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Query Topic: VEGFA

Query Date:

fibroblast growth factor(36)

Oral administration of silver nanoparticles-adorned starch as a growth promotor in poultry: Immunological and histopathological study.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have recently emerged as promising growth promoters and immune-lifting agents in the poultry industry. This study investigated the potential impact of AgNP supplementation in the drinking water (DW) of broiler chickens during the fattening period. AgNPs were produced through chemical reduction using starch as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Different concentrations (1-5 ppm) of AgNPs were prepared and added to the DW of five different groups of chickens. Results confirmed efficient and safe application of AgNPs in DW at concentrations up to 2 ppm in term of growth performance (body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio) and hematological parameters. However, higher concentrations (3-5 ppm) induced dose-dependent mild-to-moderate adverse effects on hematological, biochemical, and oxidative parameters (MDA, TAC, and GSH-px). While growth performance, gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA),and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) in muscle, histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of liver, kidney, spleen, bursa, and thymus, and ultrastructural analysis of breast muscle were not significantly affected, even at high concentrations of AgNPs. Therefore, supplementation of AgNPs up to 2 ppm in the DW of broilers is promising.
Publication Date: 2021-08-01
Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules

growth factor receptor(29)

CircCCT3 Acts as a Sponge of miR-613 to Promote Tumor Growth of Pancreatic Cancer Through Regulating VEGFA/VEGFR2 Signaling.
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) have been recently implicated in the progression of pancreatic cancer (PC). To investigate the involvement of CircCCT3 in PC and studying its interactions and functioning during the progression of PC in vitro and in vivo, using methods of molecular biology and bioinformatics. Experimental study. The expressions of CircCCT3 and miR-613 in pancreatic carcinoma tissues and cell lines were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The relationship between clinical pathologic features as well as the survival rate and CircCCT3 expression was analyzed with chi-square test and the Kaplan-Meier method. CCK-8, wound healing, transwell assays, and the fluorescein isothiocyanate- AnnexinV/propidium iodide (FITC-AnnexinV/PI) assay were used to assess cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis after CircCCT3 overexpression or downregulation. The Dual- Luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were performed to validate the potential interaction of CircCCT3, miR-613, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA). The nude mouse xenograft tumor assay was used to detect CircCCT3 effects on pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. Western blotting analysis was performed to examine the VEGFA and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) protein expressions following. CircCCT3 expression was significantly increased in PC tissues (3.41 ± 0.57 vs. 1.00 ± 0.10, P < .01) and cell lines (Patu8988 2.57 ± 0.20; SW1990 2.88 ± 0.10; BxPC-3 2.45 ± 0.20; Panc02 2.99 ± 0.10 vs. H6c7 1.00 ± 0.10; all P < .001). CircCCT3 expression was negatively correlated with miR-613 expression. PC patients with high CircCCT3 expression exhibited significantly poorer overall survival rate than those patients with low CircCCT3 expression (P = .013). Moreover, it was found that CircCCT3 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and inhibited cell apoptosis in PC cells. The CircCCT3 acted as a sponge for the miR-613 to facilitate VEGFA and VEGFR2 expression. si-CirCCT3 also inhibited tumor growth of PC in nude mice. si-CircCCT3 reduced VEGFA and VEGFR2 expression, whereas overexpression of CircCCT3 increased VEGFA and VEGFR2 expression. Increased CircCCT3 suggests a poor prognosis for PC patients and promotes the migration and invasion through targeting VEGFA/VEGFR2 signaling. CircCCT3 may serve as a potential and promising therapeutic target for PC treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-19
Journal: Balkan medical journal

vegfa vascular endothelial(18)

Identification of Potential Bioactive Ingredients and Mechanisms of the Guanxin Suhe Pill on Angina Pectoris by Integrating Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking.
The Guanxin Suhe pill (GSP), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat angina pectoris (AP) in Chinese clinical practice. However, research on the bioactive ingredients and underlying mechanisms of GSP in AP remains scarce. In this study, a system pharmacology approach integrating gastrointestinal absorption (GA) evaluation, drug-likeness (DL) evaluation, target exploration, protein-protein-interaction analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, network construction, and molecular docking was adopted to explore its potential mechanisms. A total of 481 ingredients from five herbs were collected, and 242 were qualified based on GA and DL evaluation. Target exploration identified 107 shared targets between GSP and AP. Protein-protein interaction identified VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A), TNF (tumor necrosis factor), CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2), FN1 (fibronectin 1), MMP9 (matrix metallopeptidase 9), PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2), IL10 (interleukin 10), CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8), IL6 (interleukin 6), and INS (insulin) as hub targets for GSP, which were involved in the inflammatory process, ECM proteolysis, glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism. GO enrichment identified top pathways in the biological processes, molecular functions, and cell components, explaining GSP's potential AP treatment mechanism. Positive regulation of the nitric oxide biosynthetic process and the response to hypoxia ranked highest of the biological processes; core targets that GSP can regulate in these two pathways were PTGS2 and NOS2, respectively. Molecular docking verified the interactions between the core genes in the pathway and the active ingredients. The study lays a foundation for further experimental research and clinical application.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

tumor necrosis factor(17)

Investigating the Multitarget Pharmacological Mechanism of Ursolic Acid Acting on Colon Cancer: A Network Pharmacology Approach.
To explore the mechanisms of ursolic acid for treating colon cancer based on network pharmacology. In this study, the potential targets of ursolic acid against colon cancer were predicted and screened through the TCMSP, SYMMAP, Drug Bank, UNI-PROT, and DISGENET databases. The protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the STRING database, and graphs were drawn with the help of Cytoscape software. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed on the targets by using the DAVID database for biological information annotation. Ursolic acid has 113 targets in the treatment of colon cancer. The core targets included interleukin-6 (IL-6), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFA), prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), caspase-3 (CASP3), mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), cyclin D1 (CCND1), JUN, signal transducer and transcriptional activator 3 (STAT3), and other targets. The first 10 pathways related to colon cancer were screened out. The main signaling pathways included the TNF signaling pathway and the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications and human colon cancer infections. This study revealed that ursolic acid played a multitarget and multichannel antitumor role by inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells, inducing apoptosis, and enhancing antiangiogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-07-02
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

endothelial cells(99)

FGF21 promotes wound healing of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells through facilitating TNF-α-mediated VEGFA and ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Wound healing is an essential physiological process in recovery after microsurgery. To further understand the functions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), the roles of this factor were examined and its correlations with inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and ERK1/2 signaling pathway activation were analyzed. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) were treated with interleukin (IL)-1β and used for the experiments. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the cell viability of RBMECs after treatment with IL-1β (1 ng/mL) and FGF21 or VEGFA overexpression, while changes in apoptosis were measured through flow cytometry. Migration was checked through the scratch test. FGF21 and VEGFA RNA expression was assessed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), which was also used to examine RNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. After IL-1β treatment and FGF21 overexpression, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and tumor growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) proteins level were observed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was also applied to check the expression of ERK1/2 after overexpression of FGF21 and VEGFA. PD98059 (50 μM), an ERK1/2 inhibitor, was used to examine the roles of ERK1/2 in regulating cell viability and apoptosis. The IL-1β treatment significantly decreased the viability of RBMECs and TGF-β1, but promoted cell apoptosis and TNF-α expression. FGF21 was downregulated by IL-1β treatment but its overexpression enhanced the viability of RBMECs and TGF-β1 and ERK1/2 protein levels, and attenuated cell apoptosis and TNF-α. Upregulated TNF-α restrained cell viability and apoptosis of RBMECs after FGF21 overexpression, and its upregulation not only suppressed FGF21, but also VEGFA. Moreover, VEGFA suppression by TNF-α increased cell viability and ERK1/2 protein levels, and suppressed the apoptosis of RBMECs through its upregulation. However, PD98059 obstructed the functions of FGF21 and VEGFA. FGF21 promoted the cell viability of RBMECs through upregulating TNF-α-mediated VEGFA and ERK1/2 signaling.
Publication Date: 2021-06-13
Journal: Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University

expression levels(92)

COX2 Enhances Neovascularization of Inflammatory Tenocytes Through the HIF-1α/VEGFA/PDGFB Pathway.
Tendon injuries are among the most challenging in orthopedics. During the early tendon repair, new blood vessel formation is necessary. However, excessive angiogenesis also exacerbates scar formation, leading to pain and dysfunction. A significantly worse outcome was associated with higher expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and its transcriptional targets vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce an inflammatory response in tenocytes. LPS increased the tenocytes' inflammatory factor COX2 expression and activated the HIF-1α/VEGFA/PDGFB pathway. Moreover, the conditioned medium from the tenocytes boosted rat aortic vascular endothelial cell (RAOEC) angiogenesis. Furthermore, Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, was used to treat inflammatory tenocytes. The expression levels of HIF-1α and its transcriptional targets VEGFA and PDGFB decreased, resulting in RAOEC angiogenesis inhibition. Finally, the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay proved that the HIF-1α/PDGFB pathway played a more critical role in tenocyte angiogenesis than the HIF-1α/VEGFA pathway. TSA could alleviate angiogenesis mainly through epigenetic regulation of the HIF-1α/PDGFB pathway. Taken together, TSA might be a promising anti-angiogenesis drug for abnormal angiogenesis, which is induced by tendon injuries.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology

mrna expression(60)

Upregulated expression of hypoxia reactive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic liver disease patients.
Liver fibrosis induces intrahepatic microcirculation disorder and hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress has the potential for an increase in the possibility of more liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Liver biopsy is a standard method that evaluates of intrahepatic hypoxia, however, is invasive and has a risk of bleeding as a complication. Here, we investigated the hypoxia reactive gene expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from chronic liver disease patients to evaluate intrahepatic hypoxia in a non-invasive manner. The subjects enrolled for this study were composed of 20 healthy volunteers (HV) and 48 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). CLD patients contained 24 patients with chronic hepatitis(CH)and 24 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). PBMC were isolated from heparinized peripheral blood samples. We measured the transcriptional expression of hypoxia reactive genes and inflammatory cytokines by quantitative RT-PCR. mRNA expression of adrenomedullin (AM), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.05), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in CLD group were significantly higher than HV. AM mRNA expression is correlated with serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin (Alb), IL6, and SOD mRNA expression. The hypoxia reactive gene expression in PBMCs from CLD patients was more upregulated than HV. Especially, angiogenic genes were notably upregulated and correlated with liver fibrosis. Here, we suggest that mRNA expression of AM in PBMCs could be the biomarker of intrahepatic hypoxia.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Biochemistry and biophysics reports

targeting vegfa(52)

miR-622 Suppresses Tumor Formation by Directly Targeting VEGFA in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma [Retraction].
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.2147/OTT.S156810.].
Publication Date: 2021-06-12
Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

hub genes(41)

Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanism of Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae in the Treatment of Radiation Pneumonia by Using Network Pharmacology.
Radiation pneumonia (RP) is the most common complication of radiotherapy to the thorax and seriously affects the survival rate and quality of life of patients. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) is an ancient Chinese medicine, whose main pharmacological effect is to promote blood circulation and remove stasis. A growing number of studies have proved that RSM has a good effect on RP. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear and needs to be fully elucidated. The effective components and predictive targets of RSM were analyzed by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database, and the related targets of RP were predicted by GeneCards database. The common targets of the two targets mentioned above were analyzed by protein-protein interaction on the STRING website, GO and KEGG analysis on the DAVID website, visualization by CytoScape3.7.0, and screening for Hubber gene by cytoHubber plug-in. A search of the TCMSP database revealed that RSM contains 65 chemical constituents and 165 potential protein targets. A total of 2,162 protein targets were found to be associated with RP. The top 10 hub genes were obtained by MCC algorithm for 70 common genes, including TP53, CASP3, MAPK1, JUN, VEGFA, STAT3, PTGS2, IL6, AKT1, and FOS. By analyzing the Gene Ontology, The anti-radiation pneumonia effect of RSM is that it performs molecular functions (protein homodimerization activity) in the nucleus through three biological processes (positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter,Extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway). Through KEGG analysis, the mechanism of RSM treatment of radiation pneumonia may be through PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, TNF signaling pathways. Through network pharmacology analysis, we found the possible target genes of RSM on RP and revealed the most likely signaling pathway, providing theoretical basis for further elucidating the potential mechanism of RSM on RP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

present study(40)

Angiogenesis' related genetic variants alter clinical features and prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.
Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFA receptor (KDR) genes confer different inherited abilities in angiogenesis (AG) pathway. We aimed in the present study to evaluate influence of six VEGFA and four KDR SNVs in clinical features and survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. One hundred and sixty-eight DLBCL patients diagnosed between June 2009-September 2014 were enrolled in the study. Patients were homogeneously treated with R-CHOP. Genotypes were identified in genomic DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with VEGFA -634CC and +936CT or TT genotypes were at increased risk of showing grade III / IV toxicities and not achieving complete remission with treatment, and shorter event-free and overall survival were seen in patients with VEGFA -1154GA or AA genotype and VEGFA ATAGCC haplotype. Our data suggest that inherited abnormalities in AG's gene modulate clinical features and prognosis of DLBCL patients homogeneously treated with R-CHOP.
Publication Date: 2021-07-06
Journal: Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine

proliferation migration(37)

Long noncoding TUG1 promotes angiogenesis of HUVECs in PE via regulating the miR-29a-3p/VEGFA and Ang2/Tie2 pathways.
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disease that is associated with oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are related to PE progression. The purpose is to study whether lncRNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) takes part in endothelial dysfunction in PE. The placenta tissues were collected from PE patients and normal subjects. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were suffered from hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). TUG1, miR-29a-3p and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were detected via qRT-PCR. soluble fms-related tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) and soluble endoglin (sENG) levels were detected by ELISA. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis were examined via MTT, wound healing analysis, transwell and tube formation analysis. The proteins in VEGFA and angiopoietin 2 (Ang2)/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2 (Tie2) signaling were measured by western blot. The binding relationship was analyzed via Starbase, Jefferson and dual-luciferase reporter analysis. TUG1 and VEGFA levels were downregulated, and levels of miR-29a-3p, sFLT1 and sENG were increased in PE patients. TUG1 abundance was reduced in H/R-stimulated HUVECs, and TUG1 overexpression increased proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis, and activated the VEGFA and Ang2/Tie2 signaling in H/R-stimulated HUVECs. TUG1 sponged miR-29a-3p, and miR-29a-3p overexpression reversed the function of TUG1 on H/R-induced HUVECs dysfunction. MiR-29a-3p knockdown attenuated H/R-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and activation of the VEGFA and Ang2/Tie2 signaling in HUVECs. VEGFA and Ang2 were targeted by miR-29a-3p, and VEGFA or Ang2 silence weakened the role of miR-29a-3p knockdown in H/R-caused HUVECs dysfunction. TUG1 facilitates proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis in H/R-stimulated HUVECs via activating the VEGFA and Ang2/Tie2 signaling by regulating miR-29a-3p.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Microvascular research

tube formation(35)

Deciphering the performance of polo-like kinase 1 in triple-negative breast cancer progression according to the centromere protein U-phosphorylation pathway.
In general, the lack of effective therapeutic targets has led to the poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) has been studied extensively as an effective therapeutic objective for the progression of tumor. Although the fundamental strategy and function of PLK1 in TNBC are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that PLK1 upregulation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer cases utilizing the TCGA database. Additionally, ectopic PLK1 expression promoted TNBC cell proliferation, VEGFA production, and endothelial cell tube formation, whereas
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: American journal of cancer research

breast cancer(31)

Knockdown of LINC00504 Inhibits the Proliferation and Invasion of Breast Cancer via the Downregulation of miR-140-5p.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Long noncoding RNA 00504 (LINC00504) was reported to be a functional gene in some tumours but not breast. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to study the function of LINC00504 in breast cancer. qPCR assay was used to detect the expression of LINC00504 in tissue and cell lines. The online database and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) were employed to confirm the transcription factor of LINC00504. Cell function assays including cell proliferation, migration and invasion were designed to detect the function of LINC00504 in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay were used to confirm the relationship between LINC00504 and miR-140-5p. And Western blot assay was employed for testing the key protein. We found that LINC00504 is upregulated in breast cancer. In addition, we found that the transcription factor regulatory factor X5 (RFX5) can strongly bind to the LINC00504 promoter region and subsequently increase its transcriptional activity. We also found that the manipulation of RFX5 expression can significantly affect LINC00504 expression, which suggested that RFX5 can transcriptionally activate LINC00504 in breast cancer (BC). Knockdown of LINC00504 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. We further found that LINCOO504 inhibits miR-140-5p, which decreases the levels of VEGFA. The further results showed that miR-140-5p was one of the target gene of LINC00504. The WB assay demonstrated that the E-cadherin was increased and Vimentin was decreased when knocking down of LINC00504 and they can be rescued while adding the inhibitors of miR-140-5p. Our results demonstrated the mechanism by which the LINC00504-miR-140-5p-VEGFA axis participates in breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion and may lead to new lncRNA-based diagnostic or therapeutic strategies for breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-07-10
Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

western blotting(29)

circGLI3 Inhibits Oxidative Stress by Regulating the miR-339-5p/VEGFA Axis in IPEC-J2 Cells.
As a new type of noncoding RNA, circular RNA (circRNA) is stable in cells and not easily degraded. This type of RNA can also competitively bind miRNAs to regulate the expression of their target genes. The role of circRNA in the mechanism of intestinal oxidative stress (OS) in weaned piglets is still unclear. In our research, diquat (DQ) was used to induce OS in small intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) to construct an OS cell model. Mechanistically, dual luciferase reporter assays, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and western blotting were performed to confirm that circGLI3 directly sponged miR-339-5p and regulated the expression of VEGFA. Overexpression of circGLI3 promoted IPEC-J2 cell proliferation, increased the proportion of S-phase cells (
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: BioMed research international

including vegfa(27)

Orphan nuclear receptors in angiogenesis and follicular development.
Orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) are a subset of the nuclear receptor family that lacks known endogenous ligands. Among 48 nuclear receptors identified in humans, 25 are classified as ONRs. They function as transcription factors and control the expression of a wide range of genes to regulate metabolism, fertility, immunity, angiogenesis, and many other functions. Angiogenic factors are essential during ovarian follicle development, including follicle growth and ovulation. The correct development of blood vessels contributes to preantral and antral follicular development, selection of the dominant follicle or follicles, follicular atresia, and ovulation. Although progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate follicular angiogenesis, the role of ONRs as regulators is not clear. Based on their functions in other tissues, the ONRs NR1D1 (REV-ERBβ), NR2C2 (TR4), NR2F2 (COUP-TF-II) and NR3B1, 2, and 3 (ERRα, ERRβ and ERRγ) may modulate angiogenesis during antral follicle development. We hypothesize that this is achieved by effects on the expression and function of VEGFA, ANGPT1, THBS1, and soluble VEGFR1. Further, angiogenesis during ovulation is expected to be influenced by ONRs. NR5A2 (LRH-1), which is required for ovulation, regulates angiogenic genes in the ovary, including VEGFA and the upstream regulator of angiogenesis, PGE2. These angiogenic molecules may also be regulated by NR5A1 (SF-1). Evidence from outside the reproductive tract suggests that NR2F2 and NR4A1(NUR77) promote VEGFC and PGF, respectively, and NR4As (NUR77, NOR1) seem to be necessary for the angiogenic effects of VEGFA and PGE2. Together, the data suggest that ONRs are important regulators of follicular angiogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-07-17
Journal: Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

growth factors(27)

Growth factors in the regulation of reparative response in the presence of peritoneal damage.
To study the expression of growth factors in the regulation of tissue repair after peritoneal damage tissue response to peritoneal damage. Experimental study in 35 male Wistar rats determining the evolution over time of the tissue response to aseptic peritoneal damage. A standardized bowel and peritoneal lesions were created in the right lower quadrant by laparotomy. Then, tissular expression of growth factors was evaluated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction at seven timepoints between 6 h and 30 days, postoperatively. Tissular responses of granulocyte-stimulating factors (Csf2, Csf3), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), epidermal growth factors and receptor (Egf, Egfr), fibroblast growth factors (Fgf2, 7 and 10), heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (Hbegf), hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf), insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1), mitogenic transforming growth factors (Tgfa, Tgfb1, Tgfbr3), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) were biphasic with a first expression peak at day 3, followed by a more pronounced peak at day 14. We observed a long-lasting, widespread response of tissular growth factors for at least two weeks after peritoneal damage. To be clinically effective, the prophylaxis of postoperative adhesions might be needed for an extended period of time.
Publication Date: 2021-02-13
Journal: Pleura and peritoneum

factor-a vegfa(25)

