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Query Topic: TNF

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tumour necrosis factor(84)

LncRNA NEAT1 regulates MMP-16 by targeting miR-200a/b to aggravate inflammation in asthma.
Asthma is a common respiratory disease which is characterized by persistent airway inflammation. Abnormal expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is observed in asthma. However, whether lncRNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) regulates asthmatic inflammation and its mechanism still needs to be further investigated. The expression levels of inflammatory factors (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IL-10) were detected using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MTT and flow cytometry assays were employed to determine cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the relationship between miR-200a/b and MMP-16 or NEAT1. NEAT1 silencing markedly reduced TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-13 levels, while elevated IL-10 expression, suppressed cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis. However, NEAT1 overexpression elicited the opposite effects on cell proliferation and inflammation cytokines secretion. What is more, NEAT1 negatively regulated miR-200a/b expression, and MMP16 was a target gene of miR-200a/b. miR-200a/b overexpression suppressed inflammation, cell proliferation, and enhanced cell apoptosis through regulation of MMP16. Moreover, MMP-16 overexpression or miR-200a/b inhibition abolished the regulatory effect of sh-NEAT1 on cell inflammation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. NEAT1 acted as the role of sponge for miR-200a/b to regulate MMP-16 expression, thereby promoting asthma progression, suggesting that NEAT1 might have great potential as therapeutic target for asthma.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Autoimmunity

factor-α tnf-α(319)

Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and the Presence of Macrophage M2 and T Regulatory Cells in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
To investigate the correlation between TLR3 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL6) expression with the distribution of macrophage M2 and Treg on Epstein Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBER+) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues. A total of 23 FFPE NPC tissue samples were obtained from patients in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2008-2010, which expressed EBER was collected. The expressions of TLR3, TNFα, and IL6 were examined using immunofluorescence assay. The distribution of macrophage M2 and Treg were examined by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD163 and -FOXP3 antibodies, respectively. The quantification of fluorescence intensity was analyzed by the RGB space method using ImageJ software. The M2 interpretation was done by the eyeballing method and the M2 scores were divided into 0 (negative), 1 (scant), 2 (focal), 3 (abundant). The average number of Treg FOXP3+ cells in five high power fields was counted. The relationship between variables were tested by the Spearman correlation test, and the coefficient correlation was used to see the correlation between variables. All EBER+ NPC specimens showed TLR3 expression intracellularly. The expression of TNFα could be observed in the cell membranes and secreted extracellularly, while IL6 was secreted to the extracellular area. The expression of TNFα was two times higher than IL6. Most specimens showed low M2 score (56.52%) and high Treg (52.17%). A positive correlation was found between TLR3 and IL6 (12.9%). TNFα was positively correlated with the M2 distribution of 13.7% and Treg distribution of 12.9%, while the rest were explained by other factors. TNFα has a positive correlation with M2 and Treg distribution,but mostly through a different mechanism other than EBER-TLR3 interaction. Possibly, other pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the formation of the NPC microenvironment, especially related to the presence of M2 and Treg, which provide immunosuppressive effects in NPC tumors. 
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP

pro-inflammatory cytokines(179)

Differential effects of viral nucleic acid sensor signaling pathways on testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells.
The human testis can be infected by a large number of RNA and DNA viruses. While various RNA virus infections may induce orchitis and impair testicular functions, DNA virus infection rarely affects the testis. Mechanisms underlying the differential effects of RNA and DNA viral infections on the testis remain unclear. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of viral RNA and DNA sensor signaling pathways on mouse Sertoli cells (SC) and Leydig cells (LC). The local injection of viral RNA analogue polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) into the testis markedly disrupted spermatogenesis, whereas the injection of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA analogue HSV60 did not affect spermatogenesis. Poly(I:C) dramatically induced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in SC and LC through Toll-like receptor 3 and IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 signaling pathways, impairing the integrity of the blood-testis barrier and testosterone synthesis. Poly(I:C)-induced TNF-α production thus plays a critical role in the impairment of cell functions. In contrast, HSV60 predominantly induced the expression of type 1 interferons and antiviral proteins via the DNA sensor signaling pathway, which did not affect testicular cell functions. Accordingly, the Zika virus induced high levels of TNF-α in SC and LC and impaired their respective cellular functions, whereas HSV-2 principally induced antiviral responses and did not impair such functions. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which RNA viral infections impair testicular functions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Endocrinology

interleukin-6 il-6(155)

MAO-A Inhibition by Metaxalone Reverts IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Phenotype in Microglial Cells.
Experimental and clinical studies have suggested that several neurological disorders are associated with the occurrence of central nervous system neuroinflammation. Metaxalone is an FDA-approved muscle relaxant that has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). The aim of this study was to investigate whether metaxalone might exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in HMC3 microglial cells. An inflammatory phenotype was induced in HMC3 microglial cells through stimulation with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Control cells and IL-1β-stimulated cells were subsequently treated with metaxalone (10, 20, and 40 µM) for six hours. IL-1β stimulated the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but reduced the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). The upstream signal consisted of an increased priming of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), blunted peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression. IL-1β also augmented MAO-A expression/activity and malondialdehyde levels and decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression and protein levels. Metaxalone decreased MAO-A activity and expression, reduced NF-kB, TNF-α, and IL-6, enhanced IL-13, and also increased PPARγ, PGC-1α, and Nrf2 expression. The present experimental study suggests that metaxalone has potential for the treatment of several neurological disorders associated with neuroinflammation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences

expression levels(137)

Anticancer Effect of Rh2, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in HepG2 Cells and HepG2 Cell-Derived Xenograft Tumors Occurs via the Inhibition of HDACs and Activation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.
To investigate the effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) on anti HepG2 liver cancer cells and HepG2 cell-derived xenograft tumors, and explore the underlying mechanisms. The activity of total HDACs and HAT were assessed with a HDACs colorimetric kit. Expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6, p-ERK, ERK, p-P38, P38, p-JNK and JNK proteins was tested by Western blotting.H3K9 and H3K14 proteins were also checked by immunofluorescence, changes in cell cycle distribution with flow cytometry, cell apoptosis with annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining. Activity of Renilla luciferase (HIF) was detected using the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. Gene expression for CyclinD1, Bcl-2, Bax, HIF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was tested by q-PCR. Expression levels of CD31 and Ki-67 was tested by immunohistochemical staining. Total HDAC activity was decreased and total histone acetyltransferase (HAT)activity was increased in a time-dependent manner. Expression of HDAC1 and p-JNK proteins was significantly increased, expression levels of p-ERK was decreased. H3K9 and H3K14 fluorescence protein were increased. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle revealed that the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the treatment group(64.35±1.36%) was significantly increased compared with the untreated group(61.61±1.23%).The apoptotic rate of the HepG2 group was 10.03±1.92%, which increased to 17.87±1.67% in the treatment group. Expression levels of the transcription factor HIF were also increased in HepG2 cells following induction by Rh2. Expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 at the genetic level was significantly decreased, while expression levels of Bax, HIF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was increased. In vivo, the expression levels of both CD31 and Ki-67 proteins were significantly down-regulated in the treatment group compared with the control group. The effects of Rh2 were suggested to occur through the inhibition of total HDAC activity, which subsequently induced MAPK signaling and down-regulated the expression of HIF.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP

il-6 tnf-α(135)

Long noncoding RNA SNHG4 remits lipopolysaccharide-engendered inflammatory lung damage by inhibiting METTL3 - Mediated m
Emerging evidence suggests that long non coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 4 (SNHG4) has become a new insight into lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia inflammation, its role in neonatal pneumonia (NP) remains to be largely unrevealed. RT-qPCR was used to determine the expression of SNHG4 and METTL3 in the serum from NP patients and normal volunteers, as well as in LPS treated-WI-38 cells. The SNHG4 overexpression vector (pcDNA-SNHG4) was transfected into LPS-treated cells. CCK-8, Transwell, annexin V-FITC/PI, ELISA and Western blot assays were used to determine cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, contents of IL-6, TNF-α, SOD and MDA, as well as the expression levels of NF-κB pathway proteins, respectively. The enrichment of SNHG4 in the METTL3 promoter region was assessed with RIP assay. m SNHG4 was downregulated, and METTL3 was upregulated in NP patients and LPS-treated cells. SNHG4 overexpression facilitated cell proliferation, migration and SOD concentration, as well as inhibited cell apoptosis and production of IL-6, TNF-α and MDA, and suppressed the expression of NF-κB pathway proteins. Mechanistically, SNHG4 bound with METTL3 and downregulated METTL3 expression. Besides, total m This study reveals that SNHG4 promotes LPS induced inflammation in human lung fibroblasts and mouse lung tissues in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting METTL3-mediated m
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Molecular immunology

factor-alpha tnf-α(133)

N-Butylphthalide vs. Human Urinary Kallidinogenase for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Functional Outcome and Impact on Serum VEGF and TNF-α Expressions.
To compare the e!cacy and functional outcomes of dl-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) and human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) on ischemic stroke patients and to determine their effects on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A prospective study was conducted on 57 ischemic stroke patients. Functional outcomes were assessed by the National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and the activities of daily living score (ADL), whereas TNF-α and VEGF expressions were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-α was significantly down-regulated in the NBP group and upregulated in the control group two weeks after treatment ( Both treatments are effective and can significantly promote recovery in stroke patients. Additionally, both options have similar effects in promoting long-term recovery, with NBP exerting a greater impact on serum VEGF and TNF-α expressions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Annals of clinical and laboratory science

il-6 il-8(108)

Longitudinal Changes of Cytokines and Appetite in Older Hospitalized Patients.
There are few data on the longitudinal association of cytokine and appetite among older hospitalized patients. We aimed to investigate the impact of the changes of inflammatory cytokines on appetite in older hospitalized patients. A total of 191 patients (mean age 81.3 ± 6.6 years, 64% women) participated in this prospective longitudinal observational study. Appetite was evaluated using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System on admission and after seven days. Serum cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23 and IL-33, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MCP-1 were measured both times. No significant differences in the mean serum levels of all the cytokines could be detected overtime in relation to appetite changes, except for IL-18. Appetite significantly deteriorated overtime in patients with increasing IL-18 levels and improved in those without significant changes in IL-18 levels. In a stepwise regression analysis, changes of IL-18 levels were the major independent predictor for the changes of patients' appetite and explained 4% of the variance, whereas other cytokines and variables, such as age, sex, infection and disease, did not show any impact on appetite changes. We conclude that IL-18 seems to exert a significant impact on appetite in acutely ill older hospitalized patients and should, therefore, be considered as a potential target in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of malnutrition.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients

signaling pathway(108)

Bavachin exerted anti-neuroinflammatory effects by regulation of A20 ubiquitin-editing complex.
Neuroinflammation is a major pathophysiological contributor to the progression of. the central nervous system disorders. Bavachin is a natural product belonging to the flavonoid class. The anti-neuroinflammatory effect and the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we found bavachin can exert anti-neuroinflammatory effect via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. We found that bavachin can obviously upregulate the expression of A20 (TNFAIP3) in microglial cells. Further studies suggested siRNA-A20 knockdown treatment can attenuate the inhibitory effects of bavachin on neuroinflammation. We further found bavachin can increase the interaction of ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex including A20, Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) and Itch, the subsequently downregulated the K63-ubiquitination of TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and NF-κB signaling pathway. Altogether, our results indicated that bavachin exerted anti-neuroinflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-κB signaling mediated by regulation of ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex. Our finding has important clinical significance for the potential application of bavachin in the treatment of neurological disorders.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology

tnf-α levels(104)

Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine, controls acute systemic inflammation induced by polyI:C administration through noradrenergic function.
Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza virus infection. Although maoto is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in a rodent model of acute inflammation, its underlying mechanism remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated the involvement of immune responses and noradrenergic function in the inhibitory action of maoto. In a mouse model of polyI:C-induced acute inflammation, maoto (2 g/kg) was administered orally in conjunction with intraperitoneal injection of PolyI:C (6 mg/kg), and blood was collected after 2 hours for measurement of plasma cytokines by ELISA. Maoto significantly decreased PolyI:C-induced TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 production. Neither pretreatment with IL-10 neutralizing antibodies nor T-cell deficiency using nude mice modified the inhibitory effect of maoto, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto are independent of IL-10 and T cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of maoto on PolyI:C-induced TNF-α production were not observed in ex vivo splenocytes, suggesting that maoto does not act directly on inflammatory cells. Lastly, pretreatment with a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist partially cancelled the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto. Collectively, these results suggest that maoto mediates its anti-inflammatory effects via β-adrenergic receptors in vivo.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Gene

proinflammatory cytokines(98)

