrenia patients with and without HPRL revealed significantly higher frequency of the C allele of the polymorphic variant rs2734849 in the ANKK1 gene in patients with HPRL as compared to the patients without it (χ The functional polymorphism rs2734849 in the ANKK1 gene was associated with HPRL in patients with schizophrenia.
Publication Date: 2020-05-10 00:00:00
Journal: Human psychopharmacology


Evidence on the New Drug Lumateperone (ITI-007) for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders.
Lumateperone (ITI-007) is a tosylate salt with binding affinities to receptors implicated in the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic medications, including the serotonin 5HT2A receptors, dopamine D2 and D1 receptors and the serotonin transporter. It has a unique mechanism of action because it simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmission, implicated in serious mental illness. It can be considered a multi-target-directed ligand and a multifunctional modulator of serotoninergic system with possible precognitive, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Lumateperone has been investigated as a novel agent for the treatment of schizophrenia, but it represents a new potential option for other psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as behavioural symptoms of dementia or Alzheimer's disease, sleep disturbances, bipolar depression. Besides, it has demonstrated a favourable safety profile without significant extrapyramidal side effects, hyperprolactinemia or changes in cardiometabolic or endocrine factors versus placebo. Additional studies are warranted to confirm and examine the benefit of lumateperone and possible therapeutic targets. This paper is a comprehensive and thorough summary of the most important findings and potential future role of this particular compound in personalized treatments.
Publication Date: 2020-06-02 00:00:00
Journal: CNS & neurological disorders drug targets

atypical antipsychotics(34)

Atypical antipsychotics (AAs) are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. However, they are now extensively utilized as off label in a myriad of diseases despite their frequently serious metabolic side-effects and hyperprolactinemia. The purpose of our study was to observe long-term (one year) prolactin level change in first episode schizophrenia patients treated with one of the four AAs: olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone. This study is an analysis of the prolactin level associated with the atypical antipsychotics used in European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) study. Seventy-three first episode schizophrenia patients from the 113 patients, randomized to one of the four AAs treatment arms. Prolactin level was obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months for all the four AAs. Analyses have been done for each antipsychotic separately for each sex. For the male patients neither of the four antipsychotics have been associated with a statistically significant increase of prolactin level in the entire study (p>0.05). In case of the female patients, treatment with olanzapine (p=.021) and ziprasidone (p=.005) has been associated with a decrease of prolactin level in one year compared with baseline. In both men and women, the administration of these four AAs is not associated with the increase of prolactin levels, moreover, in women's case, there is a reduction of prolactin values at administration of Olanzapine and Ziprasidone. These results are optimistic, suggesting that long term administration of these antipsychotics is safe regarding prolactin level.
Publication Date: 2019-06-01 00:00:00
Journal: Acta endocrinologica (Bucharest, Romania : 2005)


Reproductive function and pregnancy outcomes in women treated for idiopathic hyperprolactinemia: A non-randomized controlled study.
Few studies have focused to determine the peculiarities of the course of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes after treatment in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. To determine the peculiarities of the course of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in women treated for idiopathic hyperprolactinemia, with history of infertility and/or recurrent pregnancy loss. A non-randomized controlled study was conducted at the Center for Reproductive Medicine "Universe" and Medical Clinic "Medhealth" during 2016-2018, involving 96 women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia, aged 20-44 yr with infertility and/or a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E2), free testosterone, and progesterone were studied in blood serum using immunoassay analysis method. Before the occurrence of pregnancy, hyperprolactinemia was treated with bromocriptine. Dydrogesterone was used to support the luteal phase. PRL levels decreased significantly and normalized within two-five months, regular menstrual cycle was restored in two-four months, ovulation was restored in three-seven months, and pregnancy was achieved in three-fourteen months. E2 and progesterone levels increased significantly (p Pregnancy outcomes in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia are improved by prolonged and continuous treatment with bromocriptine before pregnancy and administration of dydrogesterone in support of the luteal insufficiency.
Publication Date: 2021-01-12 00:00:00
Journal: International journal of reproductive biomedicine


Antipsychotics-induced hyperprolactinemia and screening for macroprolactin.
High prolactin (PRL) concentrations are found in laboratory test results of patients on majority of antipsychotic drugs. Prevalence rates and degrees of severity of hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) based on PRL concentration may depend on the presence of macroprolactin in the serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between PRL concentrations before and after precipitation of macroprolactin and to examine if there were any changes in the categorization of HPRL between samples prior and after precipitation. Total of 98 female patients (median age 33; range 19-47 years) diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, proscribed antipsychotic drugs, and with HPRL were included. Total PRL concentration and PRL concentration after macroprolactin precipitation with polyethylene glycol (postPEG-PRL) were determined by the chemiluminometric method on the Beckman Coulter Access2 analyser. Total PRL concentrations (median 1471; IQC: 1064-2016 mlU/L) and postPEG-PRL concentrations (median 1453; IQC: 979-1955 mlU/L) were significantly correlated using intraclass correlation coefficient for single measurements (mean estimation 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.97) and average measurement (mean estimation 0.98; 95%CI 0.96-0.99), and all investigated female patient had HPRL according to PRL and postPEG-PRL concentration. The median PRL recovery following PEG precipitation was 95; IQC: 90-100%. There was substantial agreement (kappa test = 0.859, 95% CI: 0.764-0.953) between the categories of HPRL severity based on total PRL concentrations and postPEG-PRL concentrations. The study demonstrated that HPRL was present in all subjects using the reference interval for total PRL concentration and postPEG-PRL concentration with no significant impact of macroprolactin presence in the serum on the categorization of patients according to severity of HPRL.
Publication Date: 2021-01-01 00:00:00
Journal: Biochemia medica


Primary amenorrhea in females attending gynaecological outpatient of a tertiary care hospital at Peshawar.
To determine the aetiological factors of amenorrhea The pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in Government Naserullah Khan Babar Memorial Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2015 to December 2017, and comprised amenorrhea cases. Cases were analysed according to their clinical profile, ultrasound findings and biochemical tests. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. There were 100 patients with a mean age of 22.17±5.52 years (range: 14-36 years). Anatomical defects were the most common cause in 60(60%) patients. Imperforate hymen and transverse vaginal septum were found in 7(7%), 7(7%) patients each, while mullerian abnormalities were found in 46(46%) patients. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and polycystic ovarian syndrome were found in 17(17%) patients each. Anatomical defects were found to be the most common cause among amenorrhea patients.
Publication Date: 2020-05-14 00:00:00
Journal: JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association


Data of a meta-analysis on pharmacological treatment strategies for lowering prolactin in people with a psychotic disorder and hyperprolactinaemia.
The data presented in this paper describe supplementary material to the article entitled "Pharmacological treatment strategies for lowering prolactin in people with a psychotic disorder and hyperprolactinaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis" [1]. Although raw data was published on the original article, additional raw data has been included in the current paper (new tables with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the samples of the studies included in the systematic review). Supplementary data also include the PICO scheme of the systematic review, PRISMA checklist, flow diagram, an explanation of the method for obtaining prolactin concentrations from published figures when data was only available in figures, list of the selected studies, risk of bias summary of all five randomized clinical trials evaluating the addition of aripiprazole for lowering prolactin (included in the meta-analysis in the original article). Extra analyses, figures and R code of the meta-analysis have been also included. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) considering aripiprazole addition for lowering prolactin in people with a psychotic disorder and hyperprolactinaemia were conducted with two softwares: 1) R and the metaphor package (for the meta-analysis of the primary outcome [prolactin reduction]); 2) MedCalc version 18.11 (for the meta-analysis of the secondary outcome [withdrawal rates]). Data from a sensitivity analysis (repeating the meta-analysis with only placebo-controlled RCTs) has been also included in the current article.
Publication Date: 2020-07-10 00:00:00
Journal: Data in brief

pituitary gland(31)

Thyroid carcinoma with atypical metastasis to the pituitary gland and unexpected postmortal diagnosis.
Papillary thyroid gland carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy of the endocrine system. Metastases to the pituitary gland have been described as a complication of papillary thyroid cancer in few reported cases since 1965. We report the case of a 68-year-old female patient with a well-differentiated form of thyroid gland cancer. Despite it being the most common malignant cancer of the endocrine system, with its papillary form being one of the two most frequently diagnosed thyroid cancers, the case we present is extremely rare. Sudden cardiac arrest during ventricular fibrillation occurred during hospitalization. Autopsy of the patient revealed papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular variant, with metastasis to the sella turcica, and concomitant sarcoidosis of heart, lung, and mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Not only does atypical metastasis make our patient's case most remarkable, but also the postmortem diagnosis of sarcoidosis makes her case particularly unusual. The goal of presenting this case is to raise awareness of the clinical heterogeneity of papillary cancer and promote early diagnosis of unexpected metastasis and coexisting diseases to improve clinical outcomes. Clinicians must be skeptical. They should not fall into the trap of diagnostic momentum or accept diagnostic labels at face value. Regardless of the potential mechanisms, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of the coexistence of thyroid cancer and sarcoidosis as a differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy. This case highlights the importance of the diagnostic and therapeutic planning process and raises awareness of the fact that one uncommon disease could be masked by another extremely rare disorder.
Publication Date: 2020-03-14 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports


Risk factors of hyperprolactinemia induced by risperidone and olanzapine and their correlations with plasma glucose and lipids.
Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse reaction in patients with schizophrenia who take antipsychotic drugs; it often leads to treatment non-compliance in patients and has an adverse effect on their prognosis. This study aimed to explore the risk factors of elevated prolactin (PRL) caused by risperidone (RIS) and olanzapine (OLZ) and the relationship between PRL and fasting plasma glucose and lipids. Patients with schizophrenia were divided into two groups: 264 patients who were taking RIS and 175 patients who were taking OLZ. These two groups were further divided according to serum PRL levels: an elevated PRL group (>30 ng/mL) and a normal PRL group (PRL ≤30 ng/mL). The demographics, medication dosage, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the risk factors of elevated PRL levels. Compared with the OLZ group, the RIS group had a greater number of patients with elevated PRL (155/264 vs 58/175). Either the RIS or the OLZ group, the proportion of elevated PRL was greater in female patients (RIS: χ Compared with OLZ, RIS had a greater effect on PRL in patients with schizophrenia, and in patients with schizophrenia taking RIS or OLZ, gender and dose were significantly correlated with the PRL value. Moreover, the plasma glucose level of the group with elevated PRL was lower than that of the group with normal PRL. The results also showed that high serum PRL may be associated with a favourable glucose metabolic profile in patients with schizophrenia taking RIS or OLZ. Further studies are warranted to confirm this association. NCT02640911.
Publication Date: 2020-07-23 00:00:00
Journal: General psychiatry


Ectopic hyperprolactinaemia due to a malignant uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROCST).
Moderate hyperprolactinaemia (2-5 times upper limit of normal) occurring in a patient with a normal pituitary MRI is generally considered to be due to a lesion below the level of detection of the MRI scanner assuming macroprolactin and stress have been excluded. Most patients with mild-to-moderate hyperprolactinaemia and a normal MRI respond to dopamine agonist therapy. We present the rare case of a patient who had prolactin elevation typical of a prolactin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma,with a normal cranial MRI, and in whom the prolactin rose further with dopamine agonist treatment. Subsequent investigations revealed ectopic hyperprolactinaemia to a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) which resolved following tumor resection. Although mostly considered to be benign, the UTROSCT recurred with recurrent hyperprolactinaemia and intraabdominal metastases. We have systematically and critically reviewed existing literature relating to ectopic hyperprolactinaemia in general and UTROCST specifically. Fewer than 80 cases of UTROSCTs have been reported globally of which about 23% have shown malignant behaviour. There are fewer than 10 cases of paraneoplastic hyperprolactinaemia originating from uterine neoplasms including one other case of ectopic hyperprolactinaemia to a UTROSCT. Our case demonstrates the importance of screening for extracranial hyperprolactinaemia in the context of: (1) substantially raised prolactin (10× ULN) and (2) normal cranial MRI assuming macroprolactin has been excluded. The majority of extracranial ectopic prolactin-secreting tumors occur in the reproductive organs.
Publication Date: 2020-08-29 00:00:00
Journal: Pituitary


Prolactin, a potential biomarker for chronic GVHD activity.
The polypeptide prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone and a cytokine mostly secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. PRL is also synthesized in extra pituitary tissues including thymocytes and T lymphocytes. Considering the need for chronic GVHD (cGVHD) biomarkers, we explored the relationship between hyperprolactinemia and active cGVHD in a cohort of long-term post-alloHCT survivors. Three-hundred sixteen adults underwent alloHCT between 2010 and 2016, survived more than 1 year and were included. All patients underwent a regular annual assessment that includes a hormone profile with serum PRL levels. Overall, 236 (74.7%) patients had cGVHD, and in 199 (63%), the grade was moderate or severe. Sixty-five (21%) recipients had active cGVHD at the time of the annual evaluation, and hyperprolactinemia was documented in 63 (19.9%) patients. Hyperprolactinemia correlated with cGVHD activity (Odds Ratio 6.9 (95% CI; 3.6-13.1); P < .001) in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, patients with hyperprolactinemia were 6.4 times more likely to have active cGVHD in comparison with those patients with normal levels of PRL (P < .001). Prolactin may serve as a biomarker for cGVHD activity. Further studies are required to confirm these findings, and to explore if hyperprolactinemia has an impact on cGVHD severity and prognosis.
Publication Date: 2020-10-14 00:00:00
Journal: European journal of haematology

clinical features(22)

Clinical features and endoscopic findings of granular cell tumor of the sellar region: A case report and review of the literature.
Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the sellar region is a rare tumor of the sellar and suprasellar regions that originate from the neurohypophysis. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from other pituitary neoplasms, such as pituitary adenoma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. We report a rare case of GCT arising from the posterior pituitary of the sellar region and suggest a useful indicator for accurate diagnosis and pitfalls for surgical procedures. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with bitemporal hemianopsia. Neuroimaging showed a large pituitary tumor in the sellar and suprasellar regions with a hypointense part on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and the enhanced anterior pituitary gland was displaced anteriorly. Laboratory findings showed mild hyperprolactinemia. Subtotal resection of the tumor was achieved using an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Histological findings showed round or polygonal cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm staining strongly for thyroid transcription factor 1. The tumor was, therefore, diagnosed as a GCT of the sellar region, belonging to tumors of the posterior pituitary. After surgery, visual impairment and anterior pituitary function were improved. Follow-up neuroimaging after 1 year showed no signs of recurrence. GCT of the sellar region is difficult to diagnose on routine neuroimaging. Therefore, accurate diagnosis requires careful identification of clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging including hypointensity on T2-weighted imaging, and analysis of combined morphological and immunohistochemical studies.
Publication Date: 2020-06-05 00:00:00
Journal: Surgical neurology international


Brexpiprazole for the Treatment of Schizophrenia in Adults: An Overview of Its Clinical Efficacy and Safety and a Psychiatrist's Perspective.
While the prognosis of patients with schizophrenia has dramatically improved after the advent of chlorpromazine, the antipsychotics currently available are so numerous that it has become a challenge for psychiatrists to choose from among these drugs for each patient presenting for care. In addition, while numerous studies show that an effective antipsychotic should be continued indefinitely to prevent relapses or worsening, many patients appear to have difficulty remaining on any drug thus initiated. Brexpiprazole, a dopamine D
Publication Date: 2020-12-31 00:00:00
Journal: Drug design, development and therapy

empty sella(29)

Clinical presentation, evaluation and case management of primary empty sella syndrome: a retrospective analysis of 10-year single-center patient data.
Primary Empty Sella (PES) syndrome is an increasingly common disorder, mostly diagnosed as an incidental finding during brain imaging scans. We intended to review the clinical management and hormonal profile of patients with PES. The study included ten-year retrospective analysis of registry containing PES cases in the period 2007 to 2017, from a single tertiary care center. The keyword 'primary empty sella was used to retrieve patient details from the radiology unit. The clinical and biochemical profile of PES patients was analyzed. Case management of PES patients and their rate of referral to endocrinologists was explored. The registry had 765 cases with a male: female ratio of 1:3.8 suggesting female predominance by almost four times. Although not significant, the onset of disease was earlier for males [Mean ± standard deviation (SD) (46.7 years ±17.3 vs 48.8 years±14.1), p = 0.110]. Almost 79% of the cases were found as an incidental finding during Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Of the total PES cases, only 20% were referred to the endocrinologists and the rest were handled by general physicians. Only 1-2.5% of the cases were evaluated for gonadal, growth and adrenal hormones by the general physicians. The hormonal evaluation by the endocrinologists was also found to be sub-optimal. Headache and visual disturbances were the most common presenting complaints followed by menstrual abnormalities. Endocrine abnormalities like thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadism and hypocortisolism were highly prevalent among those assessed. There is a gross under-evaluation of hormonal assessment and minimal case-referral to Endocrinologists. PES is associated with varying degrees of hormonal dysfunction, and hence early assessment and management is needed. Establishing a standard protocol for diagnosis and case management is essential with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team consisting of endocrinologists, neurologists, primary care phys icians and ophthalmologists.
Publication Date: 2020-09-19 00:00:00
Journal: BMC endocrine disorders


Impact of the CYP2D6 phenotype on hyperprolactinemia development as an adverse event of treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents in pediatric patients.
Treatment with atypical antipsychotics is today the election therapy for different types of psychosis, but there is a high incidence of endocrine and metabolic disturbances. One of the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of antipsychotics is CYP2D6. Depending on the existing CYP2D6 alleles, the metabolic capacity of the enzyme may vary from very low to very high, so that patients can be grouped into four phenotypic groups: slow, intermediate, extensive (normal), and fast metabolizers. The aim of the study is to find a relationship between the individual intervariability of CYP2D6 and the incidence of hyperprolactinemia as side effect of atypical antipsychotics. A total of 81 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders, median age 15.74 ± 4 years, were enrolled in the study and prescribed the following atypical antipsychotics: risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine. They were evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months after the initiation of treatment. Using the TaqMan Genotyping Assay, it has been identified the presence of the CYP2D6*4 allele in 28 patients, representing 34.56% of the total of 81 patients in the study, and CYP2D6*3 allele was identified in 15 patients and the presence of CYP2D6*41 to 11 patients. The allele CYP2D6*5 has not been present to the study patients. The study group has 44 patients which are extensive metabolizers (54%), 34 intermediate metabolizers (42%), and 3 poor (slow) metabolizers (4%). For the slow and intermediate metabolizers, atypical antipsychotics determined a significant increase of prolactinemia with high risk of adverse events.
Publication Date: 2019-02-17 00:00:00
Journal: Irish journal of medical science