Propranolol inhibits infantile hemangioma by regulating the miR-424/vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) axis.
Infantile hemangioma (IHA) is the most common tumor in infancy. We aimed to explore the effect of propranolol on the expression of microRNA (miR)-424 in IHA tissues and XPTS-1 cells, as well as its molecular mechanism of inhibiting XPTS-1 cell activity. Tumor tissues and peritumoral tissue were collected from 13 IHA patients in Lishui Municipal Central Hospital. The level of miR-424 were detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to measure XPTS-1 cell viability. Flow cytometry and transwell were used to detect the apoptosis level and invasion ability of XPTS-1 cells. Western blot was used to measure the protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA). The luciferase reporter gene assay detected the targeting relationship between miR-424 and VEGFA. Compared with normal tissues and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the expression level of miR-424 in IHA tissues and XPTS-1 cells was significantly reduced (P<0.05). As the concentration of propranolol increased, XPTS-1 cell viability gradually decreased (P<0.05), and the expression level of VEGFA decreased (P<0.05). The expression of miR-424 increased with the time of propranolol treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, treatment with an miR-424 inhibitor resulted in a significant increase in XPTS-1 cell viability and invasion ability (P<0.05), and a decrease in apoptosis (P<0.05). However, both propranolol and miR-424 inhibitor treatment resulted in a partial decrease in XPTS-1 cell viability (P<0.05), and a partial increase in the level of apoptosis (P<0.05). MiR-424 directly targeted VEGFA; the overexpression of miR-424 resulted in a decrease in the VEGFA protein level (P<0.05), while inhibition of miR-424 resulted in an increase in the VEGFA protein level (P<0.05). Compared with the propranolol group, the XPTS-1 cell viability and invasion ability in the propranolol + VEGFA-si group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the level of apoptosis increased (P<0.05). Meanwhile, simultaneous miR-424 inhibitor treatment resulted in no difference in cell viability and apoptosis levels compared with the propranolol group, and the invasion ability was partially restored (P<0.05). Propranolol affects the malignant biological behavior of IHA cells by regulating the miR-424/VEGFA axis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Translational pediatrics

tumor growth(25)

The targetable nanoparticle BAF312@cRGD-CaP-NP represses tumor growth and angiogenesis by downregulating the S1PR1/P-STAT3/VEGFA axis in triple-negative breast cancer.
Overexpressed vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (P-STAT3) cause unrestricted tumor growth and angiogenesis of breast cancer (BRCA), especially triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hence, novel treatment strategy is urgently needed. We found sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) can regulate P-STAT3/VEGFA. Database showed S1PR1 is highly expressed in BRCA and causes the poor prognosis of patients. Interrupting the expression of S1PR1 could inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and suppress the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via affecting S1PR1/P-STAT3/VEGFA axis. Siponimod (BAF312) is a selective antagonist of S1PR1, which inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro by downregulating the S1PR1/P-STAT3/VEGFA axis. We prepared pH-sensitive and tumor-targeted shell-core structure nanoparticles, in which hydrophilic PEG2000 modified with the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) formed the shell, hydrophobic DSPE formed the core, and CaP (calcium and phosphate ions) was adsorbed onto the shell; the nanoparticles were used to deliver BAF312 (BAF312@cRGD-CaP-NPs). The size and potential of the nanoparticles were 109.9 ± 1.002 nm and - 10.6 ± 0.056 mV. The incorporation efficacy for BAF312 was 81.4%. Results confirmed BAF312@cRGD-CaP-NP could dramatically inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice via downregulating the S1PR1/P-STAT3/VEGFA axis. Our data suggest a potent role for BAF312@cRGD-CaP-NPs in treating BRCA, especially TNBC by downregulating the S1PR1/P-STAT3/VEGFA axis.
Publication Date: 2021-06-02
Journal: Journal of nanobiotechnology

vegfa expression(20)

Immunotherapy Combined with Metronomic Dosing: An Effective Approach for the Treatment of NSCLC.
Pioneering studies on tumor and immune cell interactions have highlighted immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as revolutionizing interventions for the management of NSCLC, typically combined with traditional MTD chemotherapies, which usually lead to toxicities and resistance to treatment. Alternatively, MTR chemotherapy is based on the daily low dose administration of chemotherapeutics, preventing tumor growth indirectly by targeting the tumor microenvironment. The effects of MTR administration of an oral prodrug of gemcitabine (OralGem), alone or with anti-PD1, were evaluated. Relevant in vitro and in vivo models were developed to investigate the efficacy of MTR alone or with immunotherapy and the potential toxicities associated with each dosing scheme. MTR OralGem restricted tumor angiogenesis by regulating thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression. MTR OralGem enhanced antitumor immunity by increasing T effector responses and cytokine release, concomitant with dampening regulatory T cell populations. Promising pharmacokinetic properties afforded minimized blood and thymus toxicity and favorable bioavailability upon MTR administration compared to MTD. The combination of MTR OralGem with immunotherapy was shown to be highly efficacious and tolerable, illuminating it as a strong candidate therapeutic scheme for the treatment of NSCLC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-01
Journal: Cancers

angiogenic factors(20)

CD206+ macrophage is an accelerator of endometriotic-like lesion via promoting angiogenesis in the endometriosis mouse model.
In endometriosis, M2 MΦs are dominant in endometriotic lesions, but the actual role of M2 MΦ is unclear. CD206 positive (+) MΦ is classified in one of M2 type MΦs and are known to produce cytokines and chemokines. In the present study, we used CD206 diphtheria toxin receptor mice, which enable to deplete CD206+ cells with diphtheria toxin (DT) in an endometriosis mouse model. The depletion of CD206+ MΦ decreased the total weight of endometriotic-like lesions significantly (p < 0.05). In the endometriotic-like lesions in the DT group, a lower proliferation of endometriotic cells and the decrease of angiogenesis were observed. In the lesions, the mRNA levels of VEGFA and TGFβ1, angiogenic factors, in the DT group significantly decreased to approximately 50% and 30% of control, respectively. Immunohistochemical study revealed the expressions of VEGFA and an endothelial cell marker CD31 in lesions of the DT group, were dim compared to those in control. Also, the number of TGFβ1 expressing MΦ was significantly reduced compared to control. These data suggest that CD206+ MΦ promotes the formation of endometriotic-like lesions by inducing angiogenesis around the lesions.
Publication Date: 2021-01-15
Journal: Scientific reports

vegfa vegfb(17)

Gene expression analysis of fresh extraction wounds prior to onset of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw-like lesions in mice: A preliminary animal study.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chemotherapeutic/bisphosphonate combination therapy with tooth extraction on gene expression patterns of fresh extraction wounds during initial stages prior to their diagnosis as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ)-like lesions in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were used. To create a high-prevalence BRONJ mouse model, combination therapy with the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide (CY) and zoledronic acid (ZA) was performed (CY/ZA). Both maxillary first molars were extracted 3 weeks after drug therapy. Saline was used as the control (VC). Soft tissues near the fresh extraction wounds were dissected at 72 h postextraction to investigate the gene expression patterns. Maxillae and long bones at 2 and 4 weeks postextraction were also analyzed. CY/ZA significantly increased the relative expression levels of IL-6 and decreased those of IL-10 and IGF-1 when compared with those in VC. Moreover, CY/ZA significantly reduced the relative expression levels of CCR-7, cxcl12, cxcr4, and CD105 when compared with those in VC, whereas the level of F4/80 was significantly increased by CY/ZA. Furthermore, CY/ZA significantly decreased the relative expression levels of VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGFC at 72 h postextraction compared with those in VC. Considering that the present study lacked adequate in vitro models, CY/ZA markedly changed the gene expression patterns associated with wound healing from the initial stages prior to onset of BRONJ-like lesions, which may help us to understand the pathophysiology of BRONJ in humans.
Publication Date: 2021-04-13
Journal: Journal of prosthodontic research

migration invasion(14)

Paeoniflorin alleviates endothelial dysfunction caused by overexpression of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin in preeclampsia via VEGFA upregulation.
This study assessed the protective effects of paeoniflorin against preeclampsia-related endothelial damage (ED). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) isolated from healthy puerperae were identified by immunofluorescence assay. After paeoniflorin treatment, HUVECs were induced by soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) to establish ED. Cell viability, migration, invasion, tube formation, and apoptosis were assessed by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium MTT assay, Scratch assay, Transwell assay, tube formation assay, and flow cytometry. VEGFA expression in HUVECs was analyzed by Western blot. HUVECs were successfully isolated and identified as Von Willebrand factor (vWF) positive. Individual treatment or cotreatment of sFlt-1 and sEng inhibited migration, invasion and tube formation, enhanced apoptosis, and decreased VEGFA expression in HUVECs. Paeoniflorin pretreatment partially reversed the effects delivered by cotreatment of sFlt-1 and sEng in HUVECs. Paeoniflorin alleviated preeclampsia-related ED caused by overexpression of sFlt-1 and sEng by upregulating VEGFA.
Publication Date: 2021-02-17
Journal: Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry

vegfa vegfr2(13)

Microtubule associated protein 4 (MAP4) phosphorylation reduces cardiac microvascular density through NLRP3-related pyroptosis.
Phosphorylation of MAP4 (p-MAP4) causes cardiac remodeling, with the cardiac microvascular endothelium being considered a vital mediator of this process. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism underlying p-MAP4 influences on cardiac microvascular density. We firstly confirmed elevated MAP4 phosphorylation in the myocardium of MAP4 knock-in (KI) mice. When compared with the corresponding control group, we detected the decreased expression of CD31, CD34, VEGFA, VEGFR2, ANG2, and TIE2 in the myocardium of MAP4 KI mice, accompanied by a reduced plasma concentration of VEGF. Moreover, we observed apoptosis and mitochondrial disruption in the cardiac microvascular endothelium of MAP4 KI animals. Consistently, we noted a decreased cardiac microvascular density, measured by CD31 and lectin staining, in MAP4 KI mice. To explore the underlying mechanism, we targeted the NLRP3-related pyroptosis and found increased expression of the corresponding proteins, including NLRP3, ASC, mature IL-1β, IL-18, and GSDMD-N in the myocardium of MAP4 KI mice. Furthermore, we utilized a MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus to mimic cellular p-MAP4. After incubating HUVECs with MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus, the angiogenic ability was inhibited, and NLRP3-related pyroptosis were significantly activated. Moreover, both cytotoxicity and PI signal were upregulated by the MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus. Finally, NLRP3 inflammasome blockage alleviated the inhibited angiogenic ability induced by MAP4 (Glu) adenovirus. These results demonstrated that p-MAP4 reduced cardiac microvascular density by activating NLRP3-related pyroptosis in both young and aged mice. We thus managed to provide clues explaining MAP4 phosphorylation-induced cardiac remodeling and enriched current knowledge regarding the role of MAP4.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Cell death discovery

vegfr1 vegfr2(12)