Necroptosis Underlies Neutrophilic Inflammation Associated with the Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP).
Necroptosis is an inflammatory cell death associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration. The role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP remains elusive. Cell death, including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis in control sinonasal mucosa and CRSwNP, were analyzed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining for cleaved caspase 3, cleaved gasdermin D and p-MLKL, respectively. Correlations between necroptosis, inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration were assessed and a possible role of necroptosis in CRSwNP was evaluated. Primary nasal polyp cells (DNPCs) were stimulated with damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including ATP or IL-1α and their expression of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed using RT-PCR. The expression of TNF-α and IFNs in nasal polyps was measured by ELISA; human monocyte THP-1 cells were treated with TNF-α or IFN-γ and cell death was measured by LDH release. Necroptosis, rather than apoptosis or pyroptosis, was overtly activated in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP as evidenced by the presence of prominent phosphorylation of MLKL compared to controls. The abundance of DAMPs (IL-1α, HMGB1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8, CXCL-1) were all increased especially in non-eosinophilic CRSwNP. The extent of necroptosis was positively correlated with the abundance of DAMPs and cytokines, and neutrophil infiltration in CRSwNP. In DNPCs, ATP and IL-1α induced the expression of IL-8 and CXCL-1. Macrophage was found to be the predominant cell type positive for p-MLKL in CRSwNP. Concomitant treatment with TNF-α and IFN-γ, which were abundantly present in CRSwNP, triggered marked necroptosis in THP-1 cells. Necroptosis induced by TNF-α and IFN-γ may facilitate the production and release of a myriad of proinflammatory cytokines and entailed neutrophil infiltration to exacerbate inflammation in CRSwNP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Journal of inflammation research

control group(97)

Cytokine TNF-α and its receptors TNFRI and TNFRII play a key role in the in vitro proliferative response of BLV infected animals.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) main host cells are B lymphocytes. Infected animals can be classified into high or low proviral load (HPL or LPL respectively), regarding the number of proviral copies infected lymphocytes they carry. After infection, there is an overexpression of several cytokines, particularly TNF-α, which has a delicate regulation mediated by receptors TNFRI and TNFRII; the first one involved with apoptosis, while the other stimulates cell proliferation. The study aimed to quantify TNF-α and its receptors mRNA expression, and in which extent in vitro proliferation was affected, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from BLV-infected animals with different proviral loads, after the addition or not of synthetic TNF-α (rTNF-α) for 48 h. PBMC from BLV-infected animals showed spontaneous proliferation after 48 h in culture but did not show changes in proliferation rates after 48 h incubation in the presence of the rTNF-α. TNF-α mRNA expression after 48 h culture without exogenous stimulation was significantly lower, regardless of the proviral load of the donor, compared to non-infected animals. In the LPL animals, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was significantly lower with respect to the control group while the expression of TNFRI mRNA was significantly increased. The HPL animals showed a significant decrease in the expression of TNF-α and TNFRII mRNA respect to the control group. After 48 h incubation with rTNF-α, PBMC from infected animals had different responses: TNF-α and TNFRI mRNA expression was reduced in PBMC from the LPL group compared to the BLV negative group, but no differences were observed in PBMC from the HPL group. TNFRII mRNA expression showed no differences between HPL, LPL, and BLV negative groups, though HPL animals expressed 10.35 times more TNFRI mRNA than LPL. These results support the hypothesis that LPL animals, when faced with viral reactivation, present a pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative state. However, complementary studies are needed to explain the influence of TNFRII on the development of the HLP profile. On the other hand, exogenous stimulation studies reinforce the hypothesis that BLV infection compromises the immune response of the animals.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Veterinary research communications

inflammatory factors(94)

Taohong Siwu Decoction Regulates Cell Necrosis and Neuroinflammation in the Rat Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model.
Cell necrosis and neuroinflammation play an important role in brain injury induced by ischemic stroke. Previous studies reported that Taohong Siwu decoction (THSWD)can reduce heart muscle cell necrosis and has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of THSWD on cell necrosis and neuroinflammation in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups with 12 rats in each group. They were the sham operation group, MCAO model group, and MCAO + THSWD group. We used ELISA to determine the levels of TNF-α, Mcp-1, and IL-1β inflammatory factors in rat serum, qRT-PCR to detect the expression of TNF-α, Mcp-1 and IL-1β mRNA in rat brain, and immunohistochemistry to detect the number of microglia and neutrophils in rat brain. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of IBA-1 and MPO inflammatory factors and the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway in the rat brain and protein expression levels. Compared with the sham operation group, the expression of MCP-1, IL-1β, IBA-1, and MPO inflammatory factors and the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway were significantly upregulated in the MCAO group. Compared with the MCAO group, the expressions of MCP-1, IL-1β, IBA-1, and MPO inflammatory factors and the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway were significantly downregulated in the MCAO + THSWD group. THSWD can reduce the expression levels of MCP-1, IL-1β, IBA-1, and MPO inflammatory factors as well as the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway. Meanwhile, it can reduce the necrosis and inflammation of brain cells after cerebral ischemia, so as to protect the brain tissue of rats.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology

growth factor(88)

Effects of sleeve gastrectomy on bone mass, microstructure of femurs and bone metabolism associated serum factors in obese rats.
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a profoundly effective operation for severe obese patients, but is closely associated with bone mass loss. Previous studies have reported changes of various serum factors which may be associated with bone mass loss after SG. However, those results are contradictory. In this study, we assessed the effects of SG on bone mass, microstructure of femurs, and changes in bone turnover markers (BTMs), serum adipokines, inflammatory factors and gastrointestinal hormones after SG in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with HFD to induce obesity. Then, SG and sham surgery were performed in anesthetized obese rats. SD rats in control group were fed with standard chow. Microstructure of femurs was scanned and analyzed by micro-computed tomography in control group, HFD sham group and HFD SG group. Serum inflammatory factors, adipokines markers, gastrointestinal hormones and BTMs were also measured. Bone mineral density (BMD) of trabecular bone in both HFD sham group and HFD SG group were remarkably decreased compared with control group. All serum BTMs were significantly higher in HFD SG group than HFD sham group. In the meantime, serum levels of several important inflammatory factors, gastrointestinal hormones and adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), ghrelin, insulin and leptin in HFD SG group were remarkably reduced compared with HFD sham group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 and FGF-21 were dramatically increased after SG. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) was significantly increased in the HFD sham group than control group. Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that serum osteocalcin (OC) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D SG aggravates bone mass loss and activates bone remodeling in obese rats. Levels of BTMs, adipokines, inflammatory factors, and gastrointestinal hormones could be affected by SG in obese rats. Serum PTP1B level might be associated with abnormal bone mass in obese rats.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: BMC endocrine disorders

c-reactive protein(82)

Immunotherapy-on-Chip Against an Experimental Sepsis Model.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of locally bred BALB/c mice, the present study explored the protective role of Micrococcus luteus peptidoglycan (PG)-pre-activated vaccine-on-chip technology in endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 μg/g LPS, allowing longer survival, necessary for a therapeutic treatment application. A novel immunotherapy technology, the so-called vaccine-on-chip, consists of a 3-dimensional laser micro-textured silicon (Si) scaffold loaded with macrophages and activated in vitro with 1 μg/ml PG, which has been previously shown to exert a mild immunostimulatory activity upon subcutaneous implantation. The LPS treatment significantly decreased CD4 + and CD8 + cells, while increasing CD11b + , Gr1 + , CD25 + , Foxp3 + , and class II + cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), IL-6, TNF-a, IL-10, and IL-18 in the serum, while acquiring severe sepsis phenotype as defined by the murine sepsis scoring. The in vivo application of PG pre-activated implant significantly increased the percentage of CD4 + and CD8 + cells, while decreasing the percentage of Gr1 + , CD25 + , CD11b + , Foxp3 + cells, and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, as well as all serum markers tested, allowing survival and rescuing the severity of sepsis phenotype. In conclusion, these results reveal a novel immunotherapy technology based on PG pre-activated micro-texture Si scaffolds in LPS endotoxemia, supporting thus its potential use in the treatment of septic patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Inflammation

gene expression(82)

Effects of Er:YAG laser treatment on re-vascularization and follicle survival in frozen/thawed human ovarian cortex transplanted to immunodeficient mice.
The huge loss of ovarian follicles after transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue is considered a major drawback on the efficacy of the procedure. Here we investigate whether Er:YAG laser treatment prior to xenotransplantation can improve re-vascularization and subsequently follicle survival in human ovarian tissue. A total of 99 frozen/thawed human ovarian cortex pieces were included of which 72 pieces from 12 woman were transplanted to immunodeficient mice. Tissues from each woman were included in both an 8-day and an 8-week duration study and treated with either full-beam laser (L1) or fractionated laser (L2), or served as untreated controls. Vascularization of the ovarian xenografts were evaluated after 8 days by qPCR and murine Cd31 immunohistochemical analysis. Follicle densities were evaluated histologically 8 weeks after xenografting. Gene expression of Vegf/VEGF was upregulated after L1 treatment (p=0.002, p=0.07, respectively), whereas Angpt1, Angpt2, Tnf-α, and Il1-β were significantly downregulated. No change in gene expression was found in Cd31/CD31, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANGTPL4, XBP1, or LRG1 after any of the laser treatments. The fraction of Cd31 positive cells were significantly reduced after L1 and L2 treatment (p<0.0001; p=0.0003, respectively), compared to controls. An overall negative effect of laser treatment was detected on follicle density (p=0.03). Er:YAG laser treatment did not improve re-vascularization or follicle survival in human ovarian xenografts after 8 days and 8 weeks grafting, respectively. However, further studies are needed to fully explore the potential angiogenic effects of controlled tissue damage using different intensities or lasers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics

nitric oxide(77)

Melanin of Sporothrix globosa affects the function of THP-1 macrophages and modulates the expression of TLR2 and TLR4.
Melanin is an important virulence factor for Sporothrix globosa, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis that occurs worldwide. Although previous research suggests that melanin is involved in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis, little is known about its influence on the macrophages that represent the frontline components of innate immunity. To evaluate the effects of melanin on phagocytic activity and the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 during S. globosa infection of macrophages in vitro. To compare phagocytic activity and survival rates, THP-1 macrophages and primary mouse peritoneal macrophages were co-cultured with a wild-type S. globosa strain (Mel+), an albino mutant strain (Mel-), a tricyclazole-treated Mel + strain (TCZ-Mel+), or melanin ghosts extracted from S. globosa conidia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) generation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed in THP-1 cells infected with S. globosa conidia. Quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to observe the effect of melanin on TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Knockdown of TLR2/4 expression with small interfering RNA was performed to further verify the role of these receptors during infection. Macrophages infected with Mel + conidia showed a lower phagocytosis index and a higher survival rate than TCZ-Mel+ and Mel- in vitro. After incubation with S. globosa, the release of ROS, NO, TNF-α and IL-6 by THP-1 were decreased in the presence of melanin. Increased mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 occurred upon S. globosa infection in THP-1, whereas the presence of melanin suppressed TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover, TLR2 or TLR4 knockdown showed a trend toward reducing the pernicious effect of S. globosa conidia on THP-1 cells in vitro. Collectively, our results indicated that melanin inhibits the phagocytosis of S. globosa and guards against macrophage attack by providing protection from oxygen- and nitrogen-derived radicals, as well as suppressing the host pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α and IL-6). Melanin was also involved in modulating TLR2 and TLR4 receptor expression, weakening the killing efficiency of S. globosa.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Microbial pathogenesis

il-1β tnf-α(76)

Metabolic Adaptation of Macrophages as Mechanism of Defense against Crystalline Silica.
Silicosis is a lethal pneumoconiosis for which no therapy is available. Silicosis is a global threat, and more than 2.2 million people per year are exposed to silica in the United States. The initial response to silica is mediated by innate immunity. Phagocytosis of silica particles by macrophages is followed by recruitment of mitochondria to phagosomes, generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-β) release. In contrast with LPS, the metabolic remodeling of silica-exposed macrophages is unclear. This study contrasts mitochondrial and metabolic alterations induced by LPS and silica on macrophages and correlates them with macrophage viability and cytokine production, which are central to the pathogenesis of silicosis. Using high-resolution respirometer and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, we determined the effects of silica and LPS on mitochondrial respiration and determined changes in central carbon metabolism of murine macrophage cell lines RAW 264.7 and IC-21. We show that silica induces metabolic reprogramming of macrophages. Silica, as well as LPS, enhances glucose uptake and increases aerobic glycolysis in macrophages. In contrast with LPS, silica affects mitochondria respiration, reducing complex I and enhancing complex II activity, to sustain cell viability. These mitochondrial alterations are associated in silica, but not in LPS-exposed macrophages, with reductions of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, including succinate, itaconate, glutamate, and glutamine. Furthermore, in contrast with LPS, these silica-induced metabolic adaptations do not correlate with IL-1β or TNF-α production, but with the suppressed release of IFN-β. Our data highlight the importance of complex II activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle remodeling to macrophage survival and cytokine-mediated inflammation in silicosis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

nuclear factor(76)