[Clinical aspects of pregnancy-related lymphocytic hypophysitis].
Publication Date: 2020-11-18 00:00:00
Journal: Zhonghua yi xue za zhi

hyperprolactinemic women(24)

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Reactivation by Kisspeptin-10 in Hyperprolactinemic Women With Chronic Amenorrhea.
Hyperprolactinemia-induced hypogonadotropic amenorrhea (hPRL-HA) is a major cause of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency in women. In hyperprolactinemic mice, we previously demonstrated that hypothalamic kisspeptin (Kp) expression was diminished and that Kp administration restored hypothalamic GnRH release, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian cyclicity, suggesting that Kp neurons could also play a role in hPRL-HA. To study the effect of Kp-10 on the gonadotropic-ovarian axis in women with hPRL-HA. Two women (32 and 36 years old) with chronic hPRL-HA (prolactin: between 94 and 102 and 98 and 112 ng/mL, respectively) caused by cabergoline-resistant microprolactinomas. Cabergoline was discontinued 6 months before inclusion. Blood samples were taken every 10 minutes for 12 hours during 2 consecutive days to evaluate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Serum estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and inhibin B (IB) levels were also measured. Vehicle or Kp-10 (1.5 μg/kg/h) was infused intravenously for 12 hours. Kp-10 induced a significant increase in LH and FSH levels and increased LH pulses. E2, T, and IB serum levels were also significantly increased. In this exploratory study, we demonstrated that administration of Kp-10 reactivated gonadotropin secretion in women with hPRL-HA and increased ovarian activity. Our data suggest that, as in rodents, GnRH deficiency in hPRL-HA is also mediated by an impairment of hypothalamic Kp secretion. Kp-10 or its analogues could have therapeutic application as an alternative approach to restore ovarian function and fertility in women with hPRL-HA resistant to dopamine agonists and in whom pituitary surgery is not possible.
Publication Date: 2017-12-22 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of the Endocrine Society


Effect of Hordei Fructus Germinatus on differential gene expression in the prolactin signaling pathway in the mammary gland of lactating rats.
In China, Hordei Fructus Germinatus (HFG) is the germinated and dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare L, which is commonly used in clinical Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory holds that HFG can be both medicinal and edible, which means that it is derived from food medicine. Raw HFG and roasted HFG are used to treat hypogalactia, hyperprolactinemia and indigestion. In recent years, the lactogenic and galactophygous effects of HFG have attracted increasing attention. Nevertheless, there is much confusion over the use of raw and processed HFG, and the mechanism of its lactogenic effect seems remains poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the lactogenic effect of raw HFG and roasted HFG on rats with overloaded lactation and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. Raw and processed HFG water decoctions were given to overloaded lactation model rats at a dose of 1.7800 g kg In vivo experiments demonstrated that the raw HFG water decoction stimulated mammogenesis, accelerated the transformation of the lobular acinar system, resulted in denser mammary epithelial cells and thicker glandular ducts that were full of milk and facilitated the secretion of milk. Moreover, HFG increased PRL, E2, and GH levels, pup body weight, daily lactation and the body weight of lactating rats. Following gene chip identification, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed genes that were highly related to prolactin in the prolactin signaling pathway and JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and the main differentially expressed genes were Jak2 (down), Stat5α (up), cyclin D1 (up), SOCS1 (up), CISH (down) and PRLR (up). Compared with the control group, RT-PCR results indicated that Jak2 and CISH were downregulated and that Stat5α, cyclin D1, SOCS1 and PRLR were upregulated. Western blot assays showed that PRLR, STAT5α and cyclin D1 levels in the mammary glands of the raw HFG water decoction group were significantly increased, which was consistent with the results of cDNA microarray screening. The present study reveals that raw HFG effectively enhances lactation in rats, possibly by influencing the prolactin/JAK-STAT signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2020-11-21 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology


Clozapine-induced pulmonary embolism in a patient with minimal pre-existing risk factors.
Although the risk of antipsychotic-induced venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been definitively established, guidelines recommending prophylactic anticoagulation do not yet exist. Several algorithms have been proposed that suggest possible prophylaxis with an anticoagulant medication on the basis of pre-existing VTE risk factors. We present a case of antipsychotic-induced VTE despite the patient's low- risk status so that practitioners may better understand which factors may or may not constitute a major risk in this population when making a determination about prophylactic anticoagulation. We present a patient case of a 56-year-old man with schizoaffective disorder who was treated with clozapine at an inpatient psychiatric unit. Although he would be classified as low risk for VTE on the basis of the proposed algorithms, he experienced a pulmonary embolism by day 17 of treatment and required transfer to a medical unit. This patient displayed sensitivity to other adverse effects associated with clozapine during his treatment course, including tachycardia, sialorrhea, enuresis, and bowel obstruction. Many of the known risk factors for antipsychotic-induced VTE were not present in this patient, including immobility, hyperprolactinemia, and coagulation abnormalities. The recent initiation of clozapine and obesity seem to be the only identified risk factors, although malignancy and abnormal antiphospholipid antibody levels were not able to be ruled out. It is difficult to determine if this patient experienced a VTE owing to a relatively high degree of sensitivity to clozapine, as evidenced by the myriad of other adverse effects that he experienced. This case highlights the need to determine true antipsychotic-induced VTE risk factors, including evaluation of comorbid adverse effects that occur in addition to the VTE. This information will help to guide future decision-making regarding the risk versus benefit of providing prophylactic anticoagulation for patients during initiation of antipsychotic treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-08-15 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA

side effects(27)

Extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics are linked to their association kinetics at dopamine D
Atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been hypothesized to show reduced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) due to their rapid dissociation from the dopamine D
Publication Date: 2017-10-04 00:00:00
Journal: Nature communications

diabetes insipidus(18)

Endocrine abnormalities in cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome: a case of precocious puberty, hyperprolactinemia and diabetes insipidus.
A 7-year-8-month-old boy with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome caused by the D638E mutation of the B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) presented with new-onset seizures. He was incidentally found to have advanced Tanner staging on physical examination. Hormonal testing revealed pubertal levels of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. On brain imaging, a lack of visualisation of the posterior pituitary bright spot was observed, in addition to mild thinning of the corpus callosum and the lateral gyri of the cerebellar hemispheres. A diagnosis of idiopathic central precocious puberty was made and the patient was started on leuprolide depot treatment. Pituitary hormone testing revealed hyperprolactinemia for which the patient did not receive treatment as he was asymptomatic. During a subsequent hospital admission for seizures, the patient was diagnosed with transient central diabetes insipidus for which he required treatment with a desmopressin infusion.
Publication Date: 2019-06-21 00:00:00
Journal: BMJ case reports

antipsychotic drugs(24)

Prescribing Trends of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in an Outpatient Unit of a Child and Adolescent Clinic in Turkey.
Use of antipsychotic agents in the management of various psychopathologies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric practice is gradually increasing. This study aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical features of children and adolescents who applied to an outpatient clinic of child and adolescent psychiatry department in Turkey and were prescribed atypical antipsychotics. Patients with prescription codes of ATC N05A (except N05AN lithium) were accepted to denote those with atypical antipsychotic treatment. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, pharmacological mechanisms and groups and use of multiple agents for 212 patients with atypical antipsychotic treatment were collected and recorded. Patients (6.6%) evaluated within a year were prescribed antipsychotic agents (APs). The majority of the sample consisted of adolescents and especially females. The most common diagnoses managed with atypical antipsychotic were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, MDD, and mental retardation/intellectual disability in decreasing frequency. Males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CD, and autism spectrum disorders and females with MDD and PTSD were more frequently prescribed APs. Most common indications were irritability, impulsivity, and self-harming behaviors. Most common agents were risperidone, aripiprazole, and quetiapine in decreasing order of frequency. Most common adverse effects were reported as sedation, increased appetite, and hyperprolactinemia. Our results support the prevalence of off-label use of AP agents in managing various childhood psychopathologies also in Turkey. Further studies from multiple centers and using reliable and valid measurements are needed to determine the extent and predictors of AP use in outpatient samples from different child and adolescent centers.
Publication Date: 2018-01-06 00:00:00
Journal: Clinical neuropharmacology


