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Query Topic: TNF

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Dietary supplementation of β-conglycinin, with or without sodium butyrate on the growth, immune response and intestinal health of hybrid grouper.
We investigated the effects of low and high doses of β-conglycinin and the ameliorative effects of sodium butyrate (based on high-dose β-conglycinin) on the growth performance, serum immunity, distal intestinal histopathology, and gene, protein expression related to intestinal health in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂). The results revealed that the instantaneous growth rate (IGR) of grouper significantly increased, decreased, and increased in the low-dose β-conglycinin (bL), high-level β-conglycinin (bH) and high-level β-conglycinin plus sodium butyrate (bH-NaB), respectively. The feed coefficient ratio (FCR) was significantly increased in the bH and bH-NaB, serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α were upregulated in the bH. The intestinal diameter/fold height ratio was significantly increased in the bH. Furthermore, there were increases in nitric oxide (NO), total nitric oxide synthase (total NOS), and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Scientific reports


Bavachin exerted anti-neuroinflammatory effects by regulation of A20 ubiquitin-editing complex.
Neuroinflammation is a major pathophysiological contributor to the progression of. the central nervous system disorders. Bavachin is a natural product belonging to the flavonoid class. The anti-neuroinflammatory effect and the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we found bavachin can exert anti-neuroinflammatory effect via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. We found that bavachin can obviously upregulate the expression of A20 (TNFAIP3) in microglial cells. Further studies suggested siRNA-A20 knockdown treatment can attenuate the inhibitory effects of bavachin on neuroinflammation. We further found bavachin can increase the interaction of ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex including A20, Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) and Itch, the subsequently downregulated the K63-ubiquitination of TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and NF-κB signaling pathway. Altogether, our results indicated that bavachin exerted anti-neuroinflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-κB signaling mediated by regulation of ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 complex. Our finding has important clinical significance for the potential application of bavachin in the treatment of neurological disorders.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology


TLRs induce Th1/Th2 responses by affecting the secretion of CCL2 at the maternal-foetal interface.
In previous studies, we demonstrated that the human decidua and decidual stromal cells express high levels of CCL2 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and its receptor CCR2 (chemokine receptor 2). DSC-derived CCL2 interacts with CCR2 on DICs, causing the production and secretion of Th2-type cytokines, which promotes a Th2 bias at the maternal-foetal interface. Many pathogens may be present in the genital tract during pregnancy, but whether they affect immune regulation, especially Th2 regulation remains unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognise specific components of microbes and certain host molecules and play an important role in the host innate immune response. We examined TLR expression and evaluated whether TLRs could affect CCL2 secretion and subsequently induce Th1/Th2 responses. We used quantitative real-time PCR to measure TLR expression in the decidua and DSCs (decidual stromal cells). DSCs were cultured in the presence or absence of the TLR2 agonists PAM3CSK4, PGN-Sa, and zymosan, the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) and the TLR4 agonist LPS. Then, the supernatants were assayed for CCL2 secreted by DSCs and IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10, and TNF-α produced by DICs. Costimulation with TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 agonists resulted in enhancing CCL2 production compared with that in the controls. Additionally, these TLR2, 3, and 4 agonists stimulated CD80/CD86 on DSCs and regulated IL-4 and IL-10 secretion on DICs. TLR2 and TLR3 agonists may promote Th1/Th2 immune bias. TLRs may induce Th1/Th2 responses by affecting the secretion of CCL2 at the maternal-foetal interface.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology


Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine, controls acute systemic inflammation induced by polyI:C administration through noradrenergic function.
Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza virus infection. Although maoto is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in a rodent model of acute inflammation, its underlying mechanism remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated the involvement of immune responses and noradrenergic function in the inhibitory action of maoto. In a mouse model of polyI:C-induced acute inflammation, maoto (2 g/kg) was administered orally in conjunction with intraperitoneal injection of PolyI:C (6 mg/kg), and blood was collected after 2 hours for measurement of plasma cytokines by ELISA. Maoto significantly decreased PolyI:C-induced TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 production. Neither pretreatment with IL-10 neutralizing antibodies nor T-cell deficiency using nude mice modified the inhibitory effect of maoto, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto are independent of IL-10 and T cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of maoto on PolyI:C-induced TNF-α production were not observed in ex vivo splenocytes, suggesting that maoto does not act directly on inflammatory cells. Lastly, pretreatment with a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist partially cancelled the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto. Collectively, these results suggest that maoto mediates its anti-inflammatory effects via β-adrenergic receptors in vivo.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Gene


Melanin of Sporothrix globosa affects the function of THP-1 macrophages and modulates the expression of TLR2 and TLR4.
Melanin is an important virulence factor for Sporothrix globosa, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis that occurs worldwide. Although previous research suggests that melanin is involved in the pathogenesis of sporotrichosis, little is known about its influence on the macrophages that represent the frontline components of innate immunity. To evaluate the effects of melanin on phagocytic activity and the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 during S. globosa infection of macrophages in vitro. To compare phagocytic activity and survival rates, THP-1 macrophages and primary mouse peritoneal macrophages were co-cultured with a wild-type S. globosa strain (Mel+), an albino mutant strain (Mel-), a tricyclazole-treated Mel + strain (TCZ-Mel+), or melanin ghosts extracted from S. globosa conidia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) generation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed in THP-1 cells infected with S. globosa conidia. Quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to observe the effect of melanin on TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Knockdown of TLR2/4 expression with small interfering RNA was performed to further verify the role of these receptors during infection. Macrophages infected with Mel + conidia showed a lower phagocytosis index and a higher survival rate than TCZ-Mel+ and Mel- in vitro. After incubation with S. globosa, the release of ROS, NO, TNF-α and IL-6 by THP-1 were decreased in the presence of melanin. Increased mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 occurred upon S. globosa infection in THP-1, whereas the presence of melanin suppressed TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover, TLR2 or TLR4 knockdown showed a trend toward reducing the pernicious effect of S. globosa conidia on THP-1 cells in vitro. Collectively, our results indicated that melanin inhibits the phagocytosis of S. globosa and guards against macrophage attack by providing protection from oxygen- and nitrogen-derived radicals, as well as suppressing the host pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α and IL-6). Melanin was also involved in modulating TLR2 and TLR4 receptor expression, weakening the killing efficiency of S. globosa.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Microbial pathogenesis

factor tnf(378)

TNF Decoy Receptors Encoded by Poxviruses.
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an inflammatory cytokine produced in response to viral infections that promotes the recruitment and activation of leukocytes to sites of infection. This TNF-based host response is essential to limit virus spreading, thus poxviruses have evolutionarily adopted diverse molecular mechanisms to counteract TNF antiviral action. These include the expression of poxvirus-encoded soluble receptors or proteins able to bind and neutralize TNF and other members of the TNF ligand superfamily, acting as decoy receptors. This article reviews in detail the various TNF decoy receptors identified to date in the genomes from different poxvirus species, with a special focus on their impact on poxvirus pathogenesis and their potential use as therapeutic molecules.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)


Cytokine TNF-α and its receptors TNFRI and TNFRII play a key role in the in vitro proliferative response of BLV infected animals.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) main host cells are B lymphocytes. Infected animals can be classified into high or low proviral load (HPL or LPL respectively), regarding the number of proviral copies infected lymphocytes they carry. After infection, there is an overexpression of several cytokines, particularly TNF-α, which has a delicate regulation mediated by receptors TNFRI and TNFRII; the first one involved with apoptosis, while the other stimulates cell proliferation. The study aimed to quantify TNF-α and its receptors mRNA expression, and in which extent in vitro proliferation was affected, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from BLV-infected animals with different proviral loads, after the addition or not of synthetic TNF-α (rTNF-α) for 48 h. PBMC from BLV-infected animals showed spontaneous proliferation after 48 h in culture but did not show changes in proliferation rates after 48 h incubation in the presence of the rTNF-α. TNF-α mRNA expression after 48 h culture without exogenous stimulation was significantly lower, regardless of the proviral load of the donor, compared to non-infected animals. In the LPL animals, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was significantly lower with respect to the control group while the expression of TNFRI mRNA was significantly increased. The HPL animals showed a significant decrease in the expression of TNF-α and TNFRII mRNA respect to the control group. After 48 h incubation with rTNF-α, PBMC from infected animals had different responses: TNF-α and TNFRI mRNA expression was reduced in PBMC from the LPL group compared to the BLV negative group, but no differences were observed in PBMC from the HPL group. TNFRII mRNA expression showed no differences between HPL, LPL, and BLV negative groups, though HPL animals expressed 10.35 times more TNFRI mRNA than LPL. These results support the hypothesis that LPL animals, when faced with viral reactivation, present a pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative state. However, complementary studies are needed to explain the influence of TNFRII on the development of the HLP profile. On the other hand, exogenous stimulation studies reinforce the hypothesis that BLV infection compromises the immune response of the animals.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Veterinary research communications


Bioengineered Nanoparticles Loaded-Hydrogels to Target TNF Alpha in Inflammatory Diseases.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an incurable autoimmune disease that promotes the chronic impairment of patients' mobility. For this reason, it is vital to develop therapies that target early inflammatory symptoms and act before permanent articular damage. The present study offers two novel therapies based in advanced drug delivery systems for RA treatment: encapsulated chondroitin sulfate modified poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles (NPs) covalently bonded to monoclonal anti-TNF α antibody in both Tyramine-Gellan Gum and Tyramine-Gellan Gum/Silk Fibroin hydrogels. Using pro-inflammatory THP-1 (i.e., human monocytic cell line), the therapy was tested in an inflammation in vitro model under both static and dynamic conditions. Firstly, we demonstrated effective NP-antibody functionalization and TNF-α capture. Upon encapsulation, the NPs were released steadily over 21 days. Moreover, in static conditions, the approaches presented good anti-inflammatory activity over time, enabling the retainment of a high percentage of TNF α. To mimic the physiological conditions of the human body, the hydrogels were evaluated in a dual-chamber bioreactor. Dynamic in vitro studies showed absent cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells and a significant reduction of TNF-α in suspension over 14 days for both hydrogels. Thus, the developed approach showed potential for use as personalized medicine to obtain better therapeutic outcomes and decreased adverse effects.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pharmaceutics


N-Butylphthalide vs. Human Urinary Kallidinogenase for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Functional Outcome and Impact on Serum VEGF and TNF-α Expressions.
To compare the e!cacy and functional outcomes of dl-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) and human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) on ischemic stroke patients and to determine their effects on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A prospective study was conducted on 57 ischemic stroke patients. Functional outcomes were assessed by the National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and the activities of daily living score (ADL), whereas TNF-α and VEGF expressions were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-α was significantly down-regulated in the NBP group and upregulated in the control group two weeks after treatment ( Both treatments are effective and can significantly promote recovery in stroke patients. Additionally, both options have similar effects in promoting long-term recovery, with NBP exerting a greater impact on serum VEGF and TNF-α expressions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Annals of clinical and laboratory science


LncRNA NEAT1 regulates MMP-16 by targeting miR-200a/b to aggravate inflammation in asthma.
Asthma is a common respiratory disease which is characterized by persistent airway inflammation. Abnormal expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is observed in asthma. However, whether lncRNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) regulates asthmatic inflammation and its mechanism still needs to be further investigated. The expression levels of inflammatory factors (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IL-10) were detected using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MTT and flow cytometry assays were employed to determine cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the relationship between miR-200a/b and MMP-16 or NEAT1. NEAT1 silencing markedly reduced TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-13 levels, while elevated IL-10 expression, suppressed cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis. However, NEAT1 overexpression elicited the opposite effects on cell proliferation and inflammation cytokines secretion. What is more, NEAT1 negatively regulated miR-200a/b expression, and MMP16 was a target gene of miR-200a/b. miR-200a/b overexpression suppressed inflammation, cell proliferation, and enhanced cell apoptosis through regulation of MMP16. Moreover, MMP-16 overexpression or miR-200a/b inhibition abolished the regulatory effect of sh-NEAT1 on cell inflammation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. NEAT1 acted as the role of sponge for miR-200a/b to regulate MMP-16 expression, thereby promoting asthma progression, suggesting that NEAT1 might have great potential as therapeutic target for asthma.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Autoimmunity

factor-α tnf-α(319)

Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and the Presence of Macrophage M2 and T Regulatory Cells in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
To investigate the correlation between TLR3 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL6) expression with the distribution of macrophage M2 and Treg on Epstein Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBER+) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues. A total of 23 FFPE NPC tissue samples were obtained from patients in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2008-2010, which expressed EBER was collected. The expressions of TLR3, TNFα, and IL6 were examined using immunofluorescence assay. The distribution of macrophage M2 and Treg were examined by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD163 and -FOXP3 antibodies, respectively. The quantification of fluorescence intensity was analyzed by the RGB space method using ImageJ software. The M2 interpretation was done by the eyeballing method and the M2 scores were divided into 0 (negative), 1 (scant), 2 (focal), 3 (abundant). The average number of Treg FOXP3+ cells in five high power fields was counted. The relationship between variables were tested by the Spearman correlation test, and the coefficient correlation was used to see the correlation between variables. All EBER+ NPC specimens showed TLR3 expression intracellularly. The expression of TNFα could be observed in the cell membranes and secreted extracellularly, while IL6 was secreted to the extracellular area. The expression of TNFα was two times higher than IL6. Most specimens showed low M2 score (56.52%) and high Treg (52.17%). A positive correlation was found between TLR3 and IL6 (12.9%). TNFα was positively correlated with the M2 distribution of 13.7% and Treg distribution of 12.9%, while the rest were explained by other factors. TNFα has a positive correlation with M2 and Treg distribution,but mostly through a different mechanism other than EBER-TLR3 interaction. Possibly, other pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the formation of the NPC microenvironment, especially related to the presence of M2 and Treg, which provide immunosuppressive effects in NPC tumors. 
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP


Early Atherosclerotic Inflammatory Pathways in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
To evaluate structural and functional carotid changes and inflammatory profiles in children with OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) and healthy controls. Patients with OSA and matched controls (ages 5-13) were recruited. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants were measured at 6:00 PM. Common carotid artery measures were determined using ultrasound. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine subgroups of cytokines and their effects on carotid measures. Ninety-six patients participated (53 healthy controls, 43 patients with OSA). OSA was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (CD40L, IL6, and IL8) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < .05 for all). One cytokine subgroup (IL-6 and IL-8) was negatively associated with markers of carotid function, indicating reduced arterial distensibility and increased stiffness (p<0.05 for three ultrasound measures); TNF-α had an opposing effect on carotid function compared with this cytokine subgroup (p<0.05 for two ultrasound measures). Linear regression demonstrated significant associations between TNF-α and two measures of carotid function (p<0.05 for each). Children with OSA did not have functional or structural carotid changes compared with controls. OSA was not directly associated with structural and functional carotid changes but was associated with upregulation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines (sCD40L, IL-6, and IL-8). Together, IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with changes in carotid function. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate that the inflammatory milieu observed in our population is a precursor of atherosclerosis in children.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The Journal of pediatrics


Molecular toxicity of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis treatment: A novel perspective and therapeutic implications.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory systematic complication which is a chronic disorder that severely affects bones and joints and results in the quality of life impairment. Methotrexate (MTX), an FDA-approved drug has maintained the standard of care for treating patients affected with RA. The mechanism of MTX includes the inhibition of purine and pyrimidine synthesis, suppression of polyamine accumulation, promotion of adenosine release, adhesion of the inflammatory molecules, and controlling of cytokine cascade in RA. The recommended dose for RA patients is 5 to 25 mg of MTX per week, depending on the severity of the disease but MTX has proven to be cytotoxic with side effects affecting various tissues when treating RA patients even with low doses over a prolonged period of time. The mechanism of such toxicity is not entirely understood. This review strives to understand it by correlating the different pathways, including MTX in folate metabolism, Sirt1/Nrf2/γ-gcs, and γ-gcs/CaSR-TNF-α/NF-kB signaling. In addition to this, the importance of targeted therapy combination with MTX on RA treatment and combinations approved from the clinical trials are also briefly discussed. Overall, this review elucidates the various MTX molecular mechanisms and toxicity at the molecular level, the limitations, and the scope for future directions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Toxicology


Anti-fibrotic activity of sitagliptin against concanavalin A-induced hepatic fibrosis. Role of Nrf2 activation/NF-κB inhibition.
Sitagliptin is known for its anti-diabetic activity though it has other pleiotropic pharmacological actions. Its effect against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatic fibrosis has not been investigated yet. Our target was to test whether sitagliptin can suppress the development of Con A-induced hepatic fibrosis and if so, what are the mechanisms involved? Con A (6 mg/kg) was injected once weekly to male Swiss albino mice for four weeks. Sitagliptin was daily administered concurrently with Con A. Results have shown the potent hepatoprotective activity of sitagliptin against Con A-induced hepatitis and fibrosis. That was evident through the amelioration of hepatotoxicity serum parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and the increase in the level of serum albumin in sitagliptin treated mice. Simultaneously, there was amendment of the Con A-induced hepatic lesions and repression of fibrosis in sitagliptin-treated animals. Hydroxyproline, collagen content and the immuno-expression of the fibrotic markers, TGF-β and α-SMA were depressed upon sitagliptin treatment. Sitagliptin suppressed Con A-induced oxidative stress and increased antioxidants. RT-PCR analysis showed enhancement of mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes (GCLc, GCLm, NQO-1, HO-1) by sitagliptin. Furthermore, sitagliptin ameliorated the level and immuno-expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) alongside the immuno-expression of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. Taken together, this study demonstrates the hepatoprotective activity of sitagliptin which may be in part related to enhancement of Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibition of NF-κB which interact inflammatory response in liver. Sitagliptin might be a new candidate to suppress hepatitis-associated fibrosis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology


Differential effects of viral nucleic acid sensor signaling pathways on testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells.
The human testis can be infected by a large number of RNA and DNA viruses. While various RNA virus infections may induce orchitis and impair testicular functions, DNA virus infection rarely affects the testis. Mechanisms underlying the differential effects of RNA and DNA viral infections on the testis remain unclear. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of viral RNA and DNA sensor signaling pathways on mouse Sertoli cells (SC) and Leydig cells (LC). The local injection of viral RNA analogue polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) into the testis markedly disrupted spermatogenesis, whereas the injection of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA analogue HSV60 did not affect spermatogenesis. Poly(I:C) dramatically induced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in SC and LC through Toll-like receptor 3 and IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 signaling pathways, impairing the integrity of the blood-testis barrier and testosterone synthesis. Poly(I:C)-induced TNFproduction thus plays a critical role in the impairment of cell functions. In contrast, HSV60 predominantly induced the expression of type 1 interferons and antiviral proteins via the DNA sensor signaling pathway, which did not affect testicular cell functions. Accordingly, the Zika virus induced high levels of TNF-α in SC and LC and impaired their respective cellular functions, whereas HSV-2 principally induced antiviral responses and did not impair such functions. These results provide insights into the mechanisms by which RNA viral infections impair testicular functions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Endocrinology


The expansion of CD14+ CD163+ subpopulation of monocytes and myeloid cells-associated cytokine imbalance; candidate diagnostic biomarkers for celiac disease (CD).
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of small intestine against dietary gluten, among genetically predisposed individuals. Monocytes are versatile innate immune cells involved in the regulation of inflammation, and strongly involved in the intestinal immunity. However, the role of monocytes and their subtypes in CD is not well demonstrated. Here, we assessed the polarization of CD14+ monocytes by evaluating the M1 (CD16) and M2 (CD163) markers by flowcytometry, their soluble forms (sCD16 and sCD163), and the serum levels of IL-10, IL-12, TGF-β, and TNF-α cytokines using ELISA method, among 30 CD patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects (HS). We also analyzed the diagnostic values of all variables with significant differences. CD14+CD163+ monocytes were more frequent in CD patients than HS, while CD14+CD16+ monocytes were higher in HS. IL-10and TNF-α increased, and TGF-β expression was decreased among CD patients. The sCD16 serum levels were elevated in patients, while sCD163 was higher but not significant among CD patients. CD163+/CD16+ and IL-10/IL-12 ratios were higher in CD patients, and TGFβ/TNFα ratio was higher in HS group. IL-10, CD14+CD163+, TNF-α, and IL-10/IL-12 ratios with the AUC over 0.7 were introduced as fair diagnostic markers. Our findings revealed that the M2 (CD14+CD163+) monocytes were more frequent among CD patients, and the cytokine balance was disturbed. According to the significant functional diversities of monocyte subtypes between CD patients and HS group, these immunologic markers could be introduced as specific diagnostic biomarkers for CD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis

interleukin il(250)

Mucosal IL23A expression predicts the response to Ustekinumab in inflammatory bowel disease.
Biologics against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are increasingly used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment. However, information on response prediction to these agents is limited. Thus, we aimed to identify factors for IBD treatment response prediction. We conducted a retrospective study in 33 IBD subjects for anti-TNF and a prospective study of 23 IBD and 11 non-IBD subjects for ustekinumab (UST). Mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained before treatment with biologics. The expression of 18 immune-related genes encoding representative cytokines and transcription factors was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was no difference between the treatment-resistant and -sensitive groups with regard to clinical characteristics. A higher expression of oncostatin M (OSM) and its receptor OSMR in the intestinal mucosa was most strongly associated with anti-TNF resistance, whereas lower IL23A expression was most strongly associated with UST resistance. In addition to the absolute expression levels of genes, concordant or discordant expression patterns of particular gene sets were associated with treatment sensitivity and resistance. The association of anti-TNF resistance and mucosal OSM and OSMR expression was consistent with the results of a previous study in a European cohort. Our observation that IBD subjects with higher mucosal IL23A expression were more likely to achieve remission by UST has not been previously reported. The response to biologics may thus be predicted in IBD patients through the analysis of mucosal gene expression levels and patterns.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of gastroenterology