Anti-fibrotic activity of sitagliptin against concanavalin A-induced hepatic fibrosis. Role of Nrf2 activation/NF-κB inhibition.
Sitagliptin is known for its anti-diabetic activity though it has other pleiotropic pharmacological actions. Its effect against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatic fibrosis has not been investigated yet. Our target was to test whether sitagliptin can suppress the development of Con A-induced hepatic fibrosis and if so, what are the mechanisms involved? Con A (6 mg/kg) was injected once weekly to male Swiss albino mice for four weeks. Sitagliptin was daily administered concurrently with Con A. Results have shown the potent hepatoprotective activity of sitagliptin against Con A-induced hepatitis and fibrosis. That was evident through the amelioration of hepatotoxicity serum parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and the increase in the level of serum albumin in sitagliptin treated mice. Simultaneously, there was amendment of the Con A-induced hepatic lesions and repression of fibrosis in sitagliptin-treated animals. Hydroxyproline, collagen content and the immuno-expression of the fibrotic markers, TGF-β and α-SMA were depressed upon sitagliptin treatment. Sitagliptin suppressed Con A-induced oxidative stress and increased antioxidants. RT-PCR analysis showed enhancement of mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes (GCLc, GCLm, NQO-1, HO-1) by sitagliptin. Furthermore, sitagliptin ameliorated the level and immuno-expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) alongside the immuno-expression of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. Taken together, this study demonstrates the hepatoprotective activity of sitagliptin which may be in part related to enhancement of Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibition of NF-κB which interact inflammatory response in liver. Sitagliptin might be a new candidate to suppress hepatitis-associated fibrosis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology

interleukin-1β il-1β(75)

Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 reduces unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive behavior of rats.
Depression is a neurological disorder characterized by persistent low mood. A number of studies have suggested that the use of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) agonists can reduce depressive behavior, but its effect on the depressive behavior and nerve damage of rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) has not been reported. Rats were exposed to CUMS for 4 weeks to induce depressive behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into six groups: control group (control), depression group (CUMS), depression + fluoxetine group (Flu), depression + WIN55212-2 group (WIN), depression + NF-κB inhibitor group (PDTC), and depression + WIN + PDTC group (WIN + PDTC). We performed four behavioral experiments test to evaluate the depressive behaviors of rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Nissl staining were performed to observe the neuron structures of the hippocampus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Biochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus, and western blot was performed to detect protein expression levels related to the NF-κB signaling pathway in the hippocampus. Compared with the normal control group, CUMS significantly induced abnormal behaviors in stressed rats. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory factors and oxidative stress injury factors in the hippocampus of the CUMS group increased significantly. The interventions of Flu, WIN, and PDTC significantly reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress injury. Compared with the WIN group, the WIN + PDTC intervention group had better results. In addition, WIN could significantly inhibit the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. This study showed that cannabinoid receptor agonists can reduce the CUMS-induced depressive behaviors of rats by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway to alleviate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress injury.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Annals of translational medicine

significantly higher(75)

Salivary cytokine profile in patients with ischemic stroke.
Inflammation plays a crucial role in stroke pathogenesis. Thus, it is not surprising that cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors have been advocated in stroke diagnostics. Our study is the first to evaluate the salivary cytokine profile in patients with ischemic stroke. Twenty-five patients with subacute ischemic stroke and an age-, sex-, and oral hygiene status-matched control group were enrolled in the study. The number of patients was set a priori based on our previous experiment (α = 0.05, test power = 0.9). Salivary concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were assessed using an ELISA method. We showed that salivary TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher, whereas IL-10 content was statistically lower in both non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated (SWS) whole saliva of ischemic stroke patients. However, evaluation of cytokines in NWS rather than in SWS may be of greater diagnostic value. Of particular note is salivary TNF-α, which may indicate cognitive/physical impairment in post-stroke individuals. This parameter distinguishes stroke patients from healthy controls and correlates with cognitive decline and severity of functional impairment. It also differentiates (with high sensitivity and specificity) stroke patients with normal cognition from mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Saliva may be an alternative to blood for assessing cytokines in stroke patients, although further studies on a larger patient population are needed.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Scientific reports

il-6 il-10(68)

Clinical efficacy of repeated intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of knee joint pain and its effects on inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid of patients.
The application value of repeated intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of knee joint pain has remained to be determined. To investigate this, a total of 64 patients with chronic knee joint pain admitted to Caoxian People's Hospital (Caoxian, Chine) between October 2016 and May 2018 were enrolled in the present study and analyzed prospectively. The patients were randomly divided into a control group, receiving treatment with a single intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency through the knee joint (n=32), and an experimental group, receiving multiple intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatments through the knee joint (n=32). The visual analog scale score (VAS), clinical efficacy and adverse reactions prior to and after treatment were compared between the two treatments. Synovial fluid cytokines were measured using ELISA prior to and after treatment. After the treatment, the control group and the experimental group both had a lower VAS (P<0.001) and the control group had a higher VAS and lower pain relief than the experimental group (P<0.001). The control group had a total effectiveness rate of 78.13%, with 13 patients experiencing complete relief (40.63%), 12 patients exhibiting a marked improvement (37.5%) and 7 patients reporting no effects (21.87%). The experimental group had a total effectiveness rate of 90.63%, with 18 patients (56.25%) being cured, 11 patients having a marked effect (34.37%) and 3 patients reporting no effects (9.38%). The experimental group had a higher incidence of adverse reactions than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the two groups had decreased IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in the knee joint synovial fluid (P<0.05), with the experimental group having lower cytokine levels than the control group (P<0.05). These results indicated that repeated intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency is an effective method for the treatment of knee joint pain and may be used in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine

assay elisa(66)

Serum HMGB1 level is correlated with serum I-FABP level in neonatal patients with necrotizing enterocolitis.
This study aims to investigate clinical significance of HMGB1 in neonatal patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This observational study enrolled a total of 106 stage II-III NEC neonatal patients, who were admitted in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2019. In addition, 99 suspected NEC patients and 200 healthy controls were included. The serum levels of HMGB1, I-FABP, and inflammatory factors CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the demographic data and clinical characteristics of all patients were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the correlation between HMGB1 and the clinical characteristics. No significant difference was found in the basic characteristics of NEC patients and healthy controls, except for birth weight and gestational age. The expression levels of HMGB1, I-FABP, and inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher in NEC patients, when compared to healthy controls. The serum levels of HMGB1, I-FABP, IL-1β and IL-6 markedly increased in stage II-III NEC patients, when compared to stage I NEC patients. The Pearson's analysis revealed a positive correlation between HMGB1 and I-FABP, HMGB1 and IL-1β, and HMGB1 and IL-6. The ROC curve revealed that both HMGB1 and I-FABP can potentially be used as diagnostic factors for NEC. The logistic multivariate regression revealed that I-FABP, IL-1β and IL-6 are independent risk factors for mortality in neonatal NEC patients. Serum HMGB1 levels are upregulated in neonatal NEC patients, and these are correlated with the patient's prognosis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-23
Journal: BMC pediatrics

malondialdehyde mda(65)

Selenium, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in handicraft workers occupationally exposed to lead.
Occupational Lead (Pb) exposure increases reactive oxygen species and has been reported to impact inflammatory response by modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Selenium (Se) a vital component of the antioxidant system that plays an important role in modulating cytokines. The present study evaluated Se, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-17a) in 81 Pb exposed male workers. The median (range) of blood lead level (BLL) and Se were 5 (0.50-31.76) µg/dL and 104 (46.9-189.6) µg/L respectively. The Se, TAC levels were decreased, and MDA, IL-6 levels were increased in the high Pb group (>5μg/dL). Blood lead level independently predicted oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Selenium, TAC levels negatively and MDA, IL-6 levels positively correlated with BLL. Association of Se with IL-6 and TAC suggests some probable role of Se in the underlined mechanism of Pb toxicity.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Archives of environmental & occupational health

protein expression(65)

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Medicinal Herb Extract Mixture, HM-V, on an Animal Model of DNCB-Induced Chronic Skin Inflammation.
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, are caused by the accumulation of immune cells and the overproduction of chemokines, including CCL17 and CCL22, due to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted from keratinocytes. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of HM-V on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines was examined in human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNCB)-induced chronic skin contact dermatitis animal models. Traditional Asian medicinal herb extracts mixture (HM-V), which have been extensively used in Asian medicine, were utilized. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaTs, HM-V strongly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of CCL17 and CCL22 in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was also inhibited. Therefore, localized administration of HM-V in the DNCB-induced animal model alleviated immune cell deposition and skin inflammation. The results indicate that HM-V exerts inhibitory effects on keratinocyte production of CCL17 and CCL22. Furthermore, HM-V may be a useful anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

superoxide dismutase(63)

Can static electric fields increase the activity of nitric oxide synthase and induce oxidative stress and damage of spleen?
With the rapid development of ultra-high-voltage (UHV) direct-current (DC) transmissions, the impact of static electric fields (SEF) in the vicinity of overhead UHV DC transmission lines on health has aroused much public concern. This study explored the effects of 56.3kV/m SEF on the spleen of mice. Results showed that SEF exposure of 21days significantly increased malonic dialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, calcineurin activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the spleen and caused the separation of nucleus and nuclear membrane, the disappearance of mitochondrial membrane, and the deficiency of mitochondrial cristae in splenic lymphocytes. By analysis and discussion, it was deduced that SEF could induce oxidative stress of the spleen by increasing the activity of NOS. Oxidative stress could further cause ultrastructural changes of splenic lymphocytes. Moreover, oxidative stress could cause the increase of the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and NF-κB, which contributed to the occurrence of spleen inflammation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international

inflammatory markers(59)

Improvement of Cognitive Function and Interleukin 1 Beta Serum Concentrations Following Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation in Patients with Symptomatic Bradycardia.
Bradyarrhythmias cause a low cerebral blood flow with secondary neuronal ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. This study aims to assess the effect of cardiac pacemaker implantation (PI) on the cognitive function and inflammatory markers (TNF alpha, IL1β). We conducted a prospective observational study on a number of 31 patients with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias. We performed the cognitive function assessment by two tests (Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Test A), cardiac output assessment (echocardiographic), and determination of IL 1β and TNF alpha serum concentrations before pacemaker implantation and after an average period of 42 days from pacemaker implantation. After pacemaker implantation we observed an increase in the cardiac index by 0.71 L/min/m Our findings suggest that cardiac pacemaker implantation was associated with improved cognitive function-possibly related to an increased cardiac output and with adecreased serum IL1β concentration in subjects with symptomatic bradycardia.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of personalized medicine

protein crp(56)

Statins' Effect on Cognitive Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as the "Silent Epidemic," is a growing devastating global health problem estimated to affect millions of individuals yearly worldwide with little public recognition, leading to many individuals living with a TBI-related disability. TBI has been associated with up to five times increase in the risk of dementia among multiple neurologic complications compared with the general population. Several therapies, including statins, have been tried and showed promising benefits for TBI patients. In this systematic review, we evaluated the recent literature that tested the role of statins on neurological and cognitive outcomes such as Alzheimer's Disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia in survivors of TBI with various severities. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, PubMed Central, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. MeSH terms and keywords were used to search for full-text randomized clinical trials (RCTs), cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, systematic reviews, and animal studies published in English. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and the articles were subjected to quality appraisal by two reviewers. Our data search retrieved 4948 nonduplicate records. A total of 18 studies were included - nine human studies, and nine animal laboratory trials - after meeting inclusion, eligibility, and quality assessment criteria. Simvastatin was the most tested statin, and the oral route of administration was the most used. Eight human studies showed a significant neuroprotective effect and improvement in the cognitive outcomes, including dementia. Four randomized clinical trials with 296 patients showed that statins play a neuroprotective role and improve cognitive outcomes through different mechanisms, especially their anti-inflammatory effect; they were shown to lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Also, they decreased axonal injury and cortical thickness changes. In addition, four cohort studies compared a total of 867.953 patients. One study showed a decrease in mortality in statin-treated patients (p=0.05). Another study showed a reduction in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81), while one study showed a decreased risk of dementia after concussions by 6.13% (p=0.001). On the other hand, one cohort study showed no significant difference with the use of statins. In eight animal trials, statins showed a significant neuroprotective effect, improved cognitive outcomes, and neurological functions. Different molecular and cellular mechanisms were suggested, including anti-inflammatory effects, promoting angiogenesis, neurogenesis, increasing cerebral blood flow, neurite outgrowth, promoting the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, and reducing axonal injury. On the contrary, one study showed no benefit and actual adverse effect on the cognitive outcome. Most of the studies showed promising neuroprotective effects of statins in TBI patients. Cognitive outcomes, especially dementia, were improved. However, the optimal therapeutic protocol is still unknown. Thus, statins are candidates for more advanced studies to test their efficacy in preventing cognitive decline in patients with TBI.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Cureus

cytokines including(50)

