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Query Topic: TP53

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Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanisms of
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of TwHF on CVD remain elusive. This study revealed the pharmacological mechanisms of TwHF acting on CVD based on a pharmacology approach. The active compounds were selected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database according to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). The potential targets of TwHF were obtained from the SwissTargetPrediction database. The CVD-related therapeutic targets were collected from the DrugBank, the GeneCards database, and the OMIM database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was generated by the STITCH database. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed by R package. The network of drug-targets-diseases-pathways was constructed by the Cytoscape software. The 41 effective ingredients of TwHF and the 178 common targets of TwHF and CVD-related were collected. Furthermore, AKT1, amyloid precursor protein (APP), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), and cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53) were identified as the core targets involved in the mechanism of TwHF on CVD. Top ten GO (biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions) and KEGG pathways were screened with a These findings demonstrate that the main active compound of TwHF, the core targets, and pathways maybe provide new insights into the development of a natural therapy for the prevention and treatment of CVD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: BioMed research international


Epigenetic therapies in ovarian cancer alter repetitive element expression in a TP53-dependent manner.
Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (OC) are particularly deadly due to intratumoral heterogeneity, resistance to standard-of-care therapies, and poor response to alternative treatments such as immunotherapy. Targeting the OC epigenome with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) or histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) increases immune signaling and recruits CD8+ T cells and NK cells to fight OC in murine models. This increased immune activity is caused by increased transcription of repetitive elements (RE) that form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and trigger an interferon response. To understand which REs are affected by epigenetic therapies in OC, we assessed the effect of DNMTi and HDACi on OC cell lines and patient samples. Subfamily-level (TEtranscripts) and individual locus-level (Telescope) analysis of REs showed that DNMTi treatment upregulated more REs than HDACi treatment. Upregulated REs were predominantly LTR and SINE subfamilies, and SINEs exhibited the greatest loss of DNA methylation upon DNMTi treatment. Cell lines with TP53 mutations exhibited significantly fewer upregulated REs with epigenetic therapy than wild type TP53 cell lines. This observation was validated using isogenic cell lines; the TP53 mutant cell line had significantly higher baseline expression of REs but upregulated fewer upon epigenetic treatment. In addition, p53 activation increased expression of REs in wild type but not mutant cell lines. These data give a comprehensive, genome-wide picture of RE chromatin and transcription-related changes in OC after epigenetic treatment and implicate p53 in RE transcriptional regulation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Cancer research


Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoresistance Induced by Cisplatin in NSCLC Cancer Therapy.
Cancer cells utilise several mechanisms to increase their survival and progression as well as their resistance to anticancer therapy: deregulation of growth regulatory pathways by acquiring grow factor independence, immune system suppression, reducing the expression of antigens activating T lymphocyte cells (mimicry), induction of anti-apoptotic signals to counter the action of drugs, activation of several DNA repair mechanisms and driving the active efflux of drugs from the cell cytoplasm, and epigenetic regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Because it is commonly diagnosed late, lung cancer remains a major malignancy with a low five-year survival rate; when diagnosed, the cancer is often highly advanced, and the cancer cells may have acquired drug resistance. This review summarises the main mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance and interactions between cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and the tumour microenvironment. It also analyses changes in the gene expression profile of cisplatin sensitive vs. cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cellular model using the GSE108214 Gene Expression Omnibus database. It describes a protein-protein interaction network that indicates highly dysregulated TP53, MDM2, and CDKN1A genes as they encode the top networking proteins that may be involved in cisplatin tolerance, these all being upregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, it illustrates the multifactorial nature of cisplatin resistance by examining the diversity of dysregulated pathways present in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells based on KEGG pathway analysis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


KEAP1 and TP53 frame genomic, evolutionary and immunological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma with different sensitivity to immunotherapy.
The connection between driver mutations and efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is the focus of intense investigations. In lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), KEAP1/STK11 alterations have been tied to immunoresistance. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity characterizing immunotherapy efficacy suggests the contribution of still unappreciated events. Somatic interaction analysis of top-ranking mutant genes in LUAD was carried out in the AARC project GENIE (N=6208). Mutational processes, intratumor heterogeneity, evolutionary trajectories, immunological features and cancer-associated signatures were investigated exploiting multiple datasets (AACR GENIE, TCGA, TRACERx). The impact of the proposed subtyping on survival outcomes was assessed in two independent cohorts of ICI-treated patients: the tissue-based sequencing cohort (Rome/MSKCC/DFCI, tNGS cohort, N=343) and the blood-based sequencing cohort (OAK/POPLAR trials, bNGS cohort, N=304). Observing the neutral interaction between KEAP1 and TP53, KEAP1/TP53-based subtypes were dissected at the molecular and clinical level. KEAP1 single-mutant (KEAP1 SM) and KEAP1/TP53 double-mutant (KEAP1/TP53 DM) LUAD share a transcriptomic profile characterized by AKR gene overexpression, which are under the control of a productive super-enhancer with NEF2L2-binding signals. Nevertheless, KEAP1 SM and KEAP1/TP53 DM tumors differ by mutational repertoire, degree of intratumor heterogeneity, evolutionary trajectories, pathway-level signatures and immune microenvironment composition. In both cohorts (bNGS and tNGS), KEAP1 SM tumors had the shortest survival, the KEAP1/TP53 DM subgroup had intermediate prognosis matching that of pure TP53 LUAD, whereas the longest survival was noticed in the double-wild-type group. Our data provide a framework for genomically-informed immunotherapy, highlighting the importance of multi-modal data integration to achieve a clinically exploitable taxonomy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer


TP53 isoform junction reads based analysis in malignant and normal contexts.
TP53 is one of the most frequently altered genes in cancer; it can be inactivated by a number of different mechanisms. NM_000546.6 (ENST00000269305.9) is by far the predominant TP53 isoform, however a few other alternative isoforms have been described to be expressed at much lower levels. To better understand patterns of TP53 alternative isoforms expression in cancer and normal samples we performed exon-exon junction reads based analysis of TP53 isoforms using RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms have abolished or severely decreased tumor suppressor activity, and therefore, an increase in fraction of TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms may be expected in tumors with wild type TP53. Despite our expectation that there would be increase of fraction of TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms, we observed no substantial increase in fraction of TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms in TCGA tumors and CCLE cancer cell lines with wild type TP53, likely indicating that TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms expression cannot be reliably selected for during tumor progression.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Scientific reports


Immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53 predict the mutational status of TP53 in oral epithelial dysplasia.
Next-generation sequencing of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has revealed TP53 as the most frequently mutated gene in OSCC mutually exclusive with human papillomavirus infection. Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is defined as a precancerous lesion of OSCC by the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification; therefore, it is assumed that TP53 mutations occur in early precancerous conditions such as OED. Here, we conducted an integrated analysis of TP53, including whole coding sequencing of TP53, FISH analysis of the 17p13.1 locus, and immunohistochemical analysis for p53 (p53-IHC), in 40 OED cases. We detected 20 mutations in 16 (40%) OED cases, and four cases, each harbored two mutations. FISH analysis revealed six of 24 cases (25%) had a deletion on 17p13.1, and four cases had concurrent TP53 mutations and 17p13.1 deletion (2-hit). Also, the increased frequency of TP53 mutations in higher degrees of OED implies acquisition of the mutation is a major event toward OSCC. p53-IHC revealed that overall cases could be categorized into four patterns that correlate well with the mutational status of TP53. Especially, two patterns, broad p53 expression type (pattern HI) and p53 null type (pattern LS), strongly correlated with a missense mutation and nonsense mutation, respectively. Furthermore, seven of the 40 cases progressed to SCC, and six of these seven cases presented pattern HI or LS. Therefore, patterns HI and LS have a high risk for malignant transformation if excisional treatment is not performed irrespective of the dysplasia grade. Although the current WHO classification mainly focuses on morphological criteria for the diagnosis of OED, interobserver discrepancy appears in some instances of the OED diagnosis. Our immunohistochemical analysis supports a more accurate pathological diagnosis for OED in cases of low dysplastic changes or of differential diagnosis with non-dysplastic lesions.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc


Cooperation between liver-specific mutations of pten and tp53 genetically induces hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.
Liver cancer, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide and has a poor prognosis due to insufficient understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that the mutations in PTEN and TP53 are the two most common genetic events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we illustrated the crosstalk between aberrant Pten and Tp53 pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to establish several transgenic zebrafish lines with single or double tissue-specific mutations of pten and tp53 to genetically induce liver tumorigenesis. Next, the morphological and histological determination were performed to investigate the roles of Pten and Tp53 signalling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish. We demonstrated that Pten loss alone induces hepatocarcinogenesis with only low efficiency, whereas single mutation of tp53 failed to induce tumour formation in liver tissue in zebrafish. Moreover, zebrafish with double mutations of pten and tp53 exhibits a much higher tumour incidence, higher-grade histology, and a shorter survival time than single-mutant zebrafish, indicating that these two signalling pathways play important roles in dynamic biological events critical for the initiation and progression of hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish. Further histological and pathological analyses showed significant similarity between the tumours generated from liver tissues of zebrafish and humans. Furthermore, the treatment with MK-2206, a specific Akt inhibitor, effectively suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish. Our findings will offer a preclinical animal model for genetically investigating hepatocarcinogenesis and provide a useful platform for high-throughput anticancer drug screening.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR


Potential roles of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma without major causative risk factors.
Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs) are the major causative risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, reports on ESCC cases unrelated to these risk factors are very limited. Here, we investigated the clinicopathological features and etiology of such cases. We retrospectively analyzed 704 consecutive superficial ESCC tumors of 512 patients who were treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups-the very low-risk (VLR)-group and risk (R)-group-based on the presence of the abovementioned risks. Clinical, endoscopic, and pathological characteristics and genetic findings were assessed in both groups. The VLR-group consisted of 21 (4.1%) patients, who were characteristically female. Patients in the VLR-group presented gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatal hernia, and non-open-type atrophic gastritis, and were negative for Helicobacter pylori. We found unique endoscopic features-frequently observed in the posterior wall of the middle thoracic esophagus-with a linear shape that closely resembled the erosion-like form of GERD. Additionally, histopathological examination showed that these tumors presented atypical nuclei limited to the basal and parabasal layer, sequential to the surrounding changes that presented pathological chronic inflammation of esophagitis. Evaluation of somatic mutations in cancer-related genes using next-generation sequencing revealed that the positive carcinogenic potential (TP53 mutation) of the tumors was relatively frequent in the VLR-group. Our study suggests that ESCC without major causative factors is related to GERD, with no remarkable oncogenic difference.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Journal of gastroenterology


High chromosome instability identified by low-pass whole-genome sequencing assay is associated with TP53 copy loss and worse prognosis in BRCA1 germline mutation breast cancer.
Though BRCA1 mutation is the most susceptible factor of breast cancer, its prognostic value is disputable. Here in this study, we use a novel method which based on whole-genome analysis to evaluate the chromosome instability (CIN) value and identified the potential relationship between CIN and prognosis of breast cancer patients with germline-BRCA1 mutation. Sanger sequencing or a 98-gene panel sequencing assay was used to screen for BRCA1 germline small mutations in 1151 breast cancer patients with high-risk factors. MLPA assay was employed to screen BRCA1 large genomic rearrangements in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1 negative for small mutations. Thirty-two samples with unique BRCA1 germline mutation patterns were further subjected to CIN evaluation by LPWGS (low-pass whole-genome sequencing) technology. Firstly, 113 patients with germline BRCA1 mutations were screened from the cohort. Further CIN analysis by the LPWGS assay indicated that CIN was independent from the mutation location or type of BRCA1. Patients with high CIN status had shorter disease-free survival rates (DFS) (HR = 6.54, 95% CI 1.30-32.98, P = 0.034). The TP53 copy loss was also characterized by LPWGS assay. The rates of TP53 copy loss in CIN high and CIN low groups were 85.71% (12/14) and 16.67% (3/18), respectively. CIN-high is a prognostic factor correlated with shorter DFS and was independent with the germline BRCA1 mutation pattern. Higher CIN values were significantly correlated with TP53 copy loss in breast cancer patients with germline BRCA1 mutation. Our results revealed a reliable molecular parameter for distinguishing patients with poor prognosis from the BRCA1-mutated breast cancer patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)


Primary High Grade Non-Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 364 Cases.
High grade non-anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (HGTC) are carcinomas of follicular cells with prognosis intermediate between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma. This study includes 364 HGTC patients: 200 patients (54.9%) were diagnosed as poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma based on Turin consensus (HGTC-PDTC) and 164 with high grade features that did not meet Turin criteria (HGTC-nonPDTC). HGTC are aggressive: 3-year, 5-year, 10-year, and 20-year disease specific survival (DSS) were 89%, 76%, 60% and 35% respectively. Although DSS was similar between HGTC-PDTC and HGTC-nonPDTC, HGTC-PDTC was associated with higher rate of RAI avidity, higher frequency of RAS mutations, lower rate of BRAF V600E mutations, and higher propensity for distant metastasis (DM) compared with HGTC-nonPDTC. Independent clinicopathologic markers of worse outcome were older age, male sex, extensive necrosis, lack of encapsulation for DSS; older age, male sex, vascular invasion for DM free survival; older age, necrosis, positive margin, lymph node metastasis for locoregional recurrence free survival. The frequency of BRAF, RAS, TERT, TP53, and PTEN alterations was 28%, 40%, 55%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. TP53, PTEN, and TERT were independent molecular markers associated with unfavorable outcome independent of clinicopathologic parameters. Coexistence of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutation increased the risk of DM. The above data supports the classification of high grade non-anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as a single group with two distinct subtypes based on tumor differentiation: HGTC-PDTC and HGTC-nonPDTC.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Histopathology


Aberrant PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 expression in human scalp and face angiosarcoma.
Angiosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor originating from endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels. The molecular mechanisms of scalp and face angiosarcoma still need to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-like protein (pMAPK), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in scalp and face angiosarcoma and to assess tumor tissue apoptosis.The expression and intracellular distribution of PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 proteins in 21 specimens of human scalp and face angiosarcoma and 16 specimens of human benign hemangioma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.Significantly lower PTEN but higher PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 immunostaining were detected in the angiosarcoma specimens than in the benign hemangioma specimens(P < .01). The angiosarcoma tissues exhibited significantly higher apoptosis indices than the benign hemangioma tissues (P < .01). The positive expression rates of PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 were correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation in the human scalp and face angiosarcoma.The PI3K, MAPK, and TP53 pathways might be involved in angiosarcoma tumorigenesis in humans and may serve as therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of this malignancy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Medicine


Spontaneous and inherited TP53 genetic alterations.
The p53 protein is a transcription factor that prevents tumors from developing. In spontaneous and inherited cancers there are many different missense mutations in the DNA binding domain of the TP53 gene that contributes to tumor formation. These mutations produce a wide distribution in the transcriptional capabilities of the mutant p53 proteins with over four logs differences in the efficiencies of forming cancers in many diverse tissue types. These inherited and spontaneous TP53 mutations produce proteins that interact with both genetic and epigenetic cellular modifiers of p53 function and their inherited polymorphisms to produce a large number of diverse phenotypes in individual patients. This manuscript reviews these variables and discusses how the combinations of TP53 genetic alterations interact with genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic alterations, and environmental factors to begin predicting and modifying patient outcomes and provide a better understanding for new therapeutic opportunities.
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
Journal: Oncogene


[Genome research project detected TP53mutation in a girl with rhabdomyosarcoma].
In this case report, a germ line genome project identified a pathogenic variant in TP53 in a three-year-old girl diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma. The variant causes the cancer predisposition syndrome Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). The girl's family was genetically counselled, and the same variant was identified in her mother and sister. The family was afterwards offered surveillance according to national guidelines. With this report, we want to focus on cancer predisposition syndromes and to discuss the benefits regarding surveillance of children with LFS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-12
Journal: Ugeskrift for laeger


Two progressed malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast harbor alterations in genes frequently involved in other advanced cancers.
The genomic landscape of phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast is not well defined, especially in patients with advanced disease. To shed light on this topic, paired primary and progressed tumor samples from two patients with malignant PTs were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by functional analysis of genetic alterations using two prediction tools. The DNA of both the primary tumor and distant metastases of Patient 1 and the primary and recurrent tumor of Patient 2 were subjected to molecular profiling. NGS with the FoundationOne® assay was performed in a commercial molecular pathology laboratory. Two in silico prediction tools were used to estimate the pathogenicity of indicated genetic alterations. In total, 38 genomic alterations were detected, of which 11 were predicted to be probably benign. In Patient 1, 14 aberrations were identified in the primary tumor and 17 in pulmonary metastases, 12 of which were identical. In the primary and recurrent tumor of Patient 2, 17 and 15 sequence variants, respectively, were found, with 13 overlapping findings. Affected genes included seven (TP53, TERT, APC, ARID1A, EGFR, KMT2D, and RB1) of the top 10 most frequently altered genes in other advanced cancer entities, as well as four actionable therapeutic targets (EGFR, KIT, PDGFRA, and BRIP1). Of note, seven genes coding for receptor tyrosine kinases were affected: three in Patient 1 and four in Patient 2. Several genes (e.g. EPHA3, EPHA7, and EPHB1) were shown to be altered for the first time in PTs. The two progressed malignant PTs investigated here share some of the major genetic events occurring in other advanced cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Orphanet journal of rare diseases


Balanced and unbalanced translocations in a multicentric series of 2,843 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Chromosomal translocations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are very rare, and therefore systematic analysis of large series of cases are needed to allow the identification of recurrent rearrangements, breakpoints involved, and target genes. The aims of the present study were to identify new translocations and their clinical impact and to establish their frequency in a large cohort of 2,843 CLL patients. By conventional cytogenetics 250 translocations were identified in 215 (7.5%) patients, 186 (74%) were apparently balanced and 64 (26%) were unbalanced. All chromosomes were involved in translocations, except Y chromosome. The chromosomes more frequently translocated were in decreasing frequency chromosomes 14, 18, 13, 17, 1, 6, 2, 3, 8, and 11. Translocations were found in the karyotypes either as the unique chromosomal abnormality (27%), associated with another alteration (24%), or as a part of a complex karyotype (48%). A large proportion of rearranged breakpoints involved genes related to CLL such as IGH (14q32), RB1, MIR15A, MIR16-1 (13q14), BCL2 (18q21), IGL (22q11.2), TP53 (17p13), IRF4 (6p25-p23), ATM (11q22) and CDK6 (7q21). Overall, 76 novel CLL translocations were identified, including a recurrent t(8;11)(p21;q21-23). Whole-genome sequencing and/or copy-number microarray data of 24 cases with translocations confirmed all rearrangements, enabled refinement of 3 karyotypes and all breakpoints at gene level. The projected survival and time to first treatment significantly decreased linearly with the number of translocations. In summary, this study allowed to establish the frequency of translocations (7.5%) and to identify new translocations in a cohort of 2,843 CLL patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer


High Expression of RhoF Predicts Worse Overall Survival: A Potential Therapeutic Target for non-M3 Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Rho GTPases are involved in multiple human malignancies and diverse biological functions. However, the patterns and prognostic significance of the expression of RhoD subfamily in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unknown. Here, we detected the expressions of RhoD subfamily genes in AML on the basis of several published datasets and analyzed the survival of RhoD subfamily across the TCGA profiles and in a GEO series. We found that the expression of RhoF, but not RhoD, increased in AML patients in TCGA and GEO (all P<0.001); the survival analysis of two independent cohorts demonstrated that higher RhoF expression was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), whereas RhoD expression had no significant effect on OS in patients with AML (P>0.05); the subgroup analysis showed that high RhoF expression was correlated with poor 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS (P<0.05 for all); upregulated RhoF expression had a more significant prognostic value for OS in the younger patients (age<60), the intensive chemotherapy group, and wild-type groups (IDH1, NRAS, and TP53) (P<0.05 for all). Multivariate analysis indicated high RhoF expression as a strongly independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS in patients without transplantation (P<0.05). Furthermore, a higher RhoF expression was closely associated with an older age, intermediate-/poor-risk cytogenetics and mutations in IDH1, NRAS, and TP53. RhoF expression was negatively correlated with BM blasts (P=0.020) and WBC (P=0.003). These findings suggest that high RhoF expression is associated with worsening OS in AML patients and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AML.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Journal of Cancer


Identification of Tumor Microenvironment-Related Prognostic lncRNAs in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common type of lung cancer and is a severe threat to human health. Although many therapies have been applied to LUAD, the long-term survival rate of patients remains unsatisfactory. We aim to find reliable immune microenvironment-related lncRNA biomarkers to improve LUAD prognosis. ESTIMATE analysis was performed to evaluate the degree of immune infiltration of each patient in TAGA LUAD cohort. Correlation analysis was used to identify the immune microenvironment-related lncRNAs. Univariate cox regression analysis, LASSO analysis, and Kaplan Meier analysis were used to construct and validate the prognostic model based on microenvironment-related lncRNAs. We obtained 1,178 immune microenvironment-related lncRNAs after correlation analysis. One hundred and eighty of them are independent prognostic lncRNAs. Sixteen key lncRNAs were selected by LASSO method. This lncRNA-based model successfully predicted patients' prognosis in validation cohort, and the risk score was related to pathological stage. Besides, we also found that TP53 had the highest frequency mutation in LUAD, and the mutation of TP53 in the high-risk group, which was identified by our survival model, has a poor prognosis. lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network further suggested that these lncRNAs play a vital role in the prognosis of LUAD. Here, we filtered 16 key lncRNAs, which could predict the survival of LUAD and may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

tp53 gene(157)

Clinicopathologic and Molecular Characteristics of Gastrointestinal MiNENs.
A mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is a recently defined entity that comprises a neuroendocrine tumor (NEN) component and a non-neuroendocrine tumor (nNEN) component. As MiNEN is a recently defined entity, its molecular nature is not well known. Here, we evaluated the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of gastrointestinal (GI) MiNENs. We performed a genomic analysis of 31 samples from 12 GI MiNEN cases using next-generation sequencing. We examined the primary NEN and nNEN components, as well as the metastatic NENs and nNENs. The relationships between the clinical tumor features (component, location, and grade) and their molecular characteristics were examined. The 12 MiNENs included in the study were found in the stomach (n=10), distal rectum (n=1), and anus (n=1). Primary MiNENs that had NENs as the major component showed a worse clinical outcome than those that had nNENs as the major component. All distant metastatic tumors originating from MiNENs were NENs. In addition, NENs generally carried 1.5 times more gene mutations and copy number variations than nNENs. The ATRX gene deletion and TP53 gene mutation were the most common variants in both components of GI MiNENs. We have revealed the detailed clinicopathologic and molecular findings with distinguishable alterations of GI MiNENs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the ATRX gene deletion in GI MiNENs. The molecular characteristics of GI MiNENs could provide clues to the pathogenic origin and progression of GI MiNENs.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


The Clinical Outcomes and Genomic Landscapes of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients with E2A-PBX1: A 10-year Retrospective Study.
The clinical outcomes and genomic features of E2A-PBX1 (TCF3-PBX1)-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients remain unclear. 137 patients carrying E2A-PBX1 among 3164 B-ALL patients between 2009 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of the whole cohort were 68.6% and 61.0%, respectively. Age (DFS: P=0.037; cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR): P=0.005) and the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction chemotherapy (OS: P=0.020; DFS: P=0.002; CIR: P=0.006) were independent risk factors. In adolescents/adults, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at CR1 significantly improved the 5-year prognosis (OS: P<0.001; DFS: P<0.001; CIR: P<0.001). Haploidentical-HSCT decreased the CIR compared with HLA-matched-HSCT in adolescents/adults (P=0.017). Mutations in PBX1, PAX5, CTCF and SETD2, amplification of AKT3, and deletion of CDKN2A/B were common in the total cohort, while transcriptome differences were found in the cell cycle, NGF signaling pathway and transcriptional regulation by TP53 between adolescents/adults and children. Patients with multiple subclones at diagnosis tended to have unfavorable 3-year prognoses (DFS: P=0.010; CIR: P=0.021). Leukemia clones with DNA repair gene mutations showed aggressive and treatment-refractory phenotypes in this subtype of ALL. Our study indicated that age, the level of MRD and DNA repair gene mutations were associated with E2A-PBX1-positive B-ALL outcomes. Allo-HSCT, especially haploidentical-HSCT, could improve the prognosis of adolescent/adult patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: American journal of hematology


Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Profile of Mantle Cell Lymphoma: An Institutional Experience.
Introduction Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a biologically aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics. Differentiation from other chronic lymphoproliferative disorders is essential for prognostication. Aim This paper aims to study the clinicopathological features of MCL with emphasis on immunohistochemical features and disease correlation. Method To do so, clinicopathological characteristics from 21 cases of MCL (14 males, seven females, M:F=2:1) diagnosed in the last five years i.e. 2015 to 2020, were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with immunohistochemistry (IHC) data. Particularly those pertaining to cyclin D1, SRY-box transcription factor 11 (SOX11), cluster of differentiation (CD) 5, CD23, MIB E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MIB1), tumor protein 53 (TP53), c-myelocytomatosis oncogene product (c-MYC), multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1), mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (EBV-LMP1) expression with its aberrations. Observations This study shows that MCL constituted 4.2% (21/500) of all NHLs with a mean age of 57.5 years (median 60 years, range 30 to 80 years). The disease was nodal in 19, and extranodal in the remaining two cases. 14 of 21 (67%) had generalized lymphadenopathy and 71% had bone marrow (BM) involvement. The nodal involvement was diffuse in 9/17 (53%), 8/21 (38%) had a blastoid morphology, and an in-situ MCL pattern was not seen in any of the cases selected for the study. Cyclin D1 immunoexpression correlated well with SOX11; CD5-negative in five cases; and CD23-positive in three cases. TP53 and c-MYC expression were noted in 17/19 (89.4%) and 8/17 (47%), respectively. MUM1 registered positive in six cases. None of the cases showed immunopositivity for MDM2 and EBV-LMP1. Conclusion In essence, this study indicates that morphological and immunophenotypic subclassification of mantle cell lymphoma with a wider panel of IHC markers is essential for understanding disease biology and better prognostication.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Cureus