Abnormally low prolactin levels in schizophrenia patients after switching to aripiprazole in a randomized trial: a biomarker for rebound in psychotic symptoms?
Switching to aripiprazole from other antipsychotics can avoid antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia but may result in an abnormally low prolactin level. This study aimed to assess whether the aripiprazole-induced abnormally low prolactin level was a biomarker for subsequent rebound of positive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Participants were 63 patients in an 8-week trial of switching to aripiprazole, in which preswitching antipsychotics were maintained for the first 2 weeks and aripiprazole was fixed at 15 mg orally throughout the trial. A prolactin level of < 3.7 ng/ml was defined as abnormally low, and an increase of two or more points in the positive subscore of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale at two adjacent ratings was defined as a psychotic rebound. Among 63 patients, 25 (39.7%) had an abnormally low prolactin level and 21 (33.3%) had a psychotic rebound after switching to aripiprazole. In patients with abnormally low prolactin levels, 48.0% of them had a rebound in psychotic symptoms, whereas in those without abnormally low prolactin levels 23.7% did so. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for sex, early age at onset, and preswitching medications revealed that abnormally low prolactin levels were associated with psychotic rebound (adjusted odds ratio = 3.55, 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 12.5). Furthermore, there was concurrency between the trend of the cumulative proportion of patients having an abnormally low prolactin level and that of the cumulative proportion of patients having a rebound in psychotic symptoms. An abnormally low prolactin level after switching to aripiprazole in schizophrenia patients was a potential warning sign of a psychotic rebound. Hence, monitoring of prolactin levels after switching to aripiprazole may help avoid such rebound in schizophrenia. NCT00545467 ; Date of registration: 17/10/2007.
Publication Date: 2020-11-25 00:00:00
Journal: BMC psychiatry

neoplasia type 1(15)

The incidence of adrenal incidentaloma has been increasing proportional to the use of radiologic examination. Multiple endocrine neoplasia1 (MEN1) syndrome may present with various tumors. The present study reports a case of adrenal incidentaloma with unrecognised MEN1 syndrome associated with breast cancer. A 48-year-old woman presented with a 2.4cm left adrenal incidentaloma on abdominal computed tomography. Her history revealed primary amenorrhea, recurrent peptic ulcer and nephrolithiasis. Laboratory and radiologic examination revealed two pancreatic tail mass lesions with markedly elevated gastrin levels (1462 pg/mL), hypercalcemia with increased parathyroid hormone levels (72 pg/mL), a 1.5cm pituitary mass with hyperprolactinemia (234 ng/mL), a 1.0cm meningioma and a nonfunctional left adrenal mass. During this image work up, a 0.6cm nodule in the right breast was incidentally detected. Surgeries (laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy, parathyroidectomy and wide local excision of breast) and pathologic findings confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and breast cancer. Carbergoline treatment for 12 months decreased prolactin levels to 27 ng/mL. Genetic testing using peripheral blood revealed a pathogenic variant in MEN1 on chr11q13 (NM_000244.3:c.1365+1_1365+11 del, GTGAGGGACAG, heterozygous). Considering the increasing incidence of adrenal incidentaloma and 20% prevalence of adrenal tumors in patients with MEN1, it is important to rule out MEN1 association in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Additionally, breast cancer was detected during MEN1 work-up in this case. Female patients with MEN1 are at increased risk for breast cancer. Therefore, intensified breast cancer screening at a relatively young age should be considered in female MEN1 patients.
Publication Date: 2020-05-08 00:00:00
Journal: Acta endocrinologica (Bucharest, Romania : 2005)


The association between serum prolactin levels and interleukin-6 and systemic lupus erythematosus activity.
Based on the recent evidence of association between hyperprolactinemia and systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity (SLEDAI), a study was conducted to analyze the association of hyperprolactinemia with lupus nephritis disease activity In this cross-sectional study, the analysis was conducted on SLE patients who visited the University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) Nephrology Clinic from August 2015 till February 2016. The disease activity was measured using the SLEDAI score, with more than 4 indicating active lupus nephritis. Basal resting prolactin level was analyzed in 43 patients with lupus nephritis, in 27.9% of them had raised serum prolactin. The median of serum prolactin level at 0 minutes was 19.91 ng/mL (IQR: 15.95-22.65 ng/ mL) for active lupus nephritis, which was significantly higher compared to the median of serum prolactin level of 14.34 ng/mL (IQR: 11.09-18.70 ng/mL) for patients in remission (p=0.014). The serum prolactin level positively correlated with SLEDAI (rhos: 0.449, p=0.003) and the UPCI level in lupus nephritis patients (rhos: 0.241, p=0.032). The results were reproduced when the serum prolactin was repeated after 30 minutes. However, the serum prolactin levels at 0 minutes were higher than those taken after 30 minutes (p=0.001). An assessment of serum IL-6 levels found that the active lupus nephritis patients had a higher median level of 65.91 pg/ mL (IQR: 21.96-146.14 pg/mL) compared to the in-remission level of 15.84 pg/mL (IQR: 8.38-92.84 pg/mL), (p=0.039). Further correlation analysis revealed that there was no statistical correlation between the interleukin (IL)-6 levels with serum prolactin, SLEDAI and other lupus nephritis parameters. An ROC curve analysis of serum prolactin at 0 minutes and serum prolactin after 30 minutes and IL-6 levels for prediction of SLE disease activity provided the cutoff value of serum prolactin at 0 minutes, which was 14.63 ng/mL with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 58.1% and AUC of 0.74 (p=0.015). This study concurred with the previous findings that stated that hyperprolactinemia is prevalent in SLE patients and correlated with clinical disease activity and UPCI level. The baseline of the fasting serum prolactin level was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the evaluation of lupus nephritis disease activity
Publication Date: 2018-12-21 00:00:00
Journal: Reumatismo

schizophrenic patients(24)

CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms in Schizophrenic Patients with Neuroleptic Drug-Induced Side Effects.
Polymorphic variants of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes of the cytochrome P450 system were studied in patients with schizophrenia with drug-induced motor disorders and hyperprolactinemia against the background of long-term neuroleptic therapy. We revealed an association of polymorphic variant C-163A CYP1A2*1F of CYP1A2 gene with tardive dyskinesia and association of polymorphic variant 1846G>A CY2D6*4 and genotype A/A of CYP2D6 gene (responsible for debrisoquin-4-hydroxylase synthesis) with limbotruncal tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving neuroleptics for a long time.
Publication Date: 2016-03-30 00:00:00
Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine


Structure-Kinetic Profiling of Haloperidol Analogues at the Human Dopamine D
Haloperidol is a typical antipsychotic drug (APD) associated with an increased risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPSs) and hyperprolactinemia relative to atypical APDs such as clozapine. Both drugs are dopamine D
Publication Date: 2019-10-04 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry

dopamine agonist therapy(20)

Monitoring patients receiving dopamine agonist therapy for hyperprolactinaemia.
The surveillance strategy for patients taking low dose cabergoline for hyperprolactinaemia is controversial. As more evidence has emerged that the risks of cardiac valvulopathy in this population of patients are low, fewer and fewer endocrinologists adhere strictly to the original medicines and healthcare products agency MHRA guidance of "at least" annual echocardiography. Strict adherence to this guidance would be costly in monetary terms (£5.76 million/year in the UK) and also in resource use (90,000 extra echocardiograms/year). This article reviews the proposed pathophysiological mechanism underlying the phenomenon of dopamine agonist valvulopathy, the characteristic echocardiographic changes seen, summarises the published literature on the incidence of valvulopathy with low dose cabergoline and examines the previous and current evidence-based screening guidelines.
Publication Date: 2020-03-18 00:00:00
Journal: Annales d'endocrinologie


mPRs represent a novel target for PRL inhibition in experimental prolactinomas.
Membrane progesterone receptors are known to mediate rapid nongenomic progesterone effects in different cell types. Recent evidence revealed that mPRα is highly expressed in the rat pituitary, being primarily localized in lactotrophs, acting as an intermediary of P4-inhibitory actions on prolactin secretion. The role of mPRs in prolactinoma development remains unclear. We hypothesize that mPR agonists represent a novel tool for hyperprolactinemia treatment. To this end, pituitary expression of mPRs was studied in three animal models of prolactinoma. Expression of mPRs and nuclear receptor was significantly decreased in tumoral pituitaries compared to normal ones. However, the relative proportion of mPRα and mPRβ was highly increased in prolactinomas. Interestingly, the selective mPR agonist (Org OD 02-0) significantly inhibited PRL release in both normal and tumoral pituitary explants, displaying a more pronounced effect in tumoral tissues. As P4 also regulates PRL secretion indirectly, by acting on dopaminergic neurons, we studied mPR involvement in this effect. We found that the hypothalamus has a high expression of mPRs. Interestingly, both P4 and OrgOD 02-0 increased dopamine release in hypothalamus explants. Moreover, in an in vivo treatment, that allows both, pituitary and hypothalamus actions, the mPR agonist strongly reduced the hyperprolactinemia in transgenic females carrying prolactinoma. Finally, we also found and interesting gender difference: males express higher levels of pituitary mPRα/β, a sex that does not develop prolactinoma in these mice models. Taken together, these findings suggest mPRs activation could represent a novel tool for hyperprolactinemic patients, especially those that present resistance to dopaminergic drugs.
Publication Date: 2019-03-12 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrine-related cancer