Iron-Quercetin Complex Preconditioning of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Accelerates Angiogenic and Fibroblast Migration: Implications for Wound Healing.
Cell-based therapy is a highly promising treatment paradigm in ischemic disease due to its ability to repair tissue when implanted into a damaged site. These therapeutic effects involve a strong paracrine component resulting from the high levels of bioactive molecules secreted in response to the local microenvironment. Therefore, the secreted therapeutic can be modulated by preconditioning the cells during in vitro culturing. Herein, we investigated the potential use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes, the "iron-quercetin complex" or IronQ, for preconditioning peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to expand proangiogenic cells and enhance their secreted therapeutic factors. PBMCs obtained from healthy donor blood were cultured in the presence of the iron-quercetin complex. Differentiated preconditioning PBMCs were characterized by immunostaining. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to describe the secreted cytokines. In vitro migration and tubular formation using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were completed to investigate the proangiogenic efficacy. IronQ significantly increased mononuclear progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation into spindle-shape-like cells, expressing both hematopoietic and stromal cell markers. The expansion increased the number of colony-forming units (CFU-Hill). The conditioned medium obtained from IronQ-treated PBMCs contained high levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-10, urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator (uPA), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as augmented migration and capillary network formation of HUVECs and fibroblast cells, in vitro. Our study demonstrated that the IronQ-preconditioning PBMC protocol could enhance the angiogenic and reparative potential of non-mobilized PBMCs. This protocol might be used as an adjunctive strategy to improve the efficacy of cell therapy when using PBMCs for ischemic diseases and chronic wounds. However, in vivo assessment is required for further validation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Pancreastatin induces hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetes by impeding mitochondrial functioning.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the key factors for the advancement of hepatic steatosis to NAFLD and NASH. Pancreastatin (PST: human ChgA250-301) is a dysglycemic hormone, previously reported to promote steatosis and inflammation in various animal models of metabolic disorders. Recently, we observed PST deregulates energy expenditure and mitochondrial functioning in perimenopausal rats. In the current study, we aimed to decipher the role of PST instigated altered mitochondrial functioning in hepatic steatosis. The HepG2 cells were PST exposed and the Chga gene was knocked down using siRNA and lipofectamine. Parallelly, type 2 diabetes (T2D) was developed in C57BL/6 mice by HFD feeding and administered PST inhibitor (PSTi8). The PST exposed cells and HFD fed mice depicted: enhanced CHGA expression detected by IF/IHC, WB, and ELISA; dysregulated cellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS, oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP level, and NADP/NADP ratio; enhanced apoptosis determined by MTT, TUNEL, Annexin-V FITC, and WB of Bax/bcl2 and caspase 3; hepatic lipid accumulation upon Nile Red, Oil Red O, H&E staining, and the expression of SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC, and SCD; inflammation based on expression and circulatory level of IL6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. However, Chga knocked down HepG2 cells and PSTi8 treated mice unveiled protection from all the above abnormalities. Collectively, the aforementioned data suggested the alteration in mitochondrial function induced by PST is responsible for hepatic steatosis in T2D.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Life sciences

il-1β il-6(237)

Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in the development of neurological complications in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019.
Evidence show that Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with neurological complications in the viral infections. Here in the current investigation, we intended to reveal if MMPs are potentially involved in the development of neurological symptoms in the patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The levels of MMPs, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules were evaluated in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 10 COVID-19 patients with neurological syndrome (NS) and 10 COVID-19 patients lacking NS. Monocytes from the CSF samples were treated with TNF-α and the secreted levels of MMPs were determined. The frequency of monocytes were increased in the CSF samples of COVID-19 patients with NS compared to patients without NS. Levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL7, CCL12, CXCL8, and CX3CL1, MMPs MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-12, and adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were significantly increased in the CSF samples of COVID-19 patients with NS compared with patients without NS. Treatment of CSF-derived monocytes obtained from COVID-19 patients with NS caused increased production of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-12. Higher levels of inflammatory cytokines might promote the expression of adhesion molecules on blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), resulting in facilitation of monocyte recruitment. Increased levels of CSF chemokines might also help to the trafficking of monocytes to CSF. Inflammatory cytokines might enhance production of MMPs from monocytes, leading to disruption of BCSFB (and therefore further infiltration of inflammatory cells to CSF) in COVID-19 patients with NS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International immunopharmacology


Long noncoding RNA SNHG4 remits lipopolysaccharide-engendered inflammatory lung damage by inhibiting METTL3 - Mediated m
Emerging evidence suggests that long non coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 4 (SNHG4) has become a new insight into lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia inflammation, its role in neonatal pneumonia (NP) remains to be largely unrevealed. RT-qPCR was used to determine the expression of SNHG4 and METTL3 in the serum from NP patients and normal volunteers, as well as in LPS treated-WI-38 cells. The SNHG4 overexpression vector (pcDNA-SNHG4) was transfected into LPS-treated cells. CCK-8, Transwell, annexin V-FITC/PI, ELISA and Western blot assays were used to determine cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, contents of IL-6, TNF-α, SOD and MDA, as well as the expression levels of NF-κB pathway proteins, respectively. The enrichment of SNHG4 in the METTL3 promoter region was assessed with RIP assay. m SNHG4 was downregulated, and METTL3 was upregulated in NP patients and LPS-treated cells. SNHG4 overexpression facilitated cell proliferation, migration and SOD concentration, as well as inhibited cell apoptosis and production of IL-6, TNF-α and MDA, and suppressed the expression of NF-κB pathway proteins. Mechanistically, SNHG4 bound with METTL3 and downregulated METTL3 expression. Besides, total m This study reveals that SNHG4 promotes LPS induced inflammation in human lung fibroblasts and mouse lung tissues in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting METTL3-mediated m
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Molecular immunology


Tailored Hydrogels as Delivery Platforms for Conditioned Medium from Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Model of Acute Colitis in Mice.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasingly prevalent and current therapies are not completely effective. Mesenchymal stem cells are emerging as a promising therapeutic option. Here, the effect of local hydrogel application loaded with conditioned medium (CM) from human uterine cervical stem cells (hUCESC-CM) in an experimental acute colitis mice model has been evaluated. Colitis induction was carried out in C57BL/6 mice by dissolving dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for nine days. Ulcers were treated by rectal administration of either mesalazine (as positive control) or a mucoadhesive and thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with hUCESC-CM (H-hUCESC-CM). Body weight changes, colon length, and histopathological analysis were evaluated. In addition, pro-inflammatory TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ mRNA levels were measured by qPCR. Treatment with H-hUCESC-CM inhibited body weight loss and colon shortening and induced a significant decrease in colon mucosa degeneration, as well as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Results indicate that H-hUCESC-CM effectively alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice, suggesting that H-hUCESC-CM may represent an attractive cell-free therapy for local treatment of IBD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pharmaceutics


Taohong Siwu Decoction Regulates Cell Necrosis and Neuroinflammation in the Rat Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model.
Cell necrosis and neuroinflammation play an important role in brain injury induced by ischemic stroke. Previous studies reported that Taohong Siwu decoction (THSWD)can reduce heart muscle cell necrosis and has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of THSWD on cell necrosis and neuroinflammation in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups with 12 rats in each group. They were the sham operation group, MCAO model group, and MCAO + THSWD group. We used ELISA to determine the levels of TNF-α, Mcp-1, and IL-1β inflammatory factors in rat serum, qRT-PCR to detect the expression of TNF-α, Mcp-1 and IL-1β mRNA in rat brain, and immunohistochemistry to detect the number of microglia and neutrophils in rat brain. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of IBA-1 and MPO inflammatory factors and the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway in the rat brain and protein expression levels. Compared with the sham operation group, the expression of MCP-1, IL-1β, IBA-1, and MPO inflammatory factors and the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway were significantly upregulated in the MCAO group. Compared with the MCAO group, the expressions of MCP-1, IL-1β, IBA-1, and MPO inflammatory factors and the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway were significantly downregulated in the MCAO + THSWD group. THSWD can reduce the expression levels of MCP-1, IL-1β, IBA-1, and MPO inflammatory factors as well as the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL pathway. Meanwhile, it can reduce the necrosis and inflammation of brain cells after cerebral ischemia, so as to protect the brain tissue of rats.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology


Occupational exposure to gasoline in gasoline station male attendants promotes M1 polarization in macrophages.
Several studies have reported the toxicological implications of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon fumes in animal models. There is little documentation on the effect of such exposure on oxidative stress levels and immune response. To our knowledge, no documentation of M1 polarization in macrophages in gasoline station male attendants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the harmful effects of gasoline vapors in 62 male attendants (16-70 years) compared to 29 age- and sex-matched-unexposed controls. The attendants were recruited from Damietta governorate gasoline stations. Gasoline exposure induced a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level (p < 0.05) as well as a slight but non-significant increase in the activity of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) (p > 0.05). Further TNF-α/AMCase ratio was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in sera of the attendants when compared to those of the healthy controls. Also, the total leucocytic and lymphocytic counts were significantly increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). On contrary, neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR) and platelets to lymphocytes ratio (PLR) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In addition, significant reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, plasma glutathione reduced form (GSH), and catalase, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in red blood cells were observed in the exposed attendants. As a result, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and NO/AMCase ratio were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study inferred that prolonged gasoline exposure can mediate immune activation, especially M1 macrophages polarization, possibly via oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international


Mutant p53 Modulates TNF Signaling via Interaction with DAB2IP.
Mutant p53 enhances cancer cell invasion in response to inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα.
Publication Date: 2015-01-01
Journal: Cancer discovery


Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Medicinal Herb Extract Mixture, HM-V, on an Animal Model of DNCB-Induced Chronic Skin Inflammation.
Chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, are caused by the accumulation of immune cells and the overproduction of chemokines, including CCL17 and CCL22, due to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted from keratinocytes. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of HM-V on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines was examined in human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNCB)-induced chronic skin contact dermatitis animal models. Traditional Asian medicinal herb extracts mixture (HM-V), which have been extensively used in Asian medicine, were utilized. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaTs, HM-V strongly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of CCL17 and CCL22 in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was also inhibited. Therefore, localized administration of HM-V in the DNCB-induced animal model alleviated immune cell deposition and skin inflammation. The results indicate that HM-V exerts inhibitory effects on keratinocyte production of CCL17 and CCL22. Furthermore, HM-V may be a useful anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)


Expression of MicroRNA 146a, 155, 181 and 223 in febrile seizure.
We studied microRNAs (miRNAs) -146a, -155, -181 and -223 expressions and proinflammatory cytokine levels in children with Febrile seizure (FS) and compared to febrile controls. This prospective multicenter study examined representative populations in eight different cities in Turkey between June 30, 2018 and July 1, 2019. Blood samples were taken from all children at presentation. The real time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to measure the expressions of microRNAs and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were studied by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. The study was conducted with 60 children; 30 children with FS and 30 children in the febrile control group. The seizure was classified as simple FS in 73.3 % and half of the children were experiencing their first FS episode. Although the expression levels of miRNAs-146a, -181a and -155 were higher in febrile seizure patients, only miRNAs 146a level was significantly higher in FS patients. Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels were higher in the FS group than the controls. The results of statistical analysis showed that there were correlations within miRNA expressions in children with FS. No differences were found considering miRNA expression between FS type, number of FS experienced. miRNAs-146a, -181a, -155 and -223 may be involved in FS pathogenesis. Altered miRNA expression levels might be an adaptive response to inflammation. New therapeutic approaches might be developed based on miRNA expressions in children with FS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The Turkish journal of pediatrics


Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergic Effects of Saponarin and Its Impact on Signaling Pathways of RAW 264.7, RBL-2H3, and HaCaT Cells.
Saponarin{5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxychromen-4-one}, a flavone found in young green barley leaves, is known to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and skin-protective effects of saponarin were investigated to evaluate its usefulness as a functional ingredient in cosmetics. In lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 (murine macrophage) cells, saponarin (80 μM) significantly inhibited cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Saponarin (80 μM) also inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. Saponarin (40 μM) significantly inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation as well as the phosphorylation of signaling effectors (Syk, phospholipase Cγ1, ERK, JNK, and p38) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, COX-2, and FcεRIα/γ) in DNP-IgE- and DNP-BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells. In addition, saponarin (100 μM) significantly inhibited the expression of macrophage-derived chemokine, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (ERK, p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1]) in TNF-α- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte) cells. Saponarin (100 μM) also significantly induced the expression of hyaluronan synthase-3, aquaporin 3, and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) in HaCaT cells, which play an important role as skin barriers. Saponarin remarkably inhibited the essential factors involved in the inflammatory and allergic responses of RAW264.7, RBL-2H3, and HaCaT cells, and induced the expression of factors that function as physical and chemical skin barriers in HaCaT cells. Therefore, saponarin could potentially be used to prevent and relieve immune-related skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Modulation of the mTOR pathway plays a central role in dendritic cell functions after Echinococcus granulosus antigen recognition.
Immune evasion is a hallmark of persistent echinococcal infection, comprising modulation of innate immune cells and antigen-specific T cell responses. However, recognition of Echinococcus granulosus by dendritic cells (DCs) is a key determinant of the host's response to this parasite. Given that mTOR signaling pathway has been described as a regulator linking metabolism and immune function in DCs, we reported for the first time in these cells, global translation levels, antigen uptake, phenotype, cytokine transcriptional levels, and splenocyte priming activity upon recognition of the hydatid fluid (HF) and the highly glycosylated laminar layer (LL). We found that LL induced a slight up-regulation of CD86 and MHC II in DCs and also stimulated the production of IL-6 and TNF-α. By contrast, HF did not increase the expression of any co-stimulatory molecules, but also down-modulated CD40 and stimulated the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Both parasitic antigens promoted protein synthesis through mTOR activation. The use of rapamycin decreased the expression of the cytokines tested, empowered the down-modulation of CD40 and also reduced splenocyte proliferation. Finally, we showed that E. granulosus antigens increase the amounts of LC3-positive structures in DCs which play critical roles in the presentation of these antigens to T cells.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Scientific reports

tnf -α(186)

Influence of Dietary Chitosan Feeding Duration on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Diabetic Rat Model.
This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary chitosan feeding-duration on glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin and nicotinamide [a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model]. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals and divided into short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (11 weeks) feeding durations, and each duration contained five groups: (1) control, (2) control + 5% chitosan, (3) diabetes, (4) diabetes + 0.8 mg/kg rosiglitazone (a positive control), and (5) diabetes + 5% chitosan. Whether the chitosan feeding was for 6 or 11 weeks, the chitosan supplementation decreased blood glucose and lipids levels and liver lipid accumulation. However, chitosan supplementation decreased plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, insulin levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity. Meanwhile, it increased plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol level, plasma angiopoietin-like-4 protein expression, and plasma triglyceride levels (at 11-week feeding duration only). Taken together, 11-week (long-term) chitosan feeding may help to ameliorate the glucose and lipid metabolism in a NIDDM diabetic rat model.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)


Exploring the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fibroblast-like synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with persistent synovitis. In the present study, the impact of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was explored to determine methods for the diagnosis and treatment of RA. First, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were obtained from a collagen-induced rat RA model. Next, MCP-1-overexpression plasmid and small interfering RNA were transfected into human and rat FLSs. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell migration and flow cytometry assays were used to analyze cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis of FLSs following MCP-1 transfections, respectively. Furthermore, western blotting was used to analyze the expression levels of p-P38, p-PI3K, PI3K, CD31, VEGF, TNF-α and IL-β in FLSs following MCP-1 transfection. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and ELISAs were used to analyze the expression levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), estrogen receptor, MCP-1 and pentraxin-3 in patients with clinical RA, followed by correlation analysis of clinical data. Finally, expression validation, diagnostic and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of MCP-1 were performed. MCP-1 promoted FLS proliferation and migration, and affected the apoptosis of FLSs. In addition, the expression levels of p-P38, p-PI3K, PI3K, CD31, VEGF, TNF-α and IL-β were also affected by MCP-1. In patients with clinical RA, the expression level of MCP-1 was increased. Moreover, CRP expression level was significantly up-regulated in RA. Clinically, MCP-1 was strongly correlated with tender joint count, swollen joint count, visual analog scale for general health and disease activity score 28 (DAS28)-MCP-1, and was moderately correlated with DAS28 and DAS28-CRP. PPI analysis showed that MCP-1 mainly interacted with other inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, MCP-1 may play a significant regulatory role in RA, and could be used as a measurement index of clinical RA activity.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: PeerJ

pro-inflammatory cytokines(179)

MAO-A Inhibition by Metaxalone Reverts IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Phenotype in Microglial Cells.
Experimental and clinical studies have suggested that several neurological disorders are associated with the occurrence of central nervous system neuroinflammation. Metaxalone is an FDA-approved muscle relaxant that has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). The aim of this study was to investigate whether metaxalone might exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in HMC3 microglial cells. An inflammatory phenotype was induced in HMC3 microglial cells through stimulation with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Control cells and IL-1β-stimulated cells were subsequently treated with metaxalone (10, 20, and 40 µM) for six hours. IL-1β stimulated the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but reduced the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). The upstream signal consisted of an increased priming of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), blunted peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression. IL-1β also augmented MAO-A expression/activity and malondialdehyde levels and decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression and protein levels. Metaxalone decreased MAO-A activity and expression, reduced NF-kB, TNF-α, and IL-6, enhanced IL-13, and also increased PPARγ, PGC-1α, and Nrf2 expression. The present experimental study suggests that metaxalone has potential for the treatment of several neurological disorders associated with neuroinflammation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Post Stroke Safinamide Treatment Attenuates Neurological Damage by Modulating Autophagy and Apoptosis in Experimental Model of Stroke in Rats.
Exploring and repurposing a drug have become a lower risk alternative. Safinamide, approved for Parkinson's disease, has shown neuroprotection in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study aimed to explore the potential of safinamide in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. The effective dose of safinamide was selected based on the results of neurobehavioral parameters and reduction in infarct size assessed 24 h post-reperfusion. For sub-acute study, the treatment with effective dose was extended for 3 days and effects on neurobehavioral parameters, infarct size (TTC staining and MRI), oxidative stress parameters (MDA, GSH, SOD, NOX-2), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10), apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 expression, and TUNEL staining), and autophagy (pAMPK, Beclin-1, LC3-II expression) were studied. The results of dose selection study showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in infarct size and improvement in neurobehavioral parameters with safinamide (80 mg/kg). In sub-acute study, safinamide showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motor coordination and infarct size reduction. Additionally, safinamide treatment significantly normalized altered redox homeostasis and inflammatory cytokine levels. However, no change was observed in expression of NOX-2 in I/R or safinamide treatment group when compared with sham. I/R induced deranged expression of apoptotic markers and increased TUNEL positive cells in cortex were significantly normalized with safinamide treatment. Further, safinamide significantly (p < 0.05) induced the expressions of autophagic proteins (Beclin-1 and LC3-II) in cortex. Overall, the results demonstrated neuroprotective potential of safinamide via anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagy inducing properties. Thus, safinamide can be explored for repurposing in ischemic stroke after further exploration.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Molecular neurobiology


Clinical efficacy of repeated intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of knee joint pain and its effects on inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid of patients.
The application value of repeated intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of knee joint pain has remained to be determined. To investigate this, a total of 64 patients with chronic knee joint pain admitted to Caoxian People's Hospital (Caoxian, Chine) between October 2016 and May 2018 were enrolled in the present study and analyzed prospectively. The patients were randomly divided into a control group, receiving treatment with a single intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency through the knee joint (n=32), and an experimental group, receiving multiple intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatments through the knee joint (n=32). The visual analog scale score (VAS), clinical efficacy and adverse reactions prior to and after treatment were compared between the two treatments. Synovial fluid cytokines were measured using ELISA prior to and after treatment. After the treatment, the control group and the experimental group both had a lower VAS (P<0.001) and the control group had a higher VAS and lower pain relief than the experimental group (P<0.001). The control group had a total effectiveness rate of 78.13%, with 13 patients experiencing complete relief (40.63%), 12 patients exhibiting a marked improvement (37.5%) and 7 patients reporting no effects (21.87%). The experimental group had a total effectiveness rate of 90.63%, with 18 patients (56.25%) being cured, 11 patients having a marked effect (34.37%) and 3 patients reporting no effects (9.38%). The experimental group had a higher incidence of adverse reactions than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the two groups had decreased IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in the knee joint synovial fluid (P<0.05), with the experimental group having lower cytokine levels than the control group (P<0.05). These results indicated that repeated intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency is an effective method for the treatment of knee joint pain and may be used in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine


Predictive Value of Immunological Markers after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Induction in Bladder Cancer.
To investigate the predictive value of different immunological markers on treatment outcomes after BCG induction in high risk NMIBC. Patients who underwent TURBT for NMIBC were assessed for study eligibility. Urine and blood samples were retrieved from study participants at baseline (immediately before 1 Between July 2013 and May 2019, 204 patients were included. Among evaluable markers, urinary IL-2 and serum TNF-α absolutely increased all patients, Serum CTLA4 and FoxP3 Urinary IL-10 and serum TNF-α can significantly predict ICR. Moreover, change pattern of urinary IL-10, serum CTLA4, TFs (GATA3
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: BJU international


A High-Cholesterol Diet Increases Toll-like Receptors and Other Harmful Factors in the Rabbit Myocardium: The Beneficial Effect of Statins.
A high-cholesterol diet (HCD) induces vascular atherosclerosis through vascular inflammatory and immunological processes via TLRs. The aim of this study is to investigate the mRNA expression of TLRs and other noxious biomarkers expressing inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunction in the rabbit myocardium during (a) high-cholesterol diet (HCD), (b) normal diet resumption and (c) fluvastatin or rosuvastatin treatment. Forty-eight male rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups ( mRNA of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 8; interleukin-6; TNF-a; metalloproteinase-2; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1; tumor protein 53; cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3; and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) increased in HCD. Statins but not resumption of a normal diet decreased levels of these biomarkers and increased levels of antifibrotic factors. HCD increases the levels of TLRs; inflammatory, fibrotic and apoptotic factors; and BNP in the rabbit myocardium. Atherogenic diets adversely affect the myocardium at a molecular level and are reversed by statins.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Current issues in molecular biology


Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Adverse Events with Anti-Interleukin 17A Agents and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatic Disease and Skin Psoriasis.
The aim of this work is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and anti-interleukin-17 (anti-IL-17) trials for spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis comparing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) events compared to placebo. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched for double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled anti-TNF and anti-IL-17 trials of included diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease events from the RCT period were pooled and meta-analyzed using statistical methods suitable for low-event-rate meta-analysis (Peto's, Mantel-Haenszel, hypergeometric-normal model, and Shuster-Guo-Skyler). When observed data were insufficient, we performed an exploratory sensitivity analysis to compare methods. We identified 9551 original papers, and included 96 publications: 65 anti-TNF and 31 anti-IL-17 trials, containing 21 new and 12 flare IBD events in 28,209 participants. New IBD on anti-IL-17 occurred 0.23/100 patient-years (PY) in psoriasis, 0.61/100 PY in PsA and 1.63/100 PY in spondyloarthritis, rates similar to observational cohorts, and less commonly on anti-TNF (0/100 PY, 0/100 PY, 0.32/100 PY, respectively). No evidence of difference between groups was found, with wide CI from many pooled counts of zero, especially in placebo arms. IBD events were rare, occurring at rates similar to biologic-naive groups. We could not find statistically significant differences in risk of new or recurrent IBD between treatment and control groups using selected meta-analytical methods for low event rate scenarios. Meta-analyses of this topic require more IBD events, ideally without pooling heterogeneous groups. Larger, thoroughly reported trials with systematic and detailed safety reporting are required to improve risk estimation and to make accurate inferences.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Rheumatology and therapy


Effect of Doxofylline on Reducing the Inflammatory Response in Mechanically Ventilated Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
To evaluate the effect of doxofylline on reducing the inflammatory response in mechanically ventilated rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 40 eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 rats each: a control group (group C), a model group (group M), a model + natural saline group (group N), and a doxofylline group (group D). Then mechanical ventilation, drug intervention, and the extraction of the experimental material were performed in each group. Pulmonary tissue samples were taken after 120 minutes of mechanical ventilation and the pulmonary histopathological changes and the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio of the pulmonary tissue were identified. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression levels of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) were detected using immunohistochemistry. Compared with group C, the pulmonary histopathology in groups M, N, and D showed typical changes associated with COPD. Furthermore, the W/D weight ratio and levels of TNF-α, JNK, and p-JNK in the pulmonary tissue increased in groups M, N, and D (P < 0.05), while the levels of IL-10 decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with group M, no statistically significant changes in the above indicators were detected in the pulmonary tissue of group N (P > 0.05). Compared with group N, the W/D weight ratio and levels of TNF-α, JNK, and p-JNK in the pulmonary tissue decreased in group D (P < 0.05), while the levels of IL-10 increased (P < 0.05). Doxofylline might attenuate pulmonary inflammatory responses in mechanically ventilated rats with COPD, and the JNK/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in doxofylline's inhibition of inflammatory responses in the pulmonary tissue of rats with COPD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Berberine, A Phytoalkaloid, Inhibits Inflammatory Response Induced by LPS through NF-Kappaβ Pathway: Possible Involvement of the IKKα.
Berberine (BBR), a plant alkaloid, is known for its therapeutic properties of anticancer, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. The present study was to determine the molecular mechanism of BBR's pharmacological activity in human monocytic (THP-1) cells induced by arachidonic acid (AA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of BBR on AA/LPS activated proinflammatory markers including TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8 and COX-2 was measured by ELISA or quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the effect of BBR on LPS-induced NF-κB translocation was determined by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy. AA/ LPS-induced TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 markers were markedly attenuated by BBR treatment in THP-1 cells by inhibiting NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Molecular modeling studies suggested the direct interaction of BBR to IKKα at its ligand binding site, which led to the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Thus, the present study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory potential of BBR via NF-κB in activated monocytes, whose interplay is key in health and in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic development in blood vessel walls. The present study findings suggest that BBR has the potential for treating various chronic inflammatory disorders.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)

interleukin-6 il-6(155)

Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 reduces unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive behavior of rats.
Depression is a neurological disorder characterized by persistent low mood. A number of studies have suggested that the use of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) agonists can reduce depressive behavior, but its effect on the depressive behavior and nerve damage of rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) has not been reported. Rats were exposed to CUMS for 4 weeks to induce depressive behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into six groups: control group (control), depression group (CUMS), depression + fluoxetine group (Flu), depression + WIN55212-2 group (WIN), depression + NF-κB inhibitor group (PDTC), and depression + WIN + PDTC group (WIN + PDTC). We performed four behavioral experiments test to evaluate the depressive behaviors of rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Nissl staining were performed to observe the neuron structures of the hippocampus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Biochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus, and western blot was performed to detect protein expression levels related to the NF-κB signaling pathway in the hippocampus. Compared with the normal control group, CUMS significantly induced abnormal behaviors in stressed rats. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory factors and oxidative stress injury factors in the hippocampus of the CUMS group increased significantly. The interventions of Flu, WIN, and PDTC significantly reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress injury. Compared with the WIN group, the WIN + PDTC intervention group had better results. In addition, WIN could significantly inhibit the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. This study showed that cannabinoid receptor agonists can reduce the CUMS-induced depressive behaviors of rats by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway to alleviate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress injury.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Annals of translational medicine


Early Change in Fecal Calprotectin Predicts One-Year Outcome in Children Newly Diagnosed with Ulcerative Colitis.
While fecal calprotectin (FC) is used to assess disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) there are little data concerning the role of serial FC levels at diagnosis in predicting clinical course. We sought to determine whether FC at diagnosis or early change following therapy predicts clinical outcome in pediatric UC.Methods: Children with newly diagnosed UC were treated with standardized regimens of mesalamine or corticosteroids (CS). CS tapering and escalation to additional therapy or colectomy were by protocol. Patients with baseline or week 4 or week 12 FC levels were included in the analysis. Our primary outcome was CS-free remission on mesalamine at Week 52. We compared the prognostic value of a baseline FC as well as a change in FC by week 4 or week 12 in predicting clinical outcomes. The study included 352 children (113 initial mesalamine, 239 initial CS, mean age 12.6 years) with UC. At Week 52, 135 (38.3%), 84 (23.8%), and 19 (5.4%) children achieved CS-free remission, needed anti-TNF therapy or had colectomy respectively. Baseline FC was not associated with CS-free remission at week 52. However, both week 4 (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90 - 1.00) and week 12 FC levels (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 - 0.96) were associated with outcomes, with the latter having a stronger association with CS-free remission. Patients with a > 75% decrease by 12 weeks, had a three-fold increased likelihood of CS-free remission at 1 year. Longitudinal changes in FC may predict 1 year outcomes better than values at diagnosis in children with new diagnosis of UC.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition


Role of Dietary Nutritional Treatment on Hepatic and Intestinal Damage in Transplantation with Steatotic and Non-Steatotic Liver Grafts from Brain Dead Donors.
Herein, we investigate whether: (1) the administration of glucose or a lipid emulsion is useful in liver transplantation (LT) using steatotic (induced genetically or nutritionally) or non-steatotic livers from donors after brain death (DBDs); and (2) any such benefits are due to reductions in intestinal damage and consequently to gut microbiota preservation. In recipients from DBDs, we show increased hepatic damage and failure in the maintenance of ATP, glycogen, phospholipid and growth factor (HGF, IGF1 and VEGFA) levels, compared to recipients from non-DBDs. In recipients of non-steatotic grafts from DBDs, the administration of glucose or lipids did not protect against hepatic damage. This was associated with unchanged ATP, glycogen, phospholipid and growth factor levels. However, the administration of lipids in steatotic grafts from DBDs protected against damage and ATP and glycogen drop and increased phospholipid levels. This was associated with increases in growth factors. In all recipients from DBDs, intestinal inflammation and damage (evaluated by LPS, vascular permeability, mucosal damage, TLR4, TNF, IL1, IL-10, MPO, MDA and edema formation) was not shown. In such cases, potential changes in gut microbiota would not be relevant since neither inflammation nor damage was evidenced in the intestine following LT in any of the groups evaluated. In conclusion, lipid treatment is the preferable nutritional support to protect against hepatic damage in steatotic LT from DBDs; the benefits were independent of alterations in the recipient intestine.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients


Relationship between Circulating Galectin-3, Systemic Inflammation, and Protein-Energy Wasting in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.
Galectin-3 reportedly participates in the inflammatory process that causes insulin resistance in the target tissues. However, the role of high plasma galectin-3 levels as an indicator of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis remains unclear. This study included 240 hemodialysis patients (64.5 [55.3-74.0] years, 35.8% women) from a tertiary medical center. A baseline assessment of demographic and clinical data, biochemical parameters, and body composition was conducted. Plasma galectin-3 and other biomarkers were measured using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay. Participants were then divided into two subgroups depending on the median value of plasma galectin-3. Malnutrition was identified using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and the criteria of the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Independent risk factors for elevated plasma galectin-3 and malnutrition were identified by multivariate logistic regression. The high galectin-3 group was more likely to be older, have lower lean tissue mass and GNRI scores, be diagnosed with PEW, dialyze through a tunneled catheter, and have higher circulating IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 concentrations than the low galectin-3 group. After multivariate adjustment, only low mean arterial pressure, dialyzing with tunneled cuffed catheters, and elevated systemic inflammatory markers correlated with high galectin-3 levels. Plasma galectin-3 concentrations also increased significantly in hemodialysis patients with PEW. However, compared with other commonly used nutritional indicators, galectin-3 did not show superiority in predicting PEW. Although the plasma galectin-3 levels correlated with PEW severity, this correlation disappeared after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR, 1.000; 95% CI, 0.999-1.001). In conclusion, plasma galectin-3 is a valuable biomarker for systemic inflammation but is less prominent for PEW in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Further identification of novel biomarkers is required to detect patients at risk for malnutrition and implement appropriate interventions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients


Metabolic Comorbidities in Vitiligo: A Brief Review and Report of New Data from a Single-Center Experience.
Among disorders of pigmentation, vitiligo is the most common, with an estimated prevalence between 0.5% and 1%. The disease has gathered increased attention in the most recent years, leading to a better understanding of the disease's pathophysiology and its implications and to the development of newer therapeutic strategies. A better, more integrated approach is already in use for other chronic inflammatory dermatological diseases such as psoriasis, for which metabolic comorbidities are well-established and part of the routine clinical evaluation. The pathogenesis of these might be linked to cytokines which also play a role in vitiligo pathogenesis, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and possibly IL-17. Following the reports of intrinsic metabolic alterations reported by our group, in this brief review, we analyze the available data on metabolic comorbidities in vitiligo, accompanied by our single-center experience. Increased awareness of the metabolic aspects of vitiligo is crucial to improving patient care.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences

expression levels(137)

Anticancer Effect of Rh2, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in HepG2 Cells and HepG2 Cell-Derived Xenograft Tumors Occurs via the Inhibition of HDACs and Activation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.
To investigate the effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) on anti HepG2 liver cancer cells and HepG2 cell-derived xenograft tumors, and explore the underlying mechanisms. The activity of total HDACs and HAT were assessed with a HDACs colorimetric kit. Expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6, p-ERK, ERK, p-P38, P38, p-JNK and JNK proteins was tested by Western blotting.H3K9 and H3K14 proteins were also checked by immunofluorescence, changes in cell cycle distribution with flow cytometry, cell apoptosis with annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining. Activity of Renilla luciferase (HIF) was detected using the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. Gene expression for CyclinD1, Bcl-2, Bax, HIF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was tested by q-PCR. Expression levels of CD31 and Ki-67 was tested by immunohistochemical staining. Total HDAC activity was decreased and total histone acetyltransferase (HAT)activity was increased in a time-dependent manner. Expression of HDAC1 and p-JNK proteins was significantly increased, expression levels of p-ERK was decreased. H3K9 and H3K14 fluorescence protein were increased. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle revealed that the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the treatment group(64.35±1.36%) was significantly increased compared with the untreated group(61.61±1.23%).The apoptotic rate of the HepG2 group was 10.03±1.92%, which increased to 17.87±1.67% in the treatment group. Expression levels of the transcription factor HIF were also increased in HepG2 cells following induction by Rh2. Expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 at the genetic level was significantly decreased, while expression levels of Bax, HIF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was increased. In vivo, the expression levels of both CD31 and Ki-67 proteins were significantly down-regulated in the treatment group compared with the control group. The effects of Rh2 were suggested to occur through the inhibition of total HDAC activity, which subsequently induced MAPK signaling and down-regulated the expression of HIF.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP

p 0 05(136)

In vitro fertilization exacerbates stroke size and neurological disability in wildtype mice.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) induce premature vascular aging in human offspring. The related alterations are well-established risk factors for stroke and predictors of adverse stroke outcome. However, given the young age of the human ART population there is no information on the incidence and outcome of cerebrovascular complications in humans . In mice, ART alters the cardiovascular phenotype similarly to humans, thereby offering the possibility to study this problem. We investigated the morphological and clinical outcome after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury induced by transient (45 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion in ART and control mice. We found that stroke volumes were almost 3-fold larger in ART than in control mice (P < 0.001). In line with these morphological differences, neurological performance assessed by the Bederson and RotaRod tests 24 and 48 h after artery occlusion was significantly worse in ART compared with control mice. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, were also significantly increased in ART vs. control mice after stroke (P < 0.05). As potential underlying mechanisms, we identified increased blood-brain barrier permeability evidenced by increased IgG extravasation associated with decreased tight junctional protein claudin-5 and occludin expression, increased oxidative stress and decreased NO-bioactivity in ART compared with control mice. In wildtype mice, ART predisposes to significantly worse morphological and functional stroke outcomes related at least in part to altered blood-brain barrier permeability. These findings demonstrate that ART, by inducing premature vascular aging, not only is a likely risk factor for stroke-occurrence, but also a mediator of adverse stroke-outcome. This study highlights that ART not only is a risk factor for stroke-occurrence, but also a mediator of adverse stroke-outcome. The findings should raise awareness in the ever-growing human ART population in whom these techniques cause similar alterations of the cardiovascular phenotype and encourage early preventive and diagnostic efforts.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: International journal of cardiology


Licochalcone B attenuates neuronal injury through anti-oxidant effect and enhancement of Nrf2 pathway in MCAO rat model of stroke.
Investigating anti-oxidant therapies that lead to the diminution of oxidative injury is priority in clinical. We herein aimed to explore whether and how Licochalcone B (Lico B) act as an anti-oxidant in the stroke model. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was constructed as stroke model and exposed to various doses of Lico B. Behavioral tests and neurological behavior status were detected for neurological function examination. Histological staining was used for evaluating cerebral injury, and neuronal apoptosis or damage. Levels of oxidative stress and inflammation were also assessed by biochemical analysis and expression analysis. Nrf2 knockdown induced by lentiviral vector was used for the research on mechanism. Lico B had improvement effects on cerebral infarction size, memory impairments, and neurological deficits after MCAO. Histological evaluation also revealed the amelioration of neuronal injury and apoptosis by Lico B, along with down-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. Additionally, Lico B rescued the down-regulation of BDNF and NGF after MCAO. Moreover, Lico B suppressed the oxidative stress and inflammation, manifesting as the enhancement of SOD, GSH and IL-4, but the decline of MDA, iNOS, and TNF-α. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown reversed the Lico B-caused improvement in neuronal injury, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. The present study revealed the neuroprotective effects of Lico B in MCAO rats. Importantly, we proposed a potential mechanism that Lico B activated the Nrf2 pathway, thereby acting as anti-oxidant to attenuate neuronal injury and apoptosis after stroke. The proposed mechanism provided an encouraging possibility for anti-oxidant therapy of stroke.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology

il-6 tnf-α(135)

Comparison of the preventive effects of Murraya exotica and Murraya paniculata on alcohol-induced gastric lesions by pharmacodynamics and metabolomics.
Multi-source phenomenon is very common for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Both Murraya exotica L. (ME) and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (MP) are used as the source plants of Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC), a traditional Chinese medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for promoting qi and relieving pain, mainly for the treatment of stomach pain, rheumatism and arthralgia. However, up to now, there has been no comparative study of these two plants on their efficacies and mechanisms, thus, further research is needed to evaluate their similarity and difference in order to judge the reasonability for their common usage. This study aims to compare the effects and potential mechanisms of ME and MP, the two source plants of MFC on gastric lesions in rats by pharmacodynamics and metabolomics. A rat model of gastric lesions induced by 70% aqueous ethanol and 150 mmol/L HCl was established and adopted to evaluate the gastric protective effects of ME and MP by analysis of the lesion index, histopathological changes (observed by H&E staining and TUNEL staining) and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MTL, and GAS). The potential mechanisms were investigated by LC-MS metabolomic analysis of the rat plasma. ME and MP showed the similar effects on improving the lesions of rat stomachs and reducing the cytokine levels related to inflammation and digestion of rats. The metabolomics results showed that the metabolism of rats with gastric lesions was abnormal mainly in lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. ME and MP demonstrated a similar metabolic modulation for gastric lesions by acting on the similar pathways and metabolites. Also, PLA2 pathway was proved as an important pathway for ME and MP modulation of glycerophospholipid metabolism in gastric lesions. Our results proved that it is feasible and reasonable to use both of ME and MP as the source plants of MFC, at least for the treatment of gastric lesions, due to their similar pharmacodynamics and metabolic modulation ability. Moreover, the combination of pharmacodynamics and metabolomics is an efficient means for multi-source TCM study.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

factor-alpha tnf-α(133)

CD40 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody-Mediated Hepatitis in TNF-Receptor 1 Gene Knockout Mice.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in liver inflammation. CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40-CD40L) is a key receptor-ligand signaling pair involved in the adaptive immune response and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In mice, CD40 activation leads to sickness behavior syndrome (SBS) comprising weight loss, sleep disruption and depression, which can be blocked by administration of the TNF-inhibitor etanercept. In the present study, we assessed the extent of hepatic inflammation in mice devoid of the TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1)-mediated signaling pathway. The TNFR1-depleted (TNFR1-/-) adult mice and their wild type littermates were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody (mAb) or rat IgG2a isotope control. As described previously, TNFR1-/- mice were protected from SBS upon CD40 mAb treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Biomedicines

alpha tnf-α(129)

Sedative and Immunosuppressive Effects of Dexmedetomidine in Transplantation.
Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is used as an anti-anxiety medication. It exerts a cholinergic effect, thereby reducing the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We hypothesized that the use of dexmedetomidine as a sedative agent in transplantation would also protect allografts. We examined our patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation. Subsequently, we generated a series of mouse models to investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on sedation-based tolerance post transplantation. A total of 49 liver recipients were enrolled in this study, of which 23 (47%) were administered dexmedetomidine through 24 h infusion on postoperative day 1. A trend toward the improvement of hepatocyte injury along with better liver function was observed in the dexmedetomidine-treated group during the first postoperative week. In animal models, dexmedetomidine inhibited the proliferation of CD4
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland)


Acute blockade of endogenous melatonin by Luzindole, with or without peripheral LPS injection, induces jejunal inflammation and morphological alterations in Swiss mice.
This study investigated the acute blockade of endogenous melatonin (MLT) using Luzindole with or without systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and evaluated changes in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the mouse jejunum. Luzindole is an MT1/MT2 MLT receptor antagonist. Both receptors occur in the small intestine. Swiss mice were treated with either saline (0.35 mg/kg, ip), Luzindole (0.35 mg/kg, ip), LPS (1.25 mg/kg, ip), or Luzindole+LPS (0.35 and 1.25 mg/kg, ip, respectively). Jejunum samples were evaluated regarding intestinal morphometry, histopathological crypt scoring, and PAS-positive villus goblet cell counting. Inflammatory Iba-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor (NF)-kB, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and oxidative stress (NP-SHs, catalase, MDA, nitrate/nitrite) markers were assessed. Mice treated with Luzindole, LPS, and Luzindole+LPS showed villus height shortening. Crypt damage was worse in the LPS group. Luzindole, LPS, and Luzindole+LPS reduced the PAS-goblet cell labeling and increased Iba-1-immunolabelled cells compared to the saline group. Immunoblotting for IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-kB was greater in the Luzindole group. The LPS-challenged group showed higher MPO activity than the saline and Luzindole groups. Catalase was reduced in the Luzindole and Luzindole+LPS groups compared to saline. The Luzindole group showed an increase in NP-SHs, an effect related to compensatory GSH activity. The acute blockade of endogenous MLT with Luzindole induced early changes in inflammatory markers with altered intestinal morphology. The other non-detectable deleterious effects of Luzindole may be balanced by the unopposed direct action of MLT in immune cells bypassing the MT1/MT2 receptors.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas


Anti-Inflammatory Effects of C1q/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) in Endothelial Cells.
The C1q/TNF-related protein 3 (CTRP3) represents a pleiotropic adipokine reciprocally associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in relation to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated effects in adipocytes, as well as monocytes/macrophages. Here, we focused on the influence of CTRP3 on LPS-mediated effects in endothelial cells in order to expand the understanding of a possible anti-inflammatory function of CTRP3 in a setting of endotoxemia. An organ- and tissue-specific expression analysis by real-time PCR revealed a considerable Ctrp3 expression in various adipose tissue compartments; however, higher levels were detected in the aorta and in abundantly perfused tissues (bone marrow and the thyroid gland). We observed a robust Ctrp3 expression in primary endothelial cells and a transient upregulation in murine endothelial (MyEND) cells by LPS (50 ng/mL). In MyEND cells, CTRP3 inhibited the LPS-induced expression of interleukin
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Cells