Role of Notch, IL-1 and leptin expression in colorectal cancer.
An increasing number of studies have shown that angiogenesis has an important role in the progression of cancer. The growth of a new network of blood vessels is crucial for tumor growth and metastasis, which is promoted by several proangiogenic factors. Leptin, an essential adipokine that is secreted from fat tissue, is one of these pro-angiogenic factors. It has been shown that the inhibition of leptin-induced angiogenesis resulted in decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR2, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1α, NF-κB, IL-1 and Notch and reduced the tumor growth in breast cancer. Leptin induces angiogenesis in breast cancer either by upregulating VEGFR2 in endothelial cells or by increasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression through the Notch, IL-1 and leptin crosstalk outcome (NILCO) pathway. NILCO is a novel mechanism that interacts with proinflammatory and proangiogenic signals, which are critical for cell proliferation and angiogenesis in cancer. Several studies have shown that components of NILCO may affect human cancer incidence and progression. However, to the best of our knowledge, the interactions between Notch, IL-1 and leptin in human colorectal cancer have not been yet studied at the molecular level. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of genes related to the NILCO pathway in human colorectal cancer specimens. The current results demonstrated that leptin, leptin receptor (ObR) b, Notch-1, Notch-4, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1R, IL-6, JAK-2, STAT-1, STAT-3, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, TNF-α and NF-κB mRNA expression levels in the cancer tissue were increased compared with the normal tissue. No significant changes in the mRNA expression levels of Jagged-1, HIF-1α and TNF receptor 1 were observed. Western blotting revealed that the protein expression levels of IκB were increased in the cancer tissue compared with normal tissue, whereas HIF-1α and phosphorylated STAT-1 levels were decreased. IL-6 and VEGFA plasma concentrations were statistically raised and the leptin plasma concentration was also raised, although significantly, patients with cancer compared with control individuals. Together, the present findings indicated that Notch, IL-1 and leptin may serve a crucial role in the development of colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-04-23
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine

vegfa vegfr1(12)

Dysregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif1α) expression in the Hmox1-deficient placenta.
Severe hypoxia exists in placentas during early pregnancy, with reoxygenation during mid-gestation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif1α), an oxygen sensor, initiates placental vascular development. We have shown that the placental vasculature in Hmox1-deficient (Hmox1 Whole wild-type (WT) and Het mouse placentas were collected at E8.5 (1%-3% O Hif1α was expressed in WT and Het placentas throughout gestation, with protein levels peaking at E8.5 and mRNA levels significantly upregulated from E9.5-E13.5, but significantly lower in Het placentas. Genes associated with angiogenesis (Vegfa, Vegfr1, Mmp2, Cxcl12, Angpt1, Nos3), antioxidants (Sod1, Gpx1), and transcription factors (Ap2, Bach1, Nrf2) were significantly different in Het placentas. In response to in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation and to WT or Het placental lysates, Hif1α transcription was lower in Het and Hmox1 KO BMDMs compared with WT BMDMs. These findings suggest that deficiencies in Hmox1 underlie the insufficient placental Hif1α response to hypoxia-reoxygenation during gestation and subsequently impair downstream placental vascular formation. Therefore, a dysregulation of Hif1α expression caused by any genetic defect or environmental influence in early pregnancy could be the root cause of pregnancy disorders.
Publication Date: 2020-08-14
Journal: Placenta

cyclin d1(12)

Circular RNA circLMF1 regulates PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by regulating the miR-125a-3p/VEGFA or FGF1 axis.
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration play a vital role. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to be correlated with the VSMCs function. Therefore, this study is designed to explore the role and mechanism of circRNA lipase maturation factor 1 (circLMF1) in Human aortic VSMCs (HASMCs). The microarray was used for detecting the expression of circLMF1 in proliferative and quiescent HASMCs. Levels of circLMF1, microRNA-125a-3p (miR-125a-3p), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell viability, cell cycle progression, and migration were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. Western blot assay determined proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2), osteopontin (OPN), VEGFA, and FGF1 protein levels. The possible interactions between miR-125a-3p and circLMF1, and miR-125a-3p and VEGFA or FGF1 were predicted by circbank or targetscan, and then verified by a dual-luciferase reporter, RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down assays. CircLMF1, VEGFA, and FGF1 were increased, and miR-125a-3p was decreased in platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-inducted HASMCs. Functionally, circLMF1 knockdown hindered cell viability, cell cycle progression, and migration in PDGF-BB-treated HASMCs. Mechanically, circLMF1 could regulate VEGFA or FGF1 expression through sponging miR-125a-3p. Our findings revealed that circLMF1 deficiency could inhibit cell viability, cell cycle progression, and migration of PDGF-BB stimulated atherosclerosis model partly through the miR-125a-3p/VEGFA or FGF1 axis, suggesting that targeting circLMF1 can be a feasible therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation

factors vegfa(11)

Hypo-fractionation radiotherapy normalizes tumor vasculature in non-small cell lung cancer xenografts through the p-STAT3/HIF-1 alpha signaling pathway.
Hypo-fractionation radiotherapy (HFRT) was considered to be an important treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the radiobiological effects of HFRT on NSCLC remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate specific biological effect of HFRT on tumor angiogenesis, compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). The subcutaneous xenograft models and the dorsal skinfold window chamber (DSWC) models of nude mice bearing H460 and HCC827 NSCLC cells were irradiated with doses of 0 Gy (sham group), 22 Gy delivered into 11 fractions (CRT group) or 12 Gy delivered into 1 fraction (HFRT group). At certain time-points after irradiation, the volumes, hypoxic area, coverage rate of pericyte and micro-vessel density (MVD) of the subcutaneous xenograft models were detected, and the tumor vasculature was visualized in the DSMC model. The expressions of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), CXCL12 and VEGFA were detected. Compared with the CRT groups, HFRT showed more-efficient tumor growth-suppression, accompanied by a HFRT-induced window-period, during which vasculature was normalized, tumor hypoxia was improved and MVD was decreased. Moreover, during the window-period, the signal levels of p-STAT3/HIF-1α pathway and the expressions of its downstream angiogenic factors (VEGFA and CXCL12) were inhibited by HFRT. Compared with CRT, HFRT induced tumor vasculature normalization by rendering the remaining vessels less tortuous and increasing pericyte coverage of tumor blood vessels, thereby ameliorating tumor hypoxia and enhancing the tumor-killing effect. Moreover, HFRT might exert the aforementioned effects through p-STAT3/HIF-1α signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2020-11-17
Journal: Therapeutic advances in medical oncology

il6 vegfa(10)

Network pharmacology-based prediction of the active compounds and mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Decoction for ischemic stroke.
Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) is used to promote blood circulation and is widely used in Chinese clinical practice for the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebral vascular diseases. However, the mechanism and active compounds of BYHWD used to treat ischemic stroke are not well understood. The current study aimed to identify the potential active components of BYHWD and explore its mechanism using network pharmacology and bioinformatics analyses. The compounds of BYHWD were obtained from public databases. Oral bioavailability and drug-likeness were screened using the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) criteria. Components of BYHWD, alongside the candidate targets of each component and the known therapeutic targets of ischemic stroke were collected. A network of target gene compounds and cerebral ischemia compounds was established using network pharmacology data sources. The enrichment of key targets and pathways was analyzed using STRING and DAVID databases. Moreover, three of key targets [IL6, VEGFA and hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α (HIF-1α)] were verified using western blot analysis. Network analysis determined 102 compounds in seven herbal medicines that were subjected to ADME screening. A total of 42 compounds as well as 79 genes formed the principal pathways associated with ischemic stroke. The 16 key compounds identified were baicalein, beta-carotene, baicalin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, isorhamnetin, bifendate, formononetin, calycosin, astragaloside IV, stigmasterol, sitosterol, Z-ligustilide, and dihydrocapsaicin. The core genes in this network were IL6, TNF, VEGFA, HIF-1α, MAPK1, MAPK3, JUN, STAT3, IL1B and IL10. Furthermore, the TNF, IL17, apoptosis, PI3K-Akt, toll-like receptor, MAPK, NF-κB and HIF-1 signaling pathways were identified to be associated with ischemic stroke. Compared with the control group (no treatment), BYHWD significantly inhibited the expression of IL6 and increase the expression of HIF-1α and VEGFA. Network pharmacology analyses can help to reveal close interactions between multi-components and multi-targets and enhance understanding of the potential effects of BYHWD on ischemic stroke.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine

tnf vegfa(9)

Potential therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of Centella asiatica on hepatic fibrosis: a study of network pharmacology.
Liver fibrosis is a common result of the repair process of various chronic liver diseases. This study is a network pharmacology study on the potential therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of Centella asiatica for liver fibrosis. The chemical components and potential targets of Centella asiatica were screened through TCMSP, PubChem database, and Swiss Target Prediction database. The DisGeNET and GeneCards databases were used to obtain targets of HF. Venn diagrams were used to find key targets, and draw protein interaction maps. Cytoscape software was used to construct an interaction network map of drug-component-target-disease-pathway. The mechanisms of action were predicted through enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis. In total, 6 main components, 297 drug targets, 337 HF targets, and 48 drug-disease targets were obtained in Centella asiatica. The key targets involved IL6, TNF, VEGFA, TP53, IL1β, MMP9, CXCL8, EGFR, JUN, SRC, MMP2, and TGF-β, among others. A total of 1293 entries were obtained by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, which mainly involved the regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process, the regulation of smooth muscle cells, and the regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment mainly screened 191 pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, the relaxin signaling pathway, and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, among others. Centella asiatica may have a therapeutic effect on HF through multiple targets and pathways. Its mechanism is mainly related to the MAPK signaling pathway and the relaxin signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Annals of translational medicine

factor tnf(9)

Therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism of calycosin for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study was designed to understand the pivotal anti-cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) targets and pathways of calycosin through network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses. In this study, bioinformatics tools were employed to characterize and identify the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of calycosin for CIRI management. The network pharmacology data identified potential, merged CIRI-associated targets of calycosin including tumor protein p53 (TP53), protein kinase B (AKT1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Molecular docking analysis indicated the binding efficacy of calycosin with three of the targets, namely TP53, AKT1, and VEGFA. The biological processes of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI are mainly involved in the improvement of endothelial cell proliferation and growth, inflammatory development, and cellular metabolism. In addition, the anti-CIRI actions of calycosin were primarily through suppression of the toll-like receptor, PI3K-AKT, TNF, MAPK, and VEGF signaling pathways. Taken together, the current bioinformatic findings revealed pivotal targets, biological functions, and pharmacological mechanisms of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI. In conclusion, calycosin, a functional phytoestrogen, can be potentially used for the treatment of CIRI in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Journal: Aging

angiogenesis vegfa(8)