Pituitary adenomas in older adults (≥ 65 years): 90-day outcomes and readmissions: a 10-year endoscopic endonasal surgical experience.
Longer lifespan and newer imaging protocols have led to more older adults being diagnosed with pituitary adenomas. Herein, we describe outcomes of patients ≥ 65 years undergoing endoscopic adenoma removal. To address selection criteria, we also assess a conservatively managed cohort. A retrospective analysis of 90-day outcomes of patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary adenomectomy from 2010 to 2019 by a neurosurgical/ENT team was performed. Tumor subtype, cavernous sinus invasion, extent of resection/early remission, endocrinology outcomes, complications, re-operations and readmissions were analyzed. A comparator cohort ≥ 65 years undergoing clinical surveillance without surgery was also analyzed. Of 468 patients operated on for pituitary adenoma, 123 (26%) were ≥ 65 years (range 65-93 years); 106 (86.2%) had endocrine-inactive adenomas; 18 (14.6%) had prior surgery. Of 106 patients with endocrine-inactive adenomas, GTR was achieved in 70/106 (66%). Of 17 patients with endocrine-active adenomas, early biochemical remission was: Cushing's 6/8; acromegaly 1/4; prolactinomas 1/5. Gland function recovery occurred in 28/58 (48.3%) patients with various degrees of preoperative hypopituitarism. New anterior hypopituitarism occurred in 3/110 (2.4%) patients; permanent DI in none. Major complications in 123 patients were: CSF leak 2 (1.6%), meningitis 1 (0.8%), vision decline 1 (0.8%). There were no vascular injuries, operative hematomas, anosmia, deaths, MIs, or thromboembolic events. Median length of stay was 2 days. Readmissions occurred in 14/123 (11.3%) patients, 57% for delayed hyponatremia. Intra-cohort analysis by age (65-69, 70-74, 75-79,  ≥ 80 years) revealed no outcome differences. Cavernous sinus invasion (OR 7.7, CI 1.37-44.8; p = 0.02) and redo-surgery (OR 8.5, CI 1.7-42.8; p = 0.009) were negative predictors for GTR/NTR. Of 105 patients evaluated for presumed pituitary adenoma beginning in 2015, 72 (69%) underwent surgery, 8 (7%) had prolactinomas treated with cabergoline and 25 (24%) continue clinical surveillance without surgery, including two on new hormone replacement. This study suggests that elderly patients carefully selected for endoscopic adenoma removal can have excellent short-term outcomes including high resection rates, low complication rates and short length of stay. Our experience supports a multidisciplinary approach and the concept of pituitary centers of excellence. Based on our observations, approximately 25% of elderly patients with pituitary adenomas referred for possible surgery can be monitored closely without surgery.
Publication Date: 2020-09-17 00:00:00
Journal: Pituitary

anterior pituitary(28)

Ca2+ Channels in Anterior Pituitary Somatotrophs: A Therapeutic Perspective.
Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) plays a key role in GH secretion. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the physiology and molecular machinery of VGCCs in pituitary somatotrophs. We next discuss the possible involvement of Ca2+ channelopathies in pituitary disease and the potential use of Ca2+ channel blockers to treat pituitary disease. Various types of VGCCs exist in pituitary cells. However, because L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) contribute the major component to Ca2+ influx in somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and corticotrophs, we focused on these channels. An increasing number of studies in recent years have linked genetic missense mutations in LTCCs to diseases of the human cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine systems. These disease-associated genetic mutations occur at homologous functional positions (activation gates) in LTCCs. Thus, it is plausible that similar homologous missense mutations in pituitary LTCCs can cause abnormal hormone secretion and underlying pituitary disorders. The existence of LTCCs in pituitary cells opens questions about their sensitivity to dihydropyridines, a group of selective LTCC blockers. The dihydropyridine sensitivity of pituitary cells, as with any other excitable cell, depends primarily on two parameters: the pattern of their electrical activity and the dihydropyridine sensitivity of their LTCC isoforms. These two parameters are discussed in detail in relation to somatotrophs. These discussions are also relevant to lactotrophs and corticotrophs. High dihydropyridine sensitivity may facilitate their use as drugs to treat pituitary oversecretion disorders such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, and Cushing disease.
Publication Date: 2018-11-06 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrinology


Ovarian cyclicity and prolactin status of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American zoos may be influenced by life experience and individual temperament.
Hyperprolactinemia is an endocrine disorder associated with infertility in many species, including elephants. In a recent survey of zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), over half of African elephant females (N = 101) were not cycling normally, 30% of which exhibited hyperprolactinemia. We examined whether life experience and temperament predict ovarian cyclicity and circulating prolactin status in individual African elephant females. We hypothesized that, similar to humans, acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia in elephants will be associated with an apprehensive or fearful, anxious temperament, and an increased number of potentially challenging life events (transfers, deaths and births). Ninety-five adult African elephant females housed at 37 AZA institutions were included in this study. Blood samples were collected twice a month for 1 year to determine ovarian cycle (cycling, n = 44; irregular, n = 13; non-cycling, n = 38) and prolactin (normal, n = 44; low; n = 23; high; n = 28) status. Keeper ratings on a 6-point scale were obtained on 32 temperament traits in 85 of these elephants. We determined that giving birth and being exposed to herd mates entering the facility were positively associated with normal ovarian cycle and prolactin profiles. By contrast, age, serum cortisol, and an increased number of herd mates leaving a facility were negatively associated with both. Contrary to our hypothesis, hyperprolactinemia was associated with a popular and caring temperament rating, whereas consistently low prolactin was associated with a fearful, apprehensive temperament. These findings indicate that pituitary- ovarian function may be impacted by life history (cyclicity) and temperament (prolactin), which should be taken into consideration when making management decisions.
Publication Date: 2020-06-13 00:00:00
Journal: Hormones and behavior

traumatic brain injury(13)

Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children's quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6-12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life.
Publication Date: 2015-08-20 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of clinical medicine

vasoactive intestinal peptide(18)

Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the brain of nest-deprived native Thai hen.
Hyperprolactinemia is associated with incubation behavior and ovarian regression in birds. To investigate the association of prolactin (PRL), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and dopamine (DA) with the neuroendocrine regulation of incubation behavior, changes in the number of visible VIP-immunoreactive (VIP-ir) neurons in the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the nucleus intramedialis (nI) and nucleus mamillaris lateralis (ML) of incubating native Thai hens were compared with those of nest-deprived hens. TH was used as a marker for dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Blood samples were collected to determine PRL levels. The localization and the number of visible VIP-ir and TH-ir neurons were determined by immunohistochemistry. Disruption of incubation behavior was accompanied by a precipitous decline in plasma PRL levels. The number of visible VIP-ir neurons in the IH-IN and TH-ir neurons in the nI and ML were high during incubation and decreased when hens were deprived of their nests. This study indicated an association between VIP neurons in the IH-IN and DA neurons in the nI and ML with the degree of hyperprolactinemia, suggesting that the expression of incubation behavior in birds might be, in part, regulated by the DAergic input from the nI and ML to VIP neurons in the IH-IN and subsequent PRL release.
Publication Date: 2011-01-27 00:00:00
Journal: General and comparative endocrinology


The effects of hyperprolactinemia and its control on metabolic diseases.
Hyperprolactinaemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and glucose intolerance and is reportedly associated with impaired metabolic profile and metabolic syndrome in approximately one third of patients. Suppression of dopaminergic tone has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in such patients. Dopamine receptor type 2 (D Hyperprolactinemia promotes metabolic alterations. Control of PRL excess by dopamine agonists is mandatory to induce weight loss and to improve metabolic profile, and replacement treatment for concomitant hypogonadism effectively ameliorates insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
Publication Date: 2018-07-31 00:00:00
Journal: Expert review of endocrinology & metabolism

prolactin level(27)

Aripiprazole combination for reversal of paliperidone-induced increase in prolactin level.
Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect of antipsychotic drugs. Although changes of antipsychotic drugs or reduction of their doses can solve this problem, a modification of the treatment regimen can lead to instability in patients. Herein, we followed up a patient with elevated prolactin caused by paliperidone and found that the prolactin level was decreased after the administration of a combination with a low-dose aripiprazole. In addition, we summarized and analyzed the findings from the case and the literature review conducted.
Publication Date: 2018-09-15 00:00:00
Journal: Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

patients treated(32)

Lower Prolactin Levels in Patients Treated With Aripiprazole Regardless of Antipsychotic Monopharmacy or Polypharmacy.
Hyperprolactinemia is a troublesome adverse effect of antipsychotics. Aripiprazole (ARP), which is one of second-generation antipsychotics, has been reported to lower serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, few studies have compared the effect of ARP on plasma PRL levels between monopharmacy and polypharmacy with antipsychotics. We conducted a large-scale investigation of the physical risk for inpatients with schizophrenia using a questionnaire covering demographic data, the number, dose and type of antipsychotics, and serum PRL levels. Sufficient data to conduct an assessment of the effect on PRL levels between antipsychotic monopharmacy and polypharmacy were obtained from 316 of the inpatients. Serum PRL levels in ARP combination group were lower than non-ARP combination group, regardless of antipsychotic monopharmacy or polypharmacy. The present study suggests that ARP lowers serum PRL levels regardless of monopharamacy or polypharmacy with antipsychotics.
Publication Date: 2019-12-14 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of clinical psychopharmacology