Effects of sleeve gastrectomy on bone mass, microstructure of femurs and bone metabolism associated serum factors in obese rats.
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a profoundly effective operation for severe obese patients, but is closely associated with bone mass loss. Previous studies have reported changes of various serum factors which may be associated with bone mass loss after SG. However, those results are contradictory. In this study, we assessed the effects of SG on bone mass, microstructure of femurs, and changes in bone turnover markers (BTMs), serum adipokines, inflammatory factors and gastrointestinal hormones after SG in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with HFD to induce obesity. Then, SG and sham surgery were performed in anesthetized obese rats. SD rats in control group were fed with standard chow. Microstructure of femurs was scanned and analyzed by micro-computed tomography in control group, HFD sham group and HFD SG group. Serum inflammatory factors, adipokines markers, gastrointestinal hormones and BTMs were also measured. Bone mineral density (BMD) of trabecular bone in both HFD sham group and HFD SG group were remarkably decreased compared with control group. All serum BTMs were significantly higher in HFD SG group than HFD sham group. In the meantime, serum levels of several important inflammatory factors, gastrointestinal hormones and adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), ghrelin, insulin and leptin in HFD SG group were remarkably reduced compared with HFD sham group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 and FGF-21 were dramatically increased after SG. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) was significantly increased in the HFD sham group than control group. Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that serum osteocalcin (OC) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D SG aggravates bone mass loss and activates bone remodeling in obese rats. Levels of BTMs, adipokines, inflammatory factors, and gastrointestinal hormones could be affected by SG in obese rats. Serum PTP1B level might be associated with abnormal bone mass in obese rats.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: BMC endocrine disorders


Neuroprotective Effects of Chemerin on a Mouse Stroke Model: Behavioral and Molecular Dimensions.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different doses of recombinant human Chemerin (rhChemerin) on brain damage, spatial memory, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cellular and molecular mechanisms in a mouse stroke model. The mouse stroke model was developed by blocking the middle cerebral artery for 1 h and performing reperfusion for 23 h. Immediately, one and three hours after the stroke, 200, 400 and 800 ng/mouse of intranasal rhChemerin was administered. Neuronal and BBB damage, spatial memory and neurological performance were examined 24 h after the stroke. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were utilized to determine the effects of rhChemerin on the expressions of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Administering 400 and 800 ng/mouse of rhChemerin in the mice immediately and one hour after ischemia minimized the infarct size, BBB opening, spatial memory and neurological impairment (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 800 ng/mouse of rhChemerin significantly diminished terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive (apoptotic) cells, suppressed the expressions of NF-kB, TNF-α and IL-1β and upregulated IL-10 and VEGF in the cortex and hippocampus of the mice. The present findings showed that rhChemerin administered immediately and one hour after stroke alleviates neuronal and BBB injures and improves spatial memory. These effects of rhChemerin may be mediated by inhibiting inflammatory pathways and apoptotic machinery.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Neurochemical research


Curcumol Alleviates the Inflammation of Nucleus Pulposus Cells via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway and Delays Intervertebral Disc Degeneration.
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is closely associated with inflammatory environments. Curcumol has been shown to alleviate inflammation in various disease models, but its effects on IVDD remain unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of curcumol in TNF-α-induced nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and a mouse IVDD model. NPCs were pretreated with curcumol and then exposed to TNF-α. Cell viability was analyzed using the CCK-8, and the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and PI3K/Akt/NF-κB-related signaling molecules were detected using RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting. The mouse IVDD model was established by puncturing the C6/7 level of the caudal spine, and treated with curcumol after surgery. ABOG staining were performed to evaluate the severity intervertebral disc damage, and immunohistochemistry(IHC) was performed to detect the expression of TNF-α. The toxicological effects of curcumol were measured by performing HE staining and ELISA. Curcumol reduced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in NPCs, and the phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway was also decreased. The PI3K/Akt/NF-κB -related signaling molecules decreased when TNF-α-induced NPCs were treated with a PI3K inhibitor; however, curcumol did not reverse these effects. In vivo, curcumol ameliorated the progression of IVDD at the early stage and did not exert toxicological effects. These results suggest a potential therapeutic use of curcumol to alleviate inflammation via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and delay the progression of IVDD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: World neurosurgery


The role for JAK Inhibitors in the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Rheumatic and related conditions.
JAK inhibitors (JAKi) are a new class of targeted therapy that have entered clinical practice for the treatment of immune-mediated rheumatic conditions. JAKi can block the signalling activity of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore have the potential to mediate therapeutic benefits across a wide range of immune-mediated conditions. Several JAKi are licensed and many more undergoing clinical trials. Here we provide a narrative review of the current and upcoming JAKi for adult immune-mediated rheumatic and related conditions, with a specific focus on efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. The overall safety profile of JAKi appears largely comparable to existing biologic cytokine targeting agents, particularly TNF inhibitors, apart from risk for herpes zoster which is increased for JAKi. Importantly, however, unresolved safety concerns remain, particularly relating to increased venous thromboembolism.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology


Does Sodium Intake Induce Systemic Inflammatory Response? A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Studies in Humans.
Experimental studies suggest that sodium induced inflammation might be another missing link leading to atherosclerosis. To test the hypothesis that high daily sodium intake induces systemic inflammatory response in humans, we performed a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of high versus low sodium dose (HSD vs. LSD), as defined per study, on plasma circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Eight RCTs that examined CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 were found. Meta-analysis testing the change of each biomarker in HSD versus LSD was possible for CRP (
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients


Tick-Borne Encephalitis Specific Lymphocyte Response after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Predicts Humoral Immunity after Vaccination.
The aim of this prospective study was to assess lymphocyte proliferative and cytokine response prior to and following tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) immunization among patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Seventeen adult patients 11-13 months after HSCT and eight unvaccinated healthy adults received up to three TBE vaccinations. Following in vitro stimulation with TBE-antigen, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF) were analyzed by thymidine incorporation assay and the Luminex system. Ten patients (59%) showed significant baseline TBE-specific lymphocyte proliferation (stimulation index (SI) > 3) prior to vaccination, but none of the unvaccinated controls (
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Vaccines

il-6 il-8(108)

Longitudinal Changes of Cytokines and Appetite in Older Hospitalized Patients.
There are few data on the longitudinal association of cytokine and appetite among older hospitalized patients. We aimed to investigate the impact of the changes of inflammatory cytokines on appetite in older hospitalized patients. A total of 191 patients (mean age 81.3 ± 6.6 years, 64% women) participated in this prospective longitudinal observational study. Appetite was evaluated using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System on admission and after seven days. Serum cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23 and IL-33, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MCP-1 were measured both times. No significant differences in the mean serum levels of all the cytokines could be detected overtime in relation to appetite changes, except for IL-18. Appetite significantly deteriorated overtime in patients with increasing IL-18 levels and improved in those without significant changes in IL-18 levels. In a stepwise regression analysis, changes of IL-18 levels were the major independent predictor for the changes of patients' appetite and explained 4% of the variance, whereas other cytokines and variables, such as age, sex, infection and disease, did not show any impact on appetite changes. We conclude that IL-18 seems to exert a significant impact on appetite in acutely ill older hospitalized patients and should, therefore, be considered as a potential target in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of malnutrition.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients

signaling pathway(108)

RKC-B1 Blocks Activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways to Suppress Neuroinflammation in LPS-Stimulated Mice.
RKC-B1 is a novel fermentation product obtained from the marine micromonospora FIM02-523A. Thus far, there have been few reports about the pharmacological activity of RKC-B1. In our present study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and the possible mechanism of RKC-B1 in LPS-stimulated mice. After treatment with RKC-B1, RNA-seq transcriptome of the cerebral cortex tissue was conducted to find the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Inflammatory cytokines and proteins were evaluated by ELISA and WB. In RNA-seq analysis, there were 193 genes screened as core genes of RKC-B1 for treatment with neuroinflammation. The significant KEGG enrichment signaling pathways of these core genes were mainly included TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway and others. The corresponding top five KEGG enrichment pathways of three main clusters in PPI network of core genes were closely related to human immune system and immune disease. The results showed that RKC-B1 reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1) and the expression of COX2 in cerebral cortex tissue. Additionally, we found that the anti-neuroinflammation activity of RKC-B1 might be related to suppress activating of NF-κB and NLRP3/cleaved caspase-1 signaling pathways. The current findings suggested that RKC-B1 might be a promising anti-neuroinflammatory agent.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Marine drugs


The impact of Achyranthes aspera seeds and leaves supplemented feeds on the survival, growth, immune system and specific genes involved in immunostimulation in Clarias batrachus fry challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila in pond conditions.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of Achyranthes aspera seeds and leaves on the immune system of magur Clarias batrachus challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila in pond conditions. Magur fry (0.51 ± 0.032 g) were cultured in hapas set inside a pond and were fed with three feeds. Two experimental feeds FS1 and FS2 were supplemented with 0.5% seeds and leaves of A. aspera, respectively and FC3 was the control one. After 90 days of feeding, fish were challenged with A. hydrophila. In FC3, 70% fish died within 48 h of challenge, while 25 and 30% mortality were recorded in FS1 and FL2, respectively. The cumulative mortality rates were 70, 45 and 35% in FC3, FL2 and FS1, respectively. The average weight and specific growth rate of magur were significantly higher in FS1 compared to others. Serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher in FS1 compared to others. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl protein levels were significantly lower in FS1 compared to others. In liver and head kidney of FS1 and FS2 fed magur, the iNOS, SOD-C, TNF-α, Cytochrome c, Caspase 9 were up-regulated. Caspase 3 was also significantly up-regulated in FS1 and it was followed by FL2 treatment. A. aspera incorporated feeds improved the immune system of fish and gave protection against bacteria even in the pond conditions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology

tnf-α levels(104)

Correlations between Electrophysiological Parameters, Lymphocyte Distribution and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Chronic Demyelinating Inflammatory Polyneuropathy.
The goal of this study was to analyse, in relation to electrophysiological results, the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and the level of cytokines in patients with the typical form of chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CIDP) before immunoglobulin treatment. The study group consisted of 60 patients (52 men, eight women), with a mean age 64.8 ± 11.2, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for the typical variant of CIDP, with (23 patients) and without (37 patients) diabetes mellitus. We analysed the results of the neurophysiological tests, and correlated them with the leukocyte subpopulations, and cytokine levels. In CIDP patients, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α levels were significantly increased compared to the control group. Fifty patients had decreased levels of T CD8+ lymphocytes, and 51 patients had increased levels of CD4+ lymphocytes. An increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also found. Negative correlations were observed mainly between compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and cytokine levels. The study enabled the conclusion that electrophysiological parameters in CIDP patients are closely related to the autoimmune process, but without any clear differences between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Correlations found in the study indicated that axonal degeneration might be independent of the demyelinating process and might be caused by direct inflammatory infiltration.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of personalized medicine


CoQ10 augments candesartan protective effect against tourniquet-induced hind limb ischemia-reperfusion: Involvement of non-classical RAS and ROS pathways.
Tourniquet is a well-established model of hind limb ischemia-reperfusion (HLI/R) in rats. Nevertheless, measures should be taken to alleviate the expected injury from ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6): control, HLI/R, HLI/R given candesartan (1 mg/kg, P.O); HLI/R given Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (10 mg/kg, P.O); HLI/R given candesartan (0.5 mg/kg) and CoQ10 (5 mg/kg). The drugs were administered for 7 days starting one hour after reperfusion. Candesartan and CoQ10 as well as their combination suppressed gastrocnemius content of angiotensin II while they raised angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, angiotensin (1-7) expression, and Mas receptor mRNA level. Consequently, candesartan and/or CoQ10 reversed the oxidative stress and inflammatory changes that occurred following HLI/R as demonstrated by the rise of SOD activity and the decline of MDA, TNF-α, and IL-6 skeletal muscle content. Additionally, candesartan and/or CoQ10 diminished gastrocnemius active caspase-3 level and phospho-p38 MAPK protein expression. Our study proved that CoQ10 enhanced the beneficial effect of candesartan in a model of tourniquet-induced HLI/R by affecting classical and non-classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the impact of CoQ10 on skeletal muscle RAS in rats.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society

proinflammatory cytokines(98)

Necroptosis Underlies Neutrophilic Inflammation Associated with the Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP).
Necroptosis is an inflammatory cell death associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration. The role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP remains elusive. Cell death, including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis in control sinonasal mucosa and CRSwNP, were analyzed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining for cleaved caspase 3, cleaved gasdermin D and p-MLKL, respectively. Correlations between necroptosis, inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration were assessed and a possible role of necroptosis in CRSwNP was evaluated. Primary nasal polyp cells (DNPCs) were stimulated with damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including ATP or IL-1α and their expression of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed using RT-PCR. The expression of TNF-α and IFNs in nasal polyps was measured by ELISA; human monocyte THP-1 cells were treated with TNF-α or IFN-γ and cell death was measured by LDH release. Necroptosis, rather than apoptosis or pyroptosis, was overtly activated in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP as evidenced by the presence of prominent phosphorylation of MLKL compared to controls. The abundance of DAMPs (IL-1α, HMGB1), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8, CXCL-1) were all increased especially in non-eosinophilic CRSwNP. The extent of necroptosis was positively correlated with the abundance of DAMPs and cytokines, and neutrophil infiltration in CRSwNP. In DNPCs, ATP and IL-1α induced the expression of IL-8 and CXCL-1. Macrophage was found to be the predominant cell type positive for p-MLKL in CRSwNP. Concomitant treatment with TNF-α and IFN-γ, which were abundantly present in CRSwNP, triggered marked necroptosis in THP-1 cells. Necroptosis induced by TNF-α and IFN-γ may facilitate the production and release of a myriad of proinflammatory cytokines and entailed neutrophil infiltration to exacerbate inflammation in CRSwNP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Journal of inflammation research

control group(97)

[Lever positioning manipulation combined with pulsed electric field on the analgesic effect of patients with lumbar disc herniation and its influence on IL-1β and TNF-α].
To observe the analgesic effect of lever positioning manipulation combined with pulsed electric field on patients with lumbar disc herniation and the influence on serum IL-1β and TNF-α. From January 2018 to March 2019, 58 patients with lumbar disc herniation were included in the study, which were randomly divided into observation group and control group by digital table method. Observation group of 29 cases, including 16 males and 13 females, aged (38.03±11.29) years old, were treated with lever positioning manipulation combined with pulsed electric field. The 29 cases in control group, including 17 males and 12 females, aged (38.21±9.16) years old, were treated with pulsed electric field. Both groups of patients were treated 3 times a week, once every other day, 3 times as a course of treatment. After 2 courses of treatment, the two groups of patients were scored before and after treatment by the numeric rating scales (NRS);at the same time, the serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were measured before and after treatment. The NRS scores of observation group and control group were 4.21±1.76, 4.66±1.61 before treatment, and 1.28±0.84, 2.10±1.35 after treatment, respectively. The NRS scores of the observation group after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group ( The lever positioning manipulation combined with pulsed electric field has a good analgesic effect on patients with lumbar disc herniation, and it has a significant impact on the patient's serum IL-1β and TNF-α concentration, which can be used as a clinical guide. However, the synergistic effect of lever positioning technique combined with pulsed electric field and guidelines for clinical treatment need further research.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology

inflammatory factors(94)

Aloperine protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in rats.
Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aloperine (ALO) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats and elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Therefore, a rat model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established to induce cerebral I/R injury. Following pretreatment with different doses of ALO, the histopathological changes in the brain tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The degree of cerebral infarction was determined using by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Additionally, the levels of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related factors were measured using commercially available kits. Cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining, while the expression levels of apoptosis- and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related proteins were determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that ALO alleviated histopathological injury in the brain tissue and the area of cerebral infarction in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, significantly reduced levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde were observed in the ALO-treated rats post-MCAO/reperfusion, accompanied by increased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Consistently, treatment with ALO notably decreased the concentration of inflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ALO attenuated neuronal cell apoptosis, downregulated the expression of Bax and upregulated that of Bcl-2. I/R markedly reduced the expression levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K and p-AKT, which were dose-dependently restored by ALO intervention. Collectively, the aforementioned findings indicated that ALO could improve cerebral I/R injury and alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation and cell apoptosis via activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, thus supporting the therapeutic potential of ALO against cerebral I/R injury in ischemic stroke.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine


Selenium, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in handicraft workers occupationally exposed to lead.
Occupational Lead (Pb) exposure increases reactive oxygen species and has been reported to impact inflammatory response by modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Selenium (Se) a vital component of the antioxidant system that plays an important role in modulating cytokines. The present study evaluated Se, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-17a) in 81 Pb exposed male workers. The median (range) of blood lead level (BLL) and Se were 5 (0.50-31.76) µg/dL and 104 (46.9-189.6) µg/L respectively. The Se, TAC levels were decreased, and MDA, IL-6 levels were increased in the high Pb group (>5μg/dL). Blood lead level independently predicted oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Selenium, TAC levels negatively and MDA, IL-6 levels positively correlated with BLL. Association of Se with IL-6 and TAC suggests some probable role of Se in the underlined mechanism of Pb toxicity.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Archives of environmental & occupational health

growth factor(88)

The protective effects of naproxen against interleukin-1β (IL-1β)- induced damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most widely used medications in the world. Naproxen is an NSAID with relatively low selectivity for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby having decreased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. However, it is unclear whether naproxen might provide protection against atherosclerosis, an underlying cause of numerous cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In the present study, we exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells to interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a key cytokine involved in atherogenesis, with or without naproxen. Our findings indicate that naproxen could protect against IL-1β-induced damage by improving cell viability and preventing cell death. Additionally, naproxen suppressed the expression of the cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tissue factor (TF) induced by IL-1β. Importantly, naproxen also inhibited the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which was achieved through Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6)-mediated reduced expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin. These findings suggest that naproxen may aid in the prevention of atherosclerosis by exerting cardioprotective effects beyond low COX-2-selectivity.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Bioengineered

tumour necrosis factor(84)

Acute Lung Injury Biomarkers in the Prediction of COVID-19 Severity: Total Thiol, Ferritin and Lactate Dehydrogenase.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can suffer acute lung injury, or even death. Early identification of severe disease is essential in order to control COVID-19 and improve prognosis. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in COVID-19 pathogenesis; we therefore conceived a study of the potential discriminative ability of serum biomarkers in patients with ARDS and those with mild to moderate disease (non-ARDS). 60 subjects were enrolled in a single-centre, prospective cohort study of consecutively admitted patients: 29 ARDS/31 non-ARDS. Blood samples were drawn and marker levels analysed by spectrophotometry and immunoassay techniques. C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ferritin were significantly higher in ARDS versus non-ARDS cases at hospital admission. Leukocytes, LDH, ferritin, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were also significantly elevated in ARDS compared to non-ARDS patients during the hospital stay. Total thiol (TT) was found to be significantly lower in ARDS. Conversely, D-dimer, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and advanced glycosylated end products (AGE) were elevated. Leukocytes, LDH, CRP, ferritin and IL-6 were found to be significantly higher in non-survivors. However, lymphocyte, tumour necrosis factor beta (TGF-β), and TT were lower. In summary, our results support the potential value of TT, ferritin and LDH as prognostic biomarkers for ARDS development in COVID-19 patients, distinguishing non-ARDS from ARDS (AUCs = 0.92; 0.91; 0.89) in a fast and cost-effective manner. These oxidative/inflammatory parameters appear to play an important role in COVID-19 monitoring and can be used in the clinical management of patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

c-reactive protein(82)

Immunotherapy-on-Chip Against an Experimental Sepsis Model.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of locally bred BALB/c mice, the present study explored the protective role of Micrococcus luteus peptidoglycan (PG)-pre-activated vaccine-on-chip technology in endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 μg/g LPS, allowing longer survival, necessary for a therapeutic treatment application. A novel immunotherapy technology, the so-called vaccine-on-chip, consists of a 3-dimensional laser micro-textured silicon (Si) scaffold loaded with macrophages and activated in vitro with 1 μg/ml PG, which has been previously shown to exert a mild immunostimulatory activity upon subcutaneous implantation. The LPS treatment significantly decreased CD4 + and CD8 + cells, while increasing CD11b + , Gr1 + , CD25 + , Foxp3 + , and class II + cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), IL-6, TNF-a, IL-10, and IL-18 in the serum, while acquiring severe sepsis phenotype as defined by the murine sepsis scoring. The in vivo application of PG pre-activated implant significantly increased the percentage of CD4 + and CD8 + cells, while decreasing the percentage of Gr1 + , CD25 + , CD11b + , Foxp3 + cells, and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, as well as all serum markers tested, allowing survival and rescuing the severity of sepsis phenotype. In conclusion, these results reveal a novel immunotherapy technology based on PG pre-activated micro-texture Si scaffolds in LPS endotoxemia, supporting thus its potential use in the treatment of septic patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Inflammation

gene expression(82)

Effects of Er:YAG laser treatment on re-vascularization and follicle survival in frozen/thawed human ovarian cortex transplanted to immunodeficient mice.
The huge loss of ovarian follicles after transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue is considered a major drawback on the efficacy of the procedure. Here we investigate whether Er:YAG laser treatment prior to xenotransplantation can improve re-vascularization and subsequently follicle survival in human ovarian tissue. A total of 99 frozen/thawed human ovarian cortex pieces were included of which 72 pieces from 12 woman were transplanted to immunodeficient mice. Tissues from each woman were included in both an 8-day and an 8-week duration study and treated with either full-beam laser (L1) or fractionated laser (L2), or served as untreated controls. Vascularization of the ovarian xenografts were evaluated after 8 days by qPCR and murine Cd31 immunohistochemical analysis. Follicle densities were evaluated histologically 8 weeks after xenografting. Gene expression of Vegf/VEGF was upregulated after L1 treatment (p=0.002, p=0.07, respectively), whereas Angpt1, Angpt2, Tnf-α, and Il1-β were significantly downregulated. No change in gene expression was found in Cd31/CD31, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANGTPL4, XBP1, or LRG1 after any of the laser treatments. The fraction of Cd31 positive cells were significantly reduced after L1 and L2 treatment (p<0.0001; p=0.0003, respectively), compared to controls. An overall negative effect of laser treatment was detected on follicle density (p=0.03). Er:YAG laser treatment did not improve re-vascularization or follicle survival in human ovarian xenografts after 8 days and 8 weeks grafting, respectively. However, further studies are needed to fully explore the potential angiogenic effects of controlled tissue damage using different intensities or lasers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics


Transcriptome analysis of immune-related gene expression in Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio var.) after challenge with Flavobacterium columnare.
Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an economically-important freshwater fish. It is the common host of the epizootic bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, a common fish pathogen that causes columnaris disease resulting in aquacultural losses. However, information on the functions and mechanisms of the immune system of Yellow River carp infected with F. columnare is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic and histopathological effects of an experimentally-induced F. columnare infection in Yellow River carp. Sixty fish were divided into control (CT group) and challenged groups. The gills were collected for histological and transcriptome analysis to understand the host immune response after challenge with F. columnare. The infected fish of the IF group presented typical columnaris disease symptoms and higher mortality, as well as histological changes. However, some challenged fish showed asymptomatic infection (IC group). Additionally, there were 1776 significant differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the IC and CT groups, 1853 DEGs between the IF and CT groups, and 1836 DEGs between the IF and IC groups, All the DEGs were classified into three gene ontology categories, which were allocated to 158 KEGG pathways. Moreover, immune-related genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. we quantified the level of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-8 by ELISA. The results showed the highest expression levels of inflammatory cytokines as well as stress proteins and the adhesion molecules in the lF group, which may contribute to severe infection, and a higher case fatality rate, while the high expression of chemokines, costimulatory molecules and the up regulation of antigen presentation function could help the carp resist F. columnare infection.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Microbial pathogenesis

il -6(80)

Elevated serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 in chronic methamphetamine users.
Chronic methamphetamine use causes aberrant changes in cytokines. Our aim was to analyze the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18 in chronic methamphetamine users. Associations between cytokines levels with the demographic properties, methamphetamine use properties, and psychiatric symptoms in chronic methamphetamine users were also evaluated. Seventy-eight chronic methamphetamine users who did not continue methamphetamine exposure since hospitalization and 64 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Psychopathological symptoms of chronic methamphetamine users were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 were significantly increased in methamphetamine users who did not continue methamphetamine exposure since hospital admission (average days since last methamphetamine use = 39.06 ± 7.48) when compared to those in controls. Serum IL-6 levels showed significant positive associations with BDI score and current frequency of methamphetamine use in chronic methamphetamine users. Our results suggest that increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 levels may have an important role in chronic methamphetamine use-associated psychopathological symptoms.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Human psychopharmacology

nitric oxide(77)

NLRC5 attenuates inflammatory response in IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis chondrocytes through the NF-κB signaling pathway.
NOD-like receptor family caspase recruitment domain family domain containing 5 (NLRC5) has been found to be a critical mediator of inflammatory response. However, the role of NLRC5 in osteoarthritis (OA) has not been reported. Our results showed that NLRC5 was down-regulated by IL-1β induction in chondrocytes. Overexpression of NLRC5 in chondrocytes significantly suppressed IL-1β-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting the production of multiple inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), NO, TNF-α and IL-6, as well matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13. Consistently, NLRC5 knockdown exhibited opposite effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators in IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. Furthermore, overexpression of NLRC5 increased the IĸBα expression, while decreased the p-p65 expression, indicating that NLRC5 inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling. Additionally, inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC mitigated the si-NLRC5-mediated promotion of IL-1β-induced inflammatory injury in chondrocytes. Finally, NLRC5 treatment ameliorated cartilage degeneration in an OA model in rats. Taken together, these findings revealed that NLRC5 attenuated IL-1β-induced inflammatory injury in chondrocytes through regulating the NF-κB signaling.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Aging


Inflammatory markers assessment in an animal model of intracranial hypertension: a randomized trial.
Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is a common final pathway of most neurosurgical pathologies and leads to poor prognosis if not detected and treated properly. Inflammatory markers have been assessed in clinical scenarios of neurological injuries, in which systemic and brain tissue aggressions may introduce bias. There is a lack of studies under controlled settings to isolate the ICH effect on inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of ICH on the serum concentration of cytokines as biomarkers of neuroinflammation in an experimental model which isolates ICH from potential confounding variables. An established model of ICH using an intracerebral pediatric bladder catheter and a multisensor intraparenchymal catheter was used in adult pigs (Sus domesticus). The animals were randomly allocated to 2 groups based on the catheter balloon volume used to simulate the ICP increase (4 ml or 7 ml). Cytokines were measured in 4 timepoints during the experiment: (1) 15 min before balloon insufflation; (2) 5 min after insufflation; (3) 125 min after insufflation; (4) 60 min after deflation. The following cytokines were measured IL-1α; IL-1β; IL-1ra; IL-2; IL-4; IL-6; IL-8; IL-10; IL-12; IL-18; TNFα. Generalized estimating equations were modeled to compare the ICP and cytokines values between the groups along the experiment. The study sample size was powered to detect interactions between the groups and the study moments with an effect size (f) of at least 0.3. The ARRIVE checklist was followed. A total of 20 animals were studied (10 in each group, 4 ml or 7 ml balloon volume insufflation). The animal model was successful in increasing the ICP along the moments of the experiment (p < 0,001) and in creating an ICP gradient between the groups (p = 0,004). The interaction term (moment × group) was also significant (p < 0,001). There was a significant association between ICP elevation and most cytokines variation. The cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL1-ra, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18 increased, whereas IL-2, IL-4, and TNF-α decreased. IL-10 did not vary significantly in response to the ICP elevation. The serum concentration of cytokines varied in response to intracranial hypertension. The study demonstrated the specific changes in each cytokine after intracranial hypertension and provides key information to guide neuroinflammation clinical research. The proposed experiment was successful as an animal model to the study of neuroinflammation biomarkers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Intensive care medicine experimental

il-1β tnf-α(76)

Metabolic Adaptation of Macrophages as Mechanism of Defense against Crystalline Silica.
Silicosis is a lethal pneumoconiosis for which no therapy is available. Silicosis is a global threat, and more than 2.2 million people per year are exposed to silica in the United States. The initial response to silica is mediated by innate immunity. Phagocytosis of silica particles by macrophages is followed by recruitment of mitochondria to phagosomes, generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-β) release. In contrast with LPS, the metabolic remodeling of silica-exposed macrophages is unclear. This study contrasts mitochondrial and metabolic alterations induced by LPS and silica on macrophages and correlates them with macrophage viability and cytokine production, which are central to the pathogenesis of silicosis. Using high-resolution respirometer and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, we determined the effects of silica and LPS on mitochondrial respiration and determined changes in central carbon metabolism of murine macrophage cell lines RAW 264.7 and IC-21. We show that silica induces metabolic reprogramming of macrophages. Silica, as well as LPS, enhances glucose uptake and increases aerobic glycolysis in macrophages. In contrast with LPS, silica affects mitochondria respiration, reducing complex I and enhancing complex II activity, to sustain cell viability. These mitochondrial alterations are associated in silica, but not in LPS-exposed macrophages, with reductions of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, including succinate, itaconate, glutamate, and glutamine. Furthermore, in contrast with LPS, these silica-induced metabolic adaptations do not correlate with IL-1β or TNF-α production, but with the suppressed release of IFN-β. Our data highlight the importance of complex II activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle remodeling to macrophage survival and cytokine-mediated inflammation in silicosis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

nuclear factor(76)

Highly expressed of SERPINA3 indicated poor prognosis and involved in immune suppression in glioma.
The prognosis of patients with glioma is dismal. It has been reported that Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 3 (SERPINA3) is associated with the mobility and invasion of tumor cells. Our study was designed to explore the value of SERPINA3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the biological process, prognosis, and immune significance in glioma. We analyzed the biological functions of SERPINA3 through data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas databases. Differentially expressed genes and enrichment analysis were performed and correlations between SERPINA3 expression and immune cell infiltration were analyzed. Further, we validated the expression and the survival prediction role of SERPINA3 by using tissue microarrays and RNAscope in situ hybridization in 321 gliomas. The correlations between the expression and clinical-pathological parameters as well as other biomarkers were examined. Univariate and multivariate regression both indicated that the level of SERPINA3 transcript represented an independent prognostic factor. High levels of SERPINA3 correlated with poor survival in patients with glioma. Expression of SERPINA3 mRNA was observed positively correlated with MCM6, IGFBP2, and FKBP10. Enrichment analysis showed SERPINA3 mainly enriched in immune-related terms and signaling pathways including MAPK, TNF, P53, PI3K-Akt, nuclear factor-κB. Immune infiltration analysis further declare the SERPINA3 expression negatively correlated with levels of Macrophages M1, native CD4 SERPINA3 may play a key role in the biological process of glioma cells especially in immune suppression activities. SERPINA3 may serve as an independent survival prediction factor in glioma patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Immunity, inflammation and disease

interleukin-1β il-1β(75)

Genistein-Derived ROS-Responsive Nanoparticles Relieve Colitis by Regulating Mucosal Homeostasis.
Disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an important event in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and genistein (GEN) is a candidate medicine to prevent IBD. However, the clinical application of GEN is restricted owing to its low oral bioavailability. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanomaterial (defined as GEN-NP2) containing superoxidase dismutase-mimetic temporally conjugated β-cyclodextrin and 4-(hydroxymethyl)phenylboronic acid pinacol ester-modified GEN was prepared. GEN-NP2 effectively delivered GEN to the inflammation site and protected GEN from rapid metabolism and elimination in the gastrointestinal tract. In response to high ROS levels, GEN was site-specifically released and accumulated at inflammatory sites. Mechanistically, GEN-NP2 effectively increased the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), simultaneously reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and Caspase1-p20), attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, promoted autophagy of intestinal epithelial cells, inhibited the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), modulated the gut microbiota, and ultimately alleviated colitis. In addition, the oral administration of these nanoparticles showed excellent safety, thereby providing confidence in the further development of precise treatments for IBD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: ACS applied materials & interfaces

significantly higher(75)

Salivary cytokine profile in patients with ischemic stroke.
Inflammation plays a crucial role in stroke pathogenesis. Thus, it is not surprising that cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors have been advocated in stroke diagnostics. Our study is the first to evaluate the salivary cytokine profile in patients with ischemic stroke. Twenty-five patients with subacute ischemic stroke and an age-, sex-, and oral hygiene status-matched control group were enrolled in the study. The number of patients was set a priori based on our previous experiment (α = 0.05, test power = 0.9). Salivary concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were assessed using an ELISA method. We showed that salivary TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher, whereas IL-10 content was statistically lower in both non-stimulated (NWS) and stimulated (SWS) whole saliva of ischemic stroke patients. However, evaluation of cytokines in NWS rather than in SWS may be of greater diagnostic value. Of particular note is salivary TNF-α, which may indicate cognitive/physical impairment in post-stroke individuals. This parameter distinguishes stroke patients from healthy controls and correlates with cognitive decline and severity of functional impairment. It also differentiates (with high sensitivity and specificity) stroke patients with normal cognition from mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Saliva may be an alternative to blood for assessing cytokines in stroke patients, although further studies on a larger patient population are needed.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Scientific reports


Intra-individual Long-term Immune Marker Stability in Plasma Samples Collected in Median 9.4 Years Apart in 304 Adult Cancer-free Individuals.
Changes in immune marker levels in the blood could be used to improve the early detection of tumor-associated inflammatory processes. To increase predictiveness and utility in cancer detection, intra-individual long-term stability in cancer-free individuals is critical for biomarker candidates as to facilitate the detection of deviation from the norm. We assessed intra-individual long-term stability for 19 immune markers (IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, CXCL13, MCP-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, fractalkine, VEGF, FGF-2, TGF-α, sIL-2Rα, sIL-6R, sVEGF-R2, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, sCD23, sCD27, and sCD30) in 304 cancer-free individuals. Repeated blood samples were collected up to 20 years apart. Intra-individual reproducibility was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using a linear mixed model. ICCs indicated fair to good reproducibility (ICCs {greater than or equal to} 0.40 and < 0.75) for 17 out of 19 investigated immune markers including IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, CXCL13, MCP-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, fractalkine, VEGF, FGF-2, TGF-α, sIL-2Rα, sIL-6R, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, sCD27, and sCD30. Reproducibility was strong (ICC {greater than or equal to} 0.75) for sCD23, while reproducibility was poor (ICC < 0.40) for sVEGF-R2. Using a more stringent criterion for reproducibility (ICC {greater than or equal to} 0.55), we observed either acceptable or better reproducibility for IL-10, IL-13, CXCL13, MCP-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, VEGF, FGF-2, sTNF-R1, sCD23, sCD27, and sCD30. IL-10, IL-13, CXCL13, MCP-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, VEGF, FGF-2, sTNF-R1, sCD23, sCD27, and sCD30 displayed ICCs consistent with intra-individual long-term stability in cancer-free individuals. Our data support using these markers in prospective longitudinal studies seeking early cancer detection biomarkers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology


Development and characterization of an animal model of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in adolescent C57BL/6 mice.
A mouse-adapted isolate of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), designated as JEV-S3, was generated by serially passaging the P20778 strain of the virus in 3-4 weeks old C57BL/6 mice. The blood-brain barrier leakage was evident in JEV-S3 infected mice, where viral antigens and RNA were consistently demonstrated in the brain and infiltration of activated immune cells as evidenced by an increased level of CD45+CD11b+ cell population. Histopathology studies showed the presence of perivascular cuffing, haemorrhage and necrotic foci in the virus-infected brain conforming to the pathological changes seen in the brain of JEV-infected patients. Mass spectrometry studies characterized the molecular events leading to brain inflammation in the infected mice. Notably, a significant induction of inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, Il-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was observed. Further, genome sequencing of the JEV-S3 isolate identified the mutations selected during the mouse passage of the virus. Overall, we present an in-depth characterization of a robust and reproducible mouse model of JEV infection. The JEV-S3 isolate will be a useful tool to screen antivirals and study the virus pathogenesis in the adolescent mouse model.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Disease models & mechanisms

α tnf-α(69)

Fas regulates the apoptosis and migration of trophoblast cells by targeting NF-κB.
Placental trophoblast apoptosis is a major pathological feature of preeclampsia. Fas has been reported to be highly expressed in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia. However, the role and underlying mechanisms of Fas in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia have not been elucidated. In the present study, the expression of Fas in JAR human choriocarcinoma cells was overexpressed and knocked down to determine the function and possible mechanism of Fas in trophoblast cells in the progression of preeclampsia. The results of flow cytometry, Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assays indicated that the overexpression of Fas promoted apoptosis, suppressed viability and impaired the migration of the human trophoblast cells. In addition, western blotting revealed that the overexpression of Fas increased the expression of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB), Bax, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 at the protein level in trophoblast cells. By contrast, the knockdown of Fas decreased the apoptosis of trophoblast cells and increased their viability and migration. In addition, the knockdown of Fas suppressed the expression of NF-κB, Bax, TNF-α and IL-2, and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Notably, the overexpression of NF-κB p65 attenuated the Fas knockdown-induced inhibition of apoptosis and acceleration of migration of the trophoblast cells. The overexpression of NF-κB in trophoblast cells also reversed the reduction in Bax expression and increase in Bcl-2 expression induced by Fas knockdown in trophoblast cells. These results indicate that Fas regulates the apoptosis and migration of trophoblast cells by targeting NF-κB, which suggests that the silencing of Fas is a promising therapeutic strategy for preeclampsia.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine


Apigenin Attenuates Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Activating FOXO3a.
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are widely used in many biomedical applications and clinical fields. However, the applications of MSNs are limited by their severe toxicity. Apigenin (AG) has demonstrated pharmacological effects with low toxicity. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of AG in the progression of MSNs-induced renal injury. BALB/c mice and NRK-52E cells were exposed to MSNs with or without AG. AG protected mice and NRK-52E cells from the MSNs-induced pathological variations in renal tissues and decreased cell viability. AG significantly reduced the levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), upregulated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), and improved the pathological changes of the kidney in MSNs-treated mice. The protective effects of AG were associated with its ability to increase the levels of antioxidants, reduce the accumulation of ROS, and inhibit the expression of the inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6). In addition, AG treatment upregulated the activity of FOXO3a, increased the level of IkBα, and reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which ultimately alleviated MSNs-induced inflammation. Nuclear FOXO3a translocation also triggered antioxidant gene transcription and protected nephrocyte from oxidative damage. However, knockdown of FOXO3a significantly blocked the protective effects of AG. These findings suggested that AG could be a promising therapeutic strategy for MSNs-induced nephrotoxicity, and this protective effect might be related to the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation via the FOXO3a/NF-κB pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Biological trace element research

il-6 il-10(68)

Early Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage.
We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) expression of inflammatory cytokines and their relationship with spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (ICH, IVH) and perihematomal edema (PHE) volumes in patients with acute IVH. Twenty-eight adults with IVH requiring external ventricular drainage for obstructive hydrocephalus had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected for up to 10 days and had levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and C-C motif chemokine ligand CCL2 measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median [IQR] ICH and IVH volumes at baseline (T0) were 19.8 [5.8-48.8] and 14.3 [5.3-38] mL respectively. Mean levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and CCL2 peaked early compared to day 9-10 (
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Biomolecules

assay elisa(66)

Serum HMGB1 level is correlated with serum I-FABP level in neonatal patients with necrotizing enterocolitis.
This study aims to investigate clinical significance of HMGB1 in neonatal patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This observational study enrolled a total of 106 stage II-III NEC neonatal patients, who were admitted in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2019. In addition, 99 suspected NEC patients and 200 healthy controls were included. The serum levels of HMGB1, I-FABP, and inflammatory factors CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the demographic data and clinical characteristics of all patients were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the correlation between HMGB1 and the clinical characteristics. No significant difference was found in the basic characteristics of NEC patients and healthy controls, except for birth weight and gestational age. The expression levels of HMGB1, I-FABP, and inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly higher in NEC patients, when compared to healthy controls. The serum levels of HMGB1, I-FABP, IL-1β and IL-6 markedly increased in stage II-III NEC patients, when compared to stage I NEC patients. The Pearson's analysis revealed a positive correlation between HMGB1 and I-FABP, HMGB1 and IL-1β, and HMGB1 and IL-6. The ROC curve revealed that both HMGB1 and I-FABP can potentially be used as diagnostic factors for NEC. The logistic multivariate regression revealed that I-FABP, IL-1β and IL-6 are independent risk factors for mortality in neonatal NEC patients. Serum HMGB1 levels are upregulated in neonatal NEC patients, and these are correlated with the patient's prognosis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-23
Journal: BMC pediatrics

malondialdehyde mda(65)

Oxidative and pro-inflammatory lung injury induced by desflurane inhalation in rats and the protective effect of rutin.
Desflurane is a mainstay of general inhaled anesthetics with a methyl ethyl ether structure and is widely used in clinical practice. It has been reported to induce inflammation and lipid peroxidation in rat pulmonary parenchyma, to increase alveolar macrophages, and to cause peribronchial infiltration and edema. Rutin, a flavonoid vitamin P1, is known to have biological properties including acting as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an inhibitor of bronchoalveolar polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PNL) infiltration. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of rutin on desflurane-induced pulmonary injury using biochemical and histopathological methods. The rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 6 each): healthy control (HC), rutin+desflurane-treated (DRT) and desflurane-only (DSF). Briefly, 50 mg/kg of rutin was given orally to the DRT group and an equal volume of normal saline was given to the DSF and HC groups. After 1 h, anesthesia was induced and maintained in the DRT and DSF groups for 2 h. After the rats had been sacrificed, the lungs were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels were measured in the excised lung tissue. The removed tissues were also fixed in 10% formalin, and the obtained sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and evaluated under light microscopy. The biochemical and histopathological results of the DRT group were compared with those obtained from the DSF and HC groups. Desflurane increased MDA, TNF-α and NF-κB, and decreased GSH in lung tissue. The PNL infiltration, alveolar macrophages, hemorrhage, alveolar damage, and edema were observed in the lung tissue of the DSF group. Rutin was histopathologically shown to protect lung tissue from oxidative stress by preventing an increase in oxidant parameters and a decrease in antioxidants. The results suggest that rutin may be useful in the treatment of desflurane-associated lung injury.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University


MALAT1 shuttled by extracellular vesicles promotes M1 polarization of macrophages to induce acute pancreatitis via miR-181a-5p/HMGB1 axis.
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious condition carrying a mortality of 25-40%. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have reported to exert potential functions in cell-to-cell communication in diseases such as pancreatitis. Thus, we aimed at investigating the mechanisms by which EV-encapsulated metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) might mediate the M1 polarization of macrophages in AP. Expression patterns of MALAT1, microRNA-181a-5p (miR-181a-5p) and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in serum of AP patients were determined. EVs were isolated from serum and pancreatic cells. The binding affinity among miR-181a-5p, MALAT1 and HMGB1 was identified. AP cells were co-cultured with EVs from caerulein-treated MPC-83 cells to determine the levels of M1/2 polarization markers and TLR4, NF-κB and IKBa. Finally, AP mouse models were established to study the effects of EV-encapsulated MALAT1 on the M1 polarization of macrophages in AP in vivo. MALAT1 was transferred into MPC-83 cells via EVs, which promoted M1 polarization of macrophages in AP. MALAT1 competitively bound to miR-181a-5p, which targeted HMGB1. Moreover, MALAT1 activated the TLR4 signalling pathway by regulating HMGB1. EV-encapsulated MALAT1 competitively bound to miR-181a-5p to upregulate the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α by regulating HMGB1 via activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway, thereby inducing M1 polarization of macrophages in AP. In vivo experimental results also confirmed that MALAT1 shuttled by EVs promoted M1 polarization of macrophages in AP via the miR-181a-5p/HMGB1/TLR4 axis. Overall, EV-loaded MALAT1 facilitated M1 polarization of macrophages in AP via miR-181a-5p/HMGB1/TLR4, highlighting a potential target for treating AP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine

protein expression(65)