The Impact of Foundation Medicine Testing on Cancer Patients: A Single Academic Centre Experience.
The use of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has recently allowed significant improvements in cancer treatment. Foundation Medicine A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with solid tumors who had FM testing between May 1, 2014 and May 1, 2018. Clinical factors and outcomes were measured using descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel Out of 66 FM tests, eight patients (= 12%) had a direct change in therapy based on the FM tests. Identified were 285 oncogenic mutations (median 1, range 0-31); where TP53 (n = 31, 10.9%), CDKN2A (n = 19, 6.7%), KRAS (n = 16, 5.6%) and APC (n = 9, 3.2%) were the most common FM mutations identified. A small proportion of FM reports identified actionable mutations and led to direct treatment change. FM testing is expensive and a few of the identified mutations are now part of routine on-site testing. NGS testing is likely to become more widespread, but this research suggests that its true clinical impact may be restricted to a minority of patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


Methylation biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and association with breast cancer risk at the time of menopause.
Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may influence risk of developing post-menopausal breast cancer. Although mechanisms are poorly understood, epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a role. To identify DNA methylation (DNAm) changes associated with PBDE serum levels and test the association of these biomarkers with breast cancer risk. We studied 397 healthy women (controls) and 133 women diagnosed with breast cancer (cases) between ages 40 and 58 years who participated in the California Teachers Study. PBDE levels were measured in blood. Infinium Human Methylation EPIC Bead Chips were used to measure DNAm. Using multivariable linear regression models, differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs) and regions (DMRs) associated with serum PBDE levels were identified using controls. For top-ranked DMSs and DMRs, targeted next-generation bisulfite sequencing was used to measure DNAm for 133 invasive breast cancer cases and 301 age-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between DMSs and DMRs and breast cancer risk. We identified 15 DMSs and 10 DMRs statistically significantly associated with PBDE levels (FDR < 0.05). Methylation changes in a DMS at BMP8B and DMRs at TP53 and A2M-AS1 were statistically significantly (FDR < 0.05) associated with breast cancer risk. We show for the first time that serum PBDE levels are associated with differential methylation and that PBDE-associated DNAm changes in blood are associated with breast cancer risk.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Environment international


Molecular description of meningeal solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas compared to meningiomas: two completely separate entities.
Meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFT), like all SFT, are defined by NAB2-STAT6 fusion and share clinicopathologic similarities with meningiomas, the most frequent meningeal tumors. Our aim is to establish the molecular identity of meningeal SFT and seek molecular prognostic factors. RNA sequencing and whole exome sequencing were performed in STAT6-positive SFT and grade 2-3 meningiomas, and data concerning other soft tissues tumors was obtained from the local database. Uniform manifold approximation and projection, individual gene expression and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis were performed. RNA clustering shows that SFT share a common molecular signature, different from any other type of tumoral tissue. Meningeal SFT aggregate with other SFT, with no clinical or histological subgroup. Comparison of genes expressions suggests significant over-expressions of ZIC2, ZIC3, ZIC5, GABBR2, TP53 in CNS-SFT. The pathogenic TP53 c.743G>T variant, previously undescribed in SFT, was found in one sample of meningeal SFT during malignant progression. Meningeal SFT are molecular counterparts of extra-meningeal SFT, completely separate from meningiomas. They might develop from the same tissues and benefit from the same treatments as SFT.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Journal of neuro-oncology


Optimal Management of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Economic Constraints.
In this article, we carry out an overview on the management options available for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and discuss possible treatment decisions, taking into account the issue of sustainability and availability. Targeted agents have shown to be superior compared with chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) in terms of progression-free survival in high-risk CLL. In the majority of studies, however, continuous treatment was compared with fixed-duration CIT and no overall survival or progression-free survival-2 (time from randomization to second progression or death) advantage could be documented. Meanwhile, a substantial financial burden on both patients and payers has raised issues about affordability and adherence to treatment. Therefore, value-based pricing of new drugs has been used to set up price negotiation policies in several countries, and fixed-duration therapy has shown to be less costly than continuous treatment. Thus, CIT continues to have a role in the treatment of CLL patients with a favorable genetic profile, that is, with a mutated IGHV gene profile and a wild-type TP53. Targeted treatment represents the preferred choice in patients with an unmutated IGHV gene configuration and/or a TP53 disruption, provided that adherence to treatment is guaranteed and bearing in mind that should costly drugs not be available for frontline treatment, new agents can be very effective as first salvage treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)


Response to immunotherapy in a patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer: A case report.
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive malignancy that is almost always fatal and lacks effective systemic treatment options. Current treatments of ATC include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, used in combination when possible. In the aspect of immunotherapy, the biomarker of TMB-H and MSI-H may suggest that patients benefit from pembrolizumab. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is highly expressed in ATC but has not been written into the guidelines or approved by the FDA as a biomarker for thyroid cancer immunotherapy. A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a slight right-sided neck enlargement in November 2019. The clinical diagnosis was ATC, pT3bN0M0, and stage IVB. Oral administration of apatinib (250 mg 3 times daily) was initiated after surgery, but some unpleasant side effects emerged after 1 month of treatment. Next-generation sequencing revealed that the tumor harbored 2 mutations, HRAS p.Q61R and TP53 p.P278S, and PD-L1 staining was positive with a high expression. Thus, camrelizumab (programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor) was combined with apatinib, and apatinib was changed to 250 mg once a day from March 2020. No adverse reactions were observed after the treatment immunotherapy combined with antiangiogenic drugs. Currently, the survival time of patients is more than 11 months, and the quality of life is not affected. This case suggests that immunotherapy in patients with ATC based upon PD-L1 evaluation provides a therapeutic option. Targeting programmed cell death protein 1/PD-L1 may provide a much-needed treatment option for patients with advanced ATC.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Medicine


HPV-negative Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Cervix With Special Focus on Intraepithelial Precursor Lesions.
Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized human papilloma virus (HPV)-independent invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without recognizing the existence of precursor lesions. This is a detailed characterization of 3 preinvasive lesions and 6 invasive SCC negative for HPV-DNA (32 genotypes), HPV-mRNA (14 genotypes) and genomic HPV sequencing. We evaluated histologic features, expression of p16ink4a, p53, CK7, and CK17, aberrations in 50 cancer genes and chromosomal copy number variations. HPV-negative preinvasive lesions were extensive basaloid or highly differentiated keratinizing intraepithelial proliferations of 3 to 20 cell layers thickness, partly with prominent cervical gland involvement. Overall, 2/3 intraepithelial lesions and the in situ component of 1/6 SCC showed p16ink4a block staining, while 1/6 in situ component revealed heterogenous p16ink4a staining. All invasive components of keratinizing SCC were p16ink4a-negative. Preinvasive and invasive SCC showed inconsistent CK7 and CK17 staining. Nuclear p53 overexpression was restricted to the TP53 gene mutated SCC. The highly vascularized peritumoral stroma showed a dense inflammatory infiltrate including plasma cells and intratumoral and peritumoral eosinophilic granulocytes. Inconsistent somatic gene mutations (PIK3CA, STK11, TP53, SMARC2B, and GNAS) occurred predominantly in nonhotspot locations at low mutational frequency in 3/6 SCC. Consistent aberrations included the pathogenic (angiogenic) germline polymorphism Q472H in the KDR gene (7/9 patients), and chromosome 3q gains (4/9 patients). In conclusion, HPV-negative intraepithelial cervical precancerous lesions exist, either as highly differentiated keratinized intraepithelial proliferations reminiscent of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or undifferentiated basaloid intraepithelial lesions with occasional p16ink4a block staining resembling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Gains of chromosome 3q, angiogenic germline variants the inflammatory infiltrate may contribute to progression of HPV-negative cervical carcinogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-14
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology


Targeted Sequencing of Ascites and Peritoneal Washing Fluid of Patients With Gastrointestinal Cancers and Their Clinical Applications and Limitations.
Cytology from gastrointestinal (GI) cancers is frequently obtained from ascites and peritoneal washing fluids. Examination of ascites and peritoneal washing fluids from patients with GI cancers can help in the tumor staging and prognosis. Tumor-derived DNA in these cytology samples can be a target for next generation sequencing (NGS). Targeted NGS was evaluated in ascites and peritoneal washing samples obtained from 33 patients with GI cancers. These sequences were compared with those from tumor tissue samples, and correlated with cytopathologic findings of the ascites and peritoneal fluid samples. The correlation between fluid and tissue genotyping results was 25%, with a sensitivity of 21.43%. The volume of tumor contained within the fluid samples was low, ranging from ~0 to 10%. Importantly, the sensitivity of detection of somatic mutations in the fluid samples could be increased to 69.2% by assessing samples containing >2% tumor volume. Evaluation of cells from ascitic fluid showed the presence of KRAS, TP53, and CDH1 mutations in 33, 13, and 7%, respectively, of patients with pancreatic cancer, and the presence of KRAS, TP53, and APC mutations in 25, 12, and 13%, respectively, of patients with gastric cancer. Ascites of one of the latter patients acquired KRAS mutation, which was a novel mutation during metastasis. Targeted NGS of ascites and peritoneal washing fluid have clinical implications, as well as limitations, in patients with GI cancers. NGS-based cytology examination may expand cytomolecular practices in GI cancer patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


miR-425-5p as an exosomal biomarker for metastatic prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer-related deaths are mostly caused by metastasis, which indicates the importance of identifying clinical prognostic biomarkers. In this study, we evaluated the expression profile of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3). miRNA signatures in exosomes and cells were evaluated by miRNA microarray analysis. Fourteen miRNAs were identified as candidates for specific noninvasive biomarkers. The expression of five miRNAs was validated using RT-qPCR, which confirmed that miR-205-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-183-5p, and miR-425-5p were differentially expressed in mPCa exosomes. Bioinformatic analyses showed that miR-425-5p was associated with residual tumor, pathologic T and N stages, and TP53 status in PCa samples. Gene ontology analysis of negatively correlated and predicted targeted genes showed enrichment of genes related to bone development pathways. The LinkedOmics database indicated that the potential target HSPB8 has a significant negative correlation with miR-425-5p. In conclusion, this study identified a panel of exosomal miRNAs with potential value as prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Cellular signalling

tumor suppressor(108)

Intratumoural heterogeneity and clone evolution of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral malignancy. Our study uses multipoint materials to explore the heterogeneity and metastasis mechanism of OSCC to find more accurate molecular markers and new therapeutic targets. By using whole-exome capture and sequencing and tumor evolution analysis, we found that most clone-driven mutations were located in the branches of tumor phylogenetic tree, such as COTL1, CASP8, and PROCR. Most clone-driven OSCC mutations occur mainly in tumor suppressor genes, including TP53, SFRP4, and NOTCH1. Our study on intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) and clonal evolution provides an important molecular basis for further understanding of OSCC occurrence and development and metastasis and provides potential targets for the treatment of this disease.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Molecular carcinogenesis


Factors associated with treatment response to CD19 CAR-T therapy among a large cohort of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has demonstrated striking responses among B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but analyses of potential factors associated with poor response and relapse are lacking. Here, we summarize the long-term follow-up of 254 B-ALL treated with CD19 CAR-T cells from 5 clinical trials (NCT03173417, NCT02546739, and NCT03671460 retrospectively registered on May 23, 2017, March 1, 2018, and September 7, 2018, respectively, at ; ChiCTR-ONC-17012829, and ChiCTR1800016541 retrospectively registered on September 28, 2017, and June 7, 2018, at ). Our data showed that TP53 mutation, bone marrow blasts > 20%, prior CAR-T/blinatumomab treatment, and severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) were associated with a lower complete remission (CR) rate while age, extramedullary disease, complex cytogenetics, history of prior transplant, prior courses of chemotherapy, CAR-T cell dose, and manufacturing source of the cellular product did not affect patients' CR rate. Risk factors related to leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were history of prior transplant, complex cytogenetics, TP53 mutation, severe CRS, neurotoxicity, and CAR-T therapy without consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Age and CAR-T cell dose did not influence LFS and OS. Patients with consolidative allo-HSCT after CAR-T therapy had a superior OS and LFS compared to those who did not. This benefit was also observed in both pediatric and adult patients as well as in patients either in high- or low-risk groups. This large study to identify risk factors of CR, LFS, and OS may help to maximize clinical outcomes of CAR-T therapy. Précis TP53 mutation and BM blasts > 20% are two independent factors associated with the CR rate. Patients with high tumor burden as well as those with bone marrow blasts < 5% can benefit from consolidative allo-HSCT post-CAR-T therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-09
Journal: Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII


Psychosocial interventions and needs among individuals and families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome: A scoping review.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a rare cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene, is associated with significant lifetime risk of developing cancer and warrants extensive and long-term surveillance. There are psychosocial impacts on individuals and families living with this condition, from the initial diagnosis throughout multiple stages across the lifespan, but these impacts have not been systematically reviewed and organized. The objective of this scoping review was to synthesize and characterize the literature on psychosocial screening and outcomes, educational needs, support services, and available interventions for patients and families with LFS. A systematic search of six databases was most recently conducted in August 2020: (PubMed/MEDLINE (NLM), EMBASE (Elsevier), Cochrane Library (Wiley), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO (OVID), and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics). A total of 15 757 titles were screened, and 24 articles included. Several important themes were identified across studies: factors associated with TP53 genetic testing, LFS surveillance, psychological outcomes, and communication. Findings related to these themes were organized into age-specific categories (age agnostic/across the lifespan, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and adulthood).
Publication Date: 2021-08-07
Journal: Clinical genetics


TP53 Mutation Related and Directly Regulated lncRNA Prognosis Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
TP53 mutation is the most common genetic variation type in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aim to illustrate the landscape of genomic alterations and TP53 mutation related and directly regulated lncRNA prognosis markers. Utilizing the clinical and transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) website, we present the landscape of genomic alterations and RNA differential expression profiles. By analyzing the ENCODE TP53 ChIP-seq data, we get the TP53 chromatin binding profiles. By Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis and ROC analysis, we identify lncRNA prognosis markers. TP53 ranks the highest mutation frequency gene and the maximum mutation type of TP53 is Missense Mutation (> 2.5×10 The work presents the landscape of genomic variations and two TP53 mutation related and directly regulated lncRNA prognosis markers of HCC.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: OncoTargets and therapy


Spectrum of hematological malignancies, clonal evolution and outcomes in 144 Mayo Clinic patients with germline predisposition syndromes.
Germline predisposition syndromes (GPS) result from constitutional aberrations in tumor suppressive and homeostatic genes, increasing risk for neoplasia in affected kindred. In this study, we present clinical and genomic data on 144 Mayo Clinic patients with GPS; 59 evaluated prospectively using an algorithm-based diagnostic approach in the setting of a dedicated GPS/ inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) clinic. Seventy-two (50%) patients had IBMFS (telomere biology disorders-32,Fanconi anemia-18, Diamond Blackfan Anemia - 11, congenital neutropenia-5, Schwachman-Diamond Syndrome-5 and Bloom Syndrome-1), 27 (19%) had GPS with antecedent thrombocytopenia (RUNX1-FPD-15, ANKRD26-6, ETV6-2, GATA1-1, MPL-3), 28 (19%) had GPS without antecedent thrombocytopenia (GATA2 haploinsufficiency-16, DDX41-10, CBL-1 and CEBPA-1) and 17 (12%) had general cancer predisposition syndromes (ataxia telangiectasia-7, heterozygous ATM variants-3, CHEK2-2, TP53-2, CDK2NA-1, NF1-1 and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome-1). Homozygous and heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants were exclusively associated with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), while DDX41 GPS was associated with LPD and myeloid neoplasms. The use of somatic NGS-testing identified clonal evolution in GPS patients, with ASXL1, RAS pathway genes, SRSF2 and TET2 being most frequently mutated. Fifty-two (91%) of 59 prospectively identified GPS patients had a change in their management approach, including additional GPS-related screening in 42 (71%), referral for allogenic HSCT workup and screening of related donors in 16 (27%), medication initiation and selection of specific conditioning regimens in 14 (24%), and genetic counseling with specific intent of fertility preservation and preconceptual counseling in 10 (17%) patients; highlighting the importance of dedicated GPS screening, detection and management programs for patients with hematological neoplasms.
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
Journal: American journal of hematology


[Exploring efficacy of Chinese medicine injection for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in treatment of acute cerebral infarction based on two complex network analysis methods].
This study aims to explore the efficacy of Chinese medicine injections( CMIs) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis for acute cerebral infarction from the perspectives of clinical medication and mechanism of action based on two complex network analysis methods. Firstly,the current 13 kinds of CMIs for acute cerebral infarction were obtained from 2019 List of medicines for national basic medical insurance,industrial injury insurance and maternity insurance with the method of network Meta-analysis. Secondly,with the use of network pharmacology,the mechanisms of top 2 CMIs with the highest therapeutic effect for acute cerebral infarction were explored from two levels including core target and network function enrichment. The result of network Meta-analysis showed Mailuoning Injection was superior to Danhong Injection in terms of total effectiveness rate for neurological deficit score and NIHSS score. The network pharmacology results showed that Mailuoning Injection had more core targets,interaction networks,enriched biological functions and more signaling pathways than Danhong Injection for cerebral infarction. Both two CMIs can play a role in treating cerebral infarction through core targets such as TP53 and NOS3,biological processes such as fibrinolysis,nitric oxide biosynthesis,nitric oxide-mediated signal transduction,negative regulation of apoptosis in endothelial cells and apoptosis process,as well as the signaling pathways such as PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway,HIF-1 signaling pathway and cell apoptosis signaling pathways. The results of pharmacological studies explained their differences in clinical efficacy to a certain extent. A research strategy based on curative effect should be advocated in efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine,where comparative research on clinical efficacy can be conducted firstly,and then mechanism research based on outstanding effective drugs to better provide references and basis for selection of similar competitive drugs for one disease in the clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica


Unraveling the Wide Spectrum of Melanoma Biomarkers.
The use of biomarkers in medicine has become essential in clinical practice in order to help with diagnosis, prognostication and prediction of treatment response. Since Alexander Breslow's original report on "melanoma and prognostic values of thickness", providing the first biomarker for melanoma, many promising new biomarkers have followed. These include serum markers, such as lactate dehydrogenase and S100 calcium-binding protein B. However, as our understanding of the DNA mutational profile progresses, new gene targets and proteins have been identified. These include point mutations, such as mutations of the BRAF gene and tumour suppressor gene tP53. At present, only a small number of the available biomarkers are being utilised, but this may soon change as more studies are published. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of melanoma biomarkers and their utility for current and, potentially, future clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)


Genetic identification of patients with AML older than 60 years achieving long-term survival with intensive chemotherapy.
To design a simple and reproducible classifier predicting the overall survival (OS) of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ≥60 years of age treated with 7 + 3, we sequenced 37 genes in 471 patients from the ALFA1200 (Acute Leukemia French Association) study (median age, 68 years). Mutation patterns and OS differed between the 84 patients with poor-risk cytogenetics and the 387 patients with good (n = 13), intermediate (n = 339), or unmeasured (n = 35) cytogenetic risk. TP53 (hazards ratio [HR], 2.49; P = .0003) and KRAS (HR, 3.60; P = .001) mutations independently worsened the OS of patients with poor-risk cytogenetics. In those without poor-risk cytogenetics, NPM1 (HR, 0.57; P = .0004), FLT3 internal tandem duplications with low (HR, 1.85; P = .0005) or high (HR, 3.51; P < 10-4) allelic ratio, DNMT3A (HR, 1.86; P < 10-4), NRAS (HR, 1.54; P = .019), and ASXL1 (HR, 1.89; P = .0003) mutations independently predicted OS. Combining cytogenetic risk and mutations in these 7 genes, 39.1% of patients could be assigned to a "go-go" tier with a 2-year OS of 66.1%, 7.6% to the "no-go" group (2-year OS 2.8%), and 3.3% of to the "slow-go" group (2-year OS of 39.1%; P < 10-5). Across 3 independent validation cohorts, 31.2% to 37.7% and 11.2% to 13.5% of patients were assigned to the go-go and the no-go tiers, respectively, with significant differences in OS between tiers in all 3 trial cohorts (HDF [Hauts-de-France], n = 141, P = .003; and SAL [Study Alliance Leukemia], n = 46; AMLSG [AML Study Group], n = 223, both P < 10-5). The ALFA decision tool is a simple, robust, and discriminant prognostic model for AML patients ≥60 years of age treated with intensive chemotherapy. This model can instruct the design of trials comparing the 7 + 3 standard of care with less intensive regimens.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Blood


Assessment of clonal expansion using CarcSeq measurement of lung cancer driver mutations and correlation with mouse strain- and sex-related incidence of spontaneous lung neoplasia.
Quantification of variation in levels of spontaneously occurring cancer driver mutations (CDMs) was developed to assess clonal expansion and predict future risk of neoplasm development. Specifically, an error-corrected next generation sequencing method, CarcSeq, and a mouse CarcSeq panel (analogous to human and rat panels) were developed and used to quantify low-frequency mutations in a panel of amplicons enriched in hotspot CDMs. Mutations in a subset of panel amplicons, Braf, Egfr, Kras, Stk11 and Tp53, were related to incidence of lung neoplasms at two years. This was achieved by correlating median absolute deviation (MAD) from the overall median mutant fraction (MF) measured in the lung DNA of 16-week-old male and female, B6C3F1 and CD-1 mice (10 mice/sex/strain) with percentages of spontaneous alveolar/bronchioloalveolar adenomas and carcinomas reported in bioassay control groups. 1,586 mouse lung mutants with MFs >1 x 10-4 were recovered. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations was used to assess the proportion of recovered mutations conferring a positive selective advantage. The greatest ratio was observed in what is considered the most lung tumor-sensitive model examined, male B6C3F1 mice. Of the recurrent, non-synonymous mouse mutations recovered, 55.5% have been reported in human tumors, with many located in or around the mouse equivalent of human cancer hotspot codons. MAD for the same subset of amplicons measured in normal human lung DNA samples showed a correlation of moderate strength and borderline significance) with age (a cancer risk factor), as well as age-related cumulative lung cancer risk, suggesting MAD may inform species extrapolation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology


Development of TP53 mutations over the course of therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: American journal of hematology


Drugging the undruggable proteins in cancer: A systems biology approach.
In recent years, the research community has, with comprehensive systems biology approaches and related technologies, gained insight into the vast complexity of numerous cancers. These approaches allow an in-depth exploration that cannot be achieved solely using conventional low-throughput methods, which do not closely mimic the natural cellular environment. In this review, we discuss recent integrative multiple omics approaches for understanding and modulating previously identified 'undruggable' targets such as members of the RAS family, MYC, TP53, and various E3 ligases and deubiquitinases. We describe how these technologies have revolutionized drug discovery by overcoming an array of biological and technological challenges and how, in the future, they will be pivotal in assessing cancer states in individual patients, allowing for the prediction and application of personalized disease treatments.
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Current opinion in chemical biology

frequently mutated(88)

Genomic landscape and tumor mutation burden analysis of Chinese patients with sarcomatoid carcinoma of the head and neck.
Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the head and neck (HN) is a rare disease that has both sarcomatoid and cancerous components. The genetic background and mechanisms of tumorigenesis remain largely unrevealed, and the progress of precision therapy has been limited. Targeted DNA-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed by a 539 genes panel of pan-cancer in 12 patients with SC of the HN to identify their genetic alterations and investigate clinically actionable mutations for use in precision treatment. TP53 was identified as the most frequently mutated gene. Genes related to the cell cycling, chromatin remodeling and histone modification were found to be frequently mutated in patients with SC of the HN. Alterations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) were also found in six patients. In addition, four patients had mutations in members of the downstream RAS and PI3-kinase pathways, PIK3CA was identified as the most frequently mutated gene in this pathway. The tumor mutation burden (TMB) value ranged from 0.71 to 14.71 per megabase, with a median of 4.34. The TMB value of PIK3CA mutation patients was significantly higher than that of PIK3CA wild-type patients. This was the first study to investigate genomic alterations specifically in Chinese patients with SC of the HN. Our research results showed that 10 out of 12 patients can match the targeted therapies or immunotherapy currently available in clinical practice or active clinical trials, suggesting precision therapy has the potential utility to improve the long-term prognosis for patients with the rare disease. Due to the small number of patients in this study, the findings need to be validated in a larger cohort.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Oral oncology