Prepubertal gynecomastia is not always idiopathic: case series and review of the literature.
Although pubertal gynecomastia is a common clinical presentation of adolescent males, prepubertal gynecomastia is uncommon and mostly idiopathic However, pathological causes of prepubescent gynecomastia are encountered in clinical practice. This manuscript carries an important message to general pediatricians, to care about exclusion of pathological causes for every patient of prepubertal gynecomastia. We present four different patients with pathological gynecomastia. One of them revealed to be secondary to Sertoli cell tumor, while the second patient describes trauma as a rare cause of prepubertal true gynecomastia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report occupational trauma as a cause of true gynecomastia as confirmed by pathological specimen, in a prepubertal boy. The third patient presented with retro-areolar mass and bloody nipple discharge secondary to mammary duct ectasia and had favorable self-limited course. Hyperprolactinemia secondary to neglected congenital hypothyroidism was the cause beyond gynecomastia in the fourth patient and this cause has been reported only once in the literature.Conclusion: Despite being rare, pathological causes of prepubertal gynecomastia are encountered in clinical practice, and full investigations including breast and testicular ultrasound are needed to exclude any pathology before diagnosing idiopathic gynecomastia. Repeated friction of the breast can lead to true gynecomastia not only to pseudogynecomastia as previously known. What is Known: • It has been reported that trauma can cause pseudogynecomastia due to hematoma or fat necrosis. • Prepubertal gynecomastia is mostly idiopathic What is New: • Long-term breast trauma can cause true gynecomastia (adenosis). • Although being mostly idiopathic pathological causes of prepubertal gynecomastia must be ruled out.
Publication Date: 2020-09-26 00:00:00
Journal: European journal of pediatrics


Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast with hyperprolactinemia: report of two cases and a minireview.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is a rare type of breast cancer. The clinical features and morphology between NECB and other subtypes of breast cancer are indistinguishable. Currently, the diagnosis of NECB mainly relies on immunohistochemical markers including chromogranin and synaptophysin. It is urgent to find new diagnostic markers for NECB. Some evidence suggests a link between high prolactin level and breast cancer development, however, it is unclear whether NECB may be associated with hyperprolactinemia. Here we report two cases of primary NECB with hyperprolactinemia. One patient had a history of mental disorder, while the other experienced pregnancy. Metastatic and associated tumors were not found in both cases, and postoperative studies showed one case was hormone-receptor-dependent, but the other was hormone-receptor-independent. The cases presented here suggest hyperprolactinemia may contribute to NECB development.
Publication Date: 2020-07-15 00:00:00
Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology

prospective study(18)

Hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction is common in tubercular meningitis: A prospective study from a tertiary care center in Northern India.
Current literature is poor with respect to well conducted prospective studies of hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction in tubercular meningitis (TBM). As hormonal deficiencies are associated with poor clinical outcome in various neurological and non-neurological disorders, we prospectively evaluated the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction in TBM. Present study included newly diagnosed drug naive TBM patients (n = 63) at a tertiary care centre in Northern India. All patients underwent detailed clinical, radiological evaluation (Gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of brain) and HPA hormonal profiles (electrochemiluminescence assay) both at initial presentation and at six month follow up. All the data was recorded on a predesigned proforma. 77.8% patients had definite and 22.2% had highly probable TBM. 84.2% of patients had pituitary hormonal abnormalities at presentation. These included hyperprolactinemia (49.2%), secondary adrenal deficiency (42.9%), secondary hypogonadism (38.1%) and central hypothyroidism (9.5%). At follow up, 42.1% patients had HPA abnormalities [hyperprolactinemia (13.2%), secondary hypogonadism (15.8%), secondary adrenal deficiency (10.5%) and central hypothyroidism (10.5%)]. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, secondary hypocortisolism (Odd ratio: 4.042; 95% CI = 1.074-15.22; P = .039) was associated with poor outcome in TBM. Abnormalities of HPA are common in TBM. Patients with TBM should be evaluated for dysfunction of HPA and treated accordingly.
Publication Date: 2018-10-16 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of the neurological sciences

polyethylene glycol(23)

Macroprolactinemia Detection by Magnetically Assisted Polyethylene Glycol Precipitation: Potential for Automation.
Macroprolactin is an immunoglobulin-prolactin complex that is not bioactive in vivo but the prolactin component remains immunoreactive. The complex is a universal source of interference in prolactin immunoassays and commonly results in misdiagnosis of hyperprolactinemia with consequent clinical mismanagement of patients. Removal of macroprolactin by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an effective technique for identifying such patients but unfortunately not universally employed due to the manual nature of the procedure. We developed a modified PEG precipitation technique using magnetic nanoparticles that we termed Magnetically Assisted PEG Precipitation (MAPP). This procedure was verified against an established PEG precipitation procedure. The MAPP procedure we developed was robust, reproducible, and affords the potential for automation of macroprolactin screening in clinical laboratories. Comparisons of prolactin levels obtained following MAPP in sera from patients with either true hyperprolactinemia or macroprolactinemia generated results comparable to that of conventional PEG precipitation. The MAPP technique yields results comparable to those of traditional PEG precipitation. Elimination of the need for centrifugation affords the possibility of automation and hence more widespread adoption of routine PEG screening by clinical laboratories.
Publication Date: 2020-05-24 00:00:00
Journal: The journal of applied laboratory medicine

risk factors(24)

Prevalence and risk factors of hypogonadism in men with chronic renal failure.
To determine the prevalence and the risk factors of hypogonadism in men with chronic renal failure (CRF). We conducted a cross sectional analysis in 48 men with CRF. Total testosterone, prolactin, and gonadotropins were measured in all patients. Hypogonadism was defined by a low level (<10 nmol/l) or a low normal level (10-14 nmol/l) of total testosterone. The mean age was 53.31±10.22 years. Renal impairment was mild, moderate, severe and at end stage in 9,14,4 and 21 patients, respectively. Nineteen patients had been undergoing extra-renal purification. The average of total testosterone was 13.44±6.17 nmol/L. It was lower in patients with diabetic nephropathy (p=0.004). Hypogonadism was diagnosed in 22 patients (46 %). In this group, gonadotropins were normal in 21 cases and elevated in only one case. Hyperprolactinemia was retained in six patients. Type 2 diabetes (OR: 3.96; p=0.02) and diabetic nephropathy (OR=4.26; p=0.01) were the only risk factors of hypogonadism in our patients. Our results had demonstrated a high prevalence of hypogonadism in males with chronic renal failure. This hormone disorder was associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.
Publication Date: 2020-05-13 00:00:00
Journal: La Tunisie medicale

magnetic resonance imaging(13)

Serial 3 T magnetic resonance imaging during cabergoline treatment of macroprolactinomas.
Cabergoline is the treatment of choice for prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary adenomas, because of its efficacy in normalizing PRL levels, and inducing tumor shrinkage. The clinical use of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for neuroimaging has rapidly expanded in recent years. In particular, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) provides high anatomical and contrast resolution. In this study, serial 3 T MRI with T2WI was utilized during cabergoline treatment of 10 patients with macroprolactinomas. Cabergoline was started at a standard weekly dosage and incrementally adjusted on individual posttreatment PRL values. MRI confirmed tumor shrinkage in all patients during cabergoline treatment. Cabergoline normalized hyperprolactinemia in all but one patient. In six of 10 patients, distinct low-signal-intensity areas were evident throughout the adenomas on T2WI. In four of those six patients, massive low-signal-intensity areas appeared at 1-4 months, after which tumors decreased in size by over 80%. These findings in the early phase of prolactinoma treatment predicted pronounced regression or near-complete disappearance of the tumor. Reduction of T2 intensity possibly reflected dehydration due to diffuse hemorrhage in the adenomas. T2-weighted 3 T MR images are valuable for assessing and monitoring cabergoline treatment of macroprolactinomas.
Publication Date: 2014-11-08 00:00:00
Journal: Neurological research

empty sella syndrome(11)

Macroprolactinemia and Empty Sella Syndrome.
Macroprolactinemia is a polymeric form of prolactin-release, causing mildly symptomatic clinical pictures. The former can be isolated or associated with other causes of hyperprolactinemia. The association with an empty sella syndrome is rare. We report a case of a female patient discovered with this association. It's about a female patient 47 years old, followed up since the age of 31 years for bilateral galactorrhea and a spaniomenorrhea. There has been no associated drug intake. Her exploration has showed a serum prolactin level of 635 mIU/L. Thyroid test results were normal T4 = 10,2ng/L and TSH = 1.76 mIU/L. A brain scan has showed an empty sella turcica. Despite the unchanged levels of prolactinemia, the evolution under dopaminergic 5 mg /D has been marked by the occurrence of a pregnancy with persistent moderate hyperprolactinemia in the postpartum. Chromatography has showed a predominance of the macroprolactin form with: Prolactin monomer at 4.8%, Big Prolactin at 5% and Big Big Prolactin at 83%, thus stopping bromocriptine. Our observation suggests that macroprolactinemia can be associated with conventional etiologies of moderate hyperprolactinemia as the empty sella syndrome Its detection would prevent the use of dopaminergic therapy which seems not useful.
Publication Date: 2017-12-01 00:00:00
Journal: The Pan African medical journal

plasma prolactin(25)

Plasma prolactin levels are associated with the severity of illness in drug-naive first-episode psychosis female patients.
Patients with schizophrenia frequently present hyperprolactinemia as a consequence of antipsychotic treatment. However, an increase in circulating prolactin levels has also been shown in patients without previous treatment. Our objective was to compare prolactin levels between antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis (AN-FEP) patients and healthy controls (HC). As part of an FEP program (Programa Asistencial Fases Iniciales de Psicosis [PAFIP]), 270 AN-FEP patients and 153 HC were eligible for this study. Serum prolactin levels were measured by an automated immunochemiluminescent assay. Subjects' sex and having an AN-FEP diagnosis both had an effect on prolactin levels, with higher levels in women than in men, and in AN-FEP patients than in HC. Moreover, plasma prolactin levels showed a negative correlation with the SAPS scores in AN-FEP female patients. AN-FEP patients have increased levels of prolactin, which might be stress-induced. This, together with the association of higher prolactin with a lower severity of the disease, suggests that prolactin might play a neuroprotective role, especially in women.
Publication Date: 2018-08-12 00:00:00
Journal: Archives of women's mental health

cabergoline therapy(20)