Anti-angiogenic Properties of Bevacizumab Improve Respiratory System Inflammation in Ovalbumin-Induced Rat Model of Asthma.
Studies on the bronchial vascular bed have revealed that the number of blood vessels in the lamina propria and under the mucosa of the lung tissue increases in patients suffering from mild to severe asthma. Thus, in this study, a new strategy was employed in respiratory system disorders by angiogenesis inhibition in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced rat model of asthma. Twenty-one male Wistar albino rats, 8 weeks old, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 7 in each group), including (1) control group, (2) OVA-treated group, and (3) OVA + Bmab (bevacizumab drug). On days 1 and 8, 1 mg of OVA and aluminum hydroxide in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were intraperitoneally injected to rats in groups 2 and 3. The control group was only subject to intraperitoneal injection of saline on days 1 and 8. One week after the last injection, the rats (groups 2 and 3) were exposed to OVA inhalation for 30 min at 2-day intervals from days 15 to 25. After sensitization and challenge with OVA, the OVA + Bmab group (group 3) were treated with a 5 mg/kg bevacizumab drug. Genes and protein expression of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively, in lung tissue. OVA exposure increased mucosal secretion and inflammatory cell populations in lung tissue and OVA-specific IgE level in serum. Also, VEGF and cytokine factor expression were significantly elevated in the OVA-induced asthma model (p ≤ 0.05). However, rats in OVA + Bmab group showed significantly a decrease in VEGF and IL-1β and TNF-α genes as well as proteins (p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that bevacizumab efficiently diminished bronchial inflammation via downregulation of VEGF expression, followed by inflammatory cells population and cytokines reduction. Angiogenesis inhibition in rats with induced asthma not only suppresses the inflammatory process through blocking VEGF expression but also inhibits the development of new blood vessels and progressing asthmatic attacks.
Publication Date: 2021-08-23
Journal: Inflammation

il-6 il-1β(63)

Therapeutic potential of isobavachalcone, a natural flavonoid, in murine experimental colitis by inhibiting NF-κB p65.
The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC), one of the two types of inflammatory bowel disease, is increasing in many countries. Various natural products have been demonstrated with therapeutic potentials for UC. Herein, the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of isobavachalcone (IBC), a natural chalcone, were evaluated in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that IBC treatment significantly improved the clinical symptoms, assessed by the disease activity index (DAI) scores and the histological changes of the colon. The levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon tissues were suppressed by IBC. The upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and NF-κB p65 in colon tissues were reversed by IBC as well. Furthermore, IBC significantly inhibited LPS-triggered secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitrite, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, in RAW264.7 cells. The luciferase reporter assay indicated that IBC significantly inhibited LPS-triggered transcription of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Molecular docking results showed that the binding pocket of IBC was adjacent to Ser276 of p65-p50 heterodimer and IBC could form H-bond with Thr191. Collectively, these results demonstrated that IBC ameliorated colitis in mice possibly through inhibition of NF-κB p65.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Phytotherapy research : PTR

superoxide dismutase(63)

Can static electric fields increase the activity of nitric oxide synthase and induce oxidative stress and damage of spleen?
With the rapid development of ultra-high-voltage (UHV) direct-current (DC) transmissions, the impact of static electric fields (SEF) in the vicinity of overhead UHV DC transmission lines on health has aroused much public concern. This study explored the effects of 56.3kV/m SEF on the spleen of mice. Results showed that SEF exposure of 21days significantly increased malonic dialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, calcineurin activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the spleen and caused the separation of nucleus and nuclear membrane, the disappearance of mitochondrial membrane, and the deficiency of mitochondrial cristae in splenic lymphocytes. By analysis and discussion, it was deduced that SEF could induce oxidative stress of the spleen by increasing the activity of NOS. Oxidative stress could further cause ultrastructural changes of splenic lymphocytes. Moreover, oxidative stress could cause the increase of the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and NF-κB, which contributed to the occurrence of spleen inflammation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international

inflammatory markers(59)

Improvement of Cognitive Function and Interleukin 1 Beta Serum Concentrations Following Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation in Patients with Symptomatic Bradycardia.
Bradyarrhythmias cause a low cerebral blood flow with secondary neuronal ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. This study aims to assess the effect of cardiac pacemaker implantation (PI) on the cognitive function and inflammatory markers (TNF alpha, IL1β). We conducted a prospective observational study on a number of 31 patients with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias. We performed the cognitive function assessment by two tests (Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Test A), cardiac output assessment (echocardiographic), and determination of IL 1β and TNF alpha serum concentrations before pacemaker implantation and after an average period of 42 days from pacemaker implantation. After pacemaker implantation we observed an increase in the cardiac index by 0.71 L/min/m Our findings suggest that cardiac pacemaker implantation was associated with improved cognitive function-possibly related to an increased cardiac output and with adecreased serum IL1β concentration in subjects with symptomatic bradycardia.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of personalized medicine


COVID-19 disrupts the blood-testis barrier through the induction of inflammatory cytokines and disruption of junctional proteins.
Junctional proteins are the most important component of the blood-testis barrier and maintaining the integrity of this barrier is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. The present study elucidated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in patients who died from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) complications. In this study, lung and testis tissue was collected from autopsies of COVID-19 positive (n = 10) and negative men (n = 10) and was taken for stereology, immunocytochemistry, and RNA extraction. Evaluation of the lung tissue showed that the SARS-CoV-2 infection caused extensive damage to the lung tissue and also increases inflammation in testicular tissue and destruction of the testicular blood barrier. Autopsied testicular specimens of COVID-19 showed that COVID-19 infection significantly changes the spatial arrangement of testicular cells and notably decreased the number of Sertoli cells. Moreover, the immunohistochemistry results showed a significant reduction in the protein expression of occluding, claudin-11, and connexin-43 in the COVID-19 group. In addition, we also observed a remarkable enhancement in protein expression of CD68 in the testes of the COVID-19 group in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, the result showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL1β, and IL6 was significantly increased in COVID-19 cases as well as the expression of occludin, claudin-11, and connexin-43 was decreased in COVID-19 cases. Overall, the present study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could induce the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and down-regulation of junctional proteins of the BTB, which can disrupt BTB and ultimately impair spermatogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]

protein crp(56)

Statins' Effect on Cognitive Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as the "Silent Epidemic," is a growing devastating global health problem estimated to affect millions of individuals yearly worldwide with little public recognition, leading to many individuals living with a TBI-related disability. TBI has been associated with up to five times increase in the risk of dementia among multiple neurologic complications compared with the general population. Several therapies, including statins, have been tried and showed promising benefits for TBI patients. In this systematic review, we evaluated the recent literature that tested the role of statins on neurological and cognitive outcomes such as Alzheimer's Disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia in survivors of TBI with various severities. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, PubMed Central, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. MeSH terms and keywords were used to search for full-text randomized clinical trials (RCTs), cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, systematic reviews, and animal studies published in English. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and the articles were subjected to quality appraisal by two reviewers. Our data search retrieved 4948 nonduplicate records. A total of 18 studies were included - nine human studies, and nine animal laboratory trials - after meeting inclusion, eligibility, and quality assessment criteria. Simvastatin was the most tested statin, and the oral route of administration was the most used. Eight human studies showed a significant neuroprotective effect and improvement in the cognitive outcomes, including dementia. Four randomized clinical trials with 296 patients showed that statins play a neuroprotective role and improve cognitive outcomes through different mechanisms, especially their anti-inflammatory effect; they were shown to lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Also, they decreased axonal injury and cortical thickness changes. In addition, four cohort studies compared a total of 867.953 patients. One study showed a decrease in mortality in statin-treated patients (p=0.05). Another study showed a reduction in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81), while one study showed a decreased risk of dementia after concussions by 6.13% (p=0.001). On the other hand, one cohort study showed no significant difference with the use of statins. In eight animal trials, statins showed a significant neuroprotective effect, improved cognitive outcomes, and neurological functions. Different molecular and cellular mechanisms were suggested, including anti-inflammatory effects, promoting angiogenesis, neurogenesis, increasing cerebral blood flow, neurite outgrowth, promoting the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, and reducing axonal injury. On the contrary, one study showed no benefit and actual adverse effect on the cognitive outcome. Most of the studies showed promising neuroprotective effects of statins in TBI patients. Cognitive outcomes, especially dementia, were improved. However, the optimal therapeutic protocol is still unknown. Thus, statins are candidates for more advanced studies to test their efficacy in preventing cognitive decline in patients with TBI.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Cureus


Anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effect of exercise training on early aged hypertensive rat cerebral cortex.
The anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects of exercise training were evaluated on the early aged hypertensive rat cerebral cortex. The brain tissues were analysed from ten sedentary male Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats (WKY), ten sedentary spontaneously 12 month early aged hypertensive rats (SHR), and ten hypertensive rats undergoing treadmill exercise training (60 min/day, 5 days/week) for 12 weeks (SHR-EX). TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, the expression levels of endonuclease G (EndoG) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) (caspase-independent apoptotic pathway), Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor 1, Fas-associated death domain, active caspase-8 and active caspase-3 (Fas-mediated apoptotic pathways) as well as t-Bid, Bax, Bak, Bad, cytochrome c, active caspase 9 and active caspase-3 (mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways) were reduced in SHR-EX compared with SHR. Pro-survival Bcl2, Bcl-xL, p-Bad, 14-3-3, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, pPI3K/PI3K, and pAKT/AKT were significantly increased in SHR-EX compared to those in SHR. Exercise training suppressed neural EndoG/AIF-related caspase-independent, Fas/FasL-mediated caspase-dependent, mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways as well as enhanced Bcl-2 family-related and IGF-1-related pro-survival pathways in the early aged hypertensive cerebral cortex. These findings indicated new therapeutic effects of exercise training on preventing early aged hypertension-induced neural apoptosis in cerebral cortex.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Aging


Case-control study on the interplay between immunoparalysis and delirium after cardiac surgery.
Delirium occurs frequently following cardiothoracic surgery, and infectious disease is an important risk factor for delirium. Surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass induce suppression of the immune response known as immunoparalysis. We aimed to investigate whether delirious patients had more pronounced immunoparalysis following cardiothoracic surgery than patients without delirium, to explain this delirium-infection association. A prospective matched case-control study was performed in two university hospitals. Cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10) of ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood was analyzed in on-pump cardiothoracic surgery patients preoperatively, and at 5 timepoints up to 3 days after cardiothoracic surgery. Delirium was assessed by trained staff using two validated delirium scales and chart review. A total of 89 patients were screened of whom 14 delirious and 52 non-delirious patients were included. Ex vivo-stimulated production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 was severely suppressed following cardiothoracic surgery compared to pre-surgery. Postoperative release of cytokines in non-delirious patients was attenuated by 84% [IQR: 13-93] for TNF-α, 95% [IQR: 78-98] for IL-6, and 69% [IQR: 55-81] for IL-10. The attenuation in ex vivo-stimulated production of these cytokines was not significantly different in patients with delirium compared to non-delirious patients (p > 0.10 for all cytokines). The post-operative attenuation of ex vivo-stimulated production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was comparable between patients that developed delirium and those who remained delirium-free after on-pump cardiothoracic surgery. This finding suggests that immunoparalysis is not more common in cardiothoracic surgery patients with delirium compared to those without.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Journal of cardiothoracic surgery


Effects of topical application of a tri-herb formula on inflammatory dry-skin condition in mice with oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory and pruritic skin disease, affecting 10-20% of the population worldwide. Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae) (Cortex Moutan) and Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (Labiatae) (Herba Menthae) have shown beneficial effects on AD. Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is commonly used for treating skin rashes and wounds. In the present study, a three-herbs formula including Cortex Moutan and Herba Menthae, together with C. officinalis at 1:1:1 weight ratio was used as a topical agent and its therapeutic effects on AD was investigated. In vitro effects of individual herbs and three-herbs formula (0.125-1 mg/ml) were examined using cytokine release assay on human mast HMC-1 cells, inflammation test on murine macrophage RAW cells and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and migration scratch assay on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The contributing functional pathway of three-herbs formula in AD was explored using Western Blot assay in HMC-1 cells. Oxazolone-induced AD-like mice model was also used to investigate the in vivo therapeutic effect of the topical application of the three-herbs formula. Herba Menthae, Cortex Moutan, and three-herbs formula significantly reduced the production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in HMC-1 cells, inhibited the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 in TNF-α/IFN-γ stimulated HaCaT cells, and suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, Herba Menthae and three-herbs formula significantly suppressed CCL2 and TNF-α production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. C. officinalis and three-herbs formula promoted wound healing in HUVEC. For intracellular mechanisms, three-herbs formula inhibited the expressions of molecules in STAT1 and STAT3-dependent pathways. In vivo model showed that topical application of three-herbs formula on challenged ear reduced ear swelling and mice scratching frequencies. H&E and toluidine blue staining of the challenged ear tissue demonstrated that three-herbs formula reduced the epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration, respectively. The three-herbs formula of Cortex Moutan, Herba Menthae and C. officinalis at 1:1:1 (w/w) exhibited anti-inflammatory effect and promotion of cell migration in vitro. It also alleviated ear redness, swelling, epidermal thickness and inflammation of the OXA-induced AD mice. These findings suggest a potential beneficial role of the topical application of the three-herbs formula for treatment of AD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology

6 il-6(51)

S-Propargyl-Cysteine Remodels the Gut Microbiota to Alleviate Rheumatoid Arthritis by Regulating Bile Acid Metabolism.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation that results in swollen and painful joints and even cartilage and bone damage. The gut microbiota, a novel anti-inflammatory target, is considered an important environmental factor in the development of RA. S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), an amino acid analogue, exerts anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective effects, and neuroprotective effects on various diseases. In recent studies, an SPRC treatment exerted anti-inflammatory effects on RA. Meanwhile, gut microbiome dysbiosis in individuals with RA has also been reported by many researchers. However, the relationship between SPRC and gut microbiota in individuals with RA remains unclear. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups of 10 each, including the Control, Model, and SPRC groups. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats in SPRC group were treated with SPRC. Measurement of paw volume and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were applied to evaluate the inflammatory status. Fecal samples were collected on the 14 Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we found that SPRC significantly altered the gut microbiota structure in AIA rats. In particular, A mechanistic link between the gut microbiota and plasma metabolites was revealed in this study, which provides insights into the mechanism of SPRC treatment for RA from the perspective of the gut microbiota.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

cytokines including(50)

Celastrol Exerts Cardioprotective Effect in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Inhibiting TLR2/HMGB1 Signaling Pathway-Mediated Autophagy.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the release of inflammatory cytokines and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which lead to increased riskfor heart diseases. This study aims to explore the possible effect and mechanism of Celastrol on RA induced cardiac impairments in rats. Collagen induced RA wistar rat models (CIA) were established for the measurement on secondary foot swelling degree, polyarthritis index score, spleen and thymus index. Pathological morphology was observed using H&E staining. Heart fibrosis was measured after Sirius red staining, while cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. For in vitro experiments, rat cardiomyocytes were isolated to determine the inflammatory cytokine secretion and cell apoptosis using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Protein expressions of related index and autophagy were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. CIA rat model was successfully established and characterized by severe secondary foot swelling degree, and increased polyarthritis index score and spleen and thymus index. Synovial hyperplasia, disordered cardiomyocytes, cell infiltration and fibrosis were also observed in CIA rat model. Compared with CIA model, Celastrol treatment could suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, as well as inhibiting the expressions of Bax, cleaved caspase3, collagen I, collagen III and α-SMA. In addition to that, Celastrol treatment can attenuate cell apoptosis and fibrosis of cardiomyocytes and elevate Bcl-2 expression. RA induced cell autophagy can be suppressed by Celastrol through inhibiting the activation of TLR2/HMGB1 signal pathway. Celastrol can regulate TLR2/HMGB1 signal pathway to suppress autophagy and therefore exert cardioprotective effect in RA.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: International archives of allergy and immunology

dismutase sod(45)

Natural Bioactive as a Potential Therapeutic Approach for the Management of Cyclophosphamide-induced Cardiotoxicity.
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an extensively used anticancer drug, but its cardiotoxic manifestation is a major concern for its widespread clinical use. The observed cardiotoxic attributes have been reported at the therapeutic dose and often result into a high mortality rate and poor clinical outcome. Fall in the level of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), apoptotic proteins (caspases) and direct damage to myocardial tissue (histological and ultrastructural damage) are some of the reported manifestations of cardiotoxicity. The observed clinical attributes of CP-induced cardiotoxicity are myocarditis, hemorrhage, thrombosis, myocardial infarction (MI), reduced ejection fraction, altered electrocardiogram (ECG) reading and heart failure. However, unlike Daxarazasone (an adjuvant to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity) no approved adjuvant is available to mitigate CP-induced cardiotoxicity. Thus, various natural bioactives have been explored for the possible cardioprotective effect against CP-induced cardiotoxicity. In the current manuscript, we have discussed the clinical and preclinical aspects of CP-induced cardiotoxicity, its various clinically used combination with other anticancer drugs, and the available therapeutic regimen to mitigate this cardiotoxicity. Further, we discussed the limitations of available synthetic drugs used as an adjuvant and discussed various natural bioactive and their experimental details. This manuscript's overall goal is to throw light on CP-induced cardiotoxicity and summarize all the experimental data so that researchers working in this field may scientifically get up-to-date information at one place.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Current topics in medicinal chemistry


Cooked Black Turtle Beans Ameliorate Insulin Resistance and Restore Gut Microbiota in C57BL/6J Mice on High-Fat Diets.
Colored common beans are associated with health promoting and chronic disease prevention effects. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with cooked black turtle beans (HFB) to prevent obesity related insulin resistance. Mice on both HF and HFB were obese compared to mice fed a low-fat (LF) diet. Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride concentrations of mice fed HFB diet were 28% and 36.6% lower than those on HF diet. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index of mice fed HFB diet was 87% lower than that of mice fed HF diet. Diabetes related biomarkers, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), leptin, glucagon, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5, 10 and 12, IFN-g and TNF-α were significantly affected by HFB diet. Pparα, Cyp7a1 and Fasn were down-regulated by HFB diet while
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)

tnf-α interleukin(43)

Efficacy and Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Treatment of Rabbits With Different Degrees of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Study Based on Synovial Innate Immune Response.
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic degenerative bone and joint disease, which is often clinically manifested as pain, joint swelling, and deformity. Its pathological manifestations are mainly synovial inflammation and cartilage degeneration. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) on model rabbits with varying degrees of KOA and to study the mechanism of EA on KOA based on the innate immune response. Mild and moderate rabbit KOA models were established using a modified Hluth method, and EA was given to both the mild and moderate model groups. The Lequesne-MG index was used to evaluate the behavioral changes in the rabbits before and after EA treatment. Morphological changes in the synovial membrane and cartilage of each group were observed by H&E staining. The Mankin scoring standard and the Krenn scoring standard were used to score the pathology of the cartilage tissue and synovial tissue, respectively. The inflammatory factors and metalloproteinases were detected in the serum of each group by ELISA. The protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of important elements related to Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response in the synovial tissue were detected by Western blot and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The Lequesne-MG index score of the rabbits gradually increased with the modeling prolonged but decreased significantly after EA treatment, indicating that EA has a better effect on alleviating the pain and improving the dysfunction. The morphological analysis showed that the inflammation of and the damage to the synovial membrane and the cartilage tissue gradually deteriorated with the modeling prolonged. However, the synovial membrane inflammation was significantly relieved after EA treatment, and the cartilage injury showed signs of repair. The ELISA analysis showed that, with the modeling prolonged, the serum-related inflammatory factors and mechanism of metalloproteinases gradually increased but decreased after EA treatment. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinase3 (MMP3) of EA1 group were significantly lower than those of EA2 group. Both Western blot and qPCR results showed that the protein and mRNA expressions of the elements related to the innate immune response in the synovial membrane increased gradually with the modeling prolonged, but decreased significantly after EA treatment. Additionally, the expression of some components in EA1 group was significantly lower than that in EA2 group. These results confirm that synovial inflammation gradually aggravated with time from the early to mid-stage of KOA. EA alleviated the inflammation and histological changes in KOA rabbits by inhibiting the TLRs-mediated innate synovial immune response. This suggests that using EA in the early stage of KOA may achieve a desirable efficacy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Frontiers in physiology

p 0 001(42)

AKR1B10 expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and its related mechanism.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its related mechanism. In total, 142 BPH patients admitted from March 2017 to March 2019 at the First Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and 140 healthy people undergoing physical examination were selected as the research subjects. The clinical value of AKR1B10 in BPH was analyzed. Twenty clean SD rats were selected, and 10 were selected to establish the prostate hyperplasia model, while the remaining 10 were set as the control group. Ten days after the model was established, AKR1B10 and NF-κB expression in prostate tissues of rats in both groups was detected by PCR and immunohistochemistry. The primary cells in prostate hyperplasia were cultured, and then they were transfected with AKR1B10 to observe the changes of cell biological behavior. AKR1B10 and NF-κB mRNA significantly increased in peripheral blood of BPH patients and prostate tissue of BPH model rats (P<0.001), and AKR1B10 had good diagnostic value for BPH (P<0.001). In addition, it was positively correlated with PSA, EGF, IL-6 and TNF-α (P<0.001). After transfection with AKR1B10-inhibitor, it was revealed that the proliferation of prostate hyperplasia cells decreased, while the apoptosis of prostate hyperplasia cells increased and the NF-κB protein expression decreased (P<0.001). Collectively, high expression of AKR1B10 in BPH promoted the proliferation of prostate cells and reduced their apoptosis, and the mechanism may be through regulation of NF-κB.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Oncology letters

95 ci(39)

The natural history of COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide study by the Hellenic Society for the study of IBD.
COVID-19 has evolved into a global health crisis, variably affecting the management of patients with chronic illnesses. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may represent a vulnerable population due to frequent administration of immune-modifying treatments. We aimed to depict the natural history of COVID-19 infection in Greek patients with IBD at a nationwide level via unbiased reporting of all cases that were registered during the sequential waves of the pandemic. Following a national call from the Hellenic Society for the study of IBD, we enrolled all IBD patients with established diagnoses of COVID-19. Clinical and epidemiological data, including COVID-19 modifying factors and IBD-associated therapies, were analyzed against adverse outcomes (hospitalization, ICU admission and death). We identified 154 IBD patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 (men: 58.4%; mean age=41.7 years [SD = 14.9]; CD: 64.3%). Adverse outcomes were reported in 34 patients (22.1%), including 3 ICU admissions (1.9%) and two deaths (1.3%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR = 1.04, 95% CI, 1-1.08) and dyspnea at presentation (OR = 7.36, 95% CI, 1.84-29.46) were associated with worse outcomes of COVID-19 infection. In contrast, treatment with biologics, in particular anti-TNF agents, exerted a protective effect against an unfavorable COVID-19 disease course (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.16-0.99). Patients on subcutaneous biologics were more likely to halt treatment due to the infection as compared to those on intravenous biologics. IBD patients who developed COVID-19 had a benign course with adverse outcomes being infrequent. Treatment with anti-TNF biologics had a protective effect, thus, supporting continuation of therapy during the pandemic.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology

ifn-γ tnf-α(37)

Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Triggers Differential Inflammatory Response in Patients With Endophthalmitis.
Infections with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) lead to poor clinical outcomes in endophthalmitis patients, and its interactions with the host immune system remain largely unknown. The current study aimed to determine the association of MDR-PA infection with the cytokine expression profile in patients with endophthalmitis. Vitreous of 12 patients with culture-proven MDR-PA along with 12 samples from antibiotic-susceptible P. aeruginosa (S-PA) and 20 non-infectious controls were included in the study. Expression patterns of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-8, and GM-CSF in the vitreous were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay and correlated with the clinical severity. We also assessed the phosphorylation level of different immune pathway molecules. In the MDR-PA group, significantly (P < 0.05) increased expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α was observed in comparison with the S-PA group. The increased inflammatory mediators in MDR-PA correlated with the disease severity. Additionally, the increased expression of inflammatory mediators was positively correlated to the activation levels of Akt, STAT3, JNK, p70 S6 kinase, and NF-кB (P < 0.05) in the MDR-PA group. The current study shows the differential host immune response and phosphorylation levels of signaling molecules in MDR-PA endophthalmitis, thereby linking antibiotic resistance with distinct immune regulation. This study provides evidence for the use of inflammatory mediator levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α as potential diagnostic biomarkers of MDR endophthalmitis warranting prompt administration of immune modulators to avoid irreversible damage to the retina and vision loss.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Translational vision science & technology

α interleukin(37)

Amygdalin Attenuates Airway Epithelium Apoptosis, Inflammation, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through Restraining the TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway on LPS-Treated BEAS-2B Bronchial Epithelial Cells.
Cough-variant asthma (CVA) is a special type of asthma, solely manifesting with coughing. Studies suggest that airway inflammation is associated with CVA pathogenesis. Amygdalin is found to have an anti-inflammatory potential, while how it affects CVA remains unexplored. Cytotoxicity delivered by various concentrations of LPS and amygdalin on BEAS-2B cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. CVA in vitro models were established via LPS exposure on BEAS-2B cells which underwent amygdalin pretreatment. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in BEAS-2B cells was measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR. Expressions of TLR4, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin, phosphorylated-p65 (p-p65), p65, phosphorylated-IκBα (p-IκBα), and IκBα in BEAS-2B cells were measured by qRT-PCR or Western blot. LPS and high concentrations of amygdalin (over 600 μg/mL) decreased BEAS-2B cell toxicity. Exposure to LPS inhibited toxicity, enhanced apoptosis; and promoted production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and MUC5AC, increased the levels of N-Cadherin, α-SMA, vimentin, p-p65, and p-IκBα, and decreased the levels of E-cadherin and IκBα in BEAS-2B cells. Amygdalin pretreatment counteracted the effects of LPS on BEAS-2B cells. Overexpressing TLR4 reversed amygdalin-exerted effects in LPS-exposed BEAS-2B cells. Amygdalin attenuated airway epithelium apoptosis, inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through restraining the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in CVA.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: International archives of allergy and immunology

beta il-1β(36)

Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside on HSV-1 encephalitis in vivo and in vitro.
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is an acute central nervous system infectious disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HSE infection, which produces many pro-inflammatory factors. Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh) is a plant flavonoid. This study was investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of K-3-rh on encephalitis induced by HSV-1. HSV-1 was co-cultured with VERO cells.Cells were divided into four groups, including the control group, virus group, K-3-rh group, Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) group and dexamethasone group. Flow cytometry were utilized to determine cell apoptosis, respectively. Proteins and mRNAs were estimated by western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively. After viral infection, the cytokines were significantly increased. After K-3-rh intervention, the expression of Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and nitric oxide(NO) in microglia were reduced contrast with those in the virus group, and the expression of interleukin-10(IL-10) did not change. After viral infection, the apoptotic rate increased significantly, and K-3-rh could inhibit viral-induced apoptosis in the microglial cell line. The induction of microglia apoptosis was achieved by cytochrome c and caspase-9-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Also, the pathological changes of brain tissue in mice of each drug intervention group were alleviated. In conclusion, K-3-rh had the potential to reduce HSV-1-induced brain injury by reducing the secretion of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, inducing apoptosis of microglia cells, and through cytochrome C and caspase-3 pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Neuroscience letters

lipopolysaccharide lps(34)

Puerarin Prevents Acute Liver Injury
Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from herb radix puerariae, is widely used in China in the treatment of immune diseases and inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that puerarin prevented acute lung injury by regulating inflammatory responses. However, the effect of puerarin on acute liver injury (ALI) was unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of puerarin when applied to ALI. We found that puerarin inhibited liver injury and inflammatory cell infiltration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced acute liver failure and the liver pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in liver tissues with ALI and LPS-induced L-02 cells but upregulated the expression level of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2). Significantly, the results of this study showed that the inhibition of liver pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) production in LPS-induced L-02 cells was caused by ZEB2 overexpression. However, knocking down ZEB2 promoted LPS-mediated secretion of liver pro-inflammatory cytokines in L-02 cells. Additional experiments showed that puerarin inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by elevating ZEB2 expression in L-02 cells. In summary, puerarin most likely prevented activation of the pro-inflammatory factors and reduced LPS/D-Gal-induced liver injury by enhancing the ZEB2 expression level and, consequently, blocking activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the liver.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology

il-4 il-6(33)

Sample Processing and Stability for Urine Biomarker Studies.
Current methods of processing and storing urine samples have not been compared systematically to determine optimal conditions for advancing research on urinary biomarkers. Often, preanalytical handling is nonideal, especially considering the COVID-19 pandemic; consequently, we compared the effects of different short-term storage and processing methods on urinary biomarker measurements. Spot urine samples were collected via a Foley catheter from 20 hospitalized patients from the Yale New Haven Hospital within 48 hours postcardiac surgery. The effects of 3 urine storage and processing methods on biomarkers were tested: (a) 48-hour temporary storage at 4 °C prior to freezing at -80 °C, (b) 48-hour temporary storage at 25 °C prior to freezing at -80 °C, and (c) no centrifugation and immediate storage at -80 °C. Established Meso-Scale Device assay methods were used to measure the urine concentrations of 18 biomarkers: interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), epidermal growth factor (EGF), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin (OPN), uromodulin (UMOD), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40). Measurements of most biomarkers investigated remained stable after temporary storage at 4 °C. IL-6, IL-8, KIM-1, MCP-1, YKL-40, EGF, and NGAL were stable across all 3 processing conditions. IL-12p70 and IL-4 demonstrated significant differences in all tested conditions compared to the reference standard. We identified several notable biomarkers that are robust to variations in preanalytical techniques and can be reliably investigated with nonideal handling conditions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: The journal of applied laboratory medicine

cytokines il-6(33)

Two methoxy derivatives of resveratrol, 3,3',4,5'-tetramethoxy-trans-stilbene and 3,4',5-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene, suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation through inactivation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in RAW 264.7 cells.
3,3',4,5'-tetramethoxy-trans-stilbene (3,3',4,5'-TMS) and 3,4',5-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (3,4',5-TMS) are two methoxy derivatives of resveratrol. Previous researches have proved that resveratrol and its analogues have anti-inflammatory effect through suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. This study aims to study whether 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS alleviate inflammation and the underlying mechanism. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and pretreated with 3,3',4,5'-TMS or 3,4',5-TMS. Cell viability was measured with the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) release was detected by Griess reagent. The secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed by ELISA kits. Protein expressions of signaling molecules were determined by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by fluorescence staining and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay. 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS suppressed LPS-induced NO release and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) secretions in a dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS significantly down-regulated the LPS-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and partially suppressed the activation of MAPK (phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK), and NF-κB (phosphorylation of IKKα/β, p65 and IκBα) signaling pathways; where phosphorylation of ERK and p65 was mildly but not significantly decreased by 3,3',4,5'-TMS. LPS-induced NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation was inhibited by both 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS. Moreover, both resveratrol derivatives decreased the ROS levels. 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS significantly suppress LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and also provide anti-oxidative effect. This study reveals potential therapeutic applications of 3,3',4,5'-TMS and 3,4',5-TMS for inflammatory diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Chinese medicine

cytokines il-1β(32)

Association of serum KL-6 levels on COVID-19 severity: A cross-sectional study design with purposive sampling.
The main target of SARS-CoV2 is the alveolar type II (AT2) cells of the lung. SARS-CoV2 evades the innate immune system resulting in the release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) which causes AT2 cell damage. Krebs von den Lungen (KL-6) is a specific biomarker of AT2 cell damage. KL-6 is produced in AT2 cells that are injured/regenerated. Research that discusses the role of KL-6 in COVID-19 is still being debated and not much has been done in Indonesia. This study was an analytical study with a prospective design on 75 COVID-19 patients who were treated. Subjects were divided into two large groups according to their degree of severity, 57 subjects with severe degrees and 18 subjects with non-severe degrees. The serum KL-6 levels were measured on days 0 and 6. Data were analyzed using paired In this study, the mean serum KL-6 for day 0 in the severe group was higher than the non-severe group with values of 45.70 U/mL and 44.85 U/mL. On day 6, the mean serum KL-6 in the severe group was lower than that in the non-severe group with values of 41.3 U/mL and 41.95 U/mL. Serum KL-6 in the severe group experienced an even greater decrease than the non-severe group. There was no significant association between serum KL-6 values on 0 days in the severity of COVID-19.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Annals of medicine and surgery (2012)

il-8 tnf-α(31)

Suppressive Effects of Rosmarinic Acid Rich Fraction from Perilla on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Metastasis Ability in A549 Cells Exposed to PM via C-Jun, P-65-Nf-Κb and Akt Signaling Pathways.
Particulate matter from forest fires (PMFF) is an environmental pollutant causing oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer cell metastasis due to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Perilla seed meal contains high levels of polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA). The aim of this study is to determine the anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis actions of rosmarinic acid rich fraction (RA-RF) from perilla seed meal and its underlying molecular mechanisms in A549 cells exposed to PMFF. PMFF samples were collected via the air sampler at the University of Phayao, Thailand, and their PAH content were analyzed using GC-MS. Fifteen PAH compounds were detected in PMFF. The PMFF significantly induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-9 activity, invasion, migration, the overexpression of c-Jun and p-65-NF-κB, and Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, the RA-RF significantly reduced ROS production, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and COX-2. RA-RF could also suppress MMP-9 activity, migration, invasion, and the phosphorylation activity of c-Jun, p-65-NF-κB, and Akt. Our findings revealed that RA-RF has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastasis properties via c-Jun, p-65-NF-κB, and Akt signaling pathways. RA-RF may be further developed as an inhalation agent for the prevention of lung inflammation and cancer metastasis induced by PM exposure.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Biomolecules

tnf-α ifn-γ(31)

Effects of intense pulsed light treatment on tear cytokines and clinical outcomes in meibomian gland dysfunction.
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) has become a prevalent ocular surface disorder. Its pathogenesis is regarded as a self-perpetuating inflammatory vicious circle. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) treatment was recently applied to improve the meibomian gland function and reduce symptoms of MGD. However, studies investigating the change of specific inflammatory cytokines during IPL treatment remained sparse. To further figure out how IPL treatment modulates the inflammatory cytokines in tears of MGD, we therefore performed a cross-sectional study and enrolled 32 patients from March 2019 to December 2020. The patients received 3 sessions of IPL treatment (10 to 16 J/cm2) at 4-week interval. The signs and symptoms of MGD were evaluated by ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear film breakup time (TBUT), and meibomian gland yield secretion score (MGYSS). The clinical evaluators and tear samples were analyzed at baseline and at each IPL treatment session. Concentrations of (chemokine ligand) CXCL1, (C-C motif chemokine) CCL11, (tumor necrosis factor) TNF-α, (interferon) IFN-γ, (interleukin) IL-2, IL-6 and (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase) TIMP-1were measured by Quantibody Human Dry Eye Disease Array1. OSDI significantly decreased after IPL treatment compared with baseline. TBUT and MGYSS increased consecutively during treatment. CXCL1, CCL11, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 presented significantly decrease and TIMP-1 showed significantly increase from the pretreatment baseline. The changed concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, TIMP-1 correlated with TBUT, the changed values of CXCL1, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL11, IL-2, IL-6, TIMP-1 correlated with MGYSS, and the changed concentrations of CXCL1, IFN-γ, CCL11, IL-2, IL-6 correlated with TIMP-1. The data supported IPL treatment could significantly relieve both signs and symptoms of MGD. The therapeutic effect of IPL treatment may originate from regulation of inflammatory cytokines including CXCL1, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL11, IL-2, IL-6, and TIMP-1.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: PloS one

il-8 il-10(30)

[The Role of Vitamin D3 on the Immune Responses of Monocytes].
The active form of vitamin D (Vit D), 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is important for cell functions and immunity, as well as its role in bone metabolism. Monocytes/macrophages initiate innate immune response, and is considered to be the cell that first comes into contact with the pathogen. They play effective roles in innate immune and inflammatory responses by intercellular relations and inflammatory mediator secretion. Human THP-1 leukemia cells are frequently used for the in vitro determination of the signal pathways, and the functions of monocyte/macrophages. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are complex networks of signaling pathways that regulate many important cellular behaviors, especially in inflammation, cell death, cell differentiation or proliferation. Midkine (MK) is a cytokine and growth factor that is one of the regulators of inflammatory processes, immune cell functions, proliferation and autoimmunity. The effects of Vit D3 on inflammation and MK secretion in hyperglycemia is still unknown. In this study, it was aimed to determine the dose-dependent effects of Vit D3 on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated pro/ anti-inflammatory cytokine, NF-κB and MK responses of THP-1 monocyte cells under normo and hyperglycemic conditions. For this purpose, THP-1 monocyte cells stimulated with LPS (Escherichia coli, 0111, 1 μg/ml) under normoglycemic (glucose 100 mg/dl)/hyperglycemic (glucose 500 mg/dl) conditions, were incubated for 24 hours in the presence and absence of 10-50-100 IU/ml Vit D3. MK, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10 cytokine levels in the supernatants collected from the wells at the end of the incubation periods, and NF-κB levels in the obtained cell lysates were detected by ELISA method. LPS stimulation induced higher levels of TNF-α, IL-8 and MK responses in hyperglycemic conditions. IL-10 secretions were found to be decreased under hyperglycemia. Vit D3 modulates TNF-α, IL-10 and MK secretions in hyperglycemic conditions. The MK and TNF-α levels were determined to be correlated with NF-κB and IL-10. The results obtained in the study showed that Vit D3 can play a role in immune modulation by regulating NF-κB and cytokine/ chemokine-like molecule MK suppression and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. The mechanism of the action of Vit D3 under different conditions should be examined in detail.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Mikrobiyoloji bulteni

group p(30)

Treating unstable angina with detoxifying and blood-activating formulae: A randomized controlled trial.
Detoxifying and blood-activating Chinese medicine granule formula, which includes 15 g of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Polygonum cuspidatum) and 10 g of Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge (Hawthorn), can relieve the symptoms and serve as supplementary treatment for unstable angina. This study aimed to explore the role of detoxifying and blood-activating formulae in the treatment of unstable angina and the potential mechanism involved. A total of 144 participants with unstable angina were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both groups were treated with standardized Western medicine; the experimental group was additionally treated with detoxifying and blood-activating Chinese medicine granules, which included 15 g of P. cuspidatum and 10 g of C. pinnatifida for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the frequency of weekly angina pectoris attacks before and after treatment. The secondary endpoints, also observed before and after treatment, included blood glucose, blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and adiponectin levels, as well as the ratio of pro/anti-inflammatory factors and evaluation scales of symptoms and syndromes in Chinese and Western medicine. In both experimental and control groups, the frequency of weekly angina pectoris attacks was lower after treatment (P < 0.01), but with no significant intergroup difference (P = 0.10). After intervention, the hs-CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels decreased, while the IL-10 and adiponectin levels significantly increased in the experimental group (P < 0.05 or 0.01). The ratios of the inflammatory factors significantly decreased after treatment, particularly in the experimental group (P < 0.01). Symptoms and syndromes were also ameliorated in the experimental group (P < 0.01), showing a significant difference from the control group (P < 0.01). Detoxifying and blood-activating formulae can reduce the frequency and relieve symptoms of unstable angina, and this mechanism may be related to a regulation of the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors.
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

il-2 il-4(30)

Propolis increases Foxp3 expression and lymphocyte proliferation in HIV-infected people: A randomized, double blind, parallel-group and placebo-controlled study.
HIV infection and the prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) contribute to persistent inflammation and immune deregulation in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Propolis is a bee product with plenty of biological properties, including immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action. This work aimed to evaluate possible changes in the immune/inflammatory response in PLWHA under ART after propolis intake. Asymptomatic PLWHA were double-blindly randomized into parallel groups receiving propolis (500 mg/day, n = 20) for 3 months or placebo (n = 20). Plasma cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL17) were evaluated by cytometric bead array; cytokine production by PBMC (IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-17, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33) was assessed by ELISA; gene expression (T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and Foxp3) was determined by RT-qPCR, and cell proliferation was analysed by flow cytometry using CFSE staining. The average of gender, age, CD4
Publication Date: 2021-08-09
Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie

factor vegf(30)

Anti-inflammatory activities of a new VEGF blocker, Conbercept.
Angiogenesis and inflammation exhibit a mutually reinforcing relationship in many human diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important proangiogenic mediators. Conbercept is a novel VEGF inhibitor. Type II collagen-induced rat rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) model was established to evaluate the anti-chronic inflammation activities of Conbercept. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of immune factors in the blood of arthritis rats. The xylene-induced ear edema was conducted to evaluate the effect of Conbercept on acute inflammation. Our results showed that Conbercept significantly reduced the paw edema volume and the arthritis index in CIA rats. Furthermore, we found that Conbercept decreased the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in CIA rats. Xylene-induced ear edema is a widely used method to study acute inflammation. Conbercept significantly inhibited xylene-induced ear edema. All results indicate that Conbercept exhibits significant inhibition of acute and chronic inflammation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology

il-1 il-6(27)

Analysis of serum cytokine and protective vitamin D levels in severe cases of COVID-19.
In this study, we are investigating the role and relationship of cytokines profile and protective vitamin D by measuring their serum levels in COVID-19 intensive care unit patients with a severe illness. A total of 74 patients were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. Patients with the COVID-19 group (n = 31), and individuals without a history of serious illness or infection used as the control group (n = 43). The serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Levels of serum vitamin D were detected with Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodologies. TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and vitamin D levels were measured in all patients. The serum cytokine levels in COVID-19 pateint group were significantly higher (151.59± 56.50, 140.37 ± 64.32, 249.02± 62.84, 129.04 ± 31.64, and 123.58 ± 24.49, respectively) from control groups. Serum vitamin D was also significantly low (6.82 ± 3.29) in patients with the COVID-19 group than the controls (21.96 ± 5.39). Regarding the correlation of vitamin D with cytokine levels, it was significantly variable. Our study shows that COVID-19 patients are associated with lower serum vitamin D and higher pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with increased virus presence. Our data provide more evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on COVID-19 patients and the protective effects of vitamin D on risk have been demonstrated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Journal of medical virology


Genetics, Epigenetics, and Gender Impact in Axial-Spondyloarthritis Susceptibility: An Update on Genetic Polymorphisms and Their Sex Related Associations.
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease that can be divided into predominantly axial or predominantly peripheral involvement, with or without associated psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease or previous infection. Axial SpA (axSpA) encompasses ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with radiological sacroiliitis, and a type without radiographic sacroiliitis, called "non-radiographic axial SpA" (nr-axSpA). Males and females show large differences in their susceptibility to SpA, such as distinctions in clinical patterns, phenotypes and in therapeutical response, particularly to TNF inhibitors (TNFi). Several studies indicate that AS women have doubled risk to failure TNFi compared with males. This diversity in drugs' efficacy among women and men may be caused by differences in the balance of sex hormones and in gene-specific expression likely triggered by X-chromosome instability and gene-specific epigenetic modifications. Evidence reported that polymorphisms in microRNAs on X- and other chromosomes, such as miR-146a, miR-155, miR-125a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-22-3p, miR-199a-5p could be involved in the different clinical presentation of SpA, as well as disease activity. In addition, association with non-response to TNFi treatment and presence of IRAK3 and CHUCK genes in SpA patients was recently detected. Finally, polymorphisms in genes involved in IL-23/IL-17 pathway, such as in drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may have a role in response to TNFi, IL17i, and IL23i. A major understanding of genomic variability could help in the development of new therapeutic targets or in taking advantages of different mechanisms of action of biological drugs. Moving from the multifactorial etiology of disease, the present review aims at evaluating genetic and epigenetic factors and their relationship with sex and bDMARDs response, helping to investigate the different expression among males and females of genes on X- and other chromosomes, as well as mi-RNA, to highlight relationships between sex and occurrence of specific phenotypes and symptoms of the disease. Moreover, the role of the epigenetic modification in relation to immune-regulatory mechanisms will be evaluated.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Frontiers in genetics