Clinical significance of TP53 mutations in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients have a poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the impact of TP53 gene mutations on prognosis of ATL treated in different ways. Among 177 patients, we identified 47 single nucleotide variants or insertion-deletions (SNVs/indels) of the TP53 gene in 37 individuals. TP53 copy number variations (CNVs) were observed in 38 patients. Altogether, 67 of 177 patients harboured TP53 SNVs/indels or TP53 CNVs, and were categorized as having TP53 mutations. In the entire cohort, median survival of patients with and without TP53 mutations was 1·0 and 6·7 years respectively (P < 0·001). After allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), median survival of patients with (n = 16) and without (n = 29) TP53 mutations was 0·4 years and not reached respectively (P = 0·001). For patients receiving mogamulizumab without allogeneic HSCT, the median survival from the first dose of antibody in patients with TP53 mutations (n = 27) was only 0·9 years, but 5·1 years in those without (n = 42; P < 0·001). Thus, TP53 mutations are associated with unfavourable prognosis of ATL, regardless of treatment strategy. The establishment of alternative modalities to overcome the adverse impact of TP53 mutations in patients with ATL is required.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: British journal of haematology

tumor protein(84)

The regulation of long non-coding RNA 00958 (LINC00958) for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells death through absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) depending on microRNA-4306 and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in vitro.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed as potential targets in OSCC gene therapy. Thus, the study aims to analyze how they exert functions in OSCC. LINC00958, AIM2, Gasdermin D (GSDMD) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) expression levels are analyzed by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) or Western blotting (WB) in OSCC cells lines. The roles of LINC00958 in cell proliferation, cell death, and GSDMD expression respectively were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, flow cytometry and Immunofluorescence (IF) assay. In addition, expressions of pyroptosis- and autophagy-related proteins are evaluated by WB detection. The targeted binding of LINC00958 and miR-4306 or AIM2 mRNA is predicted by bioinformatics analysis and detected by biodual luciferase system. RIP and qPCR assays analyze whether LINC00958 interacts with SIRT1. We found that LINC00958 showed upregulation in OSCC cells compared to normal oral epithelial cells. LINC00958 silencing significantly suppressed OSCC cell proliferation, induced cell death and reduced autophagy. LINC00958 regulated the levels of miR-4306 which binds to the 3'UTR of AIM2, and interacts with and modulates SIRT1 protein expression. LINC00958 regulated GSDMD and AIM2 levels, as well as p53 and SIRT1 levels. SIRT1 overexpression markedly reversed aforementioned effects of LINC00958. LINC00958 not only downregulated miR-4306 levels to activate the pyroptosis pathway mediated by AIM2 and promoted cancer cell survival but also induced a decrease in SIRT protein expression to further reduce p53 levels.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Bioengineered


Expression of oncogenic HRAS in human Rh28 and RMS-YM rhabdomyosarcoma cells leads to oncogene-induced senescence.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma. The two predominant histologic variants of RMS, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS and aRMS, respectively), carry very different prognoses. While eRMS is associated with an intermediate prognosis, the 5-year survival rate of aRMS is less than 30%. The RMS subtypes are also different at the molecular level-eRMS frequently has multiple genetic alterations, including mutations in RAS and TP53, whereas aRMS often has chromosomal translocations resulting in PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusions, but otherwise has a "quiet" genome. Interestingly, mutations in RAS are rarely found in aRMS. In this study, we explored the role of oncogenic RAS in aRMS. We found that while ectopic oncogenic HRAS expression was tolerated in the human RAS-driven eRMS cell line RD, it was detrimental to cell growth and proliferation in the human aRMS cell line Rh28. Growth inhibition was mediated by oncogene-induced senescence and associated with increased RB pathway activity and expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p21. Unexpectedly, the human eRMS cell line RMS-YM, a RAS wild-type eRMS cell line, also exhibited growth inhibition in response to oncogenic HRAS in a manner similar to aRMS Rh28 cells. This work suggests that oncogenic RAS is expressed in a context-dependent manner in RMS and may provide insight into the differential origins and therapeutic opportunities for RMS subtypes.
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
Journal: Scientific reports


Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanism of Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae in the Treatment of Radiation Pneumonia by Using Network Pharmacology.
Radiation pneumonia (RP) is the most common complication of radiotherapy to the thorax and seriously affects the survival rate and quality of life of patients. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) is an ancient Chinese medicine, whose main pharmacological effect is to promote blood circulation and remove stasis. A growing number of studies have proved that RSM has a good effect on RP. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear and needs to be fully elucidated. The effective components and predictive targets of RSM were analyzed by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database, and the related targets of RP were predicted by GeneCards database. The common targets of the two targets mentioned above were analyzed by protein-protein interaction on the STRING website, GO and KEGG analysis on the DAVID website, visualization by CytoScape3.7.0, and screening for Hubber gene by cytoHubber plug-in. A search of the TCMSP database revealed that RSM contains 65 chemical constituents and 165 potential protein targets. A total of 2,162 protein targets were found to be associated with RP. The top 10 hub genes were obtained by MCC algorithm for 70 common genes, including TP53, CASP3, MAPK1, JUN, VEGFA, STAT3, PTGS2, IL6, AKT1, and FOS. By analyzing the Gene Ontology, The anti-radiation pneumonia effect of RSM is that it performs molecular functions (protein homodimerization activity) in the nucleus through three biological processes (positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter,Extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway). Through KEGG analysis, the mechanism of RSM treatment of radiation pneumonia may be through PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, TNF signaling pathways. Through network pharmacology analysis, we found the possible target genes of RSM on RP and revealed the most likely signaling pathway, providing theoretical basis for further elucidating the potential mechanism of RSM on RP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


Genetic and epigenetic bases of prostate tumor cell radioresistance.
Radiation therapy plays a leading role in the treatment of prostate cancer, but the emergence of radioresistant forms of this disease dictates the need for a personalized ap-proach based on the data from genetic and epigenetic markers. Such markers include the copy number variation as well as gene and microRNA expression. The aim of the study was to validate the list of potential predictors of radioresistance of prostate tumor cells in a model experiment based on the determination of gene copy number variation, gene transcriptional activity and microRNA expression. The study used a PC-3 prostate cancer cell culture. The determination of the relative copy number variation and expression of 32 genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, CASP3, CASP8, BAX, BCL2, CASP9, P53, MDM2, AKT1, ATM, BRIP1, CDK1, CDKN1B, CCND1, CCND3, FGFR2, KU70, RAD50, RAP80, Rif1, RNF168, TopBP1, HIST, H2AX, EXO1, XRCC4, RBBP8, EP300, LIG4, C-FLIP), as well as 15 microRNAs (let-7, miR15a/ 16, miR-17, miR-18a, miR-21, miR-24, miR-26b, miR-99a, miR-100, miR-101, miR-106a, miR-663a, miR-143, miR-145) was performed using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. It was found that daily irradiation of PC-3 cells on a Novalis TX linear accelerator at doses of 6 and 7 Gy for 5 days leads to a significant decrease in the total number of cells and the number of viable cells. Nevertheless, after 5 days of irradiation, about 15% of the initial number of prostate tumor cells retained their viability, which is due to their special genetic and epigenetic characteristics: increased copy number and expression of genes BRCA2, CDK1, CDKN1B, H2AX, RAD50, XRCC4, RBBP8 and EP300 and reduced copy number and expression of CCND3, TP53, and BCL2 genes, as well as differential expression of six microRNAs (hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-24-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-100-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-let-7a-3p). This study enabled to identify genetic and epigenetic markers of prostate tumor cells resistance to radiation therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-08
Journal: Klinicka onkologie : casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti

mutated genes(82)

Canine tumor mutational burden is correlated with TP53 mutation across tumor types and breeds.
Spontaneous canine cancers are valuable but relatively understudied and underutilized models. To enhance their usage, we reanalyze whole exome and genome sequencing data published for 684 cases of >7 common tumor types and >35 breeds, with rigorous quality control and breed validation. Our results indicate that canine tumor alteration landscape is tumor type-dependent, but likely breed-independent. Each tumor type harbors major pathway alterations also found in its human counterpart (e.g., PI3K in mammary tumor and p53 in osteosarcoma). Mammary tumor and glioma have lower tumor mutational burden (TMB) (median < 0.5 mutations per Mb), whereas oral melanoma, osteosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma have higher TMB (median ≥ 1 mutations per Mb). Across tumor types and breeds, TMB is associated with mutation of TP53 but not PIK3CA, the most mutated genes. Golden Retrievers harbor a TMB-associated and osteosarcoma-enriched mutation signature. Here, we provide a snapshot of canine mutations across major tumor types and breeds.
Publication Date: 2021-08-05
Journal: Nature communications

p53 tp53(80)

Investigating the Mechanism of
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors, which accounts for approximately 10% of all diagnosed cancers and cancer deaths worldwide per year. We adopted active constituent prescreening, target predicting, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, differentially expressed gene analysis, and molecular docking to establish a system pharmacology database of SBH against CRC. A total of 64 active constituents of SBH were obtained and 377 targets were predicted, and the result indicated that quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, and apigenin were the main active constituents of SBH. Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), pPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), transcription factor AP-1 (JUN), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), Myc protooncogene protein (MYC), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and broad substrate specificity ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (ABCG2) were the major targets of SBH in the treatment of CRC. GO analysis illustrated that the core biological process regulated by SBH was the regulation of the cell cycle. Thirty pathways were presented and 8 pathways related to CRC were involved. Molecular docking presented the binding details of 3 key targets with 6 active constituents. The mechanisms of SBH against CRC depend on the synergistic effect of multiple active constituents, multiple targets, and multiple pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


Malignant Sinonasal Tumors: Update on Histological and Clinical Management.
Tumors of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (TuNSs) are rare and heterogeneous malignancies, presenting different histological features and clinical behavior. We reviewed the literature about etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs to define pathologic features and possible treatment strategies. From a diagnostic point of view, it is mandatory to have high expertise and perform an immunohistochemical assessment to distinguish between different histotypes. Due to the extreme rarity of these neoplasms, there are no standard and evidence-based therapeutic strategies, lacking prospective and large clinical trials. In fact, most studies are retrospective analyses. Surgery represents the mainstay of treatment of TuNSs for small and localized tumors allowing complete tumor removal. Locally advanced lesions require more demolitive surgery that should be always followed by adjuvant radio- or chemo-radiotherapy. Recurrent/metastatic disease requires palliative chemo- and/or radiotherapy. Many studies emphasize the role of specific genes mutations in the development of TuNSs like mutations in the exons 4-9 of the TP53 gene, in the exon 9 of the PIK3CA gene and in the promoter of the TERT gene. In the near future, this genetic assessment will have new therapeutic implications. Future improvements in the understanding of the etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs are warranted to improve their management.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)


Clinical Significance and Inflammatory Landscape of aNovel Recurrence-Associated Immune Signature in Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer.
A considerable number of patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) will relapse within 5 years after surgery, which is a leading cause of death in early-stage CRC. The current TNM stage system is limited due to the heterogeneous clinical outcomes displayed in patients of same stage. Therefore, searching for a novel tool to identify patients at high recurrence-risk for improving post-operative individual management is an urgent need. Using four independent public cohorts and qRT-PCR data from 66 tissues, we developed and validated a recurrence-associated immune signature (RAIS) based on global immune genes. The clinical and molecular features, tumor immune microenvironment landscape, and immune checkpoints profiles of RAIS were also investigated. In five independent cohorts, this novel scoring system was proven to be an independent recurrent factor and displayed excellent discrimination and calibration in predicting the recurrence-risk at 1~5 years. Further analysis revealed that the high-risk group displayed high mutation rate of TP53, while the low-risk group had more abundance of activated CD4+/CD8+ T cells and high expression of PD-1/PD-L1. The RAIS model is highly predictive of recurrence in patients with stage II/III CRC, which might serve as a powerful tool to further optimize decision-making in adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy, as well as tailor surveillance protocol for individual patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Frontiers in immunology

breast cancer(76)

TP53 signature diagnostic system using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system enables prediction of prognosis of breast cancer patients.
TP53 status based on TP53 signature, a gene expression profile to determine the presence or absence of TP53 mutation, is an independent prognostic factor of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple diagnostic system for TP53 signature status. We developed a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system to determine TP53 status. Based on this system, prospectively collected 189 patients with stage I and II breast cancer were determined to have TP53 mutant signature or TP53 wild-type signature. The prognostic significance of the TP53 signature by the diagnostic system was analyzed. The diagnostic accuracy of TP53 status and reproducibility of this diagnosis system was confirmed. Using the diagnostic system, 89 patients were classified as TP53 mutant signature and the remaining 100 cases were classified as TP53 wild-type signature. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) among patients with TP53 mutant signature was significantly shorter than that among those with TP53 wild-type signature. On univariate and multivariate analyses, the TP53 signature status was an independent predictor of RFS. RFS among patients with TP53 mutant signature was significantly shorter than that among those with TP53 wild-type signature in a cohort of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Although a difference was not significant, no recurrent cases was observed in TP53 wild-type signature group in triple negative breast cancer. This simple and precise diagnostic system to determine TP53 signature status may help in prognostic assessment, therapeutic decision-making, and treatment optimization in patients with breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)


Mixed Neuroendocrine/Non-neuroendocrine Neoplasm (MiNEN) of the Ovary Arising from Endometriosis: Molecular Pathology Analysis in Support of a Pathogenetic Paradigm.
Primary ovarian neuroendocrine neoplasms (Ov-NENs) are infrequent and mainly represented by well-differentiated forms (neuroendocrine tumors - NETs - or carcinoids). Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (Ov-NECs) are exceedingly rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature. A subset of Ov-NECs are admixed with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, as it occurs in other female genital organs, as well (mostly endometrium and uterine cervix), and may be assimilated to mixed neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) described in digestive and extra-digestive sites. Here, we present a case of large cell Ov-NEC admixed with an endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary, arising in the context of ovarian endometriosis, associated with a uterine endometrial atypical hyperplasia (EAH). We performed targeted next-generation sequencing analysis, along with a comprehensive immunohistochemical study and FISH analysis for TP53 locus, separately on the four morphologically distinct lesions (Ov-NEC, endometrioid carcinoma, endometriosis, and EAH). The results of our study identified molecular alterations of cancer-related genes (PIK3CA, CTNNB1, TP53, RB1, ARID1A, and p16), which were present with an increasing gradient from preneoplastic lesions to malignant proliferations, both neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine components. In conclusion, our findings underscored that the two neoplastic components of this Ov-MiNEN share a substantially identical molecular profile and they progress from a preexisting ovarian endometriotic lesion, in a patient with a coexisting preneoplastic proliferation of the endometrium, genotypically and phenotypically related to the ovarian neoplasm. Moreover, this study supports the inclusion of MiNEN in the spectrum ovarian and, possibly, of all gynecological NENs, among which they are currently not classified.
Publication Date: 2021-08-04
Journal: Endocrine pathology


Characterization of in vitro 3D cultures.
Over the past decade, 3D culture models of human and animal cells have found their way into tissue differentiation, drug development, personalized medicine and tumour behaviour studies. Embryoid bodies (EBs) are in vitro 3D cultures established from murine pluripotential stem cells, whereas tumoroids are patient-derived in vitro 3D cultures. This thesis aims to describe a new implication of an embryoid body model and to characterize the patient-specific microenvironment of the parental tumour in relation to tumoroid growth rate. In this thesis, we described a high-throughput monitoring method, where EBs are used as a dynamic angiogenesis model. In this model, digital image analysis (DIA) is implemented on immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained sections of the cultures over time. Furthermore, we have investigated the correlation between the genetic profile and inflammatory microenvironment of parental tumours on the in vitro growth rate of tumoroids. The EBs were cultured in spinner flasks. The samples were collected at days 4, 6, 9, 14, 18 and 21, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. The histological sections were IHC stained for the endothelial marker CD31 and digitally scanned. The virtual whole-image slides were digitally analysed by Visiopharm® software. Histological evaluation showed vascular-like structures over time. The quantitative DIA was plausible to monitor significant increase in the total area of the EBs and an increase in endothelial differentiation. The tumoroids were established from 32 colorectal adenocarcinomas. The in vitro growth rate of the tumoroids was followed by automated microscopy over an 11-day period. The parental tumours were analysed by next-generation sequencing for KRAS, TP53, PIK3CA, SMAD4, MAP2K1, BRAF, FGFR3 and FBXW7 status. The tumoroids established from KRAS-mutated parental tumours showed a significantly higher growth rate compared to their wild-type counterparts. The density of CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages was calculated in the centre of the tumours and at the invasive margin of the tumours. The high density of CD3+ cells and the low density of CD68+ cells showed a significant correlation with a higher growth rate of the tumoroids. In conclusion, a novel approach for histological monitoring of endothelial differentiation is presented in the stem cell-derived EBs. Furthermore, the KRAS status and density of CD3+ T cells and macrophages in the parental tumour influence the growth rate of the tumoroids. Our results indicate that these parameters should be included when tumoroids are to be implemented in personalized medicine. I løbet af det seneste årti er man begyndt at bruge 3D cellekulturer med humane og dyreceller til vaevsdifferentieringsstudier, til medicinudvikling, til personaliseret medicin og til cancer mikromiljøstudier. Embryoid bodies (EBer) er in vitro 3D cellekulturer etableret fra muse stamceller, hvorimod tumoroider er 3D kulturer etableret fra patienters tumorceller. Formålet med denne PhD var at kortlaegge en ny anvendelse af ”embryoid body” modellen samt at karakterisere sammenhaengen mellem det patient-specifikke tumormiljø og tumoroidernes efterfølgende vaekst in vitro. I denne PhD har vi kortlagt en high throughput monitoreringsmetode, hvor EBerne er anvendt som en dynamisk angiogenesemodel, og hvor immunfarvede snit af EBerne er analyseret digitalt. Herudover har vi undersøgt sammenhaengen mellem den genetiske profil og det inflammatoriske mikromiljø i primaertumorerne med vaekstraten af de fremdyrkede tumoroider. EBerne blev dyrket i spinnerflasker og høstet på dag 4, 6, 9, 14, 18, og 21, dehydreret og indstøbt i paraffin. De histologiske snit blev farvet for en endothel markør (CD31) og skannet digitalt. Disse hel-slide billeder blev analyseret ved hjaelp af Visiopharm® software. Den histologiske evaluering viste, at der blev dannet vaskulaer-lignende strukturer med tiden. Den kvantitative digitale billedanalyse fandt vi velegnet til at monitorere et vaekstareal samt endotheldifferentieringen i EBerne. Tumoroider blev etableret fra 32 colorektal adenokarcinomer. In vitro vaeksten af tumoroiderne blev fulgt i 11 dage ved hjaelp af et automatiseret mikroskop. De oprindelige tumorer blev analyseret ved hjaelp af next generation sekventering for KRAS, TP53, PIK3CA, SMAD4, MAP2K1, BRAF, FGFR3 og FBXW7 mutationer. Tumoroider, som blev etableret fra primaertumorer indeholdende en KRAS mutation, viste en signifikant højere vaekstrate sammenlignet med wild-type tumorer. CD3+ T celler og CD68+ makrofagers densitet blev beregnet i tumormidten samt i den invasive margin af tumorerne. Vi fandt en statistisk signifikant sammenhaeng mellem vaeksten af tumoroiderne in vitro og taetheden af CD3+ immunceller og lav taethed af CD68+ immunceller i primaertumoren. Vi konkluder, at en kombination af immunfarvning, digital slideskanning og digital billedeanalyse er en ny tilgang til at følge endothel uddifferentiering i en EB model. Derudover påvirker KRAS mutationsstatus samt antallet af CD3+ T celler og CD68+ makrofager i primaervaevet tumoroidernes efterfølgende vaekst. Vores resultater indikerer, at disse parametre bør analyseres, når tumoroider ønskes anvendt til personaliseret medicin.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica


Analysis of Threshold Change of Tumor Mutation Burden in Gastric Cancer.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of tumor mutation burden (TMB) in gastric cancer (GC) and its relationship with prognosis. A total of 262 patients with GC from January 2018 to December 2019 were included in this study. All patients were in the advanced stage and were treated with surgical removal of D2 lymph nodes and dissection. Clinical data and gene expression profile data of the GC dataset in The Cancer Genome Atlas were collected. Patients were randomly divided into a high-level group and a low-level group according to the TMB of 8 mutations/Mb. TMB of GC was calculated based on cell mutation data. Cox regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between TMB and prognosis of GC patients. The total mutation rate of 262GC patients was 92.85%. The top 5 mutant genes were TP53, RB1, ARID1A, KMT2B, and RET. The expression level of TMB in GC patients was statistically significant with age, drinking history, and differentiation type. 94 of the 262 patients died, and 168 survived during the follow-up period. Patients with a high level of TMB had a worse prognosis than those with low level of TMB. The results of univariate and multivariate logistic analysis showed that the overall survival rate of GC patients was statistically significant with age, drinking history, clinical stage, differentiation type, and TMB. GC patients are often accompanied by changes in TMB, and its expression level is closely related to the degree of pathological differentiation, which is an independent factor affecting the prognosis of GC patients. High TMB value can evaluate the prognosis and provide a reference for the formulation of clinical treatment plans for GC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: Journal of oncology

overall survival(72)

Comprehensive Analysis of the Value of SMYD Family Members in the Prognosis and Immune Infiltration of Malignant Digestive System Tumors.
The SET and MYND domain-containing (SMYD) gene family comprises a set of genes encoding lysine methyltransferases. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the expression levels of SMYD family members and the prognosis and immune infiltration of malignant tumors of the digestive system. The Oncomine, Ualcan, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal, Metascape, and TIMER databases and tools were used to analyze the correlation of SMYD family mRNA expression, clinical stage, TP53 mutation status, prognostic value, gene mutation, and immune infiltration in patients with esophageal carcinoma (ESCA), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). In ESCA, the mRNA expression of SMYD2/3/4/5 was significantly correlated with the incidence rate, that of SMYD2/3 with the clinical stage, that of SMYD2/3/4/5 with TP53 mutation status, that of SMYD2/4/5 with overall survival (OS), and that of SMYD1/2/3/4 with relapse-free survival (RFS). In LIHC, the mRNA expression of SMYD1/2/3/4/5 was significantly correlated with the incidence rate, that of SMYD2/4/5 with the clinical stage, that of SMYD3/5 with TP53 mutation status, that of SMYD2/3/4/5 with OS, and that of SMYD3/5 with RFS. In STAD, the mRNA expression of SMYD2/3/4/5 was significantly correlated with the incidence rate, that of SMYD1/4 with the clinical stage, that of SMYD1/2/3/5 with TP53 mutation status, that of SMYD1/3/4 with OS, and that of SMYD1/3 with RFS. Furthermore, the function of SMYD family mutation-related genes in ESCA, LIHC, and STAD patients was mainly related to pathways, such as mitochondrial gene expression, mitochondrial matrix, and mitochondrial translation. The expression of SMYD family genes was significantly correlated with the infiltration of six immune cell types and eight types of immune check sites. SMYD family genes are differentially expressed and frequently mutated in malignant tumors of the digestive system (ESCA, LIHC, and gastric cancer). They are potential markers for prognostic prediction and have important significance in immunity and targeted therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: Frontiers in genetics


Degradation of CCNK/CDK12 is a druggable vulnerability of colorectal cancer.
Novel treatment options for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Here, we screen a library of non-characterized small molecules against a heterogeneous collection of patient-derived CRC spheroids. By prioritizing compounds with inhibitory activity in a subset of-but not all-spheroid cultures, NCT02 is identified as a candidate with minimal risk of non-specific toxicity. Mechanistically, we show that NCT02 acts as molecular glue that induces ubiquitination of cyclin K (CCNK) and proteasomal degradation of CCNK and its complex partner CDK12. Knockout of CCNK or CDK12 decreases proliferation of CRC cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, sensitivity to pharmacological CCNK/CDK12 degradation is associated with TP53 deficiency and consensus molecular subtype 4 in vitro and in patient-derived xenografts. We thus demonstrate the efficacy of targeted CCNK/CDK12 degradation for a CRC subset, highlighting the potential of drug-induced proteolysis for difficult-to-treat types of cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Cell reports


Clinical genomic profiling to identify actionable alterations for very early relapsed triple-negative breast cancer patients in the Chinese population.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents about 19% of all breast cancer cases in the Chinese population. Lack of targeted therapy contributes to the poorer outcomes compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Comprehensive genomic profiling helps to explore the clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) and potential therapeutic targets in very-early-relapsed TNBC patients. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue specimens from 23 patients with very-early-relapsed TNBC and 13 patients with disease-free survival (DFS) more than 36 months were tested by FoundationOne CDx (F1CDx) in 324 genes and select gene rearrangements, along with genomic signatures including microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumour mutational burden (TMB). In total, 137 CRGAs were detected in the 23 very-early-relapsed TNBC patients, averaging six alterations per sample. The mean TMB was 4 Muts/Mb, which was higher than that in non-recurrence patients, and is statistically significant. The top-ranked altered genes were TP53 (83%), PTEN (35%), RB1 (30%), PIK3CA (26%) and BRCA1 (22%). RB1 mutation carriers had shorter DFS. Notably, 100% of these patients had at least one CRGA, and 87% of patients had at least one actionable alteration. In pathway analysis, patients who carried a mutation in the cell cycle pathway were more likely to experience very early recurrence. Strikingly, we detected one patient with ERBB2 amplification and one patient with ERBB2 exon20 insertion, both of which were missed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also detected novel alterations of ROS1-EPHA7 fusion for the first time, which has not been reported in breast cancer before. The comprehensive genomic profiling can identify novel treatment targets and address the limited options in TNBC patients. Therefore, incorporating F1CDx into TNBC may shed light on novel therapeutic opportunities for these very-early-relapsed TNBC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Annals of medicine