Celastrol Exerts Cardioprotective Effect in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Inhibiting TLR2/HMGB1 Signaling Pathway-Mediated Autophagy.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the release of inflammatory cytokines and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which lead to increased riskfor heart diseases. This study aims to explore the possible effect and mechanism of Celastrol on RA induced cardiac impairments in rats. Collagen induced RA wistar rat models (CIA) were established for the measurement on secondary foot swelling degree, polyarthritis index score, spleen and thymus index. Pathological morphology was observed using H&E staining. Heart fibrosis was measured after Sirius red staining, while cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. For in vitro experiments, rat cardiomyocytes were isolated to determine the inflammatory cytokine secretion and cell apoptosis using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Protein expressions of related index and autophagy were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. CIA rat model was successfully established and characterized by severe secondary foot swelling degree, and increased polyarthritis index score and spleen and thymus index. Synovial hyperplasia, disordered cardiomyocytes, cell infiltration and fibrosis were also observed in CIA rat model. Compared with CIA model, Celastrol treatment could suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, as well as inhibiting the expressions of Bax, cleaved caspase3, collagen I, collagen III and α-SMA. In addition to that, Celastrol treatment can attenuate cell apoptosis and fibrosis of cardiomyocytes and elevate Bcl-2 expression. RA induced cell autophagy can be suppressed by Celastrol through inhibiting the activation of TLR2/HMGB1 signal pathway. Celastrol can regulate TLR2/HMGB1 signal pathway to suppress autophagy and therefore exert cardioprotective effect in RA.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: International archives of allergy and immunology

dismutase sod(45)

Natural Bioactive as a Potential Therapeutic Approach for the Management of Cyclophosphamide-induced Cardiotoxicity.
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an extensively used anticancer drug, but its cardiotoxic manifestation is a major concern for its widespread clinical use. The observed cardiotoxic attributes have been reported at the therapeutic dose and often result into a high mortality rate and poor clinical outcome. Fall in the level of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), apoptotic proteins (caspases) and direct damage to myocardial tissue (histological and ultrastructural damage) are some of the reported manifestations of cardiotoxicity. The observed clinical attributes of CP-induced cardiotoxicity are myocarditis, hemorrhage, thrombosis, myocardial infarction (MI), reduced ejection fraction, altered electrocardiogram (ECG) reading and heart failure. However, unlike Daxarazasone (an adjuvant to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity) no approved adjuvant is available to mitigate CP-induced cardiotoxicity. Thus, various natural bioactives have been explored for the possible cardioprotective effect against CP-induced cardiotoxicity. In the current manuscript, we have discussed the clinical and preclinical aspects of CP-induced cardiotoxicity, its various clinically used combination with other anticancer drugs, and the available therapeutic regimen to mitigate this cardiotoxicity. Further, we discussed the limitations of available synthetic drugs used as an adjuvant and discussed various natural bioactive and their experimental details. This manuscript's overall goal is to throw light on CP-induced cardiotoxicity and summarize all the experimental data so that researchers working in this field may scientifically get up-to-date information at one place.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Current topics in medicinal chemistry

tnf-α interleukin(43)

Expression of MicroRNA 146a, 155, 181 and 223 in febrile seizure.
We studied microRNAs (miRNAs) -146a, -155, -181 and -223 expressions and proinflammatory cytokine levels in children with Febrile seizure (FS) and compared to febrile controls. This prospective multicenter study examined representative populations in eight different cities in Turkey between June 30, 2018 and July 1, 2019. Blood samples were taken from all children at presentation. The real time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to measure the expressions of microRNAs and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were studied by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. The study was conducted with 60 children; 30 children with FS and 30 children in the febrile control group. The seizure was classified as simple FS in 73.3 % and half of the children were experiencing their first FS episode. Although the expression levels of miRNAs-146a, -181a and -155 were higher in febrile seizure patients, only miRNAs 146a level was significantly higher in FS patients. Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels were higher in the FS group than the controls. The results of statistical analysis showed that there were correlations within miRNA expressions in children with FS. No differences were found considering miRNA expression between FS type, number of FS experienced. miRNAs-146a, -181a, -155 and -223 may be involved in FS pathogenesis. Altered miRNA expression levels might be an adaptive response to inflammation. New therapeutic approaches might be developed based on miRNA expressions in children with FS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The Turkish journal of pediatrics

beta il-1β(36)

Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside on HSV-1 encephalitis in vivo and in vitro.
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is an acute central nervous system infectious disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HSE infection, which produces many pro-inflammatory factors. Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh) is a plant flavonoid. This study was investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of K-3-rh on encephalitis induced by HSV-1. HSV-1 was co-cultured with VERO cells.Cells were divided into four groups, including the control group, virus group, K-3-rh group, Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) group and dexamethasone group. Flow cytometry were utilized to determine cell apoptosis, respectively. Proteins and mRNAs were estimated by western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively. After viral infection, the cytokines were significantly increased. After K-3-rh intervention, the expression of Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and nitric oxide(NO) in microglia were reduced contrast with those in the virus group, and the expression of interleukin-10(IL-10) did not change. After viral infection, the apoptotic rate increased significantly, and K-3-rh could inhibit viral-induced apoptosis in the microglial cell line. The induction of microglia apoptosis was achieved by cytochrome c and caspase-9-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Also, the pathological changes of brain tissue in mice of each drug intervention group were alleviated. In conclusion, K-3-rh had the potential to reduce HSV-1-induced brain injury by reducing the secretion of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, inducing apoptosis of microglia cells, and through cytochrome C and caspase-3 pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Neuroscience letters

lipopolysaccharide lps(34)

Case-control study on the interplay between immunoparalysis and delirium after cardiac surgery.
Delirium occurs frequently following cardiothoracic surgery, and infectious disease is an important risk factor for delirium. Surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass induce suppression of the immune response known as immunoparalysis. We aimed to investigate whether delirious patients had more pronounced immunoparalysis following cardiothoracic surgery than patients without delirium, to explain this delirium-infection association. A prospective matched case-control study was performed in two university hospitals. Cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10) of ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood was analyzed in on-pump cardiothoracic surgery patients preoperatively, and at 5 timepoints up to 3 days after cardiothoracic surgery. Delirium was assessed by trained staff using two validated delirium scales and chart review. A total of 89 patients were screened of whom 14 delirious and 52 non-delirious patients were included. Ex vivo-stimulated production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 was severely suppressed following cardiothoracic surgery compared to pre-surgery. Postoperative release of cytokines in non-delirious patients was attenuated by 84% [IQR: 13-93] for TNF-α, 95% [IQR: 78-98] for IL-6, and 69% [IQR: 55-81] for IL-10. The attenuation in ex vivo-stimulated production of these cytokines was not significantly different in patients with delirium compared to non-delirious patients (p > 0.10 for all cytokines). The post-operative attenuation of ex vivo-stimulated production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was comparable between patients that developed delirium and those who remained delirium-free after on-pump cardiothoracic surgery. This finding suggests that immunoparalysis is not more common in cardiothoracic surgery patients with delirium compared to those without.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Journal of cardiothoracic surgery

il-4 il-6(33)

Inflammatory markers assessment in an animal model of intracranial hypertension: a randomized trial.
Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is a common final pathway of most neurosurgical pathologies and leads to poor prognosis if not detected and treated properly. Inflammatory markers have been assessed in clinical scenarios of neurological injuries, in which systemic and brain tissue aggressions may introduce bias. There is a lack of studies under controlled settings to isolate the ICH effect on inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of ICH on the serum concentration of cytokines as biomarkers of neuroinflammation in an experimental model which isolates ICH from potential confounding variables. An established model of ICH using an intracerebral pediatric bladder catheter and a multisensor intraparenchymal catheter was used in adult pigs (Sus domesticus). The animals were randomly allocated to 2 groups based on the catheter balloon volume used to simulate the ICP increase (4 ml or 7 ml). Cytokines were measured in 4 timepoints during the experiment: (1) 15 min before balloon insufflation; (2) 5 min after insufflation; (3) 125 min after insufflation; (4) 60 min after deflation. The following cytokines were measured IL-1α; IL-1β; IL-1ra; IL-2; IL-4; IL-6; IL-8; IL-10; IL-12; IL-18; TNFα. Generalized estimating equations were modeled to compare the ICP and cytokines values between the groups along the experiment. The study sample size was powered to detect interactions between the groups and the study moments with an effect size (f) of at least 0.3. The ARRIVE checklist was followed. A total of 20 animals were studied (10 in each group, 4 ml or 7 ml balloon volume insufflation). The animal model was successful in increasing the ICP along the moments of the experiment (p < 0,001) and in creating an ICP gradient between the groups (p = 0,004). The interaction term (moment × group) was also significant (p < 0,001). There was a significant association between ICP elevation and most cytokines variation. The cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL1-ra, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18 increased, whereas IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α decreased. IL-10 did not vary significantly in response to the ICP elevation. The serum concentration of cytokines varied in response to intracranial hypertension. The study demonstrated the specific changes in each cytokine after intracranial hypertension and provides key information to guide neuroinflammation clinical research. The proposed experiment was successful as an animal model to the study of neuroinflammation biomarkers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Intensive care medicine experimental

cytokines il-6(33)

Two methoxy derivatives of resveratrol, 3,3',4,5'-tetramethoxy-trans-stilbene and 3,4',5-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene, suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation through inactivation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in RAW 264.7 cells.
3,3',4,5'-tetramethoxy-trans-stilbene (3,3',4,5'-TMS) and 3,4',5-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (3,4',5-TMS) are two methoxy derivatives of resveratrol. Previous researches have proved that resveratrol and its analogues have anti-inflammatory effect through suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. This study aims to study whether 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS alleviate inflammation and the underlying mechanism. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and pretreated with 3,3',4,5'-TMS or 3,4',5-TMS. Cell viability was measured with the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) release was detected by Griess reagent. The secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed by ELISA kits. Protein expressions of signaling molecules were determined by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by fluorescence staining and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay. 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS suppressed LPS-induced NO release and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) secretions in a dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS significantly down-regulated the LPS-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and partially suppressed the activation of MAPK (phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK), and NF-κB (phosphorylation of IKKα/β, p65 and IκBα) signaling pathways; where phosphorylation of ERK and p65 was mildly but not significantly decreased by 3,3',4,5'-TMS. LPS-induced NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation was inhibited by both 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS. Moreover, both resveratrol derivatives decreased the ROS levels. 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS significantly suppress LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and also provide anti-oxidative effect. This study reveals potential therapeutic applications of 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS for inflammatory diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Chinese medicine

cytokines il-1β(32)

Association of serum KL-6 levels on COVID-19 severity: A cross-sectional study design with purposive sampling.
The main target of SARS-CoV2 is the alveolar type II (AT2) cells of the lung. SARS-CoV2 evades the innate immune system resulting in the release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) which causes AT2 cell damage. Krebs von den Lungen (KL-6) is a specific biomarker of AT2 cell damage. KL-6 is produced in AT2 cells that are injured/regenerated. Research that discusses the role of KL-6 in COVID-19 is still being debated and not much has been done in Indonesia. This study was an analytical study with a prospective design on 75 COVID-19 patients who were treated. Subjects were divided into two large groups according to their degree of severity, 57 subjects with severe degrees and 18 subjects with non-severe degrees. The serum KL-6 levels were measured on days 0 and 6. Data were analyzed using paired In this study, the mean serum KL-6 for day 0 in the severe group was higher than the non-severe group with values of 45.70 U/mL and 44.85 U/mL. On day 6, the mean serum KL-6 in the severe group was lower than that in the non-severe group with values of 41.3 U/mL and 41.95 U/mL. Serum KL-6 in the severe group experienced an even greater decrease than the non-severe group. There was no significant association between serum KL-6 values on 0 days in the severity of COVID-19.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Annals of medicine and surgery (2012)

il-8 tnf-α(31)

Suppressive Effects of Rosmarinic Acid Rich Fraction from Perilla on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Metastasis Ability in A549 Cells Exposed to PM via C-Jun, P-65-Nf-Κb and Akt Signaling Pathways.
Particulate matter from forest fires (PMFF) is an environmental pollutant causing oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer cell metastasis due to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Perilla seed meal contains high levels of polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA). The aim of this study is to determine the anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis actions of rosmarinic acid rich fraction (RA-RF) from perilla seed meal and its underlying molecular mechanisms in A549 cells exposed to PMFF. PMFF samples were collected via the air sampler at the University of Phayao, Thailand, and their PAH content were analyzed using GC-MS. Fifteen PAH compounds were detected in PMFF. The PMFF significantly induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-9 activity, invasion, migration, the overexpression of c-Jun and p-65-NF-κB, and Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, the RA-RF significantly reduced ROS production, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and COX-2. RA-RF could also suppress MMP-9 activity, migration, invasion, and the phosphorylation activity of c-Jun, p-65-NF-κB, and Akt. Our findings revealed that RA-RF has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastasis properties via c-Jun, p-65-NF-κB, and Akt signaling pathways. RA-RF may be further developed as an inhalation agent for the prevention of lung inflammation and cancer metastasis induced by PM exposure.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Biomolecules

il-8 il-10(30)