Association of Sugar Intake with Inflammation- and Angiogenesis-Related Biomarkers in Newly Diagnosed Colorectal Cancer Patients.
Evidence suggests a positive association between sugar intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. We sought to investigate inflammation and angiogenesis as underlying mechanisms behind increased sugar intake and worse CRC outcomes. Pre-surgery serum samples were obtained from 191 patients diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IV CRC. Biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, SAA, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNFα) and angiogenesis (VEGFA, VEGFD, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) were analyzed (Meso-Scale-Discovery). Fructose, glucose, sucrose, and total sugar intake (calories/day, % total calories) were assessed by FFQ. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Patients were on average 64 years old, 64% were male, the majority was diagnosed with stage II-III (58%) cancers, and 67% were either overweight or obese. Among normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Nutrition and cancer

mmp9 vegfa(5)

Utilising network pharmacology to explore the underlying mechanism of Wumei Pill in treating pancreatic neoplasms.
Wumei Pill (WMP), a famous herbal formula, has been widely used to treat digestive system diseases in clinical practice in China for centuries. We have found a correlation between the indications of WMP and the typical symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of WMP still remain unknown. In the present work, we used a network pharmacological method to predict its underlying complex mechanism of treating pancreatic neoplasms. Firstly, we obtained relative compounds of WMP based on TCMSP database, TCM database@Taiwan and TCMID database and collected potential targets of these compounds by target fishing. Then we built the pancreatic neoplasms target database by CTD, TTD, PharmGKB. Based on the matching results between WMP potential targets and pancreatic neoplasms targets, we built a PPI network to analyze the interactions among these targets and screen the hub targets by topology. Furthermore, DAVID bioinformatics resources were utilized for the enrichment analysis on GO_BP and KEGG. A total of 80 active ingredients and 77 targets of WMP were picked out. The results of DAVID enrichment analysis indicated that 58 cellular biological processes (FDR < 0.01) and 17 pathways (FDR < 0.01) of WMP mostly participated in the complex treating effects associated with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory response and angiogenesis. Moreover, 17 hub nodes of WMP (PTGS2, BCL2, TP53, IL6, MAPK1, EGFR, EGF, CASP3, JUN, MAPK8, MMP9, VEGFA, TNF, MYC, AKT1, FOS and TGFB1) were recognized as potential targets of treatments, implying the underlying mechanisms of WMP acting on pancreatic neoplasms. WMP could alleviate the symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms through the molecular mechanisms predicted by network pharmacology. This study proposes a strategy to elucidate the mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) at the level of network pharmacology.
Publication Date: 2019-07-06
Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine

hif1a vegfa(4)

Differential placental DNA methylation of VEGFA and LEP in small-for-gestational age fetuses with an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio.
In Fetal Growth Restriction 'fetal programming' may take place via DNA methylation, which has implications for short-term and long-term health outcomes. Small-for-gestational age fetuses are considered fetal growth restricted, characterized by brain-sparing when fetal Doppler hemodynamics are abnormal, expressed as a cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) <1. We aimed to determine whether brain-sparing is associated with altered DNA methylation of selected genes. We compared DNA methylation of six genes in 41 small-for-gestational age placentas with a normal or abnormal CPR. We selected EPO, HIF1A, VEGFA, LEP, PHLDA2, and DHCR24 for their role in angiogenesis, immunomodulation, and placental and fetal growth. DNA methylation was analyzed by pyrosequencing. Growth restricted fetuses with an abnormal CPR showed hypermethylation of the VEGFA gene at one CpG (VEGFA-309, p = .001) and an overall hypomethylation of the LEP gene, being significant at two CpGs (LEP-123, p = .049; LEP-51, p = .020). No differences in methylation were observed for the other genes. VEGFA and LEP genes are differentially methylated in placentas of small-for-gestational age fetuses with brain-sparing. Hypermethylation of VEGFA-309 in abnormal CPR-placentas could indicate successful compensatory mechanisms. Methylation of LEP-51 is known to suppress LEP expression. Hypomethylation in small-for-gestational age placentas with abnormal CPR may result in hyperleptinemia and predispose to leptin-resistance later in life.
Publication Date: 2019-08-31
Journal: PloS one

vegfa sirt1(2)

Exploring the differentially expressed genes in human lymphocytes upon response to ionizing radiation: a network biology approach.
The integration of large-scale gene data and their functional analysis needs the effective application of various computational tools. Here we attempted to unravel the biological processes and cellular pathways in response to ionizing radiation using a systems biology approach. Analysis of gene ontology shows that 80, 42, 25, and 35 genes have roles in the biological process, molecular function, the cellular process, and immune system pathways, respectively. Therefore, our study emphasizes gene/protein network analysis on various differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to reveal the interactions between those proteins and their functional contribution upon radiation exposure. A gene/protein interaction network was constructed, which comprises 79 interactors with 718 interactions and TP53, MAPK8, MAPK1, CASP3, MAPK14, ATM, NOTCH1, VEGFA, SIRT1, and PRKDC are the top 10 proteins in the network with high betweenness centrality values. Further, molecular complex detection was used to cluster these associated partners in the network, which produced three effective clusters based on the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) score. Interestingly, we found a high functional similarity from the associated genes/proteins in the network with known radiation response genes. This network-based approach on DEGs of human lymphocytes upon response to ionizing radiation provides clues for an opportunity to improve therapeutic efficacy.
Publication Date: 2021-04-02
Journal: Radiation oncology journal


Cottonseed-derived gossypol and ethanol extracts differentially regulate cell viability and VEGF gene expression in mouse macrophages.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in chronic inflammation associated with several diseases. Many plant extracts have nutritional and healthy benefits by down-regulating VEGF expression, but there was no report on VEGF regulation by cottonseed extracts in any biological system. The objective was to investigate cell viability and VEGF expression regulated by gossypol and ethanol extracts using lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as a control. MTT, qPCR and immunoblotting techniques were used to monitor cell viability, VEGF mRNA and protein levels in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Gossypol dramatically reduced macrophage viability but cottonseed extracts and LPS exhibited minor effect on cell viability. VEGFb mRNA levels were approximately 40 fold of VEGFa in the macrophages. Gossypol increased VEGFa and VEGFb mRNA levels up to 27 and 4 fold, respectively, and increased VEGF protein. LPS increased VEGFa mRNA by sixfold but decreased VEGFb mRNA. LPS increased VEGF protein in 2-4 h but decreased in 8-24 h. Glanded seed extracts showed some stimulating effects on VEGF mRNA levels. Glandless seed coat extract showed increased VEGFb mRNA levels but its kernel extract reduced VEGF mRNA levels. This study demonstrated that gossypol and ethanol extracts differentially regulated cell viability and VEGF expression in mouse macrophages.
Publication Date: 2021-08-05
Journal: Scientific reports


CCL20/TNF/VEGFA Cytokine Secretory Phenotype of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Is a Negative Prognostic Factor in Cutaneous Melanoma.
TAMs constitute a large fraction of infiltrating immune cells in melanoma tissues, but their significance for clinical outcomes remains unclear. We explored diverse TAM parameters in clinically relevant primary cutaneous melanoma samples, including density, location, size, and polarization marker expression; in addition, because cytokine production is a hallmark of macrophages function, we measured CCL20, TNF, and VEGFA intracellular cytokines by single-cell multiparametric confocal microscopy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze correlation with melanoma-specific disease-free survival and overall survival. No significant correlations with clinical parameters were observed for TAM density, morphology, or location. Significantly, higher contents of the intracellular cytokines CCL20, TNF, and VEGFA were quantified in TAMs infiltrating metastasizing compared to non-metastasizing skin primary melanomas (
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Cancers


Hypoxic and osmotic expression of Kir2.1 potassium channels in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Contribution to vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells express different subtypes of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. We investigated whether human and rat RPE cells express genes of strongly rectifying Kir2 channels. We also determined the hypoxic and hyperosmotic regulation of Kir2.1 gene expression in cultured human RPE cells and the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of Kir2.1 on VEGFA expression, VEGF secretion, proliferation, and viability of the cells. Extracellular hyperosmolarity was induced by addition of NaCl or sucrose. Hypoxia and chemical hypoxia were produced by cell culture in 0.25% O
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Experimental eye research


COX4I2 is a novel biomarker of blood supply in adrenal tumors.
Previous study has been reported that COX4I2 expression level demonstrated a positive correlation with microvessel density in pheochromocytomas (PCC) samples, suggesting that the expression of COX4I2 maybe related to blood supply level in other adrenal tumors as well. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation of COX4I2 expression and blood supply in adrenal tumors. A total of 84 patients were recruited, among which 46 was diagnosed as adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and 38 was diagnosed as PCC. Contrast-enhanced CT values were used to evaluate the blood supply levels in those patients. The expression of mRNA was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and protein was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The COX4I2 expression level in PCC group is significantly higher than that in ACA group (P<0.01). The expression of angiogenesis-related genes EPAS1, VEGFA and KDR mRNA in PCC group is higher than that of ACA group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis shows COX4I2 expression level is correlated with CT values (P<0.001), intraoperative blood loss (P<0.05) and operation time (P<0.05), and the expression of COX4I2 mRNA is correlated with EPAS1, VEGFA and KDR mRNA (P<0.01). The results displayed a distinct expression level of COX4I2 between ACA and PCC, suggesting that COX4I2 is a novel biomarker of blood supply in adrenal tumors. This research also opens the possibility for further research on COX4I2 as a novel target for anti-tumor angiogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Journal: Translational andrology and urology


Uncovering the anti-NSCLC effects and mechanisms of gypenosides by metabolomics and network pharmacology analysis.
Lung cancer is the chief reason of cancer death worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) make up the majority of lung cancers. Gypenosides are the main active constituents from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Previous studies showed that they were used to remedy many cancers. The effect of gypenosides on NSCLC has never been studied from the perspective of network pharmacology and metabolomics. The mechanism is still not clear and remains to be explored. To explore the anti-NSCLC activity and mechanism of gypenosides in A549 cells. Gypenosides of G. pentaphyllum were detected by HPLC-MS. The cytotoxicity was detected by MTT assay. The migration, cell cycle and apoptosis of gypenosides were studied by wound healing assay, JC-1 assay and flow cytometry. The mechanism of gypenosides on NSCLC was studied by metabolomics and network pharmacology. Some key proteins and pathways were further confirmed by Western blot. Eleven gypenosides were detected by HPLC-MS. Gypenosides could suppress the proliferation of A549 cells, inhibit the migration of A549 cells, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Metabolomics and network pharmacology approach revealed that gypenosides might affect 17 metabolite related proteins by acting on 9 candidate targets (STAT3, VEGFA, EGFR, MMP9, IL2, TYMS, FGF2, HPSE, LGALS3), thus resulting in the changes of two metabolites (uridine 5'-monophosphate, D-4'-Phosphopantothenate) and two metabolic pathways (pyrimidine metabolism; pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis). Western blotting indicated that gypenosides might inhibit A549 cells through MMP9, STAT3 and TYMS to indirectly affect the pathways of pyrimidine metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis. This study revealed that metabolomics combined with network pharmacology was conducive to understand the anti-NSCLC mechanism of gypenosides.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology


Teucrium polium Extract Enhances the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Tranilast in a Three-Dimensional Fibrin Matrix Model.
Angiogenesis plays a dominant role in many pathophysiologic disorders, including cancer. Tranilast, which is an anti-fibrotic drug, is also suggested as an anti-angiogenesis agent. As Teucrium polium (TP) is known as an herbal medicine with antitumor properties, this study aimed to investigate the effects of TP and Tranilast on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), in vitro model of angiogenesis, as well as rat's aortic ring ex vivo model. In this study, The HUVECs were treated with various doses of TP and Tranilast each one alone or in combination together. Cell survival test, aortic ring ex-vivo assay, and evaluating mRNA expressions of VEGFA and TGF-β ligands and receptors were performed. The survival rate of HUVECs has significantly (p <0.05) reduced by TP and Tranilast. The combination of both TP and Tranilast significantly reduced cell viability as compared to the administration of TP or Tranilast alone. As well, the treatment of HUVECs with TP and/or Tranilast significantly (p <0.05) decreased TGF-β1, TGF-β 2, TGF-βRI, and TGF-βRII mRNA expression levels, but not the expression of TGF-β3 and TGF-βRIII in the TP-treated cells. Image analysis showed that TP and/or Tranilast inhibited vascular growth in the aortic ring assay. Our results strongly support the anti-angiogenic effects of the TP and Tranilast combination on both in vitro and ex vivo models of angiogenesis. However, further investigations in in vivo models and human studies are needed before human use.
Publication Date: 2021-08-29
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP


Hypoxia-induced retinal pigment epithelium cell-derived bFGF promotes the migration and angiogenesis of HUVECs through regulating TGF-β1/smad2/3 pathway.
Hypoxia promotes the secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which plays an important part in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study preliminarily explored the effect of hypoxia-induced RPE-derived bFGF on the biological functions of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). After cell culture in hypoxia conditions, the cell viability, apoptosis, and the expressions of bFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in human RPEs were detected by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flow cytometry, western blot, RT-qPCR, or ELISA. The HUVECs were transfected with siRNA for bFGF (sibFGF) or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (siTGF-β1) and grown in the supernatant RPE under normoxia conditions or hypoxia conditions to further determine the cell viability, migration, angiogenesis, and the expressions of TGF-β1, p-smad2/3, and smad2/3 in the cells by performing MTT, transwell, tube formation, Western blot, or RT-qPCR. Hypoxia culture decreased the cell viability and promoted the apoptosis as well as the expressions of bFGF and VEGFA in RPEs. In both normoxia and hypoxia conditions, RPE-derived bFGF increased the cell viability, migration, angiogenesis, and the expressions of TGF-β1 and p-smad2/3 in the HUVECs, with hypoxia-induced RPE-derived bFGF showing a stronger effect than bFGF induced by normoxia. However, sibFGF reversed the effects caused by RPE-derived bFGF. Moreover, siTGF-β1 decreased the high cell viability, migration and angiogenesis of HUVECs, and downregulated the expressions of TGF-β1 and phosphorylated (p)-smad2/3 upregulated by hypoxia-induced RPE-derived bFGF. Hypoxia-induced RPE-derived bFGF could promote the migration and angiogenesis of HUVECs through regulating TGF-β1/smad2/3 pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-05-09
Journal: Gene


R-loop modulated epigenetic regulation in T helper cells mechanistically associates coronary artery disease and non-small cell lung cancer.
The effect of epigenetics in coronary artery disease and Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is presently developing as a significant vital participant at various levels from pathophysiology to therapeutics. We would like to find out the conjunction of some regular epigenetic regulations which decides the example of either acetylation/deacetylation or methylation/demethylation on various gene promoters associated with their pathogenesis. Expressions of some of the genes (e.g., VEGFA, AIMP1, etc.) are either up regulated or down regulated in a similar pattern where several DNA damage (e.g. H2A.X) and repair factors (e.g. BRCA1, RAD51, ERCC1, XPF), Transcription coupled DNA repair factor, Replication proteins are involved. Additionally, epigenetic changes, for example, histone methylation was found unusual in BRCA1 complex in CAD and in the NSCLC patients. Epigenetic therapies such as CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout/overexpression of specific gene (BRCA1) showed promising changes in diseased conditions, whereas it affected the R-loop formation which is vulnerable to DNA damage. Involvement of the common epigenetic mechanisms, their interactions and alterations observed in our study will contribute significantly in understanding the development of novel epigenetic therapies soon.
Publication Date: 2021-08-04
Journal: Translational oncology


Knockdown of lncRNA TUG1 suppresses corneal angiogenesis through regulating miR-505-3p/VEGFA.
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is one of the major factors initiating and regulating angiogenesis. LncRNA taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) has been implicated in the pathological neovascularization. The aim of this study is to explore the function of TUG1 in regulating VEGFA-mediated angiogenesis in endothelial cells. A total of 12 corneal neovascularization (CRNV) samples were collected form patient undergoing corneal transplantation at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to examine gene expression and protein levels. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as an in vitro angiogenesis model. CCK-8 proliferation assay was used to determine cell proliferation capacity and wound healing was performed to analyze cell migration ability. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used for functional interaction validation between miR-505-3p and its targets. The in vitro angiogenic potential was evaluated by tube formation assay. TUG1 and VEGFA were upregulated in CRNV tissues and VEGFA-treated HUVECs. TUG1 knockdown inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation capacity of HUVECs. TUG1 regulated the angiogenesis of HUVECs by modulating VEGFA expression through targeting miR-505-3p. Our results suggest that lncRNA TUG1 promotes the angiogenesis of HUVECs through modulating miR-505-3p/VEGFA axis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-20
Journal: Microvascular research


Oroxylin a Attenuates Limb Ischemia by Promoting Angiogenesis
Oroxylin A (OA) has been shown to simultaneously increase coronary flow and provide a strong anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we described the angiogenic properties of OA. OA treatment accelerated perfusion recovery, reduced tissue injury, and promoted angiogenesis after hindlimb ischemia (HLI). In addition, OA regulated the secretion of multiple cytokines, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-2), and platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). Specifically, those multiple cytokines were involved in cell migration, cell population proliferation, and angiogenesis. These effects were observed at 3, 7, and 14 days after HLI. In skeletal muscle cells, OA promoted the release of VEGFA and ANG-2. After OA treatment, the conditioned medium derived from skeletal muscle cells was found to significantly induce endothelial cell (EC) proliferation. OA also induced EC migration by activating the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2 (ROCK-II) signaling pathway and the T-box20 (TBX20)/prokineticin 2 (PROK2) signaling pathway. In addition, OA was able to downregulate the number of macrophages and neutrophils, along with the secretion of interleukin-1β, at 3 days after HLI. These results expanded current knowledge about the beneficial effects of OA in angiogenesis and blood flow recovery. This research could open new directions for the development of novel therapeutic intervention for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology


Association of Variants in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Gene and VEGFA Serum Levels with the Risk of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: A Case-Control Study.
The study aimed at investigating the association between the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) genetic variants, the VEGFA serum level, and the primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) risk in Chinese Han women. An age-matched case-control study was implemented in the West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University. Participants/Materials, Setting, Methods: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 240 patients with POI and 261 healthy controls between December 2012 and December 2018 at the West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University. Mutations of VEGFA gene -2578C/A, -1154G/A, 936C/T, and -634C/G were identified by PCR-RFLP. Moreover, VEGFA serum levels in the 2 groups were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The -1154G>A and 936C>T variants of the VEGFA gene were significantly associated with POI (the adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.17 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-4.43 for the former; the adjusted OR = 2.74 and 95% CI = 1.18-6.34 for the latter), whereas no significant difference was found in the genotype distribution of -2578C>A and -634C>G variants between patients and controls (p > 0.05). Moreover, the combined -1154G>A and 936C>T genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of POI (the adjusted OR = 21.98, 95% CI = 2.78-173.78 among subjects carrying 3 or more variants), particularly when patients aged ≥35 years (the adjusted OR = 20.58, and 95% CI = 2.58-164.25). The POI group exhibited an obviously lower VEGFA serum level (45.15 ± 1.25 pg/mL) than the control group. Compared with the control, the expression of VEGFA was significantly decreased in the POI group (279.90 ± 5.71 pg/mL; p < 0.05). Moreover, the serum VEGFA levels are lower in the -1154AA genotype than those of AG/GG genotypes. The main limitation is that all participants enrolled in this study were Chinese. As genotype and allelotype frequencies tend to differ between ethnic populations, extrapolation of the results to other ethnic groups should be cautiously considered. Our study indicates an association between the VEGFA -1154G/A, 936C/T variants, and susceptibility to POI in Chinese Han women. Reduced levels of VEGFA may be a potential mechanism for the de-velopment of POI.
Publication Date: 2021-07-12
Journal: Gynecologic and obstetric investigation


Three-dimensional CRISPR screening reveals epigenetic interaction with anti-angiogenic therapy.
Angiogenesis underlies development, physiology and pathogenesis of cancer, eye and cardiovascular diseases. Inhibiting aberrant angiogenesis using anti-angiogenic therapy (AAT) has been successful in the clinical treatment of cancer and eye diseases. However, resistance to AAT inevitably occurs and its molecular basis remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover molecular modifiers of the blood endothelial cell (EC) response to a widely used AAT bevacizumab by performing a pooled genetic screen using three-dimensional microcarrier-based cell culture and CRISPR-Cas9. Functional inhibition of the epigenetic reader BET family of proteins BRD2/3/4 shows unexpected mitigating effects on EC survival and/or proliferation upon VEGFA blockade. Moreover, transcriptomic and pathway analyses reveal an interaction between epigenetic regulation and anti-angiogenesis, which may affect chromosomal structure and activity in ECs via the cell cycle regulator CDC25B phosphatase. Collectively, our findings provide insight into epigenetic regulation of the EC response to VEGFA blockade and may facilitate development of quality biomarkers and strategies for overcoming resistance to AAT.
Publication Date: 2021-07-17
Journal: Communications biology