Systematic Next Generation Sequencing is feasible in clinical practice and identifies opportunities for targeted therapy in women with uterine cancer: Results from a prospective cohort study.
Both incidence and mortality of uterine cancer are on the rise and mortality is higher for African American women. The aim of our study was to evaluate how Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) may facilitate identification of and intervention for treatment disparities when integrated into clinical workflows. Our cohort included 159 uterine cancer patients with recurrent/progressive and newly diagnosed advanced stage and/or high-risk histology. The most common tumor histological subtypes included EEC (n = 67), SEC (n = 34), UCS (n = 20), and mixed (n = 14). Black patients were most likely to present with aggressive histology: (SEC, 34.0%) and carcinosarcoma (UCS, 14.0%). The four most common mutations across all subtypes were TP53, PIK3CA, PTEN, and ARID1A. There was racial disparity between Black versus non-Black patients who were initiated on targeted therapy (28.2% vs. 38.2%, respectively) and clinical trial (15% vs. 22.6%, respectively). Compared to non-Black patients, Black patients had a significantly higher percentage TP53 mutations (p < 0.05) and a significantly lower percentage ARID1A mutations (p < 0.05). NGS for uterine malignancies provides actionable information for targetable mutations and/or clinical trial enrollment in most patients; further investigation is necessary to identify potentially modifiable factors contributing to current disparities that may improve targeted therapy uptake and clinical trial participation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Gynecologic oncology


Somatic Mutations in Circulating Cell-Free DNA and Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hispanics.
Hispanics are disproportionally affected by liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Advanced liver fibrosis is a major risk factor for HCC development. We aimed at identifying somatic mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of Hispanics with HCC and Hispanics with advanced liver fibrosis but no HCC. Targeted sequencing of over 262 cancer-associated genes identified nonsynonymous mutations in 22 of the 27 HCC patients. Mutations were detected in known HCC-associated genes (e.g., CTNNB1, TP53, NFE2L2, and ARID1A). No difference in cfDNA concentrations was observed between patients with mutations and those without detectable mutations. HCC patients with higher cfDNA concentrations or higher number of mutations had a shorter overall survival (
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Mutations in TP53 or DNA damage repair genes define poor prognostic subgroups in primary prostate cancer.
Mutations in DNA damage repair genes, in particular genes involved in homology-directed repair, define a subgroup of men with prostate cancer with a more unfavorable prognosis but a therapeutic vulnerability to PARP inhibition. In current practice, mutational testing of prostate cancer patients is commonly done late i.e., when the tumor is castration resistant. In addition, most sequencing panels do not include TP53, one of the most crucial tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. In this proof-of-concept study, we sought to extend the clinical use of these molecular markers by exploring the early prognostic impact of mutations in TP53 and DNA damage repair genes in men with primary, nonmetastatic prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RPX). Tumor specimens from a cohort of 68 RPX patients with intermediate (n = 11, 16.2%) or high-risk (n = 57, 83.8%) disease were analyzed by targeted next generation sequencing using a 37 DNA damage repair and checkpoint gene panel including TP53. Sequencing results were correlated to clinicopathologic variables as well as PSA persistence or time to PSA failure. In addition, the distribution of TP53 and DNA damage repair gene mutations was analyzed in three large publicly available datasets (TCGA, MSKCC and SU2C). Of 68 primary prostate cancers analyzed, 23 (33.8%) were found to harbor a mutation in either TP53 (n = 12, 17.6%) or a DNA damage repair gene (n = 11, 16.2%). The vast majority of these mutations (22 of 23, 95.7%) were detected in primary tumors from patients with high-risk features. These mutations were mutually exclusive in our cohort and additional data mining suggests an enrichment of DNA damage repair gene mutations in TP53 wild-type tumors. Mutations in either TP53 or a DNA damage repair gene were associated with a significantly worse prognosis after RPX. Importantly, the presence of TP53/DNA damage repair gene mutations was an independent risk factor for PSA failure or PSA persistence in multivariate Cox regression models. TP53 or DNA damage repair gene mutations are frequently detected in primary prostate cancer with high-risk features and define a subgroup of patients with an increased risk for PSA failure or persistence after RPX. The significant adverse impact of these alterations on patient prognosis may be exploited to identify men with prostate cancer who may benefit from a more intensified treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Urologic oncology


Retrospective analysis of eleven gene mutations, PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
To investigate the associations among expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), eleven mutated genes, and clinicopathological characteristics in 273 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively examined tumor PD-L1 expression in 247 surgically resected primary and 26 advanced NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry using SP263 antibody assay. Gene mutations of EGFR, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB2, MET, RET, ALK, BRAF, ROS1, and APC were examined by NGS sequence. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 22.0. The associations among PD-L1 expression, eleven mutated genes and clinicopathological characteristics were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Among the total 273 patients, 68 (24.9%) patients were positive for PD-L1 expression. Data showed that mutated rate of EGFR gene was the highest with 63.0% (172/273), followed by TP53 (11.7%, 32/273) and KRAS (5.5%, 15/273). The female, non-smoker, and patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC) were more likely to have EGFR mutations. Multivariate logistic regression showed that PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with Non-ADC, lymphatic invasion, EGFR wild type and TP53 mutation (p = 0.041, <0.001, 0.004 and 0.014, respectively). Moreover, PD-L1 expression in adenocarcinoma was associated with lymphatic invasion, mutation of TP53 and KRAS gene (p = 0.012, <0.025 and 0.041, respectively). Mutations of EGFR, KRAS and TP53 should be routinely detected in clinical practice to better guide the immunotherapy for NSCLC patients. Future investigations are warranted to illustrate the potential mechanisms between driver mutations and PD-L1 expression for guiding immunotherapy in patients with NSCLC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Asian journal of surgery

somatic mutations(68)

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantification of cell-free DNA TP53 target somatic mutations in oral cancer.
TP53 mutation is a driver mutation of oral carcinogenesis. This study investigated cancerous and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to detect the target hotspot somatic mutation of TP53. TP53 target hotspot mutations were determined in surgically resected primary tumor samples from 107 OSCC patients. Cancerous and cfDNA samples were examined for mutations through droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) by using mutation-specific assays. The ddPCR results were evaluated alongside clinicopathological data. In total, 23 cases had target TP53 mutations in varying degrees. We found that OSCC had relatively low cfDNA shedding, and mutations were at low allele frequencies. Of these 23 cases, 13 had target TP53 mutations in their corresponding cfDNA. Target somatic mutations in cancerous DNA and cfDNA are related to cervical lymph node metastasis. The cfDNA concentration is related to primary tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and OSCC stage. Our results show that the detection of TP53 target somatic mutations in OSCC patients by using ddPCR is technically feasible. Low levels of cfDNA may produce different results between cancerous tissue and cfDNA analyses. Future research on cfDNA may quantify diagnostic biomarkers in the surveillance of OSCC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers

copy number(66)

Morphologic and molecular analysis of Richter syndrome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients treated with ibrutinib or venetoclax.
Richter syndrome (RS) represents the development of high-grade lymphoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with an adverse prognosis. The genetic background and morphology of RS in CLL patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy is extensively characterised; however, our knowledge about RS in patients treated with targeted oral therapies should be extended. To understand the morphologic and molecular changes leading to RS in CLL patients treated with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, and the BCL2 inhibitor, venetoclax, sequential samples from six CLL/SLL patients undergoing RS were collected in both the CLL and RS phases. A detailed immunophenotypic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of RS phase was performed, followed by extensive molecular characterisation of CLL and RS samples, including the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) rearrangement, TP53 mutations, drug-induced resistance mutations in BTK and BCL2 genes and various copy number changes and point mutations detectable with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Rare, non-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma phenotypes of RS were observed in 3/6 cases, including plasmablastic lymphoma and a transitory entity between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of cases were clonally related and harboured an unmutated variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Abnormalities affecting the TP53 gene occurred in all patients, and every patient carried at least one genetic abnormality conferring susceptibility to RS. In the background of RS, 2/5 patients treated with ibrutinib showed a BTK C481S resistance mutation. One patient developed a BCL2 G101V mutation leading to venetoclax resistance and RS. In conclusion, our findings contribute to better understanding of RS pathogenesis in the era of targeted oral therapies. Rare phenotypic variants of RS do occur under the treatment of ibrutinib or venetoclax, and genetic factors leading to RS are similar to those identified in patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy. To our best knowledge, we have reported the first BCL2 G101V mutation in an RS patient treated with venetoclax.
Publication Date: 2021-08-02
Journal: Pathology


A Comprehensive Comparison of Early-Onset and Average-Onset Colorectal Cancers.
The causative factors for the recent increase in early-onset colorectal cancer (EO-CRC) incidence are unknown. We sought to determine if early-onset disease is clinically or genomically distinct from average-onset colorectal cancer (AO-CRC). Clinical, histopathologic, and genomic characteristics of EO-CRC patients (2014-2019), divided into age 35 years and younger and 36-49 years at diagnosis, were compared with AO-CRC (50 years and older). Patients with mismatch repair deficient tumors, CRC-related hereditary syndromes, and inflammatory bowel disease were excluded from all but the germline analysis. All statistical tests were 2-sided. In total, 759 patients with EO-CRC (35 years, n = 151; 36-49 years, n = 608) and AO-CRC (n = 687) were included. Left-sided tumors (35 years and younger = 80.8%; 36-49 years = 83.7%; AO = 63.9%; P < .001 for both comparisons), rectal bleeding (35 years and younger = 41.1%; 36-49 years = 41.0%; AO = 25.9%; P = .001 and P < .001, respectively), and abdominal pain (35 years and younger = 37.1%; 36-49 years = 34.0%; AO = 26.8%; P = .01 and P = .005, respectively) were more common in EO-CRC. Among microsatellite stable tumors, we found no differences in histopathologic tumor characteristics. Initially, differences in TP53 and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase signaling pathway (RTK-RAS)alterations were noted by age. However, on multivariate analysis including somatic gene analysis and tumor sidedness, no statistically significant differences at the gene or pathway level were demonstrated. Among advanced microsatellite stable CRCs, chemotherapy response and survival were equivalent by age cohorts. Pathogenic germline variants were identified in 23.3% of patients 35 years and younger vs 14.1% of AO-CRC (P = .01). EO-CRCs are more commonly left-sided and present with rectal bleeding and abdominal pain but are otherwise clinically and genomically indistinguishable from AO-CRCs. Aggressive treatment regimens based solely on the age at CRC diagnosis are not warranted.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute


Total thyroidectomy can still remain the method of choice in some Bethesda III cases.
The latest WHO classification of tumours of endocrine organs defines new units of borderline thyroid tumours (BTT). The aim of our study was to evaluate ultrasonographic and cytological features, mutation profile and surgery treatment in rare thyroid tumours. An analysis of 8 BTT out of 487 patients, who underwent thyroid surgery between June 2016 and June 2020. The definitive diagnosis was made postoperatively by extensive histopathological examination. Molecular genetic analysis of genes associated with thyroid oncology (BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, TERT, TP53, fused genes) were performed from one FNAB, and 7 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. BTT were found in a total of 8 patients (1.6%), with a predominance of men with respect to other operated patients. FNAB samples were classified in the Bethesda system as Bethesda I, Bethesda II and Bethesda III in one, four and three cases, respectively. Hemithyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed equally in four patients. The histopathological diagnosis revealed non-invasive encapsulated follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in three patients, follicular tumour of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) in three patients, well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) in one patient, and hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) in one case. In NIFTP cases mutation in HRAS gene in one patient together with probable pathogenic variant in TP53 gene and in NRAS gene in two patients were detected. In HTT patient PAX8/GLIS3 fusion gene was detected. The surgical treatment of BTT is necessarily individual influenced by preoperative clinical, ultrasonographic, cytological and molecular genetic findings, and the presence of other comorbidities.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia


Frequent Genetic Alterations and Their Clinical Significance in Patients With Thymic Epithelial Tumors.
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are relatively rare neoplasms, including thymomas (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and thymic carcinomas (TCs). The current knowledge about the biological properties of TETs is limited due to their low incidence. This study aimed to detect genetic alterations in TETs using next-generation sequencing(NGS) and explore their clinical significance in survival. Tumor tissues and clinical data were collected from 34 patients with resected TETs in the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital between January 2011 and January 2019, and 56 cancer-associated genes were analyzed. The data of 123 TETs were retrieved from TCGA, and the information on their clinical and somatic mutations was explored. The cohort comprised 34 TETs including 17 thymomas and 17 TCs. The NGS results indicated that 73.08% of TCs+type B3 TETs and 37.50% of non-TCs+type B3 TETs each exhibited gene mutations. For patients with type B3/C, TP53 was the most frequent mutation (19.23%), followed by CDKN2A (11.54%). Similarly, in 123 TETs from the TCGA cohort, TP53 mutations were more frequent in patients with type B3/C than in patients with non-type B3/C (11.53% Gene mutation profiles between TCs+type B3 TETs and non-TCs+type B3 TETs were significantly different. The presence of TP53 mutations was more frequent in TCs+type B3 TETs than in non-TCs+type B3 TETs, which was associated with a worse prognosis.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


Multiregion sequencing and subclonal analysis reveal intratumoral heterogeneity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
The aim of this study was to investigate intratumoral genomic heterogeneity and subclonal structure of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Multiregion whole-exome sequencing was performed on 24 surgically acquired tumor samples from five untreated ESCC patients collected in 2019 to determine the heterogeneity of mutational landscape within tumors. Phylogenetic analysis and mutation process analysis were used to explore the distribution and dynamic changes of mutation spectrum, and subclone analysis was used to explore the subclonal composition and spatial structure of ESCC. An average of 60.2% of mutations were found heterogenous. TP53 and NOTCH1 mutations were confirmed to be early events, and mutations unique in different tumor regions showed a pattern of branching evolution. A large proportion of mutations were associated with abnormal activity of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) family, and significant differences in mutation types between trunk and branch variants were found. Subclonal structure exhibited spatial correspondence and spatial limitations, and different genomic features were characterized between close and distant clones. There is significant intratumoral genomic heterogeneity in the five ESCCs, and their subclonal structure is related to spatial locations.
Publication Date: 2021-07-17
Journal: Journal of cancer research and therapeutics


Susceptibility of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to a model carcinogen.
Studies that aim to characterise the susceptibility of the ecologically relevant and non-model fish polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to model carcinogens are required. Polar cod were exposed under laboratory conditions for six months to control, 0.03 μg BaP/g fish/week and 0.3 μg BaP/g fish/week dietary benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a reference carcinogen. The concentrations of the 3-OH-BaP bile metabolite and transcriptional responses of genes involved in DNA adduct recognition (xpc), helicase activity (xpd), DNA repair (xpf, rad51) and tumour suppression (tp53) were assessed after 0, 1, 3 and 6 months of exposure, alongside body condition indexes (gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and condition factor). Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in blood and spleen, and liver histopathological endpoints were assessed at the end of the experiment. Fish grew steadily over the whole experiment and no mortality was recorded. The concentrations of 3-OH-BaP increased significantly after 1 month of exposure to the highest BaP concentration and after 6 months of exposure to all BaP concentrations showing the biotransformation of the mother compound. Nevertheless, no significant induction of gene transcripts involved in DNA damage repair or tumour suppression were observed at the selected sampling times. These results together with the absence of chromosomal damage in blood and spleen cells, the subtle increase in nuclear abnormalities observed in spleen cells and the low occurrence of foci of cellular alteration suggested that the exposure was below the threshold of observable effects. Taken together, the results showed that polar cod was not susceptible to carcinogenesis using the BaP exposure regime employed herein.
Publication Date: 2021-08-02
Journal: Marine environmental research


The Mechanism of Xiaoyao San in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer by Network Pharmacology and the Effect of Stigmasterol on the PI3K/Akt Pathway.
This study was aimed at exploring the regulatory mechanism of Xiaoyao San (XYS) and its main compound, Stigmasterol, in the biological network and signaling pathway of ovarian cancer (OC) through network pharmacology-based analyses and experimental validation. The active compounds and targets of XYS were studied by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). The GeneCards and OMIM databases were used to screen common targets of XYS in the treatment of OC. Combined with the STRING database and Cytoscape 3.6.0, the core compounds and targets of XYS were obtained. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of core target genes were carried out by using the Metascape and DAVID databases. Molecular docking has been achieved by using the AutoDock Vina program to discuss the interaction of the core targets and compounds of XYS in the treatment of OC. The effect of Stigmasterol on proliferation and migration were assessed by CCK8 and wound healing assay. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expressions of PI3K, Akt, and PTEN after treatment of Stigmasterol. A total of 113 common targets of XYS for the treatment of OC were obtained from 975 targets related to OC and 239 targets of XYS's effect. The main compounds of XYS include Quercetin, Naringenin, Isorhamnetin, and Stigmasterol, which mainly regulate the targets such as TP53, Akt1, and MYC and PI3K/Akt, p53, and cell cycle signal pathways. At the same time, molecular docking showed that Stigmasterol and Akt1 had good docking conformation. Stigmasterol inhibited OC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and reduced the protein and mRNA expressions of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Stigmasterol as the one of the main compounds of XYS suppresses OC cell activities through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Disease markers


Paired Tumor-Normal Sequencing Provides Insights into TP53-Related Cancer Spectrum in Li-Fraumeni Patients.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) genetic testing is performed using blood specimens from patients selected based on phenotype-dependent guidelines. This approach is problematic for understanding LFS clinical spectrum, because patients with non-classical presentations are missed, clonal hematopoiesis (CH)-related somatic blood mutations cannot be distinguished from germline variants, and unrelated tumors cannot be differentiated from those driven by germline TP53 defects. To provide insights into LFS-related cancer spectrum, we analyzed paired tumor-blood DNA sequencing results in 17,922 cancer patients, and distinguished CH-related, mosaic, and germline TP53 variants. Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) and TP53 mutational status were assessed in tumors, followed by immunohistochemistry for p53 expression on a subset to identify those lacking biallelic TP53 inactivation. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic TP53 variants were identified in 50 patients, 12 (24.0%) of which were CH-related and four (8.0%) were mosaic. Twelve (35.3%) of 34 patients with germline TP53 variants did not meet LFS testing criteria. LOH of germline TP53 variant was observed in 96.0% (95% CI = 79.7-99.9%) of core LFS-spectrum type tumors versus 45.5% (95% CI = 16.8-76.6%) of other tumors, and 91.3% (95% CI = 72.0-98.9%) of tumors from patients who met LFS testing criteria versus 61.5% (95% CI = 31.6-86.1%) of tumors from patients who did not. Tumors retaining wild-type TP53 allele exhibited wild-type p53 expression. Our results indicate that some TP53 variants identified in blood-only sequencing are not germline and a substantial proportion of LFS patients are missed by current testing guidelines. Additionally, a subset of tumors from LFS patients do not have biallelic TP53 inactivation and may represent cancers unrelated to their germline TP53 defect.
Publication Date: 2021-07-10
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute


Characterization of genomic alterations in Chinese colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases.
The exploration of genomic alterations in Chinese colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is limited, and corresponding genetic biomarkers for patient's perioperative management are still lacking. This study aims to understand genome diversification and complexity that developed in CRLM. A custom-designed IDT capture panel including 620 genes was performed in the Chinese CRLM cohort, which included 396 tumor samples from metastatic liver lesions together with 133 available paired primary tumors. In this Chinese CRLM cohort, the top-ranked recurrent mutated genes were TP53 (324/396, 82%), APC (302/396, 76%), KRAS (166/396, 42%), SMAD4 (54/396, 14%), FLG (52/396, 13%) and FBXW7 (43/396, 11%). A comparison of CRLM samples derived from left- and right-sided primary lesions confirmed that the difference in survival for patients with different primary tumor sites could be driven by variations in the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and RAS signaling pathways. Certain genes had a higher variant rate in samples with metachronous CRLM than in samples with simultaneous metastasis. Overall, the metastasis and primary tumor samples displayed highly consistent genomic alterations, but there were some differences between individually paired metastases and primary tumors, which were mainly caused by copy number variations. We provide a comprehensive depiction of the genomic alterations in Chinese patients with CRLM, providing a fundamental basis for further personalized therapy applications.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: Journal of translational medicine


EBV-positive HIV-associated diffuse large B cell lymphomas are characterized by JAK/STAT (STAT3) pathway mutations and unique clinicopathologic features.
Even in the era of highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients with HIV have a disproportionate risk of developing aggressive lymphomas that are frequently Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. Here, we investigate HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HIV-DLBCL) and compare EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. HIV-DLBCL were identified from two academic medical centres and characterised by immunohistochemistry, EBV status, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, cell of origin determination by gene expression profiling, and targeted deep sequencing using a custom mutation panel of 334 genes. We also applied the Lymphgen tool to determine the genetic subtype of each case. Thirty HIV-DLBCL were identified, with a median patient age of 46 years and male predominance (5:1). Thirteen cases (48%) were EBV-positive and 14 (52%) EBV-negative. Nine of the 16 tested cases (56%) had MYC rearrangement, three (19%) had BCL6 (two of which were double hit MYC/BCL6) and none had BCL2 rearrangements. Using the Lymphgen tool, half of the cases (15) were classified as other. All HIV-DLBCL showed mutational abnormalities, the most frequent being TP53 (37%), MYC (30%), STAT3 (27%), HIST1H1E (23%), EP300 (20%), TET2 (20%), SOCS1 (17%) and SGK1 (17%). EBV-negative cases were mostly of germinal centre B-cell (GCB) origin (62%), showed more frequent mutations per case (a median of 13·5/case) and significant enrichment of TP53 (57% vs. 15%; P = 0·046), SGK1 (36% vs. 0%; P = 0·04), EP300 (43% vs. 0%; P = 0·02) and histone-modifying gene (e.g. HIST1H1E, HIST1H1D, 79% vs. 31%; P = 0·02) mutations. EBV-positive cases were mostly of non-GCB origin (70%), with fewer mutations per case (median 8/case; P = 0·007), and these tumours were enriched for STAT3 mutations (P = 0·10). EBV-positive cases had a higher frequency of MYC mutations but the difference was not significant (36% vs. 15%; P = 0·38). EBV-association was more frequent in HIV-DLBCLs, arising in patients with lower CD4 counts at diagnosis (median 46·5 vs. 101, P = 0·018). In the era of cART, approximately half of HIV-DLBCL are EBV-related. HIV-DLBCL are enriched for MYC rearrangements, MYC mutations and generally lack BCL2 rearrangements, regardless of EBV status. Among HIV-DLBCL, tumours that are EBV-negative and EBV-positive appear to have important differences, the latter arising in context of lower CD4 count, showing frequent non-GCB origin, lower mutation burden and recurrent STAT3 mutations.
Publication Date: 2021-07-18
Journal: British journal of haematology


Molecular classification and diagnostics of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.
Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is one of the common urothelial cancers. Its molecular pathogenesis, however, is poorly understood, with no useful biomarkers available for accurate diagnosis and molecular classification. Through an integrated genetic study involving 199 UTUC samples, we delineate the landscape of genetic alterations in UTUC enabling genetic/molecular classification. According to the mutational status of TP53, MDM2, RAS, and FGFR3, UTUC is classified into five subtypes having discrete profiles of gene expression, tumor location/histology, and clinical outcome, which is largely recapitulated in an independent UTUC cohort. Sequencing of urine sediment-derived DNA has a high diagnostic value for UTUC with 82.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results provide a solid basis for better diagnosis and management of UTUC.
Publication Date: 2021-06-16
Journal: Cancer cell


Expression patterns and prognostic potential of circular RNAs in mantle cell lymphoma: a study of younger patients from the MCL2 and MCL3 clinical trials.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by marked differences in outcome, emphasizing the need for strong prognostic biomarkers. Here, we explore expression patterns and prognostic relevance of circular RNAs (circRNAs), a group of endogenous non-coding RNA molecules, in MCL. We profiled the circRNA expression landscape using RNA-sequencing and explored the prognostic potential of 40 abundant circRNAs in samples from the Nordic MCL2 and MCL3 clinical trials, using NanoString nCounter Technology. We report a circRNA-based signature (circSCORE) developed in the training cohort MCL2 that is highly predictive of time to progression (TTP) and lymphoma-specific survival (LSS). The dismal outcome observed in the large proportion of patients assigned to the circSCORE high-risk group was confirmed in the independent validation cohort MCL3, both in terms of TTP (HR 3.0; P = 0.0004) and LSS (HR 3.6; P = 0.001). In Cox multiple regression analysis incorporating MIPI, Ki67 index, blastoid morphology and presence of TP53 mutations, circSCORE retained prognostic significance for TTP (HR 3.2; P = 0.01) and LSS (HR 4.6; P = 0.01). In conclusion, circRNAs are promising prognostic biomarkers in MCL and circSCORE improves identification of high-risk disease among younger patients treated with cytarabine-containing chemoimmunotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant.
Publication Date: 2021-07-11
Journal: Leukemia