Angiotensin II-induced renal angiotensinogen formation is enhanced in mice lacking tumor necrosis factor-alpha type 1 receptor.
In hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AngII) administration with high salt (HS) intake, intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels increase. However, TNF-α has been shown to suppress AGT formation in cultured renal proximal tubular cells. We examined the hypothesis that elevated AngII levels during HS intake reduces TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) activity in the kidneys, thus facilitating increased intrarenal AGT formation. The responses to HS diet (4% NaCl) with chronic infusion of AngII (25 ng/min) via implanted minipump for 4 weeks were assessed in wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice lacking TNFR1 or TNFR2 receptors. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography, and 24-h urine samples were collected using metabolic cages prior to start (0 day) and at the end of 2nd and 4th week periods. The urinary excretion rate of AGT (uAGT; marker for intrarenal AGT) was measured using ELISA. HS +AngII treatment for 4 weeks increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in all strains of mice. However, the increase in MAP in TNFR1KO (77 ± 2 to 115 ± 3 mmHg; n = 7) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than in WT (76 ± 1 to 102 ± 2 mmHg; n = 7) or in TNFR2KO (78 ± 2 to 99 ± 5 mmHg; n = 6). The increase in uAGT at 4th week was also greater (p < 0.05) in TNFR1KO mice (6 ± 2 to 167 ± 75 ng/24 h) than that in WT (6 ± 3 to 46 ± 16 ng/24 h) or in TNFR2KO mice (8 ± 7 to 65 ± 44 ng/24 h). The results indicate that TNFR1 exerts a protective role by mitigating intrarenal AGT formation induced by elevated AngII and HS intake.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Physiological reports

pg ml(25)

Neutrophils pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine release in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is characterized by sub-clinical inflammation. Changes in selected biomarkers of inflammation concomitant with the release of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by neutrophils have not been investigated in patients with HFrEF. Fifty-two patients, aged 68.8 ± 1.7 years, with HFrEF and left ventricular ejection fraction 28.7 ± 1.0%, and 21 healthy controls (CTL) were recruited. Twenty-five HF patients had type 2 diabetes. Venous blood samples from HF and CTL were collected once. Neutrophil-derived pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed in plasma by ELISA. Plasma biomarkers assessed included: C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukins (IL)-6, -8, -1 receptor antagonist (-1RA), nitric oxide (NO), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) and E-Selectin (sE-Sel). Neutrophils were isolated and stimulated with various agonists to promote VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA release. Compared with CTL, HFrEF patients showed a marked decrease in circulating VEGF [178.0 (interquartile range; IQR 99.6; 239.2) vs. 16.2 (IQR 9.3; 20.2) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.001] and NO [45.2 (IQR 42.1; 57.6) vs. 40.6 (IQR 30.4; 47.1) pg/mL, P = 0.0234]. All other circulating biomarkers were significantly elevated. Neutrophils isolated from patients with HFrEF exhibited a greater IL-8 release in response to LPS [1.2 ± 0.1 (CTL); 10.4 ± 1.6 ng/mL (HFrEF) and 12.4 ± 1.6 ng/mL (HFrEF and DM), P ≤ 0.001]. IL-6 release in response to LPS was not changed in HFrEF patients without diabetes, whereas it was significantly increased in patients with HFrEF and diabetes [46.7 ± 3.9 (CTL) vs. 165.8 ± 48.0 pg/mL (HFrEF), P = 0.1713 and vs. 397.7 ± 67.4 pg/mL (HFrEF and DM), P ≤ 0.001]. In contrast, the release of VEGF and IL-1RA was significantly reduced in HFrEF (VEGF; TNF-α: 38.6 ± 3.1 and LPS: 25.3 ± 2.6 pg/mL; IL1RA; TNF-α: 0.6 ± 0.04 and LPS: 0.3 ± 0.02 ng/mL) compared with CTL (VEGF; TNF-α: 60.0 ± 9.4 and LPS: 41.2 ± 5.9 pg/mL; IL1RA; TNF-α: 3.3 ± 0.2 and LPS: 2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL). Patients with HFrEF exhibit a significant decrease in circulating VEGF. The release of VEGF and both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines from the stimulated neutrophils is markedly altered in these patients. The clinical significance of these findings deserves further investigation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: ESC heart failure

tnf-α p(24)

Effectiveness of brodalumab after previous treatment failure of interleukin-17A inhibitors in patients with psoriasis.
Studies on switch between interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitors are scarce. We assessed the effectiveness of brodalumab in patients with previous treatment failure of IL-17A inhibitor(s). Patients with psoriasis and previous treatment failure of an IL-17A inhibitor were treated with brodalumab at standard dose. Effectiveness was assessed after 12, 26, and 52 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients that had achieved an absolute psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) ≤2 and/or a relative reduction of PASI of 75% (PASI75) at week 12. Plasma cytokine levels were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. In total, 20 patients were included, seven (35%) were female, the median age was 50 years, and the median baseline PASI was 13.5. Analyzing the data using nonresponder imputation, 14 (70%) patients had achieved either PASI75 and/or PASI ≤2, 8 (40%) had achieved PASI90, and three (15%) had achieved PASI100 at week 12. In total, nine patients (45%) completed the 52-weeks trial and seven patients (35%) still had PASI75 throughout 52 weeks. Seventeen out of 20 patients experienced any adverse events (AEs) during 52 weeks with no serious AEs or deaths. Patients responding to treatment had lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 at baseline compared with those who did not respond to treatment (TNF-α, p = 0.041, IL-6, p = 0.0054). In conclusion, treatment with brodalumab despite previous treatment failure with an IL-17A inhibitor can be effective and well-tolerated.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Dermatologic therapy

factor tnf-α(24)

Inflammatory Biomarkers in Febrile Seizure: A Comprehensive Bibliometric, Review and Visualization Analysis.
Inflammatory markers association with many diseases is the subject of many articles and reviews. This study presents a comprehensive bibliometric review and visualization analysis of inflammatory biomarkers (IB) in the context of febrile seizure (FS) patients. The study focused on IB in FS using (1) bibliometric analysis specific indicators and maps in order to analyze and present the network of authors, journals, universities, and countries, and (2) automated literature screening and unsupervised clustering approach for filtering and topic cluster identification. We conducted a literature mining search on FS research, specifically IB in the context of FS, using the automated tools VOSviewer and Bibliometrix. Indices of the inflammatory response (in the context of febrile seizures) identified by the literature mining are (pro/anti-inflammatory) cytokines, such as interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, I-10, IL-22, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet count (PLT), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW). The resulted bibliometric maps and topic clusters offer a comprehensive overview, the status and leading trends on existing research of inflammatory biomarkers in FS. The analysis using bibliometrics and review with graphical presentations can be useful in investigating and (better) understanding the relationship between FS and IB.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Brain sciences

e g(22)

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Where We Are and Where We Are Going.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease primarily affecting apocrine gland-rich areas of the body. It is a multifactorial disease in which genetic and environmental factors play a key role. The primary defect in HS pathophysiology involves follicular occlusion of the folliculopilosebaceous unit, followed by follicular rupture and immune responses. Innate pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, and TNF-α); mediators of activated T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells (e.g., IFN-γ, and IL-17); and effector mechanisms of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells are involved. On the other hand, HS lesions contain anti-inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-10) and show limited activity of Th22 cells. The inflammatory vicious circle finally results in pain, purulence, tissue destruction, and scarring. HS pathogenesis is still enigmatic, and a valid animal model for HS is currently not available. All these aspects represent a challenge for the development of therapeutic approaches, which are urgently needed for this debilitating disease. Available treatments are limited, mostly off-label, and surgical interventions are often required to achieve remission. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge surrounding HS, including the diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatments, and existing translational studies.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Cells

myeloperoxidase mpo(22)

Does Anzer Propolis Have a Protective Effect on Rabbit Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury?
In this study, Anzer propolis, which can only be obtained from the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey, is studied for its effect on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. A total of 12 healthy male New Zealand White rabbits with an average weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg were separated into two blind and randomized groups: the ischemia/reperfusion group (n=6) and the treatment group (n=6). Each rabbit in the treatment group was given a dose of 100 mg/kg of ethanol-dissolved Anzer propolis orally 1 hour before surgery. Blood samples were examined at the 0th hour and postoperatively at the 24 There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of postoperative Tarlov scoring (P=0.012). There was a difference between the two groups in terms of the blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) at the 48th hour, myeloperoxidase (MPO) at the 24 In our study, after biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural and neurological functional examination, it was demonstrated that Anzer propolis has sufficient neuroprotective effect on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits.
Publication Date: 2021-07-09
Journal: Brazilian journal of cardiovascular surgery

il-6 il-17(19)

LncRNA ZNF667-AS1 alleviates rheumatoid arthritis by sponging miR-523-3p and inactivating the JAK/STAT signalling pathway.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which compromises the synovial membrane resulting in chronic inflammation. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. This study investigated the role of lncRNA ZNF667-AS1 in RA progression. Synovial tissues and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were obtained from patients with RA. Gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR. Chondrocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish ZNF667-AS1 was downregulated in RA-FLSs and LPS-stimulated chondrocytes. ZNF667-AS1 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation and inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated chondrocytes. Additionally, ZNF667-AS1 overexpression reduced the generation of CD4 + IL-17+ cells. In mechanism, ZNF667-AS1 acted a sponge for miR-523-3p. MiR-523-3p overexpression reversed the ZNF667-AS1-mediated regulation of cell proliferation and inflammation. Furthermore, miR-523-3p overexpression abolished the inhibitory effects of ZNF667-AS1 on the JAK/STAT signalling activation. ZNF667-AS1 exerts protective effects during RA development by sponging miR-523-3p and inactivating the JAK/STAT signalling.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Autoimmunity

tnf-α il-10(18)

Terpinen4-ol inhibits heat stress induced inflammation in colonic tissue by Activating Occludin, Claudin-2 and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Heat stress has severe implications on the health of mice involving intestinal mucosal barrier damage and dysregulated mucosal immune response. This study was designed with long-term heat stress to detect the protective effect of terpinen4-ol on body weight, colon length, organ index, morphological structure, inflammatory cytokines expression, Claudin-2, Occludin, and TLR4 signaling pathway of colonic tissue in mice under heat stress. A study found that oral administration of terpinen4-ol helped against mortality and intestinal inflammation in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by heat stress (40 °C per day for 4 h) exposed for 14 consecutive days. The mice were divided into five groups including control, heat stress, terpinen4-ol low dose (TER LD: 5 mg/kg), medium dose (TER MD: 10 mg/kg), and high dose (TER HD: 20 mg/kg) group. Our study showed that the heat-stress terpinen4-ol group had improved body weight, colon length, and organ index, the number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the blood as compared to the heat stress group. In addition, results showed that heat stress upregulated the expression of TLR4, p65, TNF-α, and IL-10. While, in mice receiving the oral administration of terpinen4-ol, the production of TNF-α, IL-10, TLR4, and p65 was suppressed on day 1, 7, and 14 of heat stress. In addition Claudin-2, Occludin mRNA levels were upregulated in mice receiving terpinen4-ol on day 1, 7, and 14 of heat stress. Furthermore, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α serum levels were also upregulated in mice under heat stress, but in mice receiving the oral administration of terpinen4-ol, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α level was down-regulated on day 1, 7, and 14 of heat stress. Histomorphological examination found that as compared to the control group, the muscle layer thickness and villi height of mice in the heat stress group were significantly reduced, while the changes of the above indicators in the terpinene4-ol groups were improved than those in the heat stress group. In conclusion, the terpinen4-ol has a protective effect on colonic tissue damage induced by heat stress.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: International immunopharmacology

crp il-6(15)

Procalcitonin kinetics to guide sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation weaning in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory failure: procalcitonin's adjunct role.
How to identify the optimum switch point of sequential invasive and noninvasive ventilation is the focus of clinical attention on the patients suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated by acute respiratory failure (ARF). This study aims to explore the clinical significance of taking the change rate of procalcitonin (PCT) as identifying the timing of weaning on the mechanical ventilation for the patients of AECOPD followed by ARF as a complication. There were altogether 140 patients of AECOPD complicated with ARF, who were randomly selected and divided into a study group and a control group respectively. A change rate of serum PCT level exceeding 50% was taken as the switch point selection of tracheal intubation removal for the patients of the study group, while the 'pulmonary infection control (PIC) window' was done for those in the control group. With CRP, IL-6, TNF-a, PaCO
Publication Date: 2021-08-07
Journal: The Libyan journal of medicine

p 05(13)

Effects of Cannabidiol on the In Vitro Lymphocyte Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production of Senior Horses.
Cannabis sativa L. contains cannabidiol (CBD), a compound that has many anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, 99.9% CBD powder was used to determine its in vitro efficacy as an anti-inflammatory agent. Heparinized blood was collected via jugular venipuncture from senior horses. PBMCs were isolated then incubated for 24 hours with increasing dilutions of CBD dissolved in DMSO. PBMCs were stimulated the last 4 hours of incubation with PMA/IO and Brefeldin A. A Vicell counter was used to evaluate viability after incubation. PBMCs were stained intracellularly for IFNγ and TNFα then analyzed via flow cytometry. RT-PCR was used to analyze samples for gene expression. Five equine-specific intron-spanning primers/probes used are: CB1, CB2, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-10, and Beta-glucuronidase. Data was analyzed using RM One-way ANOVA (significance P < .05). Viability of PBMCs with CBD was completed to determine cytotoxicity. The dilution of CBD that did not affect cell viability was 4 µg/mL (P<0.05). CBD at 4 µg/mL significantly reduced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α (P < .05). RT-PCR results for TNFα and IFNγ at 4 µg/mL showed a reduction compared with the positive control and IL-10 showed a similar reduction at 2 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL. RT-PCR gene expression results showed significance for 10 μg/mL CBD in CB1 and CB2. CBD at 4 µg/mL reduced in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from senior horses. This in vitro study supports further investigation of CBD to determine if it may be effective as an anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammation in the horse.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: Journal of equine veterinary science

p 0 0001(8)

Human Newborn Monocytes Demonstrate Distinct BCG-Induced Primary and Trained Innate Cytokine Production and Metabolic Activation
Newborns exhibit distinct immune responses and are at high risk of infection. Neonatal immunization with BCG, the live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), is associated with broad protection against a range of unrelated pathogens, possibly reflecting vaccine-induced training of innate immune cells ("innate memory"). However, little is known regarding the impact of age on BCG-induced innate responses. Establish an age-specific human monocyte Human neonatal and adult CD33-selected monocytes were stimulated for 24h with RPMI (control) or BCG (Danish strain) in 10% autologous serum, washed and cultured for 5 additional days, prior to re-stimulation with the TLR4 agonist LPS for another 24h. Supernatants were collected at Day 1 (D1) to measure Cytokine production by human monocytes differed significantly by age at D1 (primary, BCG 1:750 and 1:100 vol/vol, p<0.0001) and D7 (innate memory response, BCG 1:100 vol/vol, p<0.05). Compared to RPMI control, newborn monocytes demonstrated greater TNF (1:100, 1:10 vol/vol, p<0.01) and IL-12p40 (1:100 vol/vol, p<0.05) production than adult monocytes (1:100, p<0.05). At D7, while BCG-trained adult monocytes, as previously reported, demonstrated enhanced LPS-induced TNF production, BCG-trained newborn monocytes demonstrated tolerization, as evidenced by significantly diminished subsequent LPS-induced TNF (RPMI vs. BCG 1:10, p <0.01), IL-10 and CCL5 production (p<0.05). With the exception of IL-1RA production by newborn monocytes, BCG-induced monocyte production of D1 cytokines/chemokines was inversely correlated with D7 LPS-induced TNF in both age groups (p<0.0001). Compared to BCG-trained adult monocytes, newborn monocytes demonstrated markedly impaired BCG-induced production of lactate, a metabolite implicated in immune training in adults. BCG-induced human monocyte primary- and memory-innate cytokine responses were age-dependent and accompanied by distinct immunometabolic shifts that impact both glycolysis and training. Our results suggest that immune ontogeny may shape innate responses to live attenuated vaccines, suggesting age-specific approaches to leverage innate training for broad protection against infection.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Frontiers in immunology

p lt(6)

[Shenlian extract attenuates TNF-α-induced ECV304 injury by regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway].
This study aimed to investigate the effect and the possible mechanism of Shenlian( SL) extract on tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α)-induced ECV304 injury. After the establishment of TNF-α-induced ECV304 cells injure model,MTT assay was used to detect cell viability and the level of reactive oxygen species( ROS) was measured by flow cytometry. The contents of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malondialdehyde( MDA),nitric oxide( NO),endothelin-1( ET-1) and interleukin-1β( IL-1β) in the supernatant were detected by biochemical method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-lymphoma-2 gene( Bcl-2),Bcl-2 associated X protein( Bax),caspase-3,caspase-9 and nuclear factor E2 associated factor2( Nrf2)/Kelch like epichlorohydrin associated protein-1( Keap1) signaling pathway related proteins Nrf2,Keap1,quinone oxidoreductase( NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1( HO-1) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that 50 μg·L-1 TNF-α significantly damaged ECV304 cells,induced the impairment of cell viability( P<0. 01),the increase of ROS production,the decrease of SOD activity,and the increase of MDA,NO,ET-1 and IL-1β( P<0. 01),meanwhile,it caused the up-regulation of Keap1,caspase-9 and Bax protein expression,and down-regulation of NQO1 and Bcl-2 protein expression( P<0. 05) compared with the control group.Compared with the model group,SL extract reduced the damage of ECV304 cells induced by TNF-α,improved cell viability,reduced ROS production,increased SOD activity and decreased MDA,NO,ET-1,IL-1β content( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). In addition,SL extract also down-regulated the protein expression levels of Keap1,caspase-3,caspase-9 and Bax,and increased the protein expressions of Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and Bcl-2( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). The above results indicate that SL extract can provide protective effect on ECV304 cells injury induced by TNF-α,alleviate oxidative stress injury,inflammation and apoptosis,and its mechanism may be related to regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica

ng l(5)

[Activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome mediates inflammatory response and apoptosis in septic intestinal injury model].
To investigate the expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in intestinal injury models with different severity of sepsis and the inflammatory response and apoptosis mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome. Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) were cultured in vitro. The logarithmic growth phase cells were divided into blank control group (normal culture in complete medium) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1, 2 and 4 mg/L groups (complete medium containing 1, 2 and 4 mg/L LPS, respectively). The supernatant were collected at 6, 12 and 24 hours, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-18) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The apoptotic level of cells was detected by flow cytometry. The cells were harvested, and the real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expressions of NLRP3 and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1). Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of NLRP3, SIRT1, caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC). ELISA results showed that the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18 in cell supernatant of LPS groups increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner as compared with the blank control group during the same intervention period. The increase was most significant in LPS 4 mg/L group at 24 hours [IL-6 (ng/L): 3.55±0.06 vs. 0.67±0.09, TNF-α (ng/L): 15.37±0.19 vs. 5.04±0.14, IL-1β (ng/L): 2.26±0.10 vs. 0.56±0.09, IL-18 (ng/L): 433.92±22.55 vs. 93.55±21.13, all P < 0.05]. The results of the apoptotic test showed that, compared with the blank control group, the apoptotic rate of LPS groups increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, and the apoptotic rate of LPS 4 mg/L group increased most significantly at 24 hours [(14.83±3.73)% vs. (5.87±1.17)%, P < 0.05]. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of NLRP3 mRNA was increased, while the expression level of SIRT1 mRNA was decreased with the increase of LPS intervention dose and the prolonging of intervention time. At 24 hours, there were significant differences between LPS 4 mg/L group and blank control group [NLRP3 mRNA (2 In vitro, in the sepsis induced intestinal inflammation model, with the increase of LPS intervention dose and the prolongation of intervention time, intestinal inflammatory response and cell apoptosis showed an increasing trend, which may be related to the up-regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream products ASC and caspase-1, and to the down-regulation of SIRT1 expression.
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue

p 01(5)

Increased Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Leads to Downregulation of Nitrergic Neurons Following Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Injury and Modulates Penile Smooth Tone.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) after injury to peripheral cavernous nerve (CN) is partly a result of inflammation in pelvic ganglia, suggesting that ED may be prevented by inhibiting neuroinflammation. The aim of this study is to examine temporal changes of TNF-α, after bilateral CN injury (BCNI), to evaluate effect of exogenous TNF-α on neurite outgrowth from major pelvic ganglion (MPG), and to investigate effect of TNF-α signal inhibition to evaluate effects of TNF-α on penile tone with TNF-α receptor knockout mice (TNFRKO). Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo BCNI or sham surgery. Sham rats' MPGs were harvested after 48 hours, whereas BCNI groups' MPGs were at 6, 12, 24, 48 hours, 7, or 14 days after surgery. qPCR was used to evaluate gene expression of markers for neuroinflammation in MPGs. Western blot was performed to evaluate TNF-α protein amount in MPGs. MPGs were harvested from healthy rats and cultured in Matrigel with TNF-α. Neurite outgrowth from MPGs was measured after 3 days, and TH and nNOS immunofluorescence was assessed. Wild type (WT) and TNFRKO mice were used to examine effect of TNF-α inhibition on smooth muscle function after BCNI. MPGs were harvested 48 hours after sham or BCNI surgery to evaluate gene expression of nNOS and TH. Gene expression of TNF-α signaling pathway, Schwann cell and macrophage markers, protein expression of TNF-α in MPGs, and penile smooth muscle function to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were evaluated. BCNI increased gene and protein expression of TNF-α in MPGs. Exogenous TNF-α inhibited MPG neurite outgrowth. MPGs cultured with TNF-α had decreased gene expression of nNOS (P < .05). MPGs cultured with TNF-α had shorter nNOS+ neurites than TH+ neurites (P < .01). Gene expression of nNOS was enhanced in TNFRKO mice compared to WT mice (P < .01). WT mice showed enhanced smooth muscle contraction of penises of WT mice was enhanced to EFS, compared to TNFKO (P < .01). Penile smooth-muscle relaxation to EFS was greater in TNFKO mice compared to WT (P < .01). TNF-α inhibition may prevent ED after prostatectomy. TNF-α inhibition might prevent loss of nitrergic nerve apoptosis after BCNI and preserve corporal smooth muscle function but further investigation is required to evaluate protein expression of nNOS in MPGs of TNFKO mice. TNF-α inhibited neurite outgrowth from MPGs by downregulating gene expression of nNOS and TNFRKO mice showed enhanced gene expression of nNOS and enhanced penile smooth-muscle relaxation. Matsui H, Sopko NA, Campbell JD, et al. Increased Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Leads to Downregulation of Nitrergic Neurons Following Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Injury and Modulates Penile Smooth Tone. J Sex Med 2021;18:1181-1190.
Publication Date: 2021-07-19
Journal: The journal of sexual medicine