Pregnancy and tumor outcomes in infertile women with macroprolactinoma on cabergoline therapy.
Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas cause infertility in significant number of women. But, pregnancy may lead to post-partum remission of hyperprolactinemia. The data on pregnancy and tumor outcome in women with macroprolactinoma conceiving on Cabergoline (CAB) therapy is increasing but still less than with Bromocriptine. We studied the incidence of fetal malformations, hyperprolactinemia and tumor course after gestation in infertile women harboring macroprolactinoma, who conceived on CAB therapy during the year 2005-2015. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the continuation of CAB therapy during gestation (Group A) or not (Group B). Forty-eight pregnancies in 33 women were recorded. CAB was continued throughout gestation in 25 pregnancies (Group A). The incidence of missed abortion (8.3%), still birth (4.2%) and low birth weight (7.7%) were not different in two groups. Neural tube defects were observed in 3 pregnancies (all in Group A). Post-partum, recurrence of hyperprolactinemia was observed in 64.6% and 60.9% (p = 0.8) of women in group A and B, respectively. Cabergoline was restarted after 60% and 60.9% (p = 0.9) pregnancies in the two groups in view of symptomatic hyperprolactinemia and/or persistence of macroadenoma. Post-partum, recurrence of hyperprolactinemia is common in spite of significant tumor reduction in infertile women with macroprolactinoma. Continuation of CAB during gestation does not influence the post-pregnancy recurrence of hyperprolactinemia or tumor remission.
Publication Date: 2016-12-03 00:00:00
Journal: Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology


Effect of α-1-adrenolytic agent and 5-α-reductase inhibitor on renal function in an experimental model of hyperprolactinemia-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The standard pharmacotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may also alleviate potential kidney dysfunction resulting from the development of obstructive uropathy in the course of BPH. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with α-1- adrenolytic agent (tamsulosin) and 5-α-reductase inhibitor (finasteride) on renal function in rats. Four groups of rats were studied: 1 - controls, 2 - rats with metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia BPH model, 3 - rats with BPH treated with tamsulosin, 4 - rats with BPH treated with finasteride. BPH presence was verified by histopathological examination. The renal function was assessed by histopathological examination, and the laboratory assessment of the classic nitrogen parameters and new kidney function markers (cystatin C; CysC, kidney injury molecule-1; KIM-1). In group 2, BPH development was confirmed by histopathological examination, without simultaneous significant kidney disturbances. Compared to the controls, BPH animals exhibited significant proteinuria, and increased concentration and daily urinary excretion of CysC and KIM- 1. Treatment with tamsulosin significantly improved the histopathological image of the prostate without affecting renal structure and led to reduced blood urea and proteinuria. Treatment with finasteride also significantly reduced the histopathological signs of BPH without changing the image of the kidneys, and reduced CysC concentration and daily CysC excretion with urine compared to group 2 individuals. In the course of experimental hyperprolactinemiainduced BPH, kidney tubulopathy developed, which was indicated by KIM-1 and CysC disturbances in urine. The administration of finasteride reduced renal dysfunction to a higher degree, bringing the concentration and daily excretion of CysC back to normal.
Publication Date: 2020-06-22 00:00:00
Journal: Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego

prolactin prl(7)

The relationship between prolactin (PRL), leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in patients with hyperprolactinemia.
Leptin is a key mediator in the maintenance of neuroendocrine homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with hyperprolactinemia. The study consists of 16 consecutive patients with high prolactin (PRL) levels (group I) and a control group of 11 normoprolactinemic patients (group II). Pituitary tumor tissues of patients in groups I and II were analyzed for immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of prolactin and leptin. Group I has significantly higher levels of leptin than group II (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation between PRL and leptin concentrations in group I. However, there were no statistically significant differences for NO, TNF-alpha, IL-6 between the two groups. IHC staining showed that there was strong immunoreactivity for leptin protein in PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas. Double immunostaining of adenoma tissues with PRL and leptin showed that the adenoma cells expressed both. These findings together are suggestive that leptin co-secretion from a prolactinoma may be the cause of increased serum leptin concentration, independently from the peripheral action of prolactin.
Publication Date: 2008-08-30 00:00:00
Journal: Pituitary


Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 4: Novel CDNK1B variant and immune anomalies.
Publication Date: 2020-05-11 00:00:00
Journal: Annales d'endocrinologie

idiopathic hyperprolactinemia(16)

Different Cabergoline Effect on Metabolic and Anthropometric Parameters in Female Prolactinoma Patients Versus Idiopathic Hyperprolactinemia Patients.
Hyperprolactinemia can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, abnormal glucose homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Reversibility of these changes after normalization of prolactin with dopamine agonists is still controversial and needs more clarification. We aimed to: 1) evaluate and compare metabolic and anthropometric profile in female with newly diagnosed prolactin-secreting adenoma versus female idiopathic hyperprolactinemic patients; 2) compare the effects of one year cabergoline therapy on the metabolic profile and anthropometric parameters (by using visceral adiposity index as index for evaluation of adipose tissue dysfunction) in females with prolactinoma to female idiopathic hyperprolactinemic patients. We enrolled 40 female patients with newly diagnosed prolactinoma and 40 female patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia who were matched according to: age; weight; BMI; waist; and prolactin levels. We enrolled the participants in this study at the time of diagnosis before therapy and they were followed up for 12 months. Cabergoline therapy had significant favorable effects on metabolic and anthropometric parameters, visceral adiposity index and in all patients (apart from HDLc in prolactinoma patients). Cabergoline therapy was significantly more effective in patient with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia than prolactinoma patients with regard to BMI, waist circumference, HDLc and visceral adiposity index despite normalization of prolactin levels in both groups. 12 months of Cabergoline treatment improved most of the anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and visceral adiposity index as a marker for adipose tissue dysfunction in both idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma patients. However, Cabergoline treatment was more effective in idiopathic hyperprolactinemic than prolactinoma patients.
Publication Date: 2019-02-27 00:00:00
Journal: Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets


Recurrent Episodes of Paraphilic Behavior Possibly Associated With Olanzapine and Aripiprazole Treatment in a Patient With Schizophrenia.
Hypersexual and paraphilic disorders have been frequently associated with concomitant psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. A growing number of published cases has recently indicated that hypersexual behavior may also arise in conjunction with treatment with second-generation antipsychotics. Although hypersexuality has been acknowledged as a possible side effect of antipsychotic treatment with partial dopamine agonists, including aripiprazole, only very few cases of olanzapine associated hypersexuality have been reported in the literature. A 29-year-old man presented with delusions of persecution and reference, auditory hallucinations, and negative symptoms, and was diagnosed with paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia. One and a half months after initiation of antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine he developed compulsive sexual behavior and paraphilia, without signs of akathisia. After olanzapine discontinuation, a full remission of the hypersexual behavior was noted within one week, and treatment was switched to risperidone. Due to hyperprolactinemia, adjunct treatment with low-dose aripiprazole was initiated and a severe recurrence of identical hypersexual behavior occurred. The hypersexual behavior resolved completely within a week after aripiprazole discontinuation. This case illustrates that hypersexuality may be a rare adverse effect of treatment with second-generation antipsychotics. Although aripiprazole is a drug with a well-established risk for hypersexuality, the question of whether a causal association between hypersexuality and olanzapine exists remains currently unresolved. As the currently limited amount of available evidence precludes any definitive conclusions, additional research is warranted to delineate the possible neurobiological substrates of hypersexual and paraphilic disorders in patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics.
Publication Date: 2020-05-20 00:00:00
Journal: Frontiers in psychiatry


Endocrine Abnormalities in Adolescents with Menstrual Disorders.
To look for endocrine abnormalities like thyroid disorders, hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism and PCOS among adolescents with menstrual disorders and to compare the above endocrine status with those without menstrual disorders. This was a case-control study carried out in adolescent girls aged 10-19 years in gynecology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Sample of venous blood (5 ml) was taken for hormonal studies as clinically indicated-thyroid function test, serum prolactin, total testosterone, which were analyzed by chemiluminescence system. Oligomenorrhea was the most common menstrual abnormality in our study, the prevalence being 61.0% in cases followed by primary amenorrhea (16.4%). Thyroid dysfunction was found in 13.6% girls with menstrual disorders compared to 3.5% in those without menstrual disorders, and this was statistically significant ( Although immaturity of hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis is considered to be the most common cause of menstrual irregularities in adolescent girls, endocrine abnormalities, namely thyroid dysfunction and hyperandrogenism, may be responsible in some cases, thus warranting further evaluation.
Publication Date: 2018-02-03 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India