Clinicopathological and genomic features in patients with head and neck neuroendocrine carcinoma.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the head and neck is a rare type of malignancy, accounting for only 0.3% of all head and neck cancers, and its clinicopathological and genomic features have not been fully characterized. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 27 patients with poorly differentiated NEC of the head and neck seen at our institution over a period of 15 years. Patient characteristics, adopted therapies, and clinical outcomes were reviewed based on the medical records. Pathological analysis and targeted sequencing of 523 cancer-related genes were performed using evaluable biopsied/resected specimens based on the clinical data. The most common tumor locations were the paranasal sinus (33%) and the oropharynx (19%). Eighty-one percent of the patients had locally advanced disease. The 3-year overall survival rates in all patients and in the 17 patients with locally advanced disease who received multimodal curative treatments were 39% and 53%, respectively. Histologically, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was the predominant subtype (58% of evaluable cases), and the Ki-67 labeling index ranged from 59 to 99% (median: 85%). Next-generation sequencing in 14 patients identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in TP53, RB1, PIK3CA-related genes (PREX2, PIK3CA, and PTEN), NOTCH1, and SMARCA4 in six (43%), three (21%), two (14%), two (14%), and one (7%) patients, respectively. Sequencing also detected the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gene in one patient. The median value of the total mutational burden (TMB) was 7.1/Mb, and three patients had TMB ≥ 10. Regardless of the aggressive pathological features, our data revealed favorable clinical characteristics in the patients with locally advanced disease who received curative treatment. The lower TP53 and RB1 mutation prevalence rates compared to those described for small cell lung cancer suggests the biological heterogeneity of NEC in different parts of the body. Furthermore, the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gene and mutations in genes encoding the components of the NOTCH and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways found in our study may be promising targets for NEC of the head and neck.
Publication Date: 2021-07-12
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc


The preventive effects of aspirin on preeclampsia based on network pharmacology and bioinformatics.
This study aimed to reveal the key targets and molecular mechanisms of aspirin in preventing preeclampsia. We used bioinformatics databases to collect the candidate targets for aspirin and preeclampsia. The biological functions and signaling pathways of the intersecting targets were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Then, the hub targets were identified by cytoscape plugin cytoHubba from the protein-protein interaction network. We collected 90 targets for aspirin in preventing preeclampsia. The biological processes of the intersecting targets are mainly involved in xenobiotic metabolic process, inflammatory response, negative regulation of apoptotic process, and protein phosphorylation. The highly enriched pathways were FoxO signaling pathway, circadian rhythm, insulin resistance, arachidonic acid metabolism, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. The hub targets for aspirin in preventing preeclampsia were tumor protein p53 (TP53), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor (ESR1), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). Molecular docking results showed good bindings between the proteins and aspirin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the key targets and molecular mechanisms of aspirin in preventing preeclampsia.
Publication Date: 2021-06-26
Journal: Journal of human hypertension


Next-generation sequencing of tissue and circulating tumor DNA: Resistance mechanisms to EGFR targeted therapy in a cohort of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) has been considered as an effective treatment in epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant (EGFR-mutant) advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most patients develop acquired resistance eventually. Here, we compared and analyzed the genetic alterations between tissue assay and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and further explored the resistance mechanisms after EGFR-TKI treatment. Amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR), Cobas Thirty-seven patients were included. The success rate of re-biopsy was 91.89% (34/37). The total detection rate of EGFR T790M was 62.16% (23/37) and the consistency between tissue and ctDNA was 78.26% (18/23). Thirty-four patients were analyzed retrospectively. For tissue re-biopsy, 24 patients harbored concomitant mutations. Moreover, tissue re-biopsy at resistance showed 21 patients (21/34, 61.76%) had the concomitant somatic mutation. The three most frequent concomitant mutations were TP53 (18/34, 52.94%), MET (4/34, 11.76%), and PIK3CA (4/34, 11.76%). Meanwhile, 21 patients (21/34, 61.76%) with EGFR T790M mutation. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were better in patients with T790M mutation (p = 0.010 and p = 0.017) or third-generation EGFR-TKI treatment (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.073). Interestingly, concomitant genetic alterations were significantly associated with a worse prognosis for patients with EGFR T790M mutation receiving third-generation EGFR-TKIs (p = 0.037). Multi-platforms are feasible and highly consistent for re-biopsy after EGFR-TKI resistance. Concomitant genetic alterations may be associated with a poor prognosis for patients with EGFR T790M mutation after third-generation EGFR-TKIs.
Publication Date: 2021-06-27
Journal: Cancer medicine


A retrospective observational study of the natural history of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with KRAS p.G12C mutated or wild-type disease.
The KRAS p.G12C mutation, prevalent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has only recently become a viable target. Here we present results of the largest retrospective observational study analyzing KRAS p.G12C in patients with advanced NSCLC. Adults with advanced NSCLC (All Advanced NSCLC cohort) and subcohorts with different mutation profiles (KRAS p.G12C [G12C] and KRAS/EGFR/ALK wild type [Triple WT]) diagnosed January 2011 to March 2019 were selected from a US clinico-genomic database; treatment-related characteristics, molecular profiles, real-world overall (rwOS) and progression-free survival (rwPFS) were analyzed. Demographics were similar across cohorts, with more smokers and nonsquamous cell carcinoma histology in the G12C cohort. KRAS p.G12C was nearly mutually exclusive (≤1.2 %) with known actionable driver mutations, but non-driver co-mutations were common (STK11, 21.5 %; KEAP1, 7.0 %; TP53, 48.0 %). Among G12C patients, 20 % had no documentation of receiving systemic therapy. Across treated G12C patients, 67 % received immune checkpoint inhibitors; first-line usage increased from 0% (2014) to 81 % (2019). Among G12C patients, median (95 % CI) rwOS was 12.0 (9.6-15.3), 9.5 (8.1-13.1), and 6.7 (5.9-10.7) months after first, second, and third line of therapy, respectively; median (95 % CI) rwPFS was 5.0 (4.4-5.8), 4.0 (2.8-5.3), and 3.1 (2.4-4.3) months. Outcomes for the G12C subcohort were similar to those for all patients (All Advanced NSCLC cohort). Mutations in STK11/KEAP1 were associated with poorer survival across all cohorts. The poor outcomes associated with KRAS p.G12C mutated advanced NSCLC indicate an unmet need for more effective novel treatments.
Publication Date: 2021-07-23
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

95 ci(48)

Prevalence of predictive biomarkers in a large cohort of molecularly defined adult-type ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of predictive biomarkers associated with FDA-approved therapies in molecularly defined adult-type ovarian granulosa cell tumors (aGCTs). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study of tumor profiles using the inclusion criteria of molecularly defined (FOXL2 c.C402G positive) aGCTs previously sequenced at Foundation Medicine, Inc. The dataset included coding variants for up to 406 genes, microsatellite instability, tumor mutational burden, and genomic loss of heterozygosity (gLOH). PD-L1 expression was determined using the tumor proportion score, as measured using the DAKO 22C3 immunohistochemistry assay. 423 tumor profiles met inclusion criteria. The median age at the time of sample submission was 57 years (interquartile range 48-65). The mean tumor mutational burden was 1.8 mutations per megabase (range 0-8.8). No tumors exhibited microsatellite instability, and none were gLOH-High (≥16%). Sixty-seven tumors had PD-L1 expression measurement, and 94% were negative. Potentially actionable variants including MTAP deletion (12/173, 5.8%) and activating PIK3CA mutations (23/423, 5.4%) were identified. TP53-mutated aGCT had a higher tumor mutational burden (mean 2.4 mut/Mb, 95% CI 1.7-3.0 mut/Mb vs mean 1.7 mut/Mb, 95% CI 1.5-1.9 mut/Mb; P = .02) and higher gLOH score (mean 4.4%, 95% CI 2.7-6.1% vs mean 1.4%, 95% CI 1.2-1.6%; P = .002) than TP53 non-mutated tumors. No women with molecularly defined aGCT in this large cohort would be eligible for FDA-approved pembrolizumab based on either microsatellite instability or high tumor mutational burden. TP53 mutation identified a subset of this tumor type with distinct molecular features. The development of precision treatment options remains a critical unmet need for this rare disease.
Publication Date: 2021-07-10
Journal: Gynecologic oncology


Potential therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of Centella asiatica on hepatic fibrosis: a study of network pharmacology.
Liver fibrosis is a common result of the repair process of various chronic liver diseases. This study is a network pharmacology study on the potential therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of Centella asiatica for liver fibrosis. The chemical components and potential targets of Centella asiatica were screened through TCMSP, PubChem database, and Swiss Target Prediction database. The DisGeNET and GeneCards databases were used to obtain targets of HF. Venn diagrams were used to find key targets, and draw protein interaction maps. Cytoscape software was used to construct an interaction network map of drug-component-target-disease-pathway. The mechanisms of action were predicted through enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis. In total, 6 main components, 297 drug targets, 337 HF targets, and 48 drug-disease targets were obtained in Centella asiatica. The key targets involved IL6, TNF, VEGFA, TP53, IL1β, MMP9, CXCL8, EGFR, JUN, SRC, MMP2, and TGF-β, among others. A total of 1293 entries were obtained by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, which mainly involved the regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process, the regulation of smooth muscle cells, and the regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment mainly screened 191 pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, the relaxin signaling pathway, and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, among others. Centella asiatica may have a therapeutic effect on HF through multiple targets and pathways. Its mechanism is mainly related to the MAPK signaling pathway and the relaxin signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Annals of translational medicine


Comprehensive characterization of distinct genetic alterations in metastatic breast cancer across various metastatic sites.
Metastasis is the major cause of death in breast cancer patients. Although previous large-scale analyses have identified frequently altered genes specific to metastatic breast cancer (MBC) compared with those in primary breast cancer (PBC), metastatic site-specific altered genes in MBC remain largely uncharacterized. Moreover, large-scale analyses are required owing to the low expected frequency of such alterations, likely caused by tumor heterogeneity and late dissemination of breast cancer. To clarify MBC-specific genetic alterations, we integrated publicly available clinical and mutation data of 261 genes, including MBC drivers, from 4268 MBC and 5217 PBC patients from eight different cohorts. We performed meta-analyses and logistic regression analyses to identify MBC-enriched genetic alterations relative to those in PBC across 15 different metastatic site sets. We identified 11 genes that were more frequently altered in MBC samples from pan-metastatic sites, including four genes (SMARCA4, TSC2, ATRX, and AURKA) which were not identified previously. ARID2 mutations were enriched in treatment-naïve de novo and post-treatment MBC samples, compared with that in treatment-naïve PBC samples. In metastatic site-specific analyses, associations of ESR1 with liver metastasis and RICTOR with bone metastasis were significant, regardless of intrinsic subtypes. Among the 15 metastatic site sets, ESR1 mutations were enriched in the liver and depleted in the lymph nodes, whereas TP53 mutations showed an opposite trend. Seven potential MBC driver mutations showed similar preferential enrichment in specific metastatic sites. This large-scale study identified new MBC genetic alterations according to various metastatic sites and highlights their potential role in breast cancer organotropism.
Publication Date: 2021-07-18
Journal: NPJ breast cancer


Identification and monitoring of mutations in circulating cell-free tumor DNA in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with lenvatinib.
There has been a recent surge in interest in predicting biological effects associated with genomic alterations in order to implement personalized cancer treatment strategies. However, no reports have yet evaluated the utility of profiling blood-based circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with lenvatinib (LEN). We retrospectively performed ctDNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis in 24 patients with advanced HCC at baseline and 4 weeks after initiation of LEN. Association of the changes in variant allele frequencies (VAFs) during treatment and clinical outcome were evaluated. In total, 131 single nucleotide variants, 17 indels, and 23 copy number variations were detected as somatic alterations in 28, 6, and 12 genes, respectively in 23 of 24 patients. The most frequently altered genes were TP53 (54%), CTNNB1 (42%), TERT (42%), ATM (25%), and ARID1A (13%). The reduction in the mean frequency of variants (VAF Our study demonstrated that somatic alterations could be detected in the majority of advanced HCC patients by ctDNA profiling and that ctDNA-kinetics during LEN treatment was a useful marker of disease progression. These results suggest that ctDNA profiling is a promising method that provides valuable information in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-06-28
Journal: Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR


Genomic Analysis Revealed Mutational Traits Associated with Clinical Outcomes in Osteosarcoma.
The limited understanding of correlation between genomic features and biological behaviors has impeded the therapeutic breakthrough in osteosarcoma (OS). This study aimed to reveal the correlation of mutational and evolutionary traits with clinical outcomes. We applied a case-based targeted and whole exome sequencing of eleven matched primary, recurrent and metastatic samples from three OS patients characterized by different clinical behaviors in local recurrence or systematic progression pattern. Extensive OS-associated driver genes were detected including TP53, RB1, NF1, PTEN, SPEN, CDKN2A. Oncogenic signaling pathways including cell cycle, TP53, MYC, Notch, WNT, RTK-RAS and PI3K were determined. MYC amplification was observed in the patient with shortest disease-free interval. Linear, branched or mixed evolutionary models were constructed in the three OS cases. A branched evolution with limited root mutation was detected in patient with shorter survival interval. ADAM17 mutation and HEY1 amplification were identified in OS happening dedifferentiation. Signatures 21 associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) was identified in OS patient with extra-pulmonary metastases. OS was characterized by complex genomic alterations. MYC aberration, limited root mutations, and a branched evolutionary model were observed in OS patient with relatively aggressive course. Extra-pulmonary metastases of OS might attribute to distinct mutational process pertaining to MSI. Further research in a larger number of people is needed to confirm these findings.
Publication Date: 2021-07-09
Journal: Cancer management and research


Molecular Characterization and Clinical Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Patients With TP53 Mutation.
Mutations in TP53 in myeloid neoplasms patients have been associated with poor prognosis. Effective treatments to these patients remain unclear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed diagnostic and outcomes of 31 Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML) and 9 Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients with TP53 mutation at our hospital from September 2015 to October 2020. A total of 42 variants (28 unique variants) in the coding region of TP53 gene were identified, and most were missense mutation (34 of 42, 81%). The median overall survival (OS) was 8 months for the AML patients (1-32 months) and 7 months for the MDS patients (3-27 months). There were 35 and 13 patients underwent frontline chemical therapy and Allo-HSCT, respectively. The overall response rate was 45.3% (16/35) for the frontline treatment. There was no significant difference between intensive and low-intensity regimens on either response to the frontline treatment (P = .255) or overall survival (P = .078). Patients, who achieved complete or partial remission at the frontline treatment, presented a higher survival than patients in non-remission, no matter transplant or not. This study corroborates that improving the response to the first-line treatment could prolong the survival of myeloid neoplasms patients with TP53 mutation. Allo-HSCT could be a curative option for patients with TP53 mutation, when in complete remission during the first-line treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-08-12
Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia


Outcomes of TP53-mutant acute myeloid leukemia with decitabine and venetoclax.
TP53 mutation (TP53 Patients with newly diagnosed AML received decitabine 20 mg/m Among 118 patients (median age, 72 years; age range, 49-89 years), 63 (53%) had secondary AML, 39 (33%) had AML with complex karyotype, and 35 (30%) had TP53 Patients with TP53
Publication Date: 2021-07-14
Journal: Cancer


Relationship between p63 and p53 expression in Merkel cell carcinoma and corresponding abnormalities in TP63 and TP53: a study and a proposal.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Oncogenesis occurs via Merkel cell polyomavirus-mediated (MCPyV+) and/or UV radiation-associated (MCPyV-) pathways. Advanced clinical stage and a MCPyV- status are important adverse prognostic indicators. There is mounting evidence that p63 expression is a negative prognostic indicator in MCC and that it correlates with MCPyV- status. p63 is a member of the p53 family of proteins amongst which complex interactions occur. It has two main isoforms (pro-apoptotic TAp63 and oncogenic ΔNp63). Paradoxically, TAp63 predominates in MCC. To explore this quandary, we examined relationships between p63 and p53 expression, and corresponding abnormalities in the TP63 and TP53 genes in MCC. A cohort of 26 MCCs (12 MCPyV+, 14 MCPyV-) was studied. Comparative immunohistochemical expression of p63 and p53 was evaluated semi-quantitatively (H scores) and qualitatively (aberrant patterns). The results were compared with genetic abnormalities in TP63 and TP53 via next-generation sequencing. p63 was positive in 73% of cases. p53 showed "wild-type" expression in 69%, with "aberrant" staining in 31%. TP63 mutations (predominantly low-level copy gains; 23% of cases), and mainly pathogenic mutations in TP53 (50% of cases) featured in the MCPyV- subset of cases. p63 expression correlated quantitatively with p53 expression and qualitatively with aberrant patterns of the latter. Increased expression of p63 and p53, and aberrant p53 staining correlated best with TP53 mutation. We propose that p63 expression (i.e. pro-apoptotic TAp63) in MCC is most likely functionally driven as a compensatory response to defective p53 tumor suppressor activity.
Publication Date: 2021-08-16
Journal: Human pathology


Circulating tumour DNA reveals genetic traits of patients with intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.
To investigate the genetic alterations of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with and without intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P). We performed targeted sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA on 161 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) with IDC-P and 84 without IDC-P. Genomic alterations were compared between these two groups. The association between genetic alterations and patients' survival outcomes was also explored. We identified that 29.8% (48/161) and 21.4% (18/84) of patients with and without IDC-P harboured genomic alterations in DNA repair pathways, respectively (P = 0.210). Pathogenic germline DNA repair alterations were frequently detected in IDC-P carriers compared to IDC-P non-carriers (11.8% [19/161] vs 2.4% [two of 84], P = 0.024). Germline BReast CAncer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2) and somatic cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) defects were specifically identified in IDC-P carriers relative to PAC (BRCA2: 8.7% [14/161] vs 0% and CDK12: 6.8% [11/161] vs 1.2% [one of 84]). Patients with IDC-P had a distinct androgen receptor (AR) pathway alteration, characterised by an enrichment of nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) mutations compared with patients with pure PAC (21.1% [34/161] vs 6.0% [five of 84], P = 0.004). Increased AR alterations were detected in patients harbouring tumours with an IDC-P proportion of ≥10% vs those with an IDC-P proportion of <10% (6.4% [five of 78] vs 18.1% [15/83], P = 0.045). For IDC-P carriers, tumour protein p53 (TP53) mutation was associated with shorter castration-resistant-free survival (median 10.9 vs 28.9 months, P = 0.026), and BRCA2 alteration was related to rapid prostate-specific antigen progression for those receiving abiraterone treatment (median 9.1 vs 11.9 months, P = 0.036). Our findings provide genomic evidence explaining the aggressive phenotype of tumours with IDC-P, highlighting the potential therapeutic strategies for this patient population.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: BJU international


Molecular features of non-anaplastic peripheral T-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents.
Non-anaplasticperipheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare tumors in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA) with poor prognosis and scarce genetic data. We analyzed lymphoma tissue from 36 patients up to 18 years old with PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-lymphoproliferative diseases, subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, and other PTCL types. Twenty-three patients (64%) had at least one genetic variant detectable, including TET2, KMT2C, PIK3D, and DMNT3A. TP53 and RHOA variants, commonly found in adults, were not identified. Eight of 20 (40%) CAYA PTCL-NOS had no detectable mutations. The genetic findings suggest that CAYA PTCL differ from adult cases.
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
Journal: Pediatric blood & cancer


Practical Considerations for Using RNA Sequencing in Management of B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Malaysia-Singapore Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Sequencing 2020 Implementation Strategy.
Despite the immense genetic heterogeneity of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) could comprehensively interrogate its genetic drivers, assigning a specific molecular subtype in >90% of patients. However, study groups have only started to use RNA-Seq. For broader clinical use, technical, quality control, and appropriate performance validation are needed. We describe the development and validation of an RNA-Seq workflow for subtype classification, TPMT/NUDT15/TP53 variant discovery, and IGH disease clone identification for Malaysia-Singapore ALL sequencing (ALL-Seq) 2020. We validated this workflow in 377 patients in our preceding Malaysia-Singapore ALL-Seq 2003/Malaysia-Singapore ALL-Seq 2010 studies and proposed the quality control measures for RNA quality, library size, sequencing, and data analysis using the International Organization for Standardization 15189 quality and competence standard for medical laboratories. Compared with conventional methods, we achieved >95% accuracy in oncogene fusion identification, digital karyotyping, and TPMT and NUDT15 variant discovery. We found seven pathogenic TP53 mutations, confirmed with Sanger sequencing, which conferred a poorer outcome. Applying this workflow prospectively to the first 21 patients in Malaysia-Singapore ALL-Seq 2020, we identified the genetic drivers and IGH disease clones in >90% of patients with concordant TPMT, NUDT15, and TP53 variants using PCR-based methods. The median turnaround time was 12 days, which was clinically actionable. In conclusion, RNA-Seq workflow could be used clinically in management of B-cell ALL patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-09
Journal: The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD

lung cancer(40)

Prevalence of TP-53/Rb-1 Co-Mutation in Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and highly aggressive high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm, which can arise from anywhere in the body. Due to its rarity there is a lacuna in our understanding of LCNEC's molecular biology. In 2016, Rekhtman and colleagues presented one of the largest molecular sequencing series of pulmonary LCNEC. They differentiated genomic profiles of LCNEC into two major subsets: small cell lung cancer (SCLC)-like, characterized by TP53 + RB1 co-mutation/loss, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-like, characterized by the lack of co-altered TP53 + RB1. This finding is of significance because at present LCNEC patients are often treated like SCLC. However, the universal genomic SCLC biomarker of TP53 and RB1 co-mutation was only found in 40% of their cohort. Since then various other scientists have looked into molecular profiling of LCNEC with markedly discordant results. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of publicly available next generation sequencing (NGS) data to evaluate the prevalence of TP53 + RB1 co-mutation in LCNEC. We conducted a literature search using PubMed. Seven studies including 302 patients with pulmonary LCNEC and four studies including 20 patients with extra-pulmonary LCNEC underwent final analysis. The prevalence of TP53 + RB1 co-mutation was 36% (109/302) among pulmonary LCNEC patients and 35% (7/20) among the extra-thoracic LCNEC cohort. This finding is in stark contrast to >90% TP53 + RB1 co-mutation in SCLC. It is now well established that LCNEC is molecularly distinct from SCLC. LCNEC seems to have two molecularly defined sub-cohort based on TP53 + RB1 co-mutation status. Future studies should look into prognostic and predictive implication of TP53 + RB1 co-mutation status in LCNEC. Prospective studies should be designed to characterize molecular subtypes and direct treatment accordingly. We are currently conducting a prospective pilot clinical trial wherein LCNEC patients are treated based on TP53 + RB1 co-mutation status. The study is currently enrolling. "Next Generation Sequencing-Based Stratification of Front Line Treatment of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (PRECISION-NEC)., identifier NCT04452292.
Publication Date: 2021-06-19
Journal: Frontiers in oncology


TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification in metaplastic breast cancer.
Metaplastic breast cancers (MBCs) are characterized by complex genomes, which seem to vary according to their histologic subtype. TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification are rare in common forms of breast cancer, but present in a subset of phyllodes tumors. Here, we sought to determine the frequency of genetic alterations affecting TERT in a cohort of 60 MBCs with distinct predominant metaplastic components (squamous, 23%; spindle, 27%; osseous, 8%; chondroid, 42%), and to compare the repertoire of genetic alterations of MBCs according to the presence of TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification. Forty-four MBCs were subjected to: whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 27) or targeted sequencing of 341-468 cancer-related genes (n = 17); 16 MBCs were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the TERT promoter, TP53 and selected exons of PIK3CA, HRAS, and BRAF. TERT promoter hotspot mutations (n = 9) and TERT gene amplification (n = 1) were found in 10 of the 60 MBCs analyzed, respectively. These TERT alterations were less frequently found in MBCs with predominant chondroid differentiation than in other MBC subtypes (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and were mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations (p < 0.001, CoMEt). In addition, a comparative analysis of the MBCs subjected to WES or targeted cancer gene sequencing (n = 44) revealed that MBCs harboring TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification (n = 6) more frequently harbored PIK3CA than TERT wild-type MBCs (n = 38; p = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). In conclusion, TERT somatic genetic alterations are found in a subset of TP53 wild-type MBCs with squamous/spindle differentiation, highlighting the genetic diversity of these cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-04-18
Journal: NPJ breast cancer


Bioinformatics Analysis of Neuroblastoma miRNA Based on GEO Data.
To analyze the changes in downstream genes, signaling pathways, and proteins based on the difference of microRNA (miRNA) expression in neuroblastoma (NB). GSE128004 second-generation sequencing expression data were downloaded from GEO, and Limma package of R language was used to analyze differential expression, and a volcano map and heat map were drawn; the target genes corresponding to the differential miRNA were found using the miWalk web tool, and GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) were performed. The key genes were identified and verified in the TCGA database. A total of 34 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened out. Among them, 22 up-regulated miRNAs predicted 1163 target genes and 12 down-regulated miRNAs predicted 1474 target genes. Target genes were enriched and analyzed by KEGG to find the FOXO signal pathway, mTOR signal pathway, AMPK signal pathway, and other signal pathways. After GO analysis, axon formation, regulation of chemical synaptic transmitters, regulation of nerve synapses, regulation of cross-synaptic signals, and other physiological processes were assessed. A total of 16 key genes were obtained by PPI analysis, and the survival analysis of TP53 and ATM genes verified in the TCGA database showed statistical significance. The 34 differential miRNAs may be related to the occurrence and development of NB. TP53 and ATM are related to the prognosis of NB. The role and mechanism of TP53 and ATM in NB need to be further verified.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

0 001(38)