Altered neurodevelopmental DNA methylation status after fetal growth restriction with brain-sparing.
It is under debate how preferential perfusion of the brain (brain-sparing) in fetal growth restriction (FGR) relates to long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Epigenetic modification of neurotrophic genes by altered fetal oxygenation may be involved. To explore this theory, we performed a follow-up study of 21 FGR children, in whom we prospectively measured the prenatal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) with Doppler sonography. At 4 years of age, we tested their neurodevelopmental outcome using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. In addition, we collected their buccal DNA to determine the methylation status at predefined genetic regions within the genes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1A), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), erythropoietin (EPO), EPO-receptor (EPOR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 (NTRK2) by pyrosequencing. We found that FGR children with fetal brain-sparing (CPR <1, n = 8) demonstrated a trend (0.05 < p < 0.1) toward hypermethylation of HIF1A and VEGFA at their hypoxia-response element (HRE) compared with FGR children without fetal brain-sparing. Moreover, in cases with fetal brain-sparing, we observed statistically significant hypermethylation at a binding site for cyclic adenosine monophophate response element binding protein (CREB) of BDNF promoter exon 4 and hypomethylation at an HRE located within the NTRK2 promoter (both p <0.05). Hypermethylation of VEGFA was associated with a poorer Performance Intelligence Quotient, while hypermethylation of BDNF was associated with better inhibitory self-control (both p <0.05). These results led us to formulate the hypothesis that early oxygen-dependent epigenetic alterations due to hemodynamic alterations in FGR may be associated with altered neurodevelopmental outcome in later life. We recommend further studies to test this hypothesis.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Journal of developmental origins of health and disease


Injectable self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel as a bioactive 3D platform to promote chronic wound tissue regeneration.
Chronic wounds remain a worldwide clinical challenge, and bioactive materials that can promote skin regeneration are required. Self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels have shown great potential in tissue repair, but their regenerative efficacy and possible mechanism in chronic wound healing are unclear. Here, we report an SAP (KGH) that enhances extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and angiogenesis, thereby promoting chronic wound healing in diabetic mice. In vivo, the KGH hydrogel was retained in wounds up to 7 days after injection, and it was effective in speeding up wound closure by ∼20% compared to the control groups and enhancing angiogenesis (e.g., VEGFA, CD31
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
Journal: Acta biomaterialia


Xuefu Zhuyu decoction improves asthma-induced asthenozoospermia based on network pharmacology and in vivo experiment.
This study aimed to verify that Xuefu Zhuyu decoction (XFZYD) can improve asthenozoospermia caused by asthma, and explore its potential mechanism. Ovalbumin solution is used to induce asthma rat models. Sperm concentration and motility are used to evaluate semen quality. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) are used to detect proteins and mRNA related to rat testis tissue. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe changes in testicular tissues. Through network pharmacology, eriodictyol, 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid, naringenin, chrysin and Hispidulin were prominent active ingredients of XFZYD. We found that XFZYD regulates the expression levels of albumin (ALB), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6 (IL-6) protein and mRNA, thereby improving the histopathological morphology of the testis, increasing the concentration and motility of spermatozoa. We suggest that future research can increase the detection of hormones and oxidative stress and other related indicators, so as to conduct more in-depth exploration.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Andrologia


Therapeutic Targets and Mechanism of Xingpi Jieyu Decoction in Depression: A Network Pharmacology Study.
Depression is a common mental disease that lacks effective therapeutic drugs with good curative effects and few adverse reactions. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the advantages of multiple components, multiple channels, and fewer adverse reactions in the treatment of depression. Although Xingpi Jieyu Decoction (XPJYD) demonstrates a good therapeutic effect on depression, the pharmacological mechanism underlying its antidepressant effect is still unclear. We used a network pharmacology strategy, including the construction and analysis of a complex drug-disease network, to explore the complex mechanism of XPJYD treatment of depression. In addition, molecular docking technology was used to preliminarily study the binding ability of the potential active components and core therapeutic targets of XPJYD. The network pharmacology results showed 42 targets of XPJYD that are involved in depression. PPI network analysis demonstrated that the top 10 core targets were AKT1, VEGFA, MAPK8, FOS, ESR1, NR3C1, IL6, HIF1A, NOS3, and AR. The molecular docking results showed that the binding energies of beta sitosterol with AR, FOS, AKT1, VEGFA, NR3C1, and NOS3 were less than -7.0 kcal·mol This study reflects the characteristics of the mechanism of action by which XPJYD treats depression, which includes multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways, and provides a biological basis for further verification and a novel perspective for drug discovery in depression.
Publication Date: 2021-07-15
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


Determining the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Syndrome with the Best Prognosis of HBV-Related HCC and Exploring the Related Mechanism Using Network Pharmacology.
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), TCM syndrome is a key guideline, and Chinese materia medicas are widely used to treat hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to different TCM syndromes. However, the prognostic value of TCM syndromes in HBV-related HCC patients has never been studied. A retrospective cohort of HBV-related HCC patients at Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital from December 2005 to October 2017 was analyzed. The prognostic value of TCM syndromes in HBV-related HCC patients was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox analysis, and the TCM syndrome with the best prognosis of HBV-related HCC patients was determined. To further study the relevant mechanisms, key Chinese materia medicas (KCMMs) for the TCM syndrome with the best prognosis were summarized, and network pharmacology was also performed. A total of 207 HBV-related HCC patients were included in this research, and we found that HBV-related HCC patients with TCM excess syndrome had better OS. Then, a total of eight KCMMs for TCM excess syndrome were identified, whose crucial ingredients included quercetin, beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, luteolin, and XH-14, and KCMMs could play a therapeutic role through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, Hippo, and other pathways. Moreover, TP53, SRC, STAT3, MAPK3, PIK3R1, HRAS, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, EGFR, and JAK2 were determined as the key targets. We propose a new research method of "prognosis of TCM syndromes-KCMMs-network pharmacology" to reveal the prognostic value of TCM syndromes and the potential mechanism by which TCM syndromes affect prognosis.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


lncRNA TUG1 regulates angiogenesis via the miR‑204‑5p/JAK2/STAT3 axis in hepatoblastoma.
Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant hepatic tumour type with hypervascularity in early childhood. In recent decades, emerging evidence has proven that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important oncogenic role in the pathogenesis of hepatoblastoma. However, the underlying mechanism of lncRNA taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) in the angiogenesis of hepatoblastoma remains unknown. The expression patterns of TUG1 and microRNA (miR)‑204‑5p were detected in hepatoblastoma tissues and cell lines via reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and were analysed using a Pearson's correlation test. A tube formation assay was performed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells to assess the vasculogenic activity of treated HuH‑6 cells. ELISA was used to detect the level of the secretory proangiogenic factor VEGFA in the culture media of HuH‑6 cells. A dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate the binding relationships of TUG1/miR‑204‑5p and miR‑204‑5p/Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Moreover, western blotting was conducted to measure the protein expression levels of VEGFA, phosphorylated (p)‑JAK2, JAK2, p‑STAT3 and STAT3. It was identified that TUG1 was upregulated, while miR‑204‑5p was downregulated in hepatoblastoma tissues and cells. TUG1 knockdown inhibited angiogenesis induced by hepatoblastoma cells. Furthermore, miR‑204‑5p was identified as a target of TUG1. The results demonstrated that TUG1 attenuated the inhibitory effect of miR‑204‑5p on the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and promoted angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma cells. In summary, TUG1 was upregulated in hepatoblastoma and suppressed miR‑204‑5p, thereby activating the downstream signalling pathway of JAK2/STAT3 to facilitate angiogenesis. The present findings will provide novel targets for the treatment of hepatoblastoma.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: Molecular medicine reports


Mechanistic models of signaling pathways deconvolute the glioblastoma single-cell functional landscape.
Single-cell RNA sequencing is revealing an unexpectedly large degree of heterogeneity in gene expression levels across cell populations. However, little is known on the functional consequences of this heterogeneity and the contribution of individual cell fate decisions to the collective behavior of the tissues these cells are part of. Here, we use mechanistic modeling of signaling circuits, which reveals a complex functional landscape at single-cell level. Different clusters of neoplastic glioblastoma cells have been defined according to their differences in signaling circuit activity profiles triggering specific cancer hallmarks, which suggest different functional strategies with distinct degrees of aggressiveness. Moreover, mechanistic modeling of effects of targeted drug inhibitions at single-cell level revealed, how in some cells, the substitution of VEGFA, the target of bevacizumab, by other expressed proteins, like PDGFD, KITLG and FGF2, keeps the
Publication Date: 2021-07-29
Journal: NAR cancer


Association of VEGFA polymorphisms with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Chinese Han and Mongolian populations.
What is the central question of this study? Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is an important growth factor involved in changes in the bronchial microvascular and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progression. What is the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VEGFA with the risk of COPD in the Chinese Han and Mongolian populations? What is the main finding and its importance? The effect of five SNPs in the VEGFA gene was analysed and compared between the Chinese Han and Mongolian populations. A contribution of risk alleles rs833068, rs833070 and rs3024997 to COPD was detected in the Chinese Mongolian population only. The study provided data from different populations to validate the role of VEGFA polymorphisms in COPD and provided reliable SNPs to predict the risk of COPD. We attempted to define the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Chinese Han and Mongolian cohorts. Five SNPs were genotyped in cohorts of 684 COPD patients (350 Mongolian and 334 Han) and 784 healthy controls (350 Mongolian and 434 Han) using SNPscan multiplex PCR. SNP frequencies, genetic models and haplotypes were analysed using the chi-square test. The associations of SNPs with COPD and linkage disequilibrium were analysed using logistic regression and HaploView, respectively. We found that only rs833068G>A, rs833070T>C and rs3024997G>A were significantly associated with the risk of COPD in the Mongolian population (rs833068: P < 0.001, rs833070: P < 0.001, rs3024997: P = 0.002). In the analysis of genotype distributions, the A/A and G/A genotypes in rs833068 (A/A: odds ratio (OR) = 0.313, P < 0.001; G/A: OR = 0.724, P < 0.001) and rs3024997 (A/A: OR = 0.513, P = 0.008; G/A: OR = 0.671, P = 0.008) and the C/C and T/C genotypes in rs833070 (C/C: OR = 0.435, P = 0.007; T/C: OR = 0.593, P = 0.007) were associated with protection against COPD in the Mongolian population. The haplotype frequencies of GCCAT and GTCGC were significantly different between the patients and controls (GCCAT: P = 0.001; GTCGC: P < 0.001) in the Mongolian population. Our findings indicate that five SNPs in the VEGFA gene play divergent roles in the Han and Mongolian populations. rs833068A, rs833070C and rs3024997A were observed to be associated with the risk of COPD in the Mongolian population.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: Experimental physiology