Primary Pituitary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Rare Salivary Gland-Like Tumor in the Sella.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a tumor of the exocrine glands that originates primarily from the minor and major salivary glands, nasopharynx, and lacrimal glands. ACC grows slowly but is locally aggressive and prone to recurrence. It is uncommon for ACCs to develop in the pituitary gland as a primary tumor. We present a case of primary pituitary ACC extending to the sphenoid sinus resembling an invasive adenoma in a 71-year-old woman with a history of nasal epistaxis. We reviewed other reported cases of pituitary ACCs with retrospective validation of whether the tumor was primary or not. The intrasellar tumor exhibited MYB rearrangement with enlargement and destruction of the sella turcica and dural tears toward the sphenoid sinus, which would be consistent for a tumor originating from the pituitary gland. Including our case, only four intrasellar and one suprasellar ACC have been confirmed as primary tumors. All intrasellar ACCs had the characteristic of some form of invasion of neighboring structures with evidence of hyperprolactinemia. ACC could develop in the pituitary gland as a form of salivary gland-like tumor derived from the ectopic salivary gland rests. ACCs rarely arise from the pituitary gland; however, the accurate determination of primary occurrence is difficult because of the invasive nature of these tumors, and the anatomical relationship with the sphenoid sinus and the cavernous sinus. Excessive bleeding from the tumor or unexpected internal carotid artery injury should be avoided during surgery for primary and secondary pituitary ACC.
Publication Date: 2021-01-06 00:00:00
Journal: Head and neck pathology

drug-induced hyperprolactinemia(12)

Psychiatric Patients with Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Menstruation Disorders.
Treatment with antipsychotic drugs has been associated with hyperprolactinemia. The same antipsychotic drugs have also been associated with side effects such as menstruation disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and menstruation disorders in women undergoing antipsychotic treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review study of psychiatric patients who underwent laboratory testing for serum prolactin (PRL) level between March 2011 and March 2015 in Ehime University Hospital. Patients presenting with and without menstruation disorders were evaluated to determine if they presented concomitant hyperprolactinemia. Patients with menstrual disorders had a significant increase in serum PRL level with a mean of approximately 90 ng/mL. Those with menstrual disorders presented increased PRL levels by 2-fold that of patients without menstrual disorder. However, there was no significant difference in the equivalent dose of chlorpromazine between these two groups. Additionally, about 70% of patients with menstrual disorders received risperidone treatment. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal cutoff point of serum PRL level associated with the development of menstrual disorders was 60 ng/mL. Based on these results, we concluded that patients with menstrual disorders presented increased serum PRL, and that most of them underwent treatment with risperidone.
Publication Date: 2017-10-03 00:00:00
Journal: Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin

case series(13)

Aripiprazole for the Management of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia A Retrospective Case Series.
To demonstrate how effectively aripiprazole can be utilized to manage antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The files of 3 female patients with a history of psychotic illness and hyperprolactinemia who were treated at a state hospital between February 2018 and May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. All were found to have elevated prolactin levels and underwent treatment with aripiprazole in addition to their concomitant medications. In general, the addition of aripiprazole to the treatment regimen of each of the patients corresponded to a decline in their serum prolactin levels. Hyperprolactinemia is frequently observed in patients treated with antipsychotic medications. Low-dose treatment with aripiprazole may offer a relatively rapid relief from sustained hyperprolactinemia and associated adverse effects even after a long-acting injectable is discontinued.
Publication Date: 2020-01-31 00:00:00
Journal: The primary care companion for CNS disorders


McCune-Albright syndrome and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a novel presentation.
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations of GNAS and is classically characterized by the clinical triad of peripheral precocious puberty, café-au-lait pigmentation, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. It can also present with other hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, including growth hormone excess, hyperprolactinemia, hypercortisolemia, hyperthyroidism, and renal phosphate wasting due to excess fibroblast growth factor 23. We review the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and genetic findings in a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with MAS at age 4 and then with autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus at age 7. While MAS is associated with hyperglycemia secondary to growth hormone excess and hypercortisolemia, an association with diabetes mellitus has not been demonstrated. We review the unique presentation of a patient with these two rare conditions.
Publication Date: 2020-02-11 00:00:00
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences


Sex differences in text-mined possible adverse drug events associated with drugs for psychosis.
Understanding sex differences in adverse drug reactions to drugs for psychosis could potentially guide clinicians in optimal drug choices. By applying a text-mining approach, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between drugs for psychosis and biological sex differences in frequencies and co-occurrences of potential adverse drug events (ADEs). Electronic patient records of a psychiatric population (1427 men and 727 women) were text mined for potential ADEs. The relative risk of experiencing specific ADEs and co-occurrence of ADEs were calculated for each sex. Findings included 55 potential ADEs with significantly different frequencies between the two sexes. Of these, 20 were more frequent in men, with relative risks of 1.10-7.64, and 35 were more frequent in women, with relative risks of 1.19-21.58. Frequent potential ADEs were psychiatric symptoms, including sexual dysfunction and disturbances in men, and gastrointestinal symptoms, suicidal and self-injurious behaviour and hyperprolactinemia-related events in women. Mention of different hyperprolactinemia-related ADEs often co-occurred in female patients but not in male patients. Several known sex-related ADEs were identified, as well as some previously not reported. When considering the risk-benefit profile of drugs for psychosis, the patient's sex should be considered.
Publication Date: 2020-02-13 00:00:00
Journal: Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)


Sex-Dependent Effect of Metformin on Serum Prolactin Levels In Hyperprolactinemic Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.
Metformin was found to reduce circulating levels of pituitary hormones. The purpose of this study was to assess whether sex determines the effect of metformin on lactotroph secretory function. The study population included 2 women and 1 2 men with mildly elevated serum prolactin levels ( 2 -75 ng/mL). Because of concomitant type 2 diabetes, all participants were treated with metformin (3 g daily). Plasma levels of glucose and lipids, HOMA1-IR, serum levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and free thyroid hormones, as well as Jostel's, SPINA-GT and SPINA-GD indices were assessed at baseline and at the end of metformin treatment. The study completed 2 women and 11 men. At baseline, there were no significant differences in circulating levels of glucose and lipids, insulin sensitivity, hormones, Jostel's, SPINA-GT and SPINA-GD indices between women and men. In both men and women, metformin reduced fasting glucose levels and HOMA1-IR. However, only in women metformin decreased elevated prolactin levels and this effect correlated with an improvement insulin sensitivity, as well as with the impact on SPINA-GT. The results of the study suggest that the effect of metformin on serum prolactin levels is sex-dependent.
Publication Date: 2017-11-24 00:00:00
Journal: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association


Switching Antipsychotics to Blonanserin in Patients with Schizophrenia: An Open-label, Prospective, Multicenter Study.
This study was performed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of blonanserin in schizophrenic patients who were previously treated with other antipsychotics but, due to insufficient response, were switched to blonanserin. A total of 52 patients with schizophrenia who were unresponsive to treatment with antipsychotic monotherapy or combination therapy were recruited into this 12-week, open-label prospective, multicenter study. Patients were switched to blonanserin from their existing antipsychotics over a maximum 2-week tapering-off period. Efficacy was primarily evaluated using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Assessments were performed at baseline, and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Switching to blonanserin resulted in a significant decrease in the mean total score on the BPRS from baseline (56.8 ± 9.4) to week 12 (42.1 ± 13.8, The results of the present study suggest that switching to blonanserin may be an effective strategy for schizophrenic patients unresponsive to other antipsychotic treatments.
Publication Date: 2019-07-30 00:00:00
Journal: Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology

antipsychotic medications(13)

Detecting and Managing Adverse Effects of Antipsychotic Medications: Current State of Play.
Antipsychotics are some of the most frequently prescribed medications not only for psychotic disorders and symptoms but also for a wide range of on-label and off-label indications. Because second-generation antipsychotics have largely replaced first-generation antipsychotics as first-line options due to their substantially decreased risk of extrapyramidal side effects, attention has shifted to other clinically concerning adverse events associated with antipsychotic therapy. The focus of this article is to update the nonextrapyramidal side effects associated with second-generation antipsychotics. Issues surrounding diagnosis and monitoring as well as clinical management are addressed.
Publication Date: 2016-05-25 00:00:00
Journal: The Psychiatric clinics of North America

granulomatous mastitis(15)

Re-evaluating if observation continues to be the best management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.
The presentation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can mimic breast cancer. Therefore, awareness of the condition is important for surgeons. The current series is the largest in a US population. Retrospective chart review of patients treated at a county, safety-net hospital in Arizona. Cases were identified from January 2006 to January 2019. Sociodemographic information, clinical history, management, and outcomes were collected. There were 145 occurrences of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis among 120 women. Most of the patients (92%) were of Hispanic ethnicity and born outside (87%) of the United States. The average age was 35 years. Nearly all patients (95%) were parous, with an average of 3 pregnancies. Most (88%) presented with a palpable mass, and more than half (54%) of these masses were painful. Six patients had prolactinomas or hyperprolactinemia, 11 patients were pregnant, and 5 were postpartum. Early in the time period studied, 6 patients underwent excision of the masses. The remaining 114 underwent planned observation after biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and the other 112 patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis resolved spontaneously. Nineteen had more than 1 episode. Average time to resolution was 5 months (range 0-20). Adjusted log-normal regression analysis found that later age of first live birth was associated with greater time to resolution (P < .01). Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a self-limited, benign condition that waxes and wanes and eventually resolves without resection. After diagnosis, medications are unnecessary, and operations can be limited to drainage procedures for fluid collections.
Publication Date: 2019-08-12 00:00:00
Journal: Surgery