Early Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage.
We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) expression of inflammatory cytokines and their relationship with spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (ICH, IVH) and perihematomal edema (PHE) volumes in patients with acute IVH. Twenty-eight adults with IVH requiring external ventricular drainage for obstructive hydrocephalus had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected for up to 10 days and had levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and C-C motif chemokine ligand CCL2 measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median [IQR] ICH and IVH volumes at baseline (T0) were 19.8 [5.8-48.8] and 14.3 [5.3-38] mL respectively. Mean levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and CCL2 peaked early compared to day 9-10 (
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Biomolecules

il-2 il-4(30)

Correlations between Electrophysiological Parameters, Lymphocyte Distribution and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Chronic Demyelinating Inflammatory Polyneuropathy.
The goal of this study was to analyse, in relation to electrophysiological results, the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and the level of cytokines in patients with the typical form of chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CIDP) before immunoglobulin treatment. The study group consisted of 60 patients (52 men, eight women), with a mean age 64.8 ± 11.2, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for the typical variant of CIDP, with (23 patients) and without (37 patients) diabetes mellitus. We analysed the results of the neurophysiological tests, and correlated them with the leukocyte subpopulations, and cytokine levels. In CIDP patients, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α levels were significantly increased compared to the control group. Fifty patients had decreased levels of T CD8+ lymphocytes, and 51 patients had increased levels of CD4+ lymphocytes. An increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also found. Negative correlations were observed mainly between compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and cytokine levels. The study enabled the conclusion that electrophysiological parameters in CIDP patients are closely related to the autoimmune process, but without any clear differences between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Correlations found in the study indicated that axonal degeneration might be independent of the demyelinating process and might be caused by direct inflammatory infiltration.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of personalized medicine

factor vegf(30)

Neuroprotective Effects of Chemerin on a Mouse Stroke Model: Behavioral and Molecular Dimensions.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of recombinant human Chemerin (rhChemerin) on brain damage, spatial memory, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cellular and molecular mechanisms in a mouse stroke model. The mouse stroke model was developed by blocking the middle cerebral artery for 1 h and performing reperfusion for 23 h. Immediately, one and three hours after the stroke, 200, 400 and 800 ng/mouse of intranasal rhChemerin was administered. Neuronal and BBB damage, spatial memory and neurological performance were examined 24 h after the stroke. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were utilized to determine the effects of rhChemerin on the expressions of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Administering 400 and 800 ng/mouse of rhChemerin in the mice immediately and one hour after ischemia minimized the infarct size, BBB opening, spatial memory and neurological impairment (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 800 ng/mouse of rhChemerin significantly diminished terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive (apoptotic) cells, suppressed the expressions of NF-kB, TNF-α and IL-1β and upregulated IL-10 and VEGF in the cortex and hippocampus of the mice. The present findings showed that rhChemerin administered immediately and one hour after stroke alleviates neuronal and BBB injures and improves spatial memory. These effects of rhChemerin may be mediated by inhibiting inflammatory pathways and apoptotic machinery.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Neurochemical research

pg ml(25)

Neutrophils pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine release in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is characterized by sub-clinical inflammation. Changes in selected biomarkers of inflammation concomitant with the release of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by neutrophils have not been investigated in patients with HFrEF. Fifty-two patients, aged 68.8 ± 1.7 years, with HFrEF and left ventricular ejection fraction 28.7 ± 1.0%, and 21 healthy controls (CTL) were recruited. Twenty-five HF patients had type 2 diabetes. Venous blood samples from HF and CTL were collected once. Neutrophil-derived pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed in plasma by ELISA. Plasma biomarkers assessed included: C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukins (IL)-6, -8, -1 receptor antagonist (-1RA), nitric oxide (NO), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) and E-Selectin (sE-Sel). Neutrophils were isolated and stimulated with various agonists to promote VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA release. Compared with CTL, HFrEF patients showed a marked decrease in circulating VEGF [178.0 (interquartile range; IQR 99.6; 239.2) vs. 16.2 (IQR 9.3; 20.2) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.001] and NO [45.2 (IQR 42.1; 57.6) vs. 40.6 (IQR 30.4; 47.1) pg/mL, P = 0.0234]. All other circulating biomarkers were significantly elevated. Neutrophils isolated from patients with HFrEF exhibited a greater IL-8 release in response to LPS [1.2 ± 0.1 (CTL); 10.4 ± 1.6 ng/mL (HFrEF) and 12.4 ± 1.6 ng/mL (HFrEF and DM), P ≤ 0.001]. IL-6 release in response to LPS was not changed in HFrEF patients without diabetes, whereas it was significantly increased in patients with HFrEF and diabetes [46.7 ± 3.9 (CTL) vs. 165.8 ± 48.0 pg/mL (HFrEF), P = 0.1713 and vs. 397.7 ± 67.4 pg/mL (HFrEF and DM), P ≤ 0.001]. In contrast, the release of VEGF and IL-1RA was significantly reduced in HFrEF (VEGF; TNF-α: 38.6 ± 3.1 and LPS: 25.3 ± 2.6 pg/mL; IL1RA; TNF-α: 0.6 ± 0.04 and LPS: 0.3 ± 0.02 ng/mL) compared with CTL (VEGF; TNF-α: 60.0 ± 9.4 and LPS: 41.2 ± 5.9 pg/mL; IL1RA; TNF-α: 3.3 ± 0.2 and LPS: 2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL). Patients with HFrEF exhibit a significant decrease in circulating VEGF. The release of VEGF and both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines from the stimulated neutrophils is markedly altered in these patients. The clinical significance of these findings deserves further investigation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: ESC heart failure

myeloperoxidase mpo(22)

Therapeutic potential of isobavachalcone, a natural flavonoid, in murine experimental colitis by inhibiting NF-κB p65.
The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC), one of the two types of inflammatory bowel disease, is increasing in many countries. Various natural products have been demonstrated with therapeutic potentials for UC. Herein, the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of isobavachalcone (IBC), a natural chalcone, were evaluated in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that IBC treatment significantly improved the clinical symptoms, assessed by the disease activity index (DAI) scores and the histological changes of the colon. The levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon tissues were suppressed by IBC. The upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and NF-κB p65 in colon tissues were reversed by IBC as well. Furthermore, IBC significantly inhibited LPS-triggered secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitrite, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, in RAW264.7 cells. The luciferase reporter assay indicated that IBC significantly inhibited LPS-triggered transcription of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Molecular docking results showed that the binding pocket of IBC was adjacent to Ser276 of p65-p50 heterodimer and IBC could form H-bond with Thr191. Collectively, these results demonstrated that IBC ameliorated colitis in mice possibly through inhibition of NF-κB p65.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Phytotherapy research : PTR

il-6 il-17(19)

LncRNA ZNF667-AS1 alleviates rheumatoid arthritis by sponging miR-523-3p and inactivating the JAK/STAT signalling pathway.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which compromises the synovial membrane resulting in chronic inflammation. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. This study investigated the role of lncRNA ZNF667-AS1 in RA progression. Synovial tissues and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were obtained from patients with RA. Gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR. Chondrocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish ZNF667-AS1 was downregulated in RA-FLSs and LPS-stimulated chondrocytes. ZNF667-AS1 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation and inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated chondrocytes. Additionally, ZNF667-AS1 overexpression reduced the generation of CD4 + IL-17+ cells. In mechanism, ZNF667-AS1 acted a sponge for miR-523-3p. MiR-523-3p overexpression reversed the ZNF667-AS1-mediated regulation of cell proliferation and inflammation. Furthermore, miR-523-3p overexpression abolished the inhibitory effects of ZNF667-AS1 on the JAK/STAT signalling activation. ZNF667-AS1 exerts protective effects during RA development by sponging miR-523-3p and inactivating the JAK/STAT signalling.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Autoimmunity

tnf-α il-10(18)

Terpinen4-ol inhibits heat stress induced inflammation in colonic tissue by Activating Occludin, Claudin-2 and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Heat stress has severe implications on the health of mice involving intestinal mucosal barrier damage and dysregulated mucosal immune response. This study was designed with long-term heat stress to detect the protective effect of terpinen4-ol on body weight, colon length, organ index, morphological structure, inflammatory cytokines expression, Claudin-2, Occludin, and TLR4 signaling pathway of colonic tissue in mice under heat stress. A study found that oral administration of terpinen4-ol helped against mortality and intestinal inflammation in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by heat stress (40 °C per day for 4 h) exposed for 14 consecutive days. The mice were divided into five groups including control, heat stress, terpinen4-ol low dose (TER LD: 5 mg/kg), medium dose (TER MD: 10 mg/kg), and high dose (TER HD: 20 mg/kg) group. Our study showed that the heat-stress terpinen4-ol group had improved body weight, colon length, and organ index, the number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the blood as compared to the heat stress group. In addition, results showed that heat stress upregulated the expression of TLR4, p65, TNF-α, and IL-10. While, in mice receiving the oral administration of terpinen4-ol, the production of TNF-α, IL-10, TLR4, and p65 was suppressed on day 1, 7, and 14 of heat stress. In addition Claudin-2, Occludin mRNA levels were upregulated in mice receiving terpinen4-ol on day 1, 7, and 14 of heat stress. Furthermore, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α serum levels were also upregulated in mice under heat stress, but in mice receiving the oral administration of terpinen4-ol, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α level was down-regulated on day 1, 7, and 14 of heat stress. Histomorphological examination found that as compared to the control group, the muscle layer thickness and villi height of mice in the heat stress group were significantly reduced, while the changes of the above indicators in the terpinene4-ol groups were improved than those in the heat stress group. In conclusion, the terpinen4-ol has a protective effect on colonic tissue damage induced by heat stress.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: International immunopharmacology

crp il-6(15)

Procalcitonin kinetics to guide sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation weaning in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory failure: procalcitonin's adjunct role.
How to identify the optimum switch point of sequential invasive and noninvasive ventilation is the focus of clinical attention on the patients suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated by acute respiratory failure (ARF). This study aims to explore the clinical significance of taking the change rate of procalcitonin (PCT) as identifying the timing of weaning on the mechanical ventilation for the patients of AECOPD followed by ARF as a complication. There were altogether 140 patients of AECOPD complicated with ARF, who were randomly selected and divided into a study group and a control group respectively. A change rate of serum PCT level exceeding 50% was taken as the switch point selection of tracheal intubation removal for the patients of the study group, while the 'pulmonary infection control (PIC) window' was done for those in the control group. With CRP, IL-6, TNF-a, PaCO
Publication Date: 2021-08-07
Journal: The Libyan journal of medicine

p lt(6)

[Shenlian extract attenuates TNF-α-induced ECV304 injury by regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway].
This study aimed to investigate the effect and the possible mechanism of Shenlian( SL) extract on tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α)-induced ECV304 injury. After the establishment of TNF-α-induced ECV304 cells injure model,MTT assay was used to detect cell viability and the level of reactive oxygen species( ROS) was measured by flow cytometry. The contents of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malondialdehyde( MDA),nitric oxide( NO),endothelin-1( ET-1) and interleukin-1β( IL-1β) in the supernatant were detected by biochemical method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-lymphoma-2 gene( Bcl-2),Bcl-2 associated X protein( Bax),caspase-3,caspase-9 and nuclear factor E2 associated factor2( Nrf2)/Kelch like epichlorohydrin associated protein-1( Keap1) signaling pathway related proteins Nrf2,Keap1,quinone oxidoreductase( NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1( HO-1) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that 50 μg·L-1 TNF-α significantly damaged ECV304 cells,induced the impairment of cell viability( P<0. 01),the increase of ROS production,the decrease of SOD activity,and the increase of MDA,NO,ET-1 and IL-1β( P<0. 01),meanwhile,it caused the up-regulation of Keap1,caspase-9 and Bax protein expression,and down-regulation of NQO1 and Bcl-2 protein expression( P<0. 05) compared with the control group.Compared with the model group,SL extract reduced the damage of ECV304 cells induced by TNF-α,improved cell viability,reduced ROS production,increased SOD activity and decreased MDA,NO,ET-1,IL-1β content( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). In addition,SL extract also down-regulated the protein expression levels of Keap1,caspase-3,caspase-9 and Bax,and increased the protein expressions of Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and Bcl-2( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). The above results indicate that SL extract can provide protective effect on ECV304 cells injury induced by TNF-α,alleviate oxidative stress injury,inflammation and apoptosis,and its mechanism may be related to regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica


Dietary supplementation of β-conglycinin, with or without sodium butyrate on the growth, immune response and intestinal health of hybrid grouper.
We investigated the effects of low and high doses of β-conglycinin and the ameliorative effects of sodium butyrate (based on high-dose β-conglycinin) on the growth performance, serum immunity, distal intestinal histopathology, and gene, protein expression related to intestinal health in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂). The results revealed that the instantaneous growth rate (IGR) of grouper significantly increased, decreased, and increased in the low-dose β-conglycinin (bL), high-level β-conglycinin (bH) and high-level β-conglycinin plus sodium butyrate (bH-NaB), respectively. The feed coefficient ratio (FCR) was significantly increased in the bH and bH-NaB, serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α were upregulated in the bH. The intestinal diameter/fold height ratio was significantly increased in the bH. Furthermore, there were increases in nitric oxide (NO), total nitric oxide synthase (total NOS), and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Scientific reports


Curcumol Alleviates the Inflammation of Nucleus Pulposus Cells via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway and Delays Intervertebral Disc Degeneration.
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is closely associated with inflammatory environments. Curcumol has been shown to alleviate inflammation in various disease models, but its effects on IVDD remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of curcumol in TNF-α-induced nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and a mouse IVDD model. NPCs were pretreated with curcumol and then exposed to TNF-α. Cell viability was analyzed using the CCK-8, and the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and PI3K/Akt/NF-κB-related signaling molecules were detected using RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting. The mouse IVDD model was established by puncturing the C6/7 level of the caudal spine, and treated with curcumol after surgery. ABOG staining were performed to evaluate the severity intervertebral disc damage, and immunohistochemistry(IHC) was performed to detect the expression of TNF-α. The toxicological effects of curcumol were measured by performing HE staining and ELISA. Curcumol reduced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in NPCs, and the phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway was also decreased. The PI3K/Akt/NF-κB -related signaling molecules decreased when TNF-α-induced NPCs were treated with a PI3K inhibitor; however, curcumol did not reverse these effects. In vivo, curcumol ameliorated the progression of IVDD at the early stage and did not exert toxicological effects. These results suggest a potential therapeutic use of curcumol to alleviate inflammation via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and delay the progression of IVDD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: World neurosurgery


Early Atherosclerotic Inflammatory Pathways in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
To evaluate structural and functional carotid changes and inflammatory profiles in children with OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) and healthy controls. Patients with OSA and matched controls (ages 5-13) were recruited. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants were measured at 6:00 PM. Common carotid artery measures were determined using ultrasound. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine subgroups of cytokines and their effects on carotid measures. Ninety-six patients participated (53 healthy controls, 43 patients with OSA). OSA was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (CD40L, IL6, and IL8) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < .05 for all). One cytokine subgroup (IL-6 and IL-8) was negatively associated with markers of carotid function, indicating reduced arterial distensibility and increased stiffness (p<0.05 for three ultrasound measures); TNF-α had an opposing effect on carotid function compared with this cytokine subgroup (p<0.05 for two ultrasound measures). Linear regression demonstrated significant associations between TNF-α and two measures of carotid function (p<0.05 for each). Children with OSA did not have functional or structural carotid changes compared with controls. OSA was not directly associated with structural and functional carotid changes but was associated with upregulation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines (sCD40L, IL-6, and IL-8). Together, IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with changes in carotid function. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate that the inflammatory milieu observed in our population is a precursor of atherosclerosis in children.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The Journal of pediatrics


Bioengineered Nanoparticles Loaded-Hydrogels to Target TNF Alpha in Inflammatory Diseases.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an incurable autoimmune disease that promotes the chronic impairment of patients' mobility. For this reason, it is vital to develop therapies that target early inflammatory symptoms and act before permanent articular damage. The present study offers two novel therapies based in advanced drug delivery systems for RA treatment: encapsulated chondroitin sulfate modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles (NPs) covalently bonded to monoclonal anti-TNF α antibody in both Tyramine-Gellan Gum and Tyramine-Gellan Gum/Silk Fibroin hydrogels. Using pro-inflammatory THP-1 (i.e., human monocytic cell line), the therapy was tested in an inflammation in vitro model under both static and dynamic conditions. Firstly, we demonstrated effective NP-antibody functionalization and TNF-α capture. Upon encapsulation, the NPs were released steadily over 21 days. Moreover, in static conditions, the approaches presented good anti-inflammatory activity over time, enabling the retainment of a high percentage of TNF α. To mimic the physiological conditions of the human body, the hydrogels were evaluated in a dual-chamber bioreactor. Dynamic in vitro studies showed absent cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells and a significant reduction of TNF-α in suspension over 14 days for both hydrogels. Thus, the developed approach showed potential for use as personalized medicine to obtain better therapeutic outcomes and decreased adverse effects.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pharmaceutics


Effects of catechin on a rodent model of autism spectrum disorder: implications for the role of nitric oxide in neuroinflammatory pathway.
The present research work aims at deciphering the involvement of nitric oxide pathway and its modulation by ( ±)catechin hydrate in experimental paradigm of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). An intracerebroventricular infusion of 4 μl of 1 M propanoic acid was given in the anterior region of the lateral ventricle to induce autism-like phenotype in male rats. Oral administration of ( ±)catechin hydrate (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was initiated from the 3rd day lasting till the 28th day. L-NAME (50 mg/kg) and L-arginine (800 mg/kg) were also given individually as well as in combination to explore the ability of ( ±)catechin hydrate to act via nitric oxide pathway. Behavior test for sociability, stereotypy, anxiety, depression, and novelty, repetitive, and perseverative behavior was carried out between the 14th and 28th day. On the 29th day, animals were sacrificed, and levels of mitochondrial complexes and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. We also estimated the levels of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic markers such as TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB, IFN-γ, HSP-70, and caspase-3. To evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide pathway, the levels of iNOS and homocysteine were estimated. Treatment with ( ±)catechin hydrate significantly ameliorated behavioral, biochemical, neurological, and molecular deficits. Hence, ( ±)catechin hydrate has potential to be used as neurotherapeutic agent in ASD targeting nitric oxide pathway-mediated oxidative and nitrosative stress responsible for behavioral, biochemical, and molecular alterations via modulating nitric oxide pathway. The evaluation of the levels of iNOS and homocysteine conclusively establishes the role of nitric oxide pathway in causing behavioral, biochemical, and molecular deficits and the beneficial effect of ( ±)catechin hydrate in restoring these alterations.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Psychopharmacology


Infecting mosquitoes alters DENV-2 characteristics and enhances hemorrhage-induction potential in Stat1-/- mice.
Dengue is one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans. There is still no effective vaccine or treatment to date. Previous studies showed that mosquito-derived factors present in saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) contribute to the pathogenesis of dengue. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interplay between mosquito vector and DENV and to address the question of whether the mosquito vector alters the virus that leads to consequential disease manifestations in the mammalian host. DENV2 cultured in C6/36 cell line (culture-DENV2) was injected to Aedes aegypti intrathoracically. Saliva was collected from infected mosquitoes 7 days later. Exploiting the sensitivity of Stat1-/- mice to low dose of DENV2 delivered intradermally, we showed that DENV2 collected in infected mosquito saliva (msq-DENV2) induced more severe hemorrhage in mice than their culture counterpart. Msq-DENV2 was characterized by smaller particle size, larger plaque size and more rapid growth in mosquito as well as mammalian cell lines compared to culture-DENV2. In addition, msq-DENV2 was more efficient than culture-DENV2 in inducing Tnf mRNA production by mouse macrophage. Together, our results point to the possibility that the mosquito vector provides an environment that alters DENV2 by changing its growth characteristics as well as its potential to cause disease.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases


TNF Decoy Receptors Encoded by Poxviruses.
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an inflammatory cytokine produced in response to viral infections that promotes the recruitment and activation of leukocytes to sites of infection. This TNF-based host response is essential to limit virus spreading, thus poxviruses have evolutionarily adopted diverse molecular mechanisms to counteract TNF antiviral action. These include the expression of poxvirus-encoded soluble receptors or proteins able to bind and neutralize TNF and other members of the TNF ligand superfamily, acting as decoy receptors. This article reviews in detail the various TNF decoy receptors identified to date in the genomes from different poxvirus species, with a special focus on their impact on poxvirus pathogenesis and their potential use as therapeutic molecules.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)


Tailored Hydrogels as Delivery Platforms for Conditioned Medium from Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Model of Acute Colitis in Mice.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent and current therapies are not completely effective. Mesenchymal stem cells are emerging as a promising therapeutic option. Here, the effect of local hydrogel application loaded with conditioned medium (CM) from human uterine cervical stem cells (hUCESC-CM) in an experimental acute colitis mice model has been evaluated. Colitis induction was carried out in C57BL/6 mice by dissolving dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for nine days. Ulcers were treated by rectal administration of either mesalazine (as positive control) or a mucoadhesive and thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with hUCESC-CM (H-hUCESC-CM). Body weight changes, colon length, and histopathological analysis were evaluated. In addition, pro-inflammatory TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ mRNA levels were measured by qPCR. Treatment with H-hUCESC-CM inhibited body weight loss and colon shortening and induced a significant decrease in colon mucosa degeneration, as well as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Results indicate that H-hUCESC-CM effectively alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice, suggesting that H-hUCESC-CM may represent an attractive cell-free therapy for local treatment of IBD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pharmaceutics


Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergic Effects of Saponarin and Its Impact on Signaling Pathways of RAW 264.7, RBL-2H3, and HaCaT Cells.
Saponarin{5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxychromen-4-one}, a flavone found in young green barley leaves, is known to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and skin-protective effects of saponarin were investigated to evaluate its usefulness as a functional ingredient in cosmetics. In lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 (murine macrophage) cells, saponarin (80 μM) significantly inhibited cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Saponarin (80 μM) also inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. Saponarin (40 μM) significantly inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation as well as the phosphorylation of signaling effectors (Syk, phospholipase Cγ1, ERK, JNK, and p38) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, COX-2, and FcεRIα/γ) in DNP-IgE- and DNP-BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells. In addition, saponarin (100 μM) significantly inhibited the expression of macrophage-derived chemokine, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (ERK, p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1]) in TNF-α- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte) cells. Saponarin (100 μM) also significantly induced the expression of hyaluronan synthase-3, aquaporin 3, and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) in HaCaT cells, which play an important role as skin barriers. Saponarin remarkably inhibited the essential factors involved in the inflammatory and allergic responses of RAW264.7, RBL-2H3, and HaCaT cells, and induced the expression of factors that function as physical and chemical skin barriers in HaCaT cells. Therefore, saponarin could potentially be used to prevent and relieve immune-related skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Modulation of the mTOR pathway plays a central role in dendritic cell functions after Echinococcus granulosus antigen recognition.
Immune evasion is a hallmark of persistent echinococcal infection, comprising modulation of innate immune cells and antigen-specific T cell responses. However, recognition of Echinococcus granulosus by dendritic cells (DCs) is a key determinant of the host's response to this parasite. Given that mTOR signaling pathway has been described as a regulator linking metabolism and immune function in DCs, we reported for the first time in these cells, global translation levels, antigen uptake, phenotype, cytokine transcriptional levels, and splenocyte priming activity upon recognition of the hydatid fluid (HF) and the highly glycosylated laminar layer (LL). We found that LL induced a slight up-regulation of CD86 and MHC II in DCs and also stimulated the production of IL-6 and TNF-α. By contrast, HF did not increase the expression of any co-stimulatory molecules, but also down-modulated CD40 and stimulated the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Both parasitic antigens promoted protein synthesis through mTOR activation. The use of rapamycin decreased the expression of the cytokines tested, empowered the down-modulation of CD40 and also reduced splenocyte proliferation. Finally, we showed that E. granulosus antigens increase the amounts of LC3-positive structures in DCs which play critical roles in the presentation of these antigens to T cells.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Scientific reports


Mucosal IL23A expression predicts the response to Ustekinumab in inflammatory bowel disease.
Biologics against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are increasingly used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment. However, information on response prediction to these agents is limited. Thus, we aimed to identify factors for IBD treatment response prediction. We conducted a retrospective study in 33 IBD subjects for anti-TNF and a prospective study of 23 IBD and 11 non-IBD subjects for ustekinumab (UST). Mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained before treatment with biologics. The expression of 18 immune-related genes encoding representative cytokines and transcription factors was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was no difference between the treatment-resistant and -sensitive groups with regard to clinical characteristics. A higher expression of oncostatin M (OSM) and its receptor OSMR in the intestinal mucosa was most strongly associated with anti-TNF resistance, whereas lower IL23A expression was most strongly associated with UST resistance. In addition to the absolute expression levels of genes, concordant or discordant expression patterns of particular gene sets were associated with treatment sensitivity and resistance. The association of anti-TNF resistance and mucosal OSM and OSMR expression was consistent with the results of a previous study in a European cohort. Our observation that IBD subjects with higher mucosal IL23A expression were more likely to achieve remission by UST has not been previously reported. The response to biologics may thus be predicted in IBD patients through the analysis of mucosal gene expression levels and patterns.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of gastroenterology