Network pharmacology modeling identifies synergistic interaction of therapeutic and toxicological mechanisms for Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch.
Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch (THH) both has prominent efficacy and unwarranted toxicity in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, its pharmacological and toxicological profiles still remain to be elucidated. In the current study, the network pharmacology approach was applied to identify synergistic interaction and mechanism of efficacy and toxicity for THH from a holistic perspective. The compounds from THH were collected using literature retrieval and relevant databases. After the production of putative therapeutic targets for dominant diseases and harmful targets of adverse reactions (ADRs) induced by THH, the protein-protein interactions (PPIs), topological analysis and pathway enrichment were established to distinguish the hub targets and pathways. Additionally, the binding activity of candidate ingredients with core targets were revealed by molecular docking simulation. A total of eight bioactive components in THH were enrolled, and 633 targets were responsible for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 1067 targets were corresponding to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 1318 targets of ADRs were obtained. The results of enrichment analysis among THH-RA, THH-SLE and THH-ADR networks indicated that pathway in cancer, hepatitis B, rheumatoid arthritis, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway might participate in THH for treating RA and SLE. Besides, the mechanism of ADRs that induced by THH were associated with viral carcinogenesis, p53 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and so on. Whereas, these active ingredients of THH exerted the superior binding activities with crucial targets including STAT3, VEGFA, TP53 and MMP9 that functioned synergistically efficacy and toxicity as observed via molecular docking simulation. The present research preliminarily interpreted the synergistic interaction of therapeutic and toxicological mechanisms for THH through the comprehensive analysis of relationship and binding activity between primary components and core targets, providing a feasible and promising approach to facilitate the development of toxic and irreplaceable herbs.
Publication Date: 2021-01-16
Journal: BMC complementary medicine and therapies


A Subpopulation of Schwann Cell-Like Cells With Nerve Regeneration Signatures Is Identified Through Single-Cell RNA Sequencing.
Schwann cell-like cells (SCLCs) derived from human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) have been shown to promote peripheral nerve regeneration, but the underlying molecular mechanism was still poorly understood. In order to investigate the heterogeneity and potential molecular mechanism of SCLCs in the treatment of peripheral nerve regeneration at a single cell level, single-cell RNA sequencing was applied to profile single cell populations of hAMSCs and SCLCs. We profiled 6,008 and 5,140 single cells from hAMSCs and SCLCs, respectively. Based on bioinformatics analysis, pathways associated with proliferation, ECM organization, and tissue repair were enriched within both populations. Cell cycle analysis indicated that single cells within these two populations remained mostly in the G0/G1 phase. The transformation of single cells from hAMSCs to SCLCs was characterized by pseudotime analysis. Furthermore, we identified a subpopulation of SCLCs that highly expressed genes associated with Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and survival, such as JUN, JUND, and NRG1., Genes such as PTGS2, PITX1, VEGFA, and FGF2 that promote nerve regeneration were also highly expressed in single cells within this subpopulation, and terms associated with inflammatory and tissue repair were enriched in this subpopulation by pathway enrichment analysis. Our results indicate that a subpopulation of SCLCs with nerve regeneration signatures may be the key populations that promote nerve regeneration.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Frontiers in physiology


Reduced angiovasculogenic and increased inflammatory profiles of cord blood cells in severe but not mild preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia (PE) is a prevalent pregnancy disorder that leads to high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. While defective vascular development and angiogenesis in placenta are known as crucial pathological findings, its pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. To better understand the effects of PE on angio-vasculogenesis and inflammatory networks in the fetus and to identify their biological signatures, we investigated the quantitative and functional characteristics of cord blood-derived mononuclear cells (CB-MNCs) and CD31-positive MNCs. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the CB-MNCs from the severe PE group had significantly decreased number of cells expressing CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD19, KDR, and CD31 compared with the normal group. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) shows down-regulation of the major angiogenic factor VEGFA in MNCs and CD31
Publication Date: 2021-02-13
Journal: Scientific reports


Deciphering Pharmacological Mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Decoction for Spinal Cord Injury by Network Pharmacology Approach.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of the Chinese herbal formula Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), which is commonly used to treat nerve injuries, in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) using a network pharmacology method. BYHWD-related targets were obtained by mining the TCMSP and BATMAN-TCM databases, and SCI-related targets were obtained by mining the DisGeNET, TTD, CTD, GeneCards, and MalaCards databases. The overlapping targets of the abovementioned targets may be potential therapeutic targets for BYHWD anti-SCI. Subsequently, we performed protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, screened the hub genes using Cytoscape software, performed Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and finally achieved molecular docking between the hub proteins and key active compounds. The 189 potential therapeutic targets for BYHWD anti-SCI were overlapping targets of 744 BYHWD-related targets and 923 SCI-related targets. The top 10 genes obtained subsequently included AKT1, IL6, MAPK1, TNF, TP53, VEGFA, CASP3, ALB, MAPK8, and JUN. Fifteen signaling pathways were also screened out after enrichment analysis and literature search. The results of molecular docking of key active compounds and hub target proteins showed a good binding affinity for both. This study shows that BYHWD anti-SCI is characterized by a multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway synergy and provides new insights to explore the specific mechanisms of BYHWD against SCI.
Publication Date: 2021-05-13
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


Regulation of VEGFR Signalling in Lymphatic Vascular Development and Disease: An Update.
The importance of lymphatic vessels in a myriad of human diseases is rapidly gaining recognition; lymphatic vessel dysfunction is a feature of disorders including congenital lymphatic anomalies, primary lymphoedema and obesity, while improved lymphatic vessel function increases the efficacy of immunotherapy for cancer and neurological disease and promotes cardiac repair following myocardial infarction. Understanding how the growth and function of lymphatic vessels is precisely regulated therefore stands to inform the development of novel therapeutics applicable to a wide range of human diseases. Lymphatic vascular development is initiated during embryogenesis following establishment of the major blood vessels and the onset of blood flow. Lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells arise from a combination of venous and non-venous sources to generate the initial lymphatic vascular structures in the vertebrate embryo, which are then further ramified and remodelled to elaborate an extensive lymphatic vascular network. Signalling mediated via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases is crucial for development of both the blood and lymphatic vascular networks, though distinct components are utilised to different degrees in each vascular compartment. Although much is known about the regulation of VEGFA/VEGFR2 signalling in the blood vasculature, less is understood regarding the mechanisms by which VEGFC/VEGFD/VEGFR3 signalling is regulated during lymphatic vascular development. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating VEGFA-, VEGFC- and VEGFD-mediated signalling via VEGFRs which are important for driving the construction of lymphatic vessels during development and disease.
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences


Revealing the therapeutic targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin-treated coronavirus disease 2019 via a systematic study of network pharmacology.
Emodin has shown pharmacological effects in the treatment of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we speculated that emodin may possess anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, using bioinformatics databases, we screened and harvested the candidate genes or targets of emodin and COVID-19 prior to the determination of pharmacological targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin against COVID-19. We discovered core targets for the treatment of COVID-19, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), tumor protein (TP53), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), caspase-3 (CASP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 1B (IL1B), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), B-cell lymphoma-2-like protein 1 (BCL2L1), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). The GO analysis of emodin against COVID-19 mainly included cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, response to lipopolysaccharide, response to molecule of bacterial origin, developmental process involved in reproduction, and reproductive structure development. The KEGG results exhibited that the molecular pathways mainly included IL-17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, TNF signaling pathway, pertussis, proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, etc. Also, molecular docking results revealed the docking capability between emodin and COVID-19 and the potential pharmacological activity of emodin against COVID-19. Taken together, these findings uncovered the targets and pharmacological mechanisms of emodin for treating COVID-19 and suggested that the vital targets might be used as biomarkers against COVID-19.
Publication Date: 2021-06-06
Journal: Aging


A Network Pharmacology Approach to Predict the Proangiogenesis Mechanism of Huangqi-Honghua Herb Pair after Cerebral Ischemia.
Huangqi-Honghua herb pair is known for its medicinal value to treat Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome with a long history in clinical practice. To understand its possible mechanism in a systematic study, a network pharmacological method was addressed. Detailed information on the HH compounds was obtained from two public databases, and oral bioavailability (OB) and drug-like (DL) of the compounds were evaluated. A correlation between HH compounds, its potential targets, and known targets was extrapolated, and the herb-compound-target-disease (H-C-T-D) network was established. Next, the pathway enrichment and essential genes were analyzed. Then, three key genes (VEGFA, VEGFR2, and eNOS), highly associated with angiogenesis, were screened and verified through western blot assay. Out of 276 compounds, 21 HH compounds and 78 target genes regulating the major pathways associated with CI in the network are analyzed. The bioactive compounds in HH were active in various signal transduction pathways such as the toll-like receptor signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway are important pathways that may regulate anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, immune correlation, and antioxidative effects. The core genes are PTGS2, TNF, NOS2, IL6, BCL2, IL1B, SOD2, NOS3, SOD1, MMP9, and VEGFA. The in vitro results suggested that HH treatment could significantly elevate the expression of proangiogenic genes such as VEGFA, VEGFR2, and eNOS compared with OGD groups. Our results predict that HH may regulate the expression of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and eNOS via the VEGF and HIF-1 signaling pathway to promote angiogenesis and alleviate cerebral ischemia injury.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM


Cancer-secreted exosomal miR-21-5p induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability by targeting KRIT1.
Cancer-secreted exosomes are critical mediators of cancer-host crosstalk. In the present study, we showed the delivery of miR-21-5p from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to endothelial cells via exosomes increased the amount of miR-21-5p in recipient cells. MiR-21-5p suppressed Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) in recipient HUVECs and subsequently activated β-catenin signaling pathway and increased their downstream targets VEGFa and Ccnd1, which consequently promoted angiogenesis and vascular permeability in CRC. A strong inverse correlation between miR-21-5p and KRIT1 expression levels was observed in CRC-adjacent vessels. Furthermore, miR-21-5p expression in circulating exosomes was markedly higher in CRC patients than in healthy donors. Thus, our data suggest that exosomal miR-21-5p is involved in angiogenesis and vascular permeability in CRC and may be used as a potential new therapeutic target.
Publication Date: 2021-06-06
Journal: Cell death & disease


Transcriptomic analysis of equine chorioallantois reveals immune networks and molecular mechanisms involved in nocardioform placentitis.
Nocardioform placentitis (NP) continues to result in episodic outbreaks of abortion and preterm birth in mares and remains a poorly understood disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptome of the chorioallantois (CA) of mares with NP. The CA were collected from mares with confirmed NP based upon histopathology, microbiological culture and PCR for Amycolatopsis spp. Samples were collected from the margin of the NP lesion (NPL, n = 4) and grossly normal region (NPN, n = 4). Additionally, CA samples were collected from normal postpartum mares (Control; CRL, n = 4). Transcriptome analysis