Can TP53-mutant follicular adenoma be a precursor of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma?
Mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene are highly prevalent in thyroid anaplastic carcinomas (AC) but are also reported in some well-differentiated cancers and even in benign adenomas. The natural history of TP53-mutant adenomas and whether they may represent a precursor for well-differentiated cancer or AC is largely unknown. Similarly, the frequency of TP53 mutations in thyroid nodules found on routine molecular analysis of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples is not established. A database on 44,510 FNA samples from thyroid nodules with predominantly indeterminate cytology tested using ThyroSeq v3 was reviewed to identify TP53-mutant cases and analyze their genetic profile and available clinicopathological findings. Among 260 (0.6%) selected thyroid nodules, 36 had an isolated TP53 mutation and 224 carried a combination of TP53 with other genetic alterations. No significant difference was observed between these groups with respect to patient age, gender, nodule size, and spectrum of TP53 mutations. Histopathologically, 86% of the resected nodules with isolated TP53 mutations were benign (mostly adenomas), whereas 82% of nodules carrying TP53 mutations co-occurring with other alterations were cancers (P = 0.001), including de-differentiated AC. TP53-mutant benign tumors and well-differentiated cancers often had scattered single neoplastic cells with bizarre nuclei resembling those comprising AC. Our study demonstrates that a small but distinct proportion of thyroid nodules carry a TP53 mutation, either as a single genetic event or in combination with other alterations. While the latter is mostly cancers prone to dedifferentiation, there is at least a theoretical possibility that TP53-mutated adenomas may represent a precursor for such cancers, including AC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-16
Journal: Endocrine-related cancer

tp53 expression(37)

A comprehensive prognostic signature for glioblastoma patients based on transcriptomics and single cell sequencing.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly brain tumor. We aimed to reveal potential prognostic GBM marker genes, elaborate their functions, and build an effective a prognostic model for GBM patients. Through data mining of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA), we screened for significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to calculate risk scores for individual patients. Published data of somatic mutation and copy number variation profiles were analyzed for distinct genomic alterations associated with risk scores. In addition, single-cell sequencing was used to explore the biological functions of the identified prognostic marker genes. By combining risk scores and other clinical features, we built a comprehensive prognostic GBM model. Seven DEGs (CLEC5A, HOXC6, HOXA5, CCL2, GPRASP1, BSCL2 and PTX3) were identified as being prognostic for GBM. Expression of these genes was confirmed in different GBM cell lines using real-time PCR. Risk scores calculated from the seven DEGs revealed prognostic value irrespective of other clinical factors, including IDH mutation status, and were negatively correlated with TP53 expression. The prognostic genes were found to be associated with tumor proliferation and progression based on pseudo-time analysis in neoplastic cells. A final prognostic model was developed and validated with a good performance, especially in geriatric GBM patients. Using genetic profiles, age, IDH mutation status, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy, we constructed a comprehensive prognostic model for GBM patients. The model has a good performance, especially in geriatric GBM patients.
Publication Date: 2021-06-19
Journal: Cellular oncology (Dordrecht)

p 0 001(36)

Integrated molecular characterisation of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma identifies opportunities for stratification.
Endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (EnOC) is an under-investigated ovarian cancer type. Recent studies have described disease subtypes defined by genomics and hormone receptor expression patterns; here, we determine the relationship between these subtyping layers to define the molecular landscape of EnOC with high granularity and identify therapeutic vulnerabilities in high-risk cases. Whole exome sequencing data were integrated with progesterone and oestrogen receptor (PR and ER) expression-defined subtypes in 90 EnOC cases following robust pathological assessment, revealing dominant clinical and molecular features in the resulting integrated subtypes. We demonstrate significant correlation between subtyping approaches: PR-high (PR + /ER + , PR + /ER-) cases were predominantly CTNNB1-mutant (73.2% vs 18.4%, P < 0.001), while PR-low (PR-/ER + , PR-/ER-) cases displayed higher TP53 mutation frequency (38.8% vs 7.3%, P = 0.001), greater genomic complexity (P = 0.007) and more frequent copy number alterations (P = 0.001). PR-high EnOC patients experience favourable disease-specific survival independent of clinicopathological and genomic features (HR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.71). TP53 mutation further delineates the outcome of patients with PR-low tumours (HR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.14-5.75). A simple, routinely applicable, classification algorithm utilising immunohistochemistry for PR and p53 recapitulated these subtypes and their survival profiles. The genomic profile of high-risk EnOC subtypes suggests that inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, alongside PARP inhibitors, represent promising candidate agents for improving patient survival. Patients with PR-low TP53-mutant EnOC have the greatest unmet clinical need, while PR-high tumours-which are typically CTNNB1-mutant and TP53 wild-type-experience excellent survival and may represent candidates for trials investigating de-escalation of adjuvant chemotherapy to agents such as endocrine therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: NPJ precision oncology

tp53 mutation status(36)

SLC7A11 is a superior determinant of APR-246 (Eprenetapopt) response than TP53 mutation status.
APR-246 (Eprenetapopt) is in clinical development with a focus on haematological malignancies and is promoted as a mutant-p53 reactivation therapy. Currently, the detection of at least one TP53 mutation is an inclusion criterion for patient selection into most APR-246 clinical trials. Preliminary results from our phase Ib/II clinical trial investigating APR-246 combined with doublet chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil) in metastatic oesophageal cancer, together with previous pre-clinical studies, indicate that TP53 mutation status alone may not be a sufficient biomarker for APR-246 response. This study aims to identify a robust biomarker for response to APR-246. Correlation analysis of the PRIMA-1 activity (lead compound to APR-246) with mutational status, gene expression, protein expression and metabolite abundance across over 700 cancer cell lines was performed. Functional validation and a boutique siRNA screen of over 850 redox-related genes were also conducted. TP53 mutation status was not consistently predictive of response to APR-246. The expression of SLC7A11, the cystine/glutamate transporter, was identified as a superior determinant of response to APR-246. Genetic regulators of SLC7A11, including ATF4, MDM2, wild-type p53 and c-Myc were confirmed to also regulate cancer cell sensitivity to APR-246. In conclusion, SLC7A11 expression is a broadly applicable determinant of sensitivity to APR-246 across cancer and should be utilised as the key predictive biomarker to stratify patients for future clinical investigation of APR-246.
Publication Date: 2021-07-29
Journal: Molecular cancer therapeutics


Molecular profiling of basal cell carcinomas in young patients.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents by far the most common non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the world with an increasing incidence of 3% to 10% per year, especially in patients under the age of 40. While variants in the sonic Hedgehog and cell cycle regulation pathways account for the majority of BCC cases in adults, the molecular etiology of BCC in young patients is unelucidated yet. This study aims to investigate the molecular profile of BCC in the young population. 28 tumors belonging to 25 Lebanese patients under the age of 40, presenting different stages of BCC and diagnosed at Hôtel Dieu de France-Saint Joseph University Medical Center were included in this study. A selected panel of 150 genes involved in cancer was analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in the 28 included tumors. Genetic variants detected in more than 5% of the reads, with a sequencing depth ≥ 50x, were selected. Two hundred and two genetic variants in 48 different genes were detected, with an overall average sequencing depth of 1069x. Among the 28 studied tumors, 18 (64.3%) show variations in the PTCH1 gene, 6 (21.4%) in TP53 and 3 (10.7%) in SMO. This is the first study reporting NGS-based analysis of BCC in a cohort of young patients. Our results highlight the involvement of the hedgehog and cell cycle regulation pathways in the genesis of BCC in the general population. The inclusion of a larger cohort of young patients is needed to confirm our findings.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: BMC medical genomics

cancer genome atlas(35)

Complete disease remission in a
Lung cancer is the most common primary malignancy and tends to metastasize to the brain. A multimodal approach, including systematic therapy (targeted therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy) and local consolidative therapy (surgical intervention, radiation therapy, ablation therapy), is essential for treatment of oligometastatic lung cancer. The systemic immunotherapy has been shown to increase response rate and survival, which then has the potential benefit of making localized treatment more feasible for some cases of oligometastatic cancer. We present a 62-year-old male with stage IVB lung adenocarcinoma with five metastases in the brain. Molecular testing exhibited KRAS and TP53 co-mutation, with negative PD-L1 expression. The patient received six cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy plus pembrolizumab and minimally invasive lobectomy, followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and pembrolizumab. The patient achieved complete disease remission, with no sign of recurrence for 22 months post-treatment. Moreover, we investigated PD-L1 expression and infiltration of immunological cells in biopsy tissue and surgical specimen prior to and after immuno-chemotherapy using multiple immunohistochemistry stains. The different infiltration levels of immune cells for TP53 and KRAS co-mutation were also explored using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and Cell type Identification By Estimating Relative Subsets Of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which a brain oligometastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patient has achieved a complete response after immuno-chemotherapy plus local surgical resection.
Publication Date: 2021-06-25
Journal: Translational lung cancer research

tp53 alterations(35)

p53-intact cancers escape tumor suppression through loss of long noncoding RNA Dino.
Many long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes exist near cancer-associated loci, yet evidence connecting lncRNA functions to recurrent genetic alterations in cancer are lacking. Here, we report that DINO, the lncRNA transcribed from the cancer-associated DINO/CDKN1A locus, suppresses tumor formation independent of p21, the protein encoded at the locus. Loss of one or two alleles of Dino impairs p53 signaling and apoptosis, resulting in a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor phenotype in genetically defined mouse models of tumorigenesis. A discrete region of the DINO/CDKN1A locus is recurrently hypermethylated in human cancers, silencing DINO but not CDKN1A, the gene encoding p21. Hypermethylation silences DINO, impairs p53 signaling pathway in trans, and is mutually exclusive with TP53 alterations, indicating that DINO and TP53 comprise a common tumor suppressor module. Therefore, DINO encodes a lncRNA essential for tumor suppression that is recurrently silenced in human cancers as a mechanism to escape p53-dependent tumor suppression.
Publication Date: 2021-07-01
Journal: Cell reports

kras tp53(34)

Combined tumor epithelial and stromal histopathology with keratin 81 expression predicts prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Development of a pragmatic pathologic classifier of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) that reflects biological behavior is needed. The tumor epithelial and stromal features of PDAC and molecular subtype-related markers were evaluated in three independent cohorts. In the non-neoadjuvant therapy cohort (n = 108), regarding tumor-epithelial feature, non-gland-forming type showed worse prognosis compared to gland-forming type (P < .001). For tumor-stromal feature, in gland-forming type, the prognosis was good in order of inactivated stroma-rich, stroma-poor, and activated stroma-rich (P = .027). Whereas, non-gland-forming type revealed no difference of prognosis according to tumor stroma. Of molecular subtype-related markers, keratin 81 expression was correlated with non-gland-forming type and poor prognosis (P = .005 and P = .021, respectively). Other markers (HNF1A, c-MET, and p53) showed no significant differences in prognosis. In the neoadjuvant therapy cohort (n = 68), non-gland-forming type was correlated with high residual tumor volume (≥20%) (P < .001) and gland-forming/stroma-poor type was not present. In the next-generation sequencing cohort (n = 55), non-gland-forming type was correlated with a higher number of the KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4 mutations (P = .038). Combined tumor epithelial and stromal histopathology with keratin 81 expression is suggested to be useful for predicting prognosis of PDAC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-29
Journal: Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences


Therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism of calycosin for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study was designed to understand the pivotal anti-cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) targets and pathways of calycosin through network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses. In this study, bioinformatics tools were employed to characterize and identify the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of calycosin for CIRI management. The network pharmacology data identified potential, merged CIRI-associated targets of calycosin including tumor protein p53 (TP53), protein kinase B (AKT1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Molecular docking analysis indicated the binding efficacy of calycosin with three of the targets, namely TP53, AKT1, and VEGFA. The biological processes of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI are mainly involved in the improvement of endothelial cell proliferation and growth, inflammatory development, and cellular metabolism. In addition, the anti-CIRI actions of calycosin were primarily through suppression of the toll-like receptor, PI3K-AKT, TNF, MAPK, and VEGF signaling pathways. Taken together, the current bioinformatic findings revealed pivotal targets, biological functions, and pharmacological mechanisms of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI. In conclusion, calycosin, a functional phytoestrogen, can be potentially used for the treatment of CIRI in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Journal: Aging


Progress in molecular feature of smoldering mantle cell lymphoma.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most aggressive lymphoid tumors. However, it sometimes displays indolent behavior in patients and might not necessitate treatment at diagnosis; this has been described as "smoldering MCL" (SMCL). There are significant differences in the diagnosis, prognosis, molecular mechanisms and treatments of indolent MCL and classical MCL. In this review, we discuss the progress in understanding the molecular mechanism of indolent MCL to provide insights into the genomic nature of this entity. Reported findings of molecular features of indolent MCL include a low Ki-67 index, CD200 positivity, a low frequency of mutations in TP53, a lack of SOX11, normal arrangement and expression of MYC, IGHV mutations, differences from classical MCL by L-MCL16 assays and MCL35 assays, an unmutated P16 status, few defects in ATM, no NOTCH1/2 mutation, Amp 11q gene mutation, no chr9 deletion, microRNA upregulation/downregulation, and low expression of several genes that have been valued in recent years (SPEN, SMARCA4, RANBP2, KMT2C, NSD2, CARD11, FBXW7, BIRC3, KMT2D, CELSR3, TRAF2, MAP3K14, HNRNPH1, Del 9p and/or Del 9q, SP140 and PCDH10). Based on the above molecular characteristics, we may distinguish indolent MCL from classical MCL. If so, indolent MCL will not be overtreated, whereas the treatment of classical MCL will not be delayed.
Publication Date: 2021-07-15
Journal: Experimental hematology & oncology


Astaxanthin Relieves Busulfan-Induced Oxidative Apoptosis in Cultured Human Spermatogonial Stem Cells by Activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway.
Many child cancer patients endure anticancer therapy containing alkylating agents before sexual maturity. Busulfan (BU), as an alkylating agent, is a chemotherapy drug, causing DNA damage and cytotoxicity in germ cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of astaxanthin (AST), as a potent antioxidant and powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, on BU-induced toxicity in human spermatogonial stem cells. For this purpose, testes were obtained from four brain-dead donors. After tissue enzymatic digestions, testicular cells were cultured for 3 weeks for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) isolation and purification. K562 cell line was cultured to survey the effect of AST on cancer treatment. The cultured SSCs and K562 cell line were finally treated with AST (10μM), BU (0.1nM), and AST+BU. The expression of NRF-2, HO-1, SOD2, SOD3, TP53, and apoptotic genes, including CASP9, CASP3, BCL2, and BAX, were assayed using real-time PCR. Moreover, ROS level in different groups and malondialdehyde level and total antioxidant capacity in cell contraction of SSCs were measured using ELISA. Data showed that AST significantly upregulated the expression of NRF-2 gene (P<0.001) and protein (P<0.005) and also significantly decreased the production of BU-induced ROS (P<0.001). AST activated the NRF-2/HO-1 pathway that could remarkably restrain BU-induced apoptosis in SSCs. Interestingly, AST upregulated the expression level of apoptosis genes in the K562 cell line. The results of this study indicated that AST reduces the side effects of BU on SSCs without interference with its chemotherapy effect on cancerous cells through modulation of the NRF-2/HO-1 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-06-16
Journal: Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)

driver genes(34)

Driver and novel genes correlated with metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer: A comprehensive analysis.
Although mutations of genes are crucial events in tumorigenesis and development, the association between gene mutations and lung cancer metastasis is still largely unknown. The goal of this study is to identify driver and novel genes associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis. Candidate genes were identified using a novel comprehensive analysis, which was based on bioinformatics technology and meta-analysis. Firstly, EGFR, KRAS, ALK, TP53, BRAF and PIK3CA were identified as candidate driver genes. Further meta-analysis identified that EGFR (Pooled OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.19, 1.50; P < .001) and ALK (Pooled OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22, 1.89; P < .001) mutations were associated with distant metastasis of NSCLC. Besides, ALK (Pooled OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.71, 3.38; P < .001) mutation was associated with lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. In addition, thirteen novel gene mutations were identified to be correlated with NSCLC metastasis, including SMARCA1, GGCX, KIF24, LRRK1, LILRA4, OR2T10, EDNRB, NR1H4, ARID4A, PRKCI, PABPC5, ACAN and TLN1. Furthermore, elevated mRNA expression level of SMARCA1 and EDNRB was associated with poor overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), respectively. Additionally, pathway and protein-protein interactions network analyses found the two genes were correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. In conclusion, mutations of EGFR and ALK were significantly correlated with NSCLC metastasis. In addition, thirteen novel genes were identified to be associated with NSCLC metastasis, especially SMARCA1 in LUAD and EDNRB in LUSC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-24
Journal: Pathology, research and practice

p 0 05(33)

Histone H3.3 G34-mutant Diffuse Gliomas in Adults.
The characteristics of H3.3 G34-mutant gliomas in adults have yet to be specifically described. Thirty adults with H3.3 G34-mutant diffuse gliomas were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and pathologic information. Molecular profiling using next-generation sequencing was performed in 29 of the 30 H3.3 G34-mutant patients with 1 patient lacking available tumor samples, as well as 82 IDH/H3 wild-type adult diffuse glioma patients. The age at diagnosis of H3.3 G34-mutant diffuse gliomas was significantly younger than IDH/H3 wild-type gliomas (24 vs. 57 y, P<0.001). Overall, 19 of the 30 patients were diagnosed of glioblastoma with the primitive neuronal component, and 8 were glioblastoma. The molecular profiling analysis revealed higher frequencies of Olig-2 loss of expression, TP53 mutation, ATRX mutation, PDGFRA mutation, and MGMT promoter methylation (P<0.05) in H3.3 G34-mutant gliomas than IDH/H3 wild-type gliomas. No TERT promoter mutation and only 1 case of EGFR amplification were detected in the H3.3 G34-mutant cohort, the frequencies of which were significantly higher in the IDH/H3 wild-type cohort. A dismal prognosis was observed in H3.3 G34-mutant patients comparing to IDH/H3 wild-type cohort (overall survival: 14 vs. 22 mo; P=0.026). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the extent of resection and TP53 mutation were independently affecting prognosis. The distinct pathologic and molecular features of H3.3 G34-mutant diffuse gliomas in adult patients demonstrated the clinical importance of detecting H3.3 G34R/V mutations. The dismal prognosis of this rare high-grade glioma disease we reported here would further promote the investigation of dedicated therapeutic strategies.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology

survival os(33)

TP53 mutations in circulating tumor DNA in advanced epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib.
Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is a tumor suppressor gene and TP53 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the in-depth classification of TP53 and its relationship with treatment response and prognosis in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant tumors treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are unclear. Circulating tumor DNA was prospectively collected at baseline in advanced treatment-naïve EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib in an open-label, single-arm, prospective, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial (BENEFIT trial) and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 180 enrolled patients, 115 (63.9%) harbored TP53 mutations. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with TP53-wild type tumors were significantly longer than those of patients with TP53-mutant tumors. Mutations in exons 5-8 accounted for 80.9% of TP53 mutations. Mutations in TP53 exons 6 and 7 were significantly associated with inferior PFS and OS compared to wild-type TP53. TP53 mutation also influenced the prognosis of patients with different EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 and EGFR exon 19 mutations had significantly longer PFS and OS than patients with TP53 and EGFR L858R mutations, and both groups had worse survival than patients with only EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 mutations, especially in exons 6 and 7, had a lower response rate and shorter PFS and OS when treated with gefitinib. Moreover, TP53 exon 5 mutation divided TP53 mutations in disruptive and non-disruptive types.
Publication Date: 2021-07-01
Journal: Translational oncology


Genomic analysis for the prediction of prognosis in small-bowel cancer.
The current understanding of clinicopathological features and genomic variants of small-bowel cancer is limited, in part due to the rarity of the disease. However, understanding of these factors is necessary for the development of novel therapeutic agents for small-bowel cancer. Thus, we aimed to identify the clinicopathological features and genomic variants associated with its prognosis and recurrence. We retrospectively examined 24 consecutive patients with primary small-bowel cancer surgically treated between May 2005 and August 2018 and collected 29 tumor specimens. The 29 lesions were subjected to mismatch repair status evaluation, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and targeted genomic sequencing, after which they were analyzed using a panel of 90 cancer-related genes. IHC revealed that 45% (13/29) of the lesions exhibited deficient mismatch repair. The most common genomic variants in small-bowel cancers were in TP53 (48%, 13/27), followed by KRAS (44%, 12/27), ARID1A (33%, 9/27), PIK3CA (26%, 7/27), APC (26%, 7/27), and SMAD4, NOTCH3, CREBBP, PTCH1, and EP300 (22%, 6/27 each). Overall survival and disease-specific survival of patients with tumor mutational burden (TMB) ≥10 mutations/Mb (n = 17) were significantly better than those of patients with TMB <10 mutations/Mb (n = 6). Additionally, patients with a mutant SMAD4 had poorer recurrence-free survival than those with wild-type SMAD4. Our results suggested that TMB and SMAD4 mutations were associated with the prognosis of small-bowel cancer patients. Thus, cancer genomic analysis could be useful in the search for biomarkers of prognosis prediction in small-bowel cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-05-21
Journal: PloS one


Evaluating CRISPR-based prime editing for cancer modeling and CFTR repair in organoids.
Prime editing is a recently reported genome editing tool using a nickase-cas9 fused to a reverse transcriptase that directly synthesizes the desired edit at the target site. Here, we explore the use of prime editing in human organoids. Common TP53 mutations can be correctly modeled in human adult stem cell-derived colonic organoids with efficiencies up to 25% and up to 97% in hepatocyte organoids. Next, we functionally repaired the cystic fibrosis CFTR-F508del mutation and compared prime editing to CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair and adenine base editing on the CFTR-R785* mutation. Whole-genome sequencing of prime editing-repaired organoids revealed no detectable off-target effects. Despite encountering varying editing efficiencies and undesired mutations at the target site, these results underline the broad applicability of prime editing for modeling oncogenic mutations and showcase the potential clinical application of this technique, pending further optimization.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Life science alliance

genes tp53(29)

Global Single Clustering of Phenotype-Associated Human Aging Genes in the Co-Expression and Physical Interaction Networks: An OMIM-Based Investigative Review.
While a large wealth of literature on aging pertains to in silico, experimental, and predicted genes, many of those genes do not have validated phenotypic consequences in human. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) provides an exceptional compendium of authoritative, validated aging genes and phenotypes, the interactions among which may enhance the overall perspective of aging mechanisms in human. Here, we reviewed and investigated the global clustering pattern of the OMIM-indexed aging genes (until April 2021) in the gene co-expression and physical interaction networks, using the two keywords "aging" and "ageing". To allow for validity check, we randomly selected six sets of genes from the human genome as control genes, each set consisting of a similar number of genes obtained from the OMIM search. STRING was implemented in the weighted setting and using the edge betweenness parameter, to construct the integrated and tissue-specific networks of the age-related and control genes. 286 aging (ageing) genes and a wide spectrum of 96 associated phenotypes were detected, including late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, osteoarthritis, and longevity. Despite the general terms used and the vast range of age-related phenotypes, we detected single clustering of the OMIM-extracted aging (ageing) genes in each of the integrated weighted co-expression and physical interaction networks (p<0.0005), as opposed to multiple clustering of the control genes (p≥0.04). TP53 was the overlapping hub gene in each of the networks. Three genes, TP53, APP, and SIRT1 were the consistent hub genes co-expressed across eleven selected human tissues frequently affected by age-related phenotypes. We propose predominant single clustering of the human phenotype-associated aging genes in the co-expression and physical interaction networks, and list the top pathways and genes involved.
Publication Date: 2021-06-26
Journal: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics

growth factor receptor(29)

Integration of clinicopathological and mutational data offers insight into lung cancer with tumor spread through air spaces.
Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS) was defined as a unique tumor invasion pattern in adenocarcinoma (ADC) by The World Health Organization Classification of Lung Tumors in 2015. Since then, STAS had been shown to be associated with local recurrence and poor survival results, as the typical signature and potential mechanisms of STAS remained unclear. Our objectives were to comprehensively demonstrate the clinicopathological and genetic signatures in STAS-positive lung cancer patients. The clinicopathological and gene alteration characteristics of 878 STAS-positive lung cancer patients were presented. Associations between parameters were evaluated using the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. The capture-based targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) with a platform of 68 lung cancer-related genes was conducted in 139 cases, and the mutational spectrum was summarized. STAS was identified in 391 female and 481 male patients, of which ADC accounted for the majority of cases (92.6%). The concomitant solid or micropapillary subtype was observed in 92.12% patients with ADC. Poorly differentiated histological subtypes were more frequent and negatively correlated with tumor size in smaller tumor cases (P=0.036, Pearson's R=-0.075). Furthermore, in the subgroup of nodules within 3 cm, the distribution of the solid and micropapillary subtypes were significantly frequent in lymph node-positive patients (P<0.001). Tumor protein p53 (TP53) alterations were more frequent in smoking patients (27.6%, P=0.007), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) alterations were more common in female (10.8%, P=0.025), while Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) (20.3%, P=0.024) and TP53 (45.9%, P=0.003) were more prevalent in males. Poorly differentiated histological subtypes likely played a crucial role in promoting the invasiveness of STAS, especially in small tumor-size cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TP53, KARS, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1) were the five most frequent alterations in STAS-positive ADC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-20
Journal: Annals of translational medicine


Genomic alterations and possible druggable mutations in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).
Carcinoma of Unknown Primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous and metastatic disease where the primary site of origin is undetectable. Currently, chemotherapy is the only state-of-art treatment option for CUP patients. The molecular profiling of the tumour, particularly mutation detection, offers a new treatment approach for CUP in a personalized fashion using targeted agents. We analyzed the mutation and copy number alterations profile of 1709 CUP samples deposited in the AACR Project Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE) cohort and explored potentially druggable mutations. We identified 52 significant mutated genes (SMGs) among CUP samples, in which 13 (25%) of SMGs were potentially targetable with either drugs are approved for the know primary tumour or undergoing clinical trials. The most variants detected were TP53 (43%), KRAS (19.90%), KMT2D (12.60%), and CDKN2A (10.30%). Additionally, using pan-cancer analysis, we found similar variants of TERT promoter in CUP and NSCLC samples, suggesting that these mutations may serve as a diagnostic marker for identifying the primary tumour in CUP. Taken together, the mutation profiling analysis of the CUP tumours may open a new way of identifying druggable targets and consequently administrating appropriate treatment in a personalized manner.
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: Scientific reports

brca1 brca2(27)

Clinical likelihood ratios and balanced accuracy for 44 in silico tools against multiple large-scale functional assays of cancer susceptibility genes.
Where multiple in silico tools are concordant, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) framework affords supporting evidence toward pathogenicity or benignity, equivalent to a likelihood ratio of ~2. However, limited availability of "clinical truth sets" and prior use in tool training limits their utility for evaluation of tool performance. We created a truth set of 9,436 missense variants classified as deleterious or tolerated in clinically validated high-throughput functional assays for BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, PTEN, and TP53 to evaluate predictive performance for 44 recommended/commonly used in silico tools. Over two-thirds of the tool-threshold combinations examined had specificity of <50%, thus substantially overcalling deleteriousness. REVEL scores of 0.8-1.0 had a Positive Likelihood Ratio (PLR) of 6.74 (5.24-8.82) compared to scores <0.7 and scores of 0-0.4 had a Negative Likelihood Ratio (NLR) of 34.3 (31.5-37.3) compared to scores of >0.7. For Meta-SNP, the equivalent PLR = 42.9 (14.4-406) and NLR = 19.4 (15.6-24.9). Against these clinically validated "functional truth sets," there was wide variation in the predictive performance of commonly used in silico tools. Overall, REVEL and Meta-SNP had best balanced accuracy and might potentially be used at stronger evidence weighting than current ACMG/AMP prescription, in particular for predictions of benignity.
Publication Date: 2021-07-08
Journal: Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics


High Prevalence of DICER1 Mutations and Low Frequency of Gene Fusions in Pediatric Follicular-Patterned Tumors of the Thyroid.
Follicular-patterned tumors of the thyroid in the adult population frequently harbor RAS mutations or PAX8-PPARG rearrangement, but little is known about molecular profiles in the pediatric patients with thyroid tumors, which is rare. To identify the molecular profile of pediatric follicular-patterned tumors, we enrolled 41 pediatric patients with follicular-patterned tumors from two institutions. We did next-generation sequencing using a mutation panel targeting 49 thyroid-tumor-related genes and a fusion panel targeting 88 types of thyroid-related gene fusions. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in at least one target gene in most of the tumors (28/41, 68%). Somatic DICER1 mutations (22%, n = 9) were the most common genetic alteration, followed by mutations of NRAS (15%), FGFR3 (15%), PTEN (12%), and STK11 (10%). Infrequent genetic alterations (≤ 5% of all cases) included mutations of HRAS, APC, TSHR, CTNNB1, TP53, EIF1AX, FGFR4, GNAS, RET, and SOS1, and gene fusion of THADA-IGF2BP3. DICER1 and RAS mutations were mutually exclusive. No patients had tumors related to the DICER1 syndrome or the Cowden syndrome. There was no significant difference in total mutation burden or distribution between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. In the literature, the DICER1 mutation has been reported in 20 to 53% of pediatric patients with follicular-patterned tumors. In conclusion, our study reinforces the role of the DICER1 mutation in the development of pediatric thyroid tumors. Gene fusions rarely occur in pediatric follicular-patterned tumors. Mutation or gene fusion alone could not distinguish benign from malignant follicular-patterned tumors in pediatric patients.
Publication Date: 2021-07-28
Journal: Endocrine pathology

tumor protein 53(25)

The association between the expression of nuclear Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) and p53 protein expression profile in breast cancer patients.
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a key effector molecule regulated by the Hippo pathway and described as a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer. Tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutation is well known as a biomarker related to poor survival outcomes. So far clinical characteristics and survival outcome according to YAP1 and TP53 mutation have been poorly identified in breast cancer. Retrospectively, 533 breast tumor tissues were collected at the Seoul St Mary's hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital from 1992 to 2017. Immunohistochemistry with YAP1 and p53 specific antibodies were performed, and the clinical data were analyzed. Mutant p53 pattern was associated with aggressive tumor features and advanced anatomical stage. Inferior overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were related with mutant p53 pattern cases with low nuclear YAP1 expression (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0011, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that mutant p53 pattern was an independent prognostic marker for OS [hazard ratios (HR): 2.938, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.028-8.395, P = 0.044] and RFS (HR: 1.842, 95% CIs: 1.026-3.304). However, in cases with high nuclear YAP1 expression, there were no significantly difference in OS and RFS according to p53 staining pattern. We found that mutant p53 pattern is a poor prognostic biomarker in breast tumor with low nuclear YAP1 expression. Our findings suggest that interaction between nuclear YAP1 and p53 expression pattern impact survival outcomes.
Publication Date: 2021-05-11
Journal: PloS one


Circulating tumor DNA in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with HIV is associated with shorter overall survival: Results from a Phase II trial (IFCT-1001 CHIVA).
HIV is an exclusion criterion for most lung cancer (LC) trials, however LC is the most common non-AIDS-defined malignancy in people living with HIV (PLHIV), poorer prognosis than the general population. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) was a prognostic marker in LC patients from the general population. This study assessed ctDNA's prognostic value in PLHIV from a dedicated phase II trial. Overall, 61 PLHIV with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) participated in the IFCT Phase II trial evaluating first-line four-cycle carboplatin (Ca) AUC5 pemetrexed (P) 500 mg/m Appropriate samples were available from 55 PLVIH and analyzed for ctDNA detection. Including 42 males (76.4 %), 52.9 years median age, 51 smokers (92.7 %), five with non-squamous NSCLC Stage III (9%), 50 Stage IV (91 %), and performance status (PS) 0-2. ctDNA was detected in 35 patients (64 %), 22 with high and 13 with low ctDNA levels. Overall, 77 % were positive for TP53, 29 % for KRAS, and 11 % for STK11 mutations, more than one alteration was detected in 43 % of samples. Multivariate analysis showed that positive ctDNA was significantly associated with shorter PFS (HR, 4.31, 95 %CI: 2.06-8.99, p < 0.0001), and shorter OS (HR, 3.52, 95 %CI: 1.72-7.19, p < 0.001). Moreover, OS was significantly longer for patients with low ctDNA levels at diagnosis as compared to high (p = 0.01). We show that ctDNA detection using ultra-deep NGS is an independent prognostic factor in PLHIV with advanced NSCLC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-22
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)


TCF19 and p53 regulate transcription of TIGAR and SCO2 in HCC for mitochondrial energy metabolism and stress adaptation.
Alteration in glucose homeostasis during cancer metabolism is an important phenomenon. Though several important transcription factors have been well studied in the context of the regulation of metabolic gene expression, the role of epigenetic readers in this regard remains still elusive. Epigenetic reader protein transcription factor 19 (TCF19) has been recently identified as a novel glucose and insulin-responsive factor that modulates histone posttranslational modifications to regulate glucose homeostasis in hepatocytes. Here we report that TCF19 interacts with a non-histone, well-known tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and co-regulates a wide array of metabolic genes. Among these, the p53-responsive carbohydrate metabolic genes Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and Cytochrome C Oxidase assembly protein 2 (SCO2), which are the key regulators of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation respectively, are under direct regulation of TCF19. Remarkably, TCF19 can form different transcription activation/repression complexes which show substantial overlap with that of p53, depending on glucose-mediated variant stress situations as obtained from IP/MS studies. Interestingly, we observed that TCF19/p53 complexes either have CBP or HDAC1 to epigenetically program the expression of TIGAR and SCO2 genes depending on short-term high glucose or prolonged high glucose conditions. TCF19 or p53 knockdown significantly altered the cellular lactate production and led to increased extracellular acidification rate. Similarly, OCR and cellular ATP production were reduced and mitochondrial membrane potential was compromised upon depletion of TCF19 or p53. Subsequently, through RNA-Seq analysis from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, we observed that TCF19/p53-mediated metabolic regulation is fundamental for sustenance of cancer cells. Together the study proposes that TCF19/p53 complexes can regulate metabolic gene expression programs responsible for mitochondrial energy homeostasis and stress adaptation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

signaling pathway(23)

Study on HOXBs of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Detection of New Molecular Target.
Our study examined the transcriptional and survival data of HOXBs in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from the ONCOMINE database, Human Protein Atlas, and STRING website. We discovered that the expression levels of HOXB3/5/6/8/9 were significantly lower in ccRCC than in normal nephritic tissues. In ccRCC, patients with a high expression of HOXB2/5/6/7/8/9 mRNA have a higher overall survival (OS) than patients with low expression. Further analysis by the GSCALite website revealed that the methylation of HOXB3/5/6/8 in ccRCC was significantly negatively correlated to gene expression, while HOXB5/9 was positively correlated to the CCT036477 drug target. As DNA abnormal methylation is one of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that HOXB5/6/8/9 are potential therapeutic targets for patients with ccRCC. We analyzed the function of enrichment data of HOXBs in patients with ccRCC from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment and the PANTHER pathway. The results of the analysis show that the function of HOXBs might be associated with the Wnt pathway and that HOXB5/6/8/9 was coexpressed with multiple Wnt pathway classical genes and proteins, such as MYC, CTNNB, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), and tumor protein P53 (TP53), which further confirms that HOXBs inhibit the growth of renal carcinoma cells through the Wnt signaling pathway. In conclusion, our analysis of the family of HOXBs and their molecular mechanism may provide a theoretical basis for further research.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Journal of oncology


PP2A and E3 ubiquitin ligase deficiencies: Seminal biological drivers in endometrial cancer.
PI3K-AKT pathway mutations initiate a kinase cascade that characterizes endometrial cancer (EC). As kinases seldom cause oncogenic transformation without dysregulation of antagonistic phosphatases, pivotal interactions governing this pathway were explored and correlated with clinical outcomes. After exclusion of patients with POLE mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas EC cohort with endometrioid or serous EC, the study population was 209 patients with DNA sequencing, quantitative gene-specific RNA expression, copy number variation (CNV), and surveillance data available. Extracted data were annotated and integrated. A PIK3CA, PTEN, or PIK3R1 mutant (-mu) was present in 83% of patients; 57% harbored more than 1 mutation without adversely impacting progression-free survival (PFS) (P = .10). PIK3CA CNV of at least 1.1 (CNV high [-H]) was detected in 26% and linked to TP53-mu and CIP2A expression (P < .001) but was not associated with PFS (P = .24). PIK3CA expression was significantly different between those with CIP2A-H and CIP2A low (-L) expression (the endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A [PP2A]), when stratified by PIK3CA mutational status or by PIK3CA CNV-H and CNV-L (all P < .01). CIP2A-H or PPP2R1A-mu mitigates PP2A kinase dephosphorylation, and FBXW7-mu nullifies E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3UL) oncoprotein degradation. CIP2A-H and PPP2R1A-mu (PP2A impairment) and FBXW7-mu (E3UL impairment) were associated with compromised PFS (P < .001) and were prognostically discriminatory for PIK3CA-mu and PIK3CA CNV-H tumors (P < .001). Among documented recurrences, 84% were associated with impaired PP2A (75%) and/or E3UL (20%). PP2A and E3UL deficiencies are seminal biological drivers in EC independent of PIK3CA-mu, PTEN-mu, and PIK3R1-mu and PIK3CA CNV.
Publication Date: 2021-04-20
Journal: Gynecologic oncology

hazard ratio(20)

The genomic architectures of tumour-adjacent tissues, plasma and saliva reveal evolutionary underpinnings of relapse in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterised by a dismal prognosis; nonetheless, limited studies have unveiled the mechanisms underlying HNSCC relapse. Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify the somatic mutations in 188 matched samples, including primary tumours, tumour-adjacent tissues (TATs), pre- and post-operative plasma, saliva and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 27 patients. The evolutionary relationship between TATs and tumours were analysed. The dynamic changes of tumour- and TAT-specific mutations in liquid biopsies were monitored together with survival analysis. Alterations were detected in 27 out of 27 and 19 out of 26 tumours and TATs, respectively. TP53 was the most prevalently mutated gene in TATs. Some TATs shared mutations with primary tumours, while some other TATs were evolutionarily unrelated to tumours. Notably, TP53 mutations in TATs are stringently associated with premalignant transformation and are indicative of worse survival (hazard ratio = 14.01). TAT-specific mutations were also detected in pre- and/or post-operative liquid biopsies and were indicative of disease relapse. TATs might undergo the processes of premalignant transformation, tumorigenesis and eventually relapse by either inheriting tumorigenic mutations from ancestral clones where the tumour originated or gaining private mutations independent of primary tumours. Detection of tumour- and/or TAT-specific genetic alterations in post-operative biopsies shows profound potential in prognostic use.
Publication Date: 2021-07-08
Journal: British journal of cancer

p 001(18)

Validation of oral brushing as a non-invasive technique for the identification of feline oral squamous cell carcinoma by DNA methylation and TP53 mutation analysis.
Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is a frequent and progressively invasive tumour. Early lesions are difficult to recognize based on the sole clinical examination and may be misinterpreted as non-neoplastic. Mutations of TP53 and epigenetic alterations of specific genes are present in FOSCC and may be early detected. Aim of this prospective study was to investigate the DNA methylation pattern of a 17-gene panel and TP53 mutational status of FOSCC cytological samples obtained by oral brushing. Results were compared with a control group, in order to validate this non-invasive procedure for the screening of FOSCC. In FOSCC, the same analyses were carried out on the corresponding histological sample, if available. Thirty-five FOSCC and 60 controls were included. Mutations of TP53 were detected in 17 FOSCC brushings (48%) and in none of the controls (P < .001). Six genes (ZAP70, FLI1, MiR124-1, KIF1A, MAGEC2 and MiR363) were differentially methylated in FOSCC and were included in a methylation score. An algorithm based on TP53 mutational status and methylation score allowed to differentiate FOSCC from controls with a 69% sensitivity and a 97% specificity (accuracy, 86%). In 19 FOSCC histological samples, TP53 mutational status was fully concordant with brushings and a positive methylation score was observed in all cases. These results are promising for the identification of FOSCC by oral brushing, although some factors may limit the accuracy of this technique and further studies are required to assess its reproducibility in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-02-25
Journal: Veterinary and comparative oncology

tp53 apc(17)

Genomic Sequencing and Insight into Clinical Heterogeneity and Prognostic Pathway Genes in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFβ, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFβ, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFβ, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years. Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons

p 0 01(16)

Verrucous carcinoma of the oesophagus is a genetically distinct subtype of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oesophageal verrucous carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare and morphologically distinct type of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Diagnosing VSCC on biopsy material is challenging, given the lack of significant atypia and the presence of keratinising epithelium and exophytic growth. The molecular pathogenesis of VSCC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise the genomic landscape of VSCC in comparison to conventional oesophageal SCC. Three cases of VSCC from the Brigham and Women's Hospital pathology archive were identified. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue was used for p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC), high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in-situ mRNA hybridisation (ISH) and DNA isolation. Tumour DNA was sequenced using a targeted massively parallel sequencing assay enriched for cancer-associated genes. Three additional cases of VSCC were identified by image review of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) oesophageal SCC cohort. VSCC cases were negative for p16 IHC and high-risk HPV ISH. TP53 mutations (P < 0.001) and copy number variants (CNVs) for CDKN2A (P < 0.001), CDKN2B (P < 0.01) and CCND1 (P < 0.01) were absent in VSCC and significantly less frequent in comparison to conventional SCC. Five VSCC cases featured SMARCA4 missense mutations or in-frame deletions compared to only four of 88 conventional SCC cases (P < 0.001). VSCC featured driver mutations in PIK3CA, HRAS and GNAS. Recurrent CNVs were rare in VSCC. VSCC is not only morphologically but also genetically distinct from conventional oesophageal SCC, featuring frequent SMARCA4 mutations and infrequent TP53 mutations or CDKN2A/B CNVs. Molecular findings may aid in establishing the challenging diagnosis of VSCC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-08
Journal: Histopathology

tp53 n(16)

Dynamics of circulating tumor DNA during postoperative radiotherapy in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective observational study.
This study was performed to evaluate circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) kinetics during postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) at surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Stage II/III patients with post-NAC residual TNBC who required PORT were prospectively included in this study between March 2019 and July 2020. For 11 TNBC patients, next-generation sequencing targeting 38 genes was conducted in 55 samples, including tumor tissue, three plasma samples, and leukocytes from each patient. The plasma samples were collected at three-time points; pre-PORT (T0), after 3 weeks of PORT (T1), and 1 month after PORT (T2). Serial changes in ctDNA variant allele frequency (VAF) were analyzed. Somatic variants were found in the tumor specimens in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. Mutated genes included TP53 (n = 7); PIK3CA (n = 2); and AKT1, APC, CSMD3, MYC, PTEN, and RB1 (n = 1). These tumor mutations were not found in plasma samples. Plasma ctDNA variants were detected in three (27.3%) patients at T0. Mutations in EGFR (n = 1), CTNNB1 (n = 1), and MAP2K (n = 1) was identified with ctDNA analysis. In two (18.2%) patients, the ctDNA VAF decreased through T1 and T2 while increasing at T2 in one (9.1%) patient. After a median follow-up of 22 months, no patient showed cancer recurrence. Among patients with post-NAC residual TNBC, more than a quarter exhibited a detectable amount of ctDNA after curative surgery. The ctDNA VAF changed variably during the course of PORT. Therefore, ctDNA kinetics can serve as a biomarker for optimizing adjuvant treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-06-22
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

del 17p(14)

Ibrutinib Plus Venetoclax for First-line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nonrandomized Phase 2 Trial.
Oral targeted therapies have advanced the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies include Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, used as monotherapy, and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, typically combined with the CD20 monoclonal antibody. Preclinical studies have shown synergy between Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax. To examine the rate of complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow-undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) after treatment with the combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax. A single-center, phase 2 nonrandomized trial enrolled patients from August 17, 2016, to June 5, 2018. Participants included previously untreated patients with CLL who met International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria for treatment indication. Patients were required to have at least 1 of the following features: del(17p), TP53-mutated CLL, del(11q), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene, or age 65 years or older. Therapy consisted of ibrutinib, 420 mg/d, monotherapy for 3 cycles, thereafter combined with venetoclax (standard weekly dose ramp-up to 400 mg/d) for a total of 24 cycles of combination treatment. Responses were assessed at serial points according to International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. Measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed by multicolor flow cytometry with a sensitivity of 10-4. Outcomes included complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow U-MRD rate. Eighty patients (57 [71%] men) were treated; median age was 65 years (range, 26-83 years). The median follow-up for all 80 patients was 38.5 months (range, 5.6-51.1 months). Five patients discontinued the study during the ibrutinib monotherapy phase; the remaining 75 patients received combination therapy. On an intent-to-treat analysis of combined treatment, 45 (56%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 12 cycles and 53 (66%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 24 cycles. Overall, 60 (75%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission as their best response. Responses were seen across all high-risk subgroups, independent of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutation status, fluorescence in situ hybridization category, or TP53 mutation. The 3-year progression-free survival was 93%, and 3-year overall survival was 96%. No patient had CLL progression; 2 patients developed Richter transformation. The findings of this study suggest that combination therapy with ibrutinib and venetoclax might be beneficial for previously untreated patients with CLL. Remissions appeared to be durable during a follow-up of more than 3 years, with activity seen across high-risk disease subgroups, including those with del(17p)/TP53-mutated CLL. Identifier: NCT02756897.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: JAMA oncology

p 0 0001(13)

The complex karyotype landscape in chronic lymphocytic leukemia allows to refine the risk of Richter syndrome transformation.
Complex karyotype (CK) at chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) diagnosis is a negative biomarker of adverse outcome. Since the impact of CK and its subtypes, namely type-2 CK (CK with major structural abnormalities) or high-CK (CK with C5 chromosome abnormalities), on the risk of developing Richter syndrome (RS) is unknown, we carried out a multicenter reallife retrospective study to test its prognostic impact. Among 540 CLL patients, 107 harbored a CK at CLL diagnosis, 78 were classified as CK2 and 52 as high-CK. Twenty-eight patients developed RS during a median follow-up of 6.7 years. At the time of CLL diagnosis, CK2 and high-CK were more common and predicted the highest risk of RS transformation, together with advanced Binet stage, unmutated (U)-IGHV, 11q-, TP53 abnormalities. We integrated these variables into a hierarchical model: high-CK and/or CK2 patients showed a 10-year time to RS (TTRS) of 31%; U-IGHV/11q-/TP53 abnormalities/Binet stage B-C patients had a 10-year TTRS of 12%; while mutated (M)-IGHV without CK and TP53 disruption a 10-year TTRS of 3% (p<0.0001). We herein demonstrated that CK landscape at CLL diagnosis allows to refine the risk of RS transformation and we recapitulated clinico-biological variables into a prognostic model.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Haematologica

p 0 002(13)

Molecular alterations in basal cell carcinoma subtypes.
A number of genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of BCC in addition to the Hedgehog pathway, which is known to drive the initiation of this tumour. We performed in-depth analysis of 13 BCC-related genes (CSMD1, CSMD2, DPH3 promoter, PTCH1, SMO, GLI1, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, TP53, ITIH2, DPP10, STEAP4, TERT promoter) in 57 BCC lesions (26 superficial and 31 nodular) from 55 patients and their corresponding blood samples. PTCH1 and TP53 mutations were found in 71.9% and 45.6% of BCCs, respectively. A high mutation rate was also detected in CSMD1 (63.2%), NOTCH1 (43.8%) and DPP10 (35.1%), and frequent non-coding mutations were identified in TERT (57.9%) and DPH3 promoter (49.1%). CSMD1 mutations significantly co-occurred with TP53 changes (p = 0.002). A significant association was observed between the superficial type of BCC and PTCH1 (p = 0.018) and NOTCH1 (p = 0.020) mutations. In addition, PTCH1 mutations were significantly associated with intermittent sun exposure (p = 0.046) and the occurrence of single lesions (p = 0.021), while NOTCH1 mutations were more frequent in BCCs located on the trunk compared to the head/neck and extremities (p = 0.001). In conclusion, we provide further insights into the molecular alterations underlying the tumorigenic mechanism of superficial and nodular BCCs with a view towards novel rationale-based therapeutic strategies.
Publication Date: 2021-06-26
Journal: Scientific reports

months p(10)

RAS/TP53 co-Mutation is Associated with Worse Survival after Concurrent Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases and Extrahepatic Disease.
To determine if tumor genetics are associated with overall survival (OS) after concurrent resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and extrahepatic disease (EHD). The prognosis for patients who undergo concurrent resection of CLM/EHD is unclear and the impact of somatic mutations has not been reported. Patients undergoing concurrent resection of CLM and EHD from 2007-2017 were identified from two academic centers. From 1 center, patients were selected from a pre-existing database of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to construct survival curves, compared using the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox analysis for OS was performed. One hundred nine patients were included. Most common EHD sites included lung (33 patients), peritoneum (32), and portal lymph nodes (14). TP53 mutation was the most common mutation, identified in 75 patients (69%), and RAS/TP53 co-mutation was identified in 31 patients (28%). The median OS was 49 months (IQR, 24-125), and 3- and 5-year OS rates were 66% and 44%, respectively. Compared to patients without RAS/TP53 co-mutation, patients with RAS/TP53 co-mutation had lower median OS: 39 vs. 51 months (P = .02). On multivariable analysis, lung EHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.4), peritoneal EHD (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2) and RAS/TP53 co-mutation (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.2) were independently associated with OS. RAS/TP53 co-mutation is associated with worse OS after concurrent CLM/EHD resection. Mutational status and site of EHD should be included in the evaluation of patients considered for concurrent resection.
Publication Date: 2020-12-23
Journal: Annals of surgery

n 6(10)

Molecular predictors of the outcome of paclitaxel plus carboplatin neoadjuvant therapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients.
Patients with advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) are usually treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin; however, predictive markers for this drug combination are unknown. Tumor samples from 71 consecutive HGSOC patients, who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, were subjected to molecular analysis. BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers (n = 22) had longer treatment-free interval (TFI) than non-carriers (n = 49) (9.5 months vs. 3.8 months; P = 0.007). Fifty-one HGSOCs had sufficient quality of tumor DNA for the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis by the SeqCap EZ CNV/LOH Backbone Design panel. All 13 tumors obtained from BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers and 12 sporadic HGSOCs showed a high number of evenly spread chromosomal breaks, which was defined as a BRCAness phenotype; median TFI for this combined group approached 9.5 months. The remaining 26 HGSOCs had similarly high global LOH score (above 20%); however, in contrast to BRCAness tumors, LOH involved large chromosomal segments; these patients had significantly lower TFI (3.7 months; P = 0.006). All patients with CCNE1 amplification (n = 7), TP53 R175H substitution (n = 6), and RB1 mutation (n = 4) had poor response to paclitaxel plus carboplatin. This study describes a cost-efficient method of detecting the BRCAness phenotype, which is compatible with the laboratory-scale NGS equipment. Some molecular predictors allow the identification of potential non-responders to paclitaxel plus carboplatin, who may need to be considered for other treatment options.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology

2 6(9)

Molecular Spectra and Frequency Patterns of Somatic Mutations in Arab Women with Breast Cancer.
The role of somatic mutations in breast cancer prognosis and management continues to be recognized. However, data on the molecular profiles of Arab women are limited. This was a cross-sectional study based on medical chart review of all Arab women diagnosed with breast cancer at a single institution between 2010 and 2018 who underwent next-generation sequencing with Ampliseq 46-Gene or 50-Gene. A total of 78 Arab women were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 52.3 years (range: 37-82 years; 38.5% ≤50 years). The majority of patients had stage III or IV disease (74.4%). Next-generation sequencing revealed the following somatic mutation rates: TP53, 23.1%; ATM, 2.6%; IDH1, 2.6%; IDH2, 3.8%; PTEN, 7.7%; PIK3CA, 15.4%; APC, 7.7%; NPM1, 2.5%; MPL, 1.3%; JAK2, 2.5%; KIT, 7.7%; KRAS, 3.8%; and NRAS, 3.8%. Our study illustrates frequencies of somatic mutations in Arab women with breast cancer and suggests potential variations from estimates reported in the Western population. These data calls for larger epidemiologic studies considering the evolving role of such mutations in prognostication and personalized management.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: The oncologist

p 0 003(8)

Overexpression of NOP58 as a Prognostic Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A TCGA Data-Based Analysis.
NOP58 ribonucleoprotein, a core component of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins, is involved in various cell physiological processes. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains very unclear. We aim to investigate NOP58 expression and its probable prognostic value in patients with HCC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. RNA sequencing data and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with HCC were collected from TCGA database. Expression of NOP58 in HCC tissues and normal tissues was analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Patients were divided into high and low subgroups according to median expression of NOP58. Logistic regression, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were conducted to annotate biological function and immune infiltration of NOP58. NOP58 was significantly overexpressed in HCC tissues and correlated with significantly high tumor stage [odds ratio (OR) 10.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.01-10.03; P = 0.003], advanced pathologic stage (OR 10.02, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P < 0.001), advanced histologic stage (OR 10.03, 95% CI 10.02-10.04; P < 0.001), vascular invasion (OR 10.02, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P = 0.003), poor performance status (OR 10.01, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P = 0.003), and Mut-TP53 status (OR 10.02, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P < 0.001). Elevated NOP58 expression had poor disease-specific survival (DSS; P < 0.001), progression-free interval (P = 0.006), and overall survival (OS; P < 0.001). NOP58 expression was independently correlated with OS (HR 1.731, 95% CI 10.037-2.890; P = 0.036). GSEA demonstrated that various cell cycle pathways along with RB-1 pathway, interleukin-10 signaling, regulation of TP53 activity, and P53 downstream pathway were differentially enriched in NOP58 high expression phenotype. NOP58 expression was positively correlated with infiltrating the levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Overexpression of NOP58 is negatively correlated with overall survival in patients with HCC and might be a potential biomarker for prognosis of HCC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-21
Journal: Advances in therapy

n 1(8)

Clinical Contribution of Next-Generation Sequencing Multigene Panel Testing for BRCA Negative High-Risk Patients With Breast Cancer.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and thought to be hereditary in 10% of patients. Recent next-generation sequencing studies have increased the detection of pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in genes other than BRCA1/2 in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated pathogenic variants, likely pathogenic variants, and variants of unknown significance in 18 hereditary cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer. This retrospective study included 188 high-risk BRCA1/2-negative patients with breast cancer tested with a multigene cancer panel using next-generation sequencing. Among 188 proband cases, 18 variants in 21 patients (11.1%) were classified as P/LP in PALB2 (n = 6), CHEK2 (n = 5), MUTYH (n = 4), ATM (n = 3), TP53 (n = 2), BRIP1 (n = 1), and MSH2 (n = 1). Three novel P/LP variants were identified. An additional 28 variants were classified as variants of unknown significance and detected in 30 different patients (15.9%). This is one of the largest study from Turkey to investigate the mutation spectrum in non-BRCA hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes. A multigene panel test increased the likelihood of identifying a molecular diagnosis in patients with BRCA 1/2-negative breast cancer at risk for a hereditary breast cancer syndrome. More studies are needed to enable the clinical interpretation of these P/LP variants in hereditary patients with breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-05-14
Journal: Clinical breast cancer

3 6(7)

Clinicopathologic and genetic features of metaplastic breast cancer with osseous differentiation: a series of 6 cases.
Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, of which MBC with osseous differentiation (MBC-OD) is extremely rare that only few cases have been reported. This study aimed to present the clinicopathologic and molecular features of MBC-OD. We collected 6 cases of MBC-OD from five different centers and described its clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics based on the next-generation sequencing. Another 11 cases from the literature were also reviewed to better characterize the tumor. The tumor primarily showed an osteosarcoma-like appearance, which composed of high cellularity with spindle cells and osteoblast-like cells producing coarse lace-like neoplastic bone (4/6) or osteoid matrix (6/6). 55 somatic mutations including 39 missenses (70.9%), 9 frameshifts (16.4%), 3 splice sites (5.5%), 3 in-frame InDels (5.5%) and 1 nonsense (1.8%) were identified. TP53 was the most frequently mutated genes (5/6, 83.3%), followed by RB1 (3/6, 50.0%), BCOR (2/6, 33.3%), MED12 (2/6, 33.3%), PIK3CA (2/6, 33.3%), and TET2 (2/6, 33.3%). Genetic alterations suggesting therapies with clinical benefit, including mTOR inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi), were observed in five cases. The median follow-up was 21 months (range, 3-80 months). Local recurrence was observed in two cases and three patients displayed distant metastasis. Two patients died of the disease at 3 months and 7 months, respectively. Based on this series, MBC-OD is a highly aggressive breast tumor with osteosarcoma-like morphology and a high incidence of recurrent disease showing specific genetic profiles.
Publication Date: 2021-05-05
Journal: Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)

n 4(7)

High-resolution melting effectively pre-screens for TP53 mutations before direct sequencing in patients with diffuse glioma.
TP53 mutations are important molecular markers in diffuse astrocytic tumors and medulloblastomas. We examined the efficacy of a pre-screening method for high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of TP53 mutation before direct sequencing using samples from patients with diffuse glioma. Surgical samples from 64 diffuse gliomas were classified based on the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) histopathological grading system and the cIMPACT-NOW (consortium to inform molecular and practical approaches to CNS tumor taxonomy-not official WHO) update. TP53 mutations from exon 5 to exon 8 were assessed by direct sequencing. The results of HRM and p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis were compared by recording the sensitivity, specificity, and false negative and false positive rates. Direct sequencing detected TP53 mutations in 18 of 64 samples (28.1%): diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (n = 3); diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-wild type (n = 1); anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (n = 3); anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wild type (n = 4); and glioblastoma, IDH-wild type (n = 7). A total of 22 mutations was detected in the 18 samples; 4 samples exhibited duplicate missense mutations. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 and 0.96, respectively, for HRM analysis; they were 0.89 and 0.52, respectively, for p53 IHC. Overall accuracy was 0.98 for HRM and 0.63 for IHC. HRM analysis is a good pre-screening method for the detection of TP53 mutation before direct sequencing.
Publication Date: 2021-01-18
Journal: Human cell

n 5(7)

Germline mutations and age at onset of lung adenocarcinoma.
To identify additional at-risk groups for lung cancer screening, which targets persons with a long history of smoking and thereby misses younger or nonsmoking cases, the authors evaluated germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma for an association with an accelerated onset. The authors assembled a retrospective cohort (1999-2018) of oncogenetic clinic patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Eligibility required a family history of cancer, data on smoking, and a germline biospecimen to screen via a multigene panel. Germline PVs (TP53/EGFR, BRCA2, other Fanconi anemia [FA] pathway genes, and non-FA DNA repair genes) were interrogated for associations with the age at diagnosis via an accelerated failure time model. Subjects (n = 187; age, 28-89 years; female, 72.7%; Hispanic, 11.8%) included smokers (minimum of 5 pack-years; n = 65) and nonsmokers (lighter ever smokers [n = 18] and never smokers [n = 104]). Overall, 26.7% of the subjects carried 1 to 2 germline PVs: TP53 (n = 5), EGFR (n = 2), BRCA2 (n = 6), another FA gene (n = 11), or another DNA repair gene (n = 28). After adjustment for smoking, sex, and ethnicity, the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was accelerated 12.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-20.6 years) by BRCA2 PVs, 9.0 years (95% CI, 0.5-16.5 years) by TP53/EGFR PVs, and 6.1 years (95% CI, -1.0 to 12.6 years) by PVs in other FA genes. PVs in other DNA repair genes showed no association. Germline associations did not vary by smoking. Among lung adenocarcinoma cases, germline PVs (TP53, EGFR, BRCA2, and possibly other FA genes) may be associated with an earlier onset. With further study, the criteria for lung cancer screening may need to include carriers of high-risk PVs, and findings could influence precision therapy and reduce lung cancer mortality by earlier stage diagnosis.
Publication Date: 2021-04-16
Journal: Cancer

3 2(7)

Real-world outcomes following venetoclax therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or Richter syndrome: a FILO study of the French compassionate use cohort.
The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax is transforming the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), given its high efficacy in relapsed/refractory CLL as observed in both early-phase and randomized clinical trials. The present study aimed to determine whether venetoclax is effective and well tolerated in patients with CLL or Richter's syndrome (RS) in a real-world setting and to highlight factors impacting survival. Data from a venetoclax French compassionate use program were collected for 67 patients (60 with CLL and 7 with RS). Most patients presented adverse genetic features, such as TP53 disruption (74%) or complex karyotype (58%). Tumor lysis syndrome was observed in 14 (22%) patients, and 16 (24%) patients were hospitalized for grade III/IV infection. In the CLL cohort, ORR was 75 %, 1-year PFS was 61% (95% CI = 47-72%) and 1-year OS 70% (95% CI = 56-80%). No impact of TP53 disruption was noted while complex karyotype was identified as a predictor of both inferior PFS (HR = 3.46; 95% CI = 1-12; log-rank p = 0.03) and OS (HR = 3.2; 95% CI = 0.9-11.4, log-rank p = 0.047). Among the seven patients with RS, two achieved an objective response to venetoclax; however, the median OS was only 1.1 month. The well-balanced safety/efficacy profile of venetoclax is confirmed in this real-world setting. Complex karyotype should be evaluated as a predictive factor of survival for patients treated by venetoclax.
Publication Date: 2021-01-27
Journal: Annals of hematology

p 0 02(7)

The Mutational Landscape of Metastatic Castration-sensitive Prostate Cancer: The Spectrum Theory Revisited.
Emerging data suggest that metastasis is a spectrum of disease burden rather than a binary state, and local therapies, such as radiation, might improve outcomes in oligometastasis. However, current definitions of oligometastasis are solely numerical. To characterize the somatic mutational landscape across the disease spectrum of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) to elucidate a biological definition of oligometastatic CSPC. This was a retrospective study of men with mCSPC who underwent clinical-grade sequencing of their tumors (269 primary tumor, 25 metastatic sites). Patients were classified as having biochemically recurrent (ie, micrometastatic), metachronous oligometastatic (≤5 lesions), metachronous polymetastatic (>5 lesions), or de novo metastatic (metastasis at diagnosis) disease. We measured the frequency of driver mutations across metastatic classifications and the genomic associations with radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and time to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The frequency of driver mutations in TP53 (p =  0.01), WNT (p =  0.08), and cell cycle (p =  0.04) genes increased across the mCSPC spectrum. TP53 mutation was associated with shorter rPFS (26.7 vs 48.6 mo; p =  0.002), and time to CRPC (95.6 vs 155.8 mo; p =  0.02) in men with oligometastasis, and identified men with polymetastasis with better rPFS (TP53 wild-type, 42.7 mo; TP53 mutated, 18.5 mo; p =  0.01). Mutations in TP53 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.45; p =  0.004) and DNA double-strand break repair (IRR 1.61; p <  0.001) were associated with a higher number of metastases. Mutations in TP53 were also independently associated with shorter rPFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.59; p =  0.03) and the development of CRPC (HR 1.71; p =  0.01) on multivariable analysis. This study was limited by its retrospective nature, sample size, and the use of commercially available sequencing platforms, resulting in a limited predefined set of genes examined. Somatic mutational profiles reveal a spectrum of metastatic biology that helps in redefining oligometastasis beyond a simple binary state of lesion enumeration. Oligometastatic prostate cancer is typically defined as less than three to five metastatic lesions and evidence suggests that using radiation or surgery to treat these sites improves clinical outcomes. As of now, treatment decisions for oligometastasis are solely defined according to the number of lesions. However, this study suggests that tumor mutational profiles can provide a biological definition of oligometastasis and complement currently used numerical definitions.
Publication Date: 2021-01-10
Journal: European urology

p 0 007(6)

Integration of comprehensive genomic profiling, tumor mutational burden, and PD-L1 expression to identify novel biomarkers of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.
This study aimed to explore the novel biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by integrating genomic profiling, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and expression of programmed death receptor 1 ligand (PD-L1). Tumor and blood samples from 637 Chinese patients with NSCLC were collected for targeted panel sequencing. Genomic alterations, including single nucleotide variations, insertions/deletions, copy number variations, and gene rearrangements, were assessed and TMB was computed. TMB-high (TMB-H) was defined as ≥10 mutations/Mb. PD-L1 positivity was defined as ≥1% tumor cells with membranous staining. Genomic data and ICI outcomes of 240 patients with NSCLC were derived from cBioPortal. EGFR-sensitizing mutations, ALK, RET, and ROS1 rearrangements were associated with lower TMB and PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions, whereas KRAS, ALK, RET, and ROS1 substitutions/indels correlated with higher TMB and PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions than wild-type genotypes. Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family members (KMT2A, KMT2C, and KMT2D) were frequently mutated in NSCLC tumors, and these mutations were associated with higher TMB and PD-L1 expression, as well as higher PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions. Specifically, patients with KMT2C mutations had higher TMB and PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions than wild-type patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.47 months (95% CI 2.5-NA) in patients with KMT2C mutations versus 3.17 months (95% CI 2.6-4.27) in wild-type patients (p = 0.058). Furthermore, in patients with NSCLC who underwent ICI treatment, patients with TP53/KMT2C co-mutations had significantly longer PFS and greater durable clinical benefit (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24-0.94, p = 0.033). TP53 mutation combined with KMT2C or KRAS mutation was a better biomarker with expanded population benefit from ICIs therapy and increased the predictive power (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81, p = 0.007). We found that tumors with different alterations in actionable target genes had variable expression of PD-L1 and TMB in NSCLC. TP53/KMT2C co-mutation might serve as a predictive biomarker for ICI responses in NSCLC. Cancer immunotherapies, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, only a proportion of patients derive durable responses to this treatment. Biomarkers with greater accuracy are highly needed. In total, 637 Chinese patients with NSCLC were analyzed using next-generation sequencing and IHC to characterize the unique features of genomic alterations and TMB and PD-L1 expression. Our study demonstrated that KMT2C/TP53 co-mutation might be an accurate, cost-effective, and reliable biomarker to predict responses to PD-1 blockade therapy in NSCLC patients and that adding KRAS to the biomarker combination creates a more robust parameter to identify the best responders to ICI therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-03-04
Journal: Cancer medicine

del 11q(6)

Current and future treatment strategies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Treatment decisions for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are dependent on symptoms and classification into high-, medium-, or low-risk categories. The prognosis for CLL hinges, in part, on the presence or absence of less-favorable genetic aberrations, including del(17p), del(11q), TP53 dysfunction, and IGHV mutations, as these markers are associated with worse treatment response. Promising results from multiple clinical trials show emerging therapies targeting Burton tyrosine kinase, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta result in better outcomes and prolonged progression-free survival for patients both with and without certain high-risk aberrations. Favorable outcomes using these novel oral targeted therapies, either alone or in combination with other treatments such as anti-CD20 antibodies, has led to their use almost entirely supplanting chemoimmunotherapy in the treatment of CLL. In this narrative review, we summarize the current clinical evidence for the use of targeted mono- and combination therapies for CLL, discuss new and next-generation treatment approaches currently in development, and provide insight into areas of unmet need for the treatment of patients with CLL.
Publication Date: 2021-04-28
Journal: Journal of hematology & oncology

4 3(4)

Comprehensive genomic profiling of Brazilian non-small cell lung cancer patients (GBOT 0118/LACOG0418).
The aim of this study was to carry out a descriptive analysis of the somatic genetic profile and co-occurring mutations of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples from patients tested with comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP). This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with NSCLC from 2013 to 2018 in Brazil and whose samples were submitted to CGP (FoundationOne or FoundationACT) using either tumor or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma. We recovered 513 CGP results from patients, 457 (89.1%) of which were from tumors and 56 (10.9%) from plasma. The median age of patients was 64 years old, of which 51.6% were males. TP53 mutations were identified in 53.6% of tumor samples, KRAS mutations in 24.2%, EGFR activating mutations were detected in 22.5%, STK11 mutations in 11.6%, PIK3CA mutations in 8.8%, ALK rearrangements in 5.4%, BRAF mutations in 5.2%, and ERBB2 alterations in 4.9%. The most commonly comutated gene was TP53. TP53 p.R337H was observed in 4.3% of samples and was associated with somatic mutations in EGFR and ERBB2 (P < 0.00001). Tumor mutational burden (TMB) analysis was available for 80.5% of samples tested, and 5.5% of samples had high TMB (≥ 20 mutations/Mb). In conclusion, this retrospective analysis of genomic data from NSCLC patients obtained by CGP showed that common abnormalities such as EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements had similar frequency to those previously described by other groups using others strategies. Additionally, our data confirm an association between TP53 p.R337H, supposedly germline in nature, and somatic mutations in genes of the HER family. SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: This is the first report of the prevalence of driver mutations in Brazilian NSCLC patients using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP). The frequency of the most common driver mutations in this population was similar to that previously described in Brazil. TP53 was the most commonly comutated gene across samples. TP53 p.R337H was associated with somatic mutations in EGFR and ERBB2. Most samples had low TMB; only 5.5% of samples had high TMB.
Publication Date: 2020-12-15
Journal: Thoracic cancer

months 95(4)

Alterations in driver genes are predictive of survival in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4 are established driver genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study was aimed at determining whether the mutational status of driver genes and those involved in DNA repair pathways are associated with clinical outcomes for individuals who undergo resection. Eligible individuals were those who underwent resection of PDAC and consented to targeted sequencing of their primary tumor via Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT). Genomic alterations were determined on the basis of MSK-IMPACT results from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Associations between genomic alterations and clinical outcomes were assessed. Targeted sequencing was performed on 283 primary tumors resected between 2004 and 2017. The median follow-up was 23 months among survivors. Alterations in KRAS and TP53 were associated with worse overall survival (OS) in comparison to wild type (median for KRAS, 38.8 months [95% CI, 33.0-45.5 months] vs 91.0 months [95% CI, 34.8 months to not available (NA)]; P = .043; median for TP53, 37.4 months [95% CI, 32.1-42.8 months] vs 65.0 months [95% CI, 33.0 months to NA]; P = .035). KRAS G12D mutations were associated with worse OS (median, 31.6 months [95% CI, 25.3-45.5 months] vs 39.2 months [95% CI, 37.4-75.2 months]; P = .012). TP53 truncating mutations (median, 39.6 months [95% CI, 32.4-75.2 months] vs 33.9 months [95% CI, 24.0-39.0 months]; P = .020) and those associated with loss of heterozygosity (median, 26.6 months [95% CI, 21.6-44.2 months] vs 39.2 months [95% CI, 34.5-49.1 months]; P = .048) had decreased OS. TP53 alterations were independently associated with OS in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33; P = .042). Individuals with germline alterations in homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) genes had improved OS in comparison with those without them (median, not reached vs 37.0 months; 95% CI, 33.0-49.8 months; P = .035). In patients with resected PDAC, genomic alterations in KRAS and TP53 are associated with worse outcomes, whereas alterations in HRD genes are associated with a favorable prognosis. Further studies are needed to better define these alterations as biomarkers in resected PDAC.
Publication Date: 2020-06-24
Journal: Cancer

tp53 rs1042522(4)

The cell cycle regulatory gene polymorphisms TP53 (rs1042522) and MDM2 (rs2279744) in lung cancer: a meta-analysis.
Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world. Although the mechanism of lung cancer is still unknown, a large number of studies have found a link between gene polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer. The tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor prevention. MDM2 is a critical regulator of the p53 protein. Despite the importance of p53 pathway in cancer, data on the contribution of SNPs of TP53 (rs1042522) and MDM2 (rs2279744) to the development of lung cancer are very contradictory. A metaanalysis that collects quantitative data from individual studies and combines their results has the advantage of improving accuracy, providing reliable estimates, and resolving those issues in which studies on individual associations are not effective enough. The aim of this study was to determine whether the TP53 (rs1042522) and MDM2 (rs2279744) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to lung cancer. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between the TP53 (rs1042522) and MDM2 (rs2279744) polymorphisms and lung cancer. A total of 51 comparison studies including 25,366 patients and 25,239 controls were considered in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed no association between lung cancer and MDM2 (rs2279744) under any model. A noteworthy association of TP53 (rs1042522) with susceptibility to lung cancer in overall pooled subjects was observed under three different models (allele contrast, homozygote contrast (additive) and dominant). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the TP53 (rs1042522) and lung cancer in Asians and Caucasians. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the TP53 (rs1042522), but not MDM2 (rs2279744) polymorphism may confer susceptibility to lung cancer. Рак легкого – один из наиболее распространенных видов рака в мире. Хотя механизм возникнове- ния заболевания по-прежнему остается в значительной степени неизвестным, благодаря многочисленным ис- следованиям была выявлена связь между полиморфизмами генов и риском развития рака легкого. Решающую роль в поддержании стабильности генома и профилактике опухолей играет онкосупрессор р53. Ключевым регулятором белка р53 является MDM2. Несмотря на важность p53 сигнального пути в канцерогенезе, данные о вкладе SNP TP53 (rs1042522) и MDM2 (rs2279744) в развитие рака легкого очень противоречивы. Метаанализ, собирающий количественные данные из отдельных исследований и объединяющий их результаты, имеет пре- имущество, которое заключается в повышении точности, предоставлении надежных оценок и решении тех вопросов, когда исследование отдельных ассоциаций недостаточно эффективно. Целью нашей работы было изучение роли полиморфизмов ТP53 (rs1042522) и MDM2 (rs2279744) в формировании предрасположенности к раку легкого. Проведен метаанализ ассоциации полиморфизмов TP53 (rs1042522) и MDM2 (rs2279744) и рака легкого. В общей сложности рассмотрено 51 исследование типа «случай–контроль», включающее 25 366 паци- ентов с раком легкого и 25 239 здоровых индивидуумов. Результаты метаанализа показали отсутствие связи между раком легкого и MDM2 (rs2279744) во всех моделях. Примечательно, что ассоциация TP53 (rs1042522) с предрасположенностью к раку легкого наблюдалась в трех разных моделях (мультипликативная, аддитивная и доминантная). Стратификация по этническому признаку также указывает на связь между TP53 (rs1042522) и риском развития рака легкого как в азиатской, так и в европейской популяции. Проведенный метаанализ по- зволяет сделать вывод, что полиморфизм ТР53 (rs1042522), но не MDM2 (rs2279744), может обусловливать пред- расположенность к раку легкого.
Publication Date: 2021-05-08
Journal: Vavilovskii zhurnal genetiki i selektsii

p 0 000(1)

Association between TP53 polymorphisms and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between TP53 gene polymorphisms (rs8068934 A>G and rs218698 C>T) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CLL patients who received treatment in our hospital were enrolled in this study as the disease group. Meanwhile, healthy subjects were taken as the control group. Peripheral blood samples were collected to detect TP53 gene polymorphisms at rs8068934 and rs218698, and the haplotype analysis was performed. The expression of TP53 was detected via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, the survival conditions were analyzed. The allele distribution at rs8068934 (p=0.046) and rs218698 (p=0.028) of TP53 gene was different between control group and disease group. A allele frequency at rs8068934 and T allele frequency at rs218698 were significantly higher in disease group (p<0.05). The genotype distribution at rs218698 of TP53 gene in disease group was also different from that in control group (p=0.038). The results demonstrated that CC genotype frequency in disease group was significantly lower than that in control group (p<0.05). Besides, the distribution of dominant model at rs8068934 (p=0.042) and recessive model at rs218698 (p=0.033) in disease group exhibited remarkable differences from control group, in which AA+AG frequency (dominant model) at rs8068934 and CC+CT frequency (recessive model) at rs218698 in disease group were significantly higher. Meanwhile, the distribution of AT (p=0.029) and GC (p=0.007) haplotypes at rs8068934 and rs218698 in disease group was evidently different from that in control group. The results indicated that disease group showed significantly higher frequency of AT haplotype and lower frequency of GC haplotype (p<0.05). Moreover, TP53 gene polymorphisms at rs8068934 were significantly associated with the levels of white blood cells (WBC) (p=0.000) and platelets (PLT) (p=0.035). Patients with GG genotype had significantly higher level of WBC, while those with AG genotype showed significantly lower level of PLT (p<0.05). TP53 gene polymorphisms at rs218698 were associated with the level of red blood cells (RBC) (p=0.000). Patients with CT genotype had a remarkably lower level of RBC (p<0.05). There were significant correlations of TP53 gene polymorphisms at rs8068934 (p=0.000) and rs218698 (p=0.000) with the expression of TP53. The expression of TP53 was lower in people with AA genotype at rs8068934 but higher in people with TT genotype at rs218698 (p<0.05). Furthermore, TP53 gene polymorphisms at rs8068934 (p=0.000) and rs218698 (p=0.000) were markedly associated with patients' survival. TP53 polymorphisms are significantly correlated with the occurrence and progression of CLL.
Publication Date: 2020-12-19
Journal: European review for medical and pharmacological sciences