Pancreastatin induces hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetes by impeding mitochondrial functioning.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the key factors for the advancement of hepatic steatosis to NAFLD and NASH. Pancreastatin (PST: human ChgA250-301) is a dysglycemic hormone, previously reported to promote steatosis and inflammation in various animal models of metabolic disorders. Recently, we observed PST deregulates energy expenditure and mitochondrial functioning in perimenopausal rats. In the current study, we aimed to decipher the role of PST instigated altered mitochondrial functioning in hepatic steatosis. The HepG2 cells were PST exposed and the Chga gene was knocked down using siRNA and lipofectamine. Parallelly, type 2 diabetes (T2D) was developed in C57BL/6 mice by HFD feeding and administered PST inhibitor (PSTi8). The PST exposed cells and HFD fed mice depicted: enhanced CHGA expression detected by IF/IHC, WB, and ELISA; dysregulated cellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS, oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP level, and NADP/NADP ratio; enhanced apoptosis determined by MTT, TUNEL, Annexin-V FITC, and WB of Bax/bcl2 and caspase 3; hepatic lipid accumulation upon Nile Red, Oil Red O, H&E staining, and the expression of SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC, and SCD; inflammation based on expression and circulatory level of IL6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. However, Chga knocked down HepG2 cells and PSTi8 treated mice unveiled protection from all the above abnormalities. Collectively, the aforementioned data suggested the alteration in mitochondrial function induced by PST is responsible for hepatic steatosis in T2D.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Life sciences


Relationship between Circulating Galectin-3, Systemic Inflammation, and Protein-Energy Wasting in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.
Galectin-3 reportedly participates in the inflammatory process that causes insulin resistance in the target tissues. However, the role of high plasma galectin-3 levels as an indicator of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis remains unclear. This study included 240 hemodialysis patients (64.5 [55.3-74.0] years, 35.8% women) from a tertiary medical center. A baseline assessment of demographic and clinical data, biochemical parameters, and body composition was conducted. Plasma galectin-3 and other biomarkers were measured using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay. Participants were then divided into two subgroups depending on the median value of plasma galectin-3. Malnutrition was identified using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and the criteria of the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Independent risk factors for elevated plasma galectin-3 and malnutrition were identified by multivariate logistic regression. The high galectin-3 group was more likely to be older, have lower lean tissue mass and GNRI scores, be diagnosed with PEW, dialyze through a tunneled catheter, and have higher circulating IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 concentrations than the low galectin-3 group. After multivariate adjustment, only low mean arterial pressure, dialyzing with tunneled cuffed catheters, and elevated systemic inflammatory markers correlated with high galectin-3 levels. Plasma galectin-3 concentrations also increased significantly in hemodialysis patients with PEW. However, compared with other commonly used nutritional indicators, galectin-3 did not show superiority in predicting PEW. Although the plasma galectin-3 levels correlated with PEW severity, this correlation disappeared after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR, 1.000; 95% CI, 0.999-1.001). In conclusion, plasma galectin-3 is a valuable biomarker for systemic inflammation but is less prominent for PEW in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Further identification of novel biomarkers is required to detect patients at risk for malnutrition and implement appropriate interventions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients


Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Adverse Events with Anti-Interleukin 17A Agents and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic Disease and Skin Psoriasis.
The aim of this work is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and anti-interleukin-17 (anti-IL-17) trials for spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis comparing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) events compared to placebo. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched for double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled anti-TNF and anti-IL-17 trials of included diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease events from the RCT period were pooled and meta-analyzed using statistical methods suitable for low-event-rate meta-analysis (Peto's, Mantel-Haenszel, hypergeometric-normal model, and Shuster-Guo-Skyler). When observed data were insufficient, we performed an exploratory sensitivity analysis to compare methods. We identified 9551 original papers, and included 96 publications: 65 anti-TNF and 31 anti-IL-17 trials, containing 21 new and 12 flare IBD events in 28,209 participants. New IBD on anti-IL-17 occurred 0.23/100 patient-years (PY) in psoriasis, 0.61/100 PY in PsA and 1.63/100 PY in spondyloarthritis, rates similar to observational cohorts, and less commonly on anti-TNF (0/100 PY, 0/100 PY, 0.32/100 PY, respectively). No evidence of difference between groups was found, with wide CI from many pooled counts of zero, especially in placebo arms. IBD events were rare, occurring at rates similar to biologic-naive groups. We could not find statistically significant differences in risk of new or recurrent IBD between treatment and control groups using selected meta-analytical methods for low event rate scenarios. Meta-analyses of this topic require more IBD events, ideally without pooling heterogeneous groups. Larger, thoroughly reported trials with systematic and detailed safety reporting are required to improve risk estimation and to make accurate inferences.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Rheumatology and therapy


A High-Cholesterol Diet Increases Toll-like Receptors and Other Harmful Factors in the Rabbit Myocardium: The Beneficial Effect of Statins.
A high-cholesterol diet (HCD) induces vascular atherosclerosis through vascular inflammatory and immunological processes via TLRs. The aim of this study is to investigate the mRNA expression of TLRs and other noxious biomarkers expressing inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction in the rabbit myocardium during (a) high-cholesterol diet (HCD), (b) normal diet resumption and (c) fluvastatin or rosuvastatin treatment. Forty-eight male rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups ( mRNA of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 8; interleukin-6; TNF-a; metalloproteinase-2; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1; tumor protein 53; cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3; and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) increased in HCD. Statins but not resumption of a normal diet decreased levels of these biomarkers and increased levels of antifibrotic factors. HCD increases the levels of TLRs; inflammatory, fibrotic and apoptotic factors; and BNP in the rabbit myocardium. Atherogenic diets adversely affect the myocardium at a molecular level and are reversed by statins.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Current issues in molecular biology


Early Change in Fecal Calprotectin Predicts One-Year Outcome in Children Newly Diagnosed with Ulcerative Colitis.
While fecal calprotectin (FC) is used to assess disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) there are little data concerning the role of serial FC levels at diagnosis in predicting clinical course. We sought to determine whether FC at diagnosis or early change following therapy predicts clinical outcome in pediatric UC.Methods: Children with newly diagnosed UC were treated with standardized regimens of mesalamine or corticosteroids (CS). CS tapering and escalation to additional therapy or colectomy were by protocol. Patients with baseline or week 4 or week 12 FC levels were included in the analysis. Our primary outcome was CS-free remission on mesalamine at Week 52. We compared the prognostic value of a baseline FC as well as a change in FC by week 4 or week 12 in predicting clinical outcomes. The study included 352 children (113 initial mesalamine, 239 initial CS, mean age 12.6 years) with UC. At Week 52, 135 (38.3%), 84 (23.8%), and 19 (5.4%) children achieved CS-free remission, needed anti-TNF therapy or had colectomy respectively. Baseline FC was not associated with CS-free remission at week 52. However, both week 4 (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90 - 1.00) and week 12 FC levels (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 - 0.96) were associated with outcomes, with the latter having a stronger association with CS-free remission. Patients with a > 75% decrease by 12 weeks, had a three-fold increased likelihood of CS-free remission at 1 year. Longitudinal changes in FC may predict 1 year outcomes better than values at diagnosis in children with new diagnosis of UC.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition


Influence of Dietary Chitosan Feeding Duration on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Diabetic Rat Model.
This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary chitosan feeding-duration on glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin and nicotinamide [a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model]. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals and divided into short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (11 weeks) feeding durations, and each duration contained five groups: (1) control, (2) control + 5% chitosan, (3) diabetes, (4) diabetes + 0.8 mg/kg rosiglitazone (a positive control), and (5) diabetes + 5% chitosan. Whether the chitosan feeding was for 6 or 11 weeks, the chitosan supplementation decreased blood glucose and lipids levels and liver lipid accumulation. However, chitosan supplementation decreased plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, insulin levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity. Meanwhile, it increased plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol level, plasma angiopoietin-like-4 protein expression, and plasma triglyceride levels (at 11-week feeding duration only). Taken together, 11-week (long-term) chitosan feeding may help to ameliorate the glucose and lipid metabolism in a NIDDM diabetic rat model.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)


Exploring the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fibroblast-like synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with persistent synovitis. In the present study, the impact of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was explored to determine methods for the diagnosis and treatment of RA. First, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were obtained from a collagen-induced rat RA model. Next, MCP-1-overexpression plasmid and small interfering RNA were transfected into human and rat FLSs. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell migration and flow cytometry assays were used to analyze cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis of FLSs following MCP-1 transfections, respectively. Furthermore, western blotting was used to analyze the expression levels of p-P38, p-PI3K, PI3K, CD31, VEGF, TNF-α and IL-β in FLSs following MCP-1 transfection. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and ELISAs were used to analyze the expression levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), estrogen receptor, MCP-1 and pentraxin-3 in patients with clinical RA, followed by correlation analysis of clinical data. Finally, expression validation, diagnostic and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of MCP-1 were performed. MCP-1 promoted FLS proliferation and migration, and affected the apoptosis of FLSs. In addition, the expression levels of p-P38, p-PI3K, PI3K, CD31, VEGF, TNF-α and IL-β were also affected by MCP-1. In patients with clinical RA, the expression level of MCP-1 was increased. Moreover, CRP expression level was significantly up-regulated in RA. Clinically, MCP-1 was strongly correlated with tender joint count, swollen joint count, visual analog scale for general health and disease activity score 28 (DAS28)-MCP-1, and was moderately correlated with DAS28 and DAS28-CRP. PPI analysis showed that MCP-1 mainly interacted with other inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, MCP-1 may play a significant regulatory role in RA, and could be used as a measurement index of clinical RA activity.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: PeerJ


Comparison of the preventive effects of Murraya exotica and Murraya paniculata on alcohol-induced gastric lesions by pharmacodynamics and metabolomics.
Multi-source phenomenon is very common for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Both Murraya exotica L. (ME) and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (MP) are used as the source plants of Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC), a traditional Chinese medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for promoting qi and relieving pain, mainly for the treatment of stomach pain, rheumatism and arthralgia. However, up to now, there has been no comparative study of these two plants on their efficacies and mechanisms, thus, further research is needed to evaluate their similarity and difference in order to judge the reasonability for their common usage. This study aims to compare the effects and potential mechanisms of ME and MP, the two source plants of MFC on gastric lesions in rats by pharmacodynamics and metabolomics. A rat model of gastric lesions induced by 70% aqueous ethanol and 150 mmol/L HCl was established and adopted to evaluate the gastric protective effects of ME and MP by analysis of the lesion index, histopathological changes (observed by H&E staining and TUNEL staining) and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MTL, and GAS). The potential mechanisms were investigated by LC-MS metabolomic analysis of the rat plasma. ME and MP showed the similar effects on improving the lesions of rat stomachs and reducing the cytokine levels related to inflammation and digestion of rats. The metabolomics results showed that the metabolism of rats with gastric lesions was abnormal mainly in lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. ME and MP demonstrated a similar metabolic modulation for gastric lesions by acting on the similar pathways and metabolites. Also, PLA2 pathway was proved as an important pathway for ME and MP modulation of glycerophospholipid metabolism in gastric lesions. Our results proved that it is feasible and reasonable to use both of ME and MP as the source plants of MFC, at least for the treatment of gastric lesions, due to their similar pharmacodynamics and metabolic modulation ability. Moreover, the combination of pharmacodynamics and metabolomics is an efficient means for multi-source TCM study.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology


The role for JAK Inhibitors in the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Rheumatic and related conditions.
JAK inhibitors (JAKi) are a new class of targeted therapy that have entered clinical practice for the treatment of immune-mediated rheumatic conditions. JAKi can block the signalling activity of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore have the potential to mediate therapeutic benefits across a wide range of immune-mediated conditions. Several JAKi are licensed and many more undergoing clinical trials. Here we provide a narrative review of the current and upcoming JAKi for adult immune-mediated rheumatic and related conditions, with a specific focus on efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. The overall safety profile of JAKi appears largely comparable to existing biologic cytokine targeting agents, particularly TNF inhibitors, apart from risk for herpes zoster which is increased for JAKi. Importantly, however, unresolved safety concerns remain, particularly relating to increased venous thromboembolism.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology


Licochalcone B attenuates neuronal injury through anti-oxidant effect and enhancement of Nrf2 pathway in MCAO rat model of stroke.
Investigating anti-oxidant therapies that lead to the diminution of oxidative injury is priority in clinical. We herein aimed to explore whether and how Licochalcone B (Lico B) act as an anti-oxidant in the stroke model. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was constructed as stroke model and exposed to various doses of Lico B. Behavioral tests and neurological behavior status were detected for neurological function examination. Histological staining was used for evaluating cerebral injury, and neuronal apoptosis or damage. Levels of oxidative stress and inflammation were also assessed by biochemical analysis and expression analysis. Nrf2 knockdown induced by lentiviral vector was used for the research on mechanism. Lico B had improvement effects on cerebral infarction size, memory impairments, and neurological deficits after MCAO. Histological evaluation also revealed the amelioration of neuronal injury and apoptosis by Lico B, along with down-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. Additionally, Lico B rescued the down-regulation of BDNF and NGF after MCAO. Moreover, Lico B suppressed the oxidative stress and inflammation, manifesting as the enhancement of SOD, GSH and IL-4, but the decline of MDA, iNOS, and TNF-α. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown reversed the Lico B-caused improvement in neuronal injury, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. The present study revealed the neuroprotective effects of Lico B in MCAO rats. Importantly, we proposed a potential mechanism that Lico B activated the Nrf2 pathway, thereby acting as anti-oxidant to attenuate neuronal injury and apoptosis after stroke. The proposed mechanism provided an encouraging possibility for anti-oxidant therapy of stroke.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology


Naringin and Hesperidin Counteract Diclofenac-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats
This study is aimed at evaluating the preventive effect and at suggesting the mode of actions of naringin and hesperidin and their combination in diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity. Male Wistar rats, intraperitoneally injected with diclofenac sodium (3 mg/kg b.wt/day), were orally treated with naringin (20 mg/kg b.wt/day) and hesperidin (20 mg/kg b.wt/day) and their combination for 4 weeks. The administrations of naringin and hesperidin to diclofenac-injected rats led to a significant decrease in the elevated serum ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, TNF-
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity


Elevated serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 in chronic methamphetamine users.
Chronic methamphetamine use causes aberrant changes in cytokines. Our aim was to analyze the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18 in chronic methamphetamine users. Associations between cytokines levels with the demographic properties, methamphetamine use properties, and psychiatric symptoms in chronic methamphetamine users were also evaluated. Seventy-eight chronic methamphetamine users who did not continue methamphetamine exposure since hospitalization and 64 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Psychopathological symptoms of chronic methamphetamine users were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 were significantly increased in methamphetamine users who did not continue methamphetamine exposure since hospital admission (average days since last methamphetamine use = 39.06 ± 7.48) when compared to those in controls. Serum IL-6 levels showed significant positive associations with BDI score and current frequency of methamphetamine use in chronic methamphetamine users. Our results suggest that increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 levels may have an important role in chronic methamphetamine use-associated psychopathological symptoms.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Human psychopharmacology


The expansion of CD14+ CD163+ subpopulation of monocytes and myeloid cells-associated cytokine imbalance; candidate diagnostic biomarkers for celiac disease (CD).
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of small intestine against dietary gluten, among genetically predisposed individuals. Monocytes are versatile innate immune cells involved in the regulation of inflammation, and strongly involved in the intestinal immunity. However, the role of monocytes and their subtypes in CD is not well demonstrated. Here, we assessed the polarization of CD14+ monocytes by evaluating the M1 (CD16) and M2 (CD163) markers by flowcytometry, their soluble forms (sCD16 and sCD163), and the serum levels of IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β, and TNF-α cytokines using ELISA method, among 30 CD patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects (HS). We also analyzed the diagnostic values of all variables with significant differences. CD14+CD163+ monocytes were more frequent in CD patients than HS, while CD14+CD16+ monocytes were higher in HS. IL-10and TNF-α increased, and TGF-β expression was decreased among CD patients. The sCD16 serum levels were elevated in patients, while sCD163 was higher but not significant among CD patients. CD163+/CD16+ and IL-10/IL-12 ratios were higher in CD patients, and TGFβ/TNFα ratio was higher in HS group. IL-10, CD14+CD163+, TNF-α, and IL-10/IL-12 ratios with the AUC over 0.7 were introduced as fair diagnostic markers. Our findings revealed that the M2 (CD14+CD163+) monocytes were more frequent among CD patients, and the cytokine balance was disturbed. According to the significant functional diversities of monocyte subtypes between CD patients and HS group, these immunologic markers could be introduced as specific diagnostic biomarkers for CD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis


MALAT1 shuttled by extracellular vesicles promotes M1 polarization of macrophages to induce acute pancreatitis via miR-181a-5p/HMGB1 axis.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious condition carrying a mortality of 25-40%. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have reported to exert potential functions in cell-to-cell communication in diseases such as pancreatitis. Thus, we aimed at investigating the mechanisms by which EV-encapsulated metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) might mediate the M1 polarization of macrophages in AP. Expression patterns of MALAT1, microRNA-181a-5p (miR-181a-5p) and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in serum of AP patients were determined. EVs were isolated from serum and pancreatic cells. The binding affinity among miR-181a-5p, MALAT1 and HMGB1 was identified. AP cells were co-cultured with EVs from caerulein-treated MPC-83 cells to determine the levels of M1/2 polarization markers and TLR4, NF-κB and IKBa. Finally, AP mouse models were established to study the effects of EV-encapsulated MALAT1 on the M1 polarization of macrophages in AP in vivo. MALAT1 was transferred into MPC-83 cells via EVs, which promoted M1 polarization of macrophages in AP. MALAT1 competitively bound to miR-181a-5p, which targeted HMGB1. Moreover, MALAT1 activated the TLR4 signalling pathway by regulating HMGB1. EV-encapsulated MALAT1 competitively bound to miR-181a-5p to upregulate the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α by regulating HMGB1 via activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway, thereby inducing M1 polarization of macrophages in AP. In vivo experimental results also confirmed that MALAT1 shuttled by EVs promoted M1 polarization of macrophages in AP via the miR-181a-5p/HMGB1/TLR4 axis. Overall, EV-loaded MALAT1 facilitated M1 polarization of macrophages in AP via miR-181a-5p/HMGB1/TLR4, highlighting a potential target for treating AP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine


COVID-19 disrupts the blood-testis barrier through the induction of inflammatory cytokines and disruption of junctional proteins.
Junctional proteins are the most important component of the blood-testis barrier and maintaining the integrity of this barrier is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. The present study elucidated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in patients who died from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) complications. In this study, lung and testis tissue was collected from autopsies of COVID-19 positive (n = 10) and negative men (n = 10) and was taken for stereology, immunocytochemistry, and RNA extraction. Evaluation of the lung tissue showed that the SARS-CoV-2 infection caused extensive damage to the lung tissue and also increases inflammation in testicular tissue and destruction of the testicular blood barrier. Autopsied testicular specimens of COVID-19 showed that COVID-19 infection significantly changes the spatial arrangement of testicular cells and notably decreased the number of Sertoli cells. Moreover, the immunohistochemistry results showed a significant reduction in the protein expression of occluding, claudin-11, and connexin-43 in the COVID-19 group. In addition, we also observed a remarkable enhancement in protein expression of CD68 in the testes of the COVID-19 group in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, the result showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL1β, and IL6 was significantly increased in COVID-19 cases as well as the expression of occludin, claudin-11, and connexin-43 was decreased in COVID-19 cases. Overall, the present study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could induce the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and down-regulation of junctional proteins of the BTB, which can disrupt BTB and ultimately impair spermatogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]


Post Stroke Safinamide Treatment Attenuates Neurological Damage by Modulating Autophagy and Apoptosis in Experimental Model of Stroke in Rats.
Exploring and repurposing a drug have become a lower risk alternative. Safinamide, approved for Parkinson's disease, has shown neuroprotection in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study aimed to explore the potential of safinamide in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. The effective dose of safinamide was selected based on the results of neurobehavioral parameters and reduction in infarct size assessed 24 h post-reperfusion. For sub-acute study, the treatment with effective dose was extended for 3 days and effects on neurobehavioral parameters, infarct size (TTC staining and MRI), oxidative stress parameters (MDA, GSH, SOD, NOX-2), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10), apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 expression, and TUNEL staining), and autophagy (pAMPK, Beclin-1, LC3-II expression) were studied. The results of dose selection study showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in infarct size and improvement in neurobehavioral parameters with safinamide (80 mg/kg). In sub-acute study, safinamide showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motor coordination and infarct size reduction. Additionally, safinamide treatment significantly normalized altered redox homeostasis and inflammatory cytokine levels. However, no change was observed in expression of NOX-2 in I/R or safinamide treatment group when compared with sham. I/R induced deranged expression of apoptotic markers and increased TUNEL positive cells in cortex were significantly normalized with safinamide treatment. Further, safinamide significantly (p < 0.05) induced the expressions of autophagic proteins (Beclin-1 and LC3-II) in cortex. Overall, the results demonstrated neuroprotective potential of safinamide via anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagy inducing properties. Thus, safinamide can be explored for repurposing in ischemic stroke after further exploration.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Molecular neurobiology


TLRs induce Th1/Th2 responses by affecting the secretion of CCL2 at the maternal-foetal interface.
In previous studies, we demonstrated that the human decidua and decidual stromal cells express high levels of CCL2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and its receptor CCR2 (chemokine receptor 2). DSC-derived CCL2 interacts with CCR2 on DICs, causing the production and secretion of Th2-type cytokines, which promotes a Th2 bias at the maternal-foetal interface. Many pathogens may be present in the genital tract during pregnancy, but whether they affect immune regulation, especially Th2 regulation remains unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognise specific components of microbes and certain host molecules and play an important role in the host innate immune response. We examined TLR expression and evaluated whether TLRs could affect CCL2 secretion and subsequently induce Th1/Th2 responses. We used quantitative real-time PCR to measure TLR expression in the decidua and DSCs (decidual stromal cells). DSCs were cultured in the presence or absence of the TLR2 agonists PAM3CSK4, PGN-Sa, and zymosan, the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) and the TLR4 agonist LPS. Then, the supernatants were assayed for CCL2 secreted by DSCs and IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10, and TNF-α produced by DICs. Costimulation with TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 agonists resulted in enhancing CCL2 production compared with that in the controls. Additionally, these TLR2, 3, and 4 agonists stimulated CD80/CD86 on DSCs and regulated IL-4 and IL-10 secretion on DICs. TLR2 and TLR3 agonists may promote Th1/Th2 immune bias. TLRs may induce Th1/Th2 responses by affecting the secretion of CCL2 at the maternal-foetal interface.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology


Cooked Black Turtle Beans Ameliorate Insulin Resistance and Restore Gut Microbiota in C57BL/6J Mice on High-Fat Diets.
Colored common beans are associated with health promoting and chronic disease prevention effects. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with cooked black turtle beans (HFB) to prevent obesity related insulin resistance. Mice on both HF and HFB were obese compared to mice fed a low-fat (LF) diet. Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride concentrations of mice fed HFB diet were 28% and 36.6% lower than those on HF diet. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index of mice fed HFB diet was 87% lower than that of mice fed HF diet. Diabetes related biomarkers, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), leptin, glucagon, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5, 10 and 12, IFN-g and TNF-α were significantly affected by HFB diet. Pparα, Cyp7a1 and Fasn were down-regulated by HFB diet while
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)


Genetics, Epigenetics, and Gender Impact in Axial-Spondyloarthritis Susceptibility: An Update on Genetic Polymorphisms and Their Sex Related Associations.
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease that can be divided into predominantly axial or predominantly peripheral involvement, with or without associated psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease or previous infection. Axial SpA (axSpA) encompasses ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with radiological sacroiliitis, and a type without radiographic sacroiliitis, called "non-radiographic axial SpA" (nr-axSpA). Males and females show large differences in their susceptibility to SpA, such as distinctions in clinical patterns, phenotypes and in therapeutical response, particularly to TNF inhibitors (TNFi). Several studies indicate that AS women have doubled risk to failure TNFi compared with males. This diversity in drugs' efficacy among women and men may be caused by differences in the balance of sex hormones and in gene-specific expression likely triggered by X-chromosome instability and gene-specific epigenetic modifications. Evidence reported that polymorphisms in microRNAs on X- and other chromosomes, such as miR-146a, miR-155, miR-125a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-22-3p, miR-199a-5p could be involved in the different clinical presentation of SpA, as well as disease activity. In addition, association with non-response to TNFi treatment and presence of IRAK3 and CHUCK genes in SpA patients was recently detected. Finally, polymorphisms in genes involved in IL-23/IL-17 pathway, such as in drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may have a role in response to TNFi, IL17i, and IL23i. A major understanding of genomic variability could help in the development of new therapeutic targets or in taking advantages of different mechanisms of action of biological drugs. Moving from the multifactorial etiology of disease, the present review aims at evaluating genetic and epigenetic factors and their relationship with sex and bDMARDs response, helping to investigate the different expression among males and females of genes on X- and other chromosomes, as well as mi-RNA, to highlight relationships between sex and occurrence of specific phenotypes and symptoms of the disease. Moreover, the role of the epigenetic modification in relation to immune-regulatory mechanisms will be evaluated.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Frontiers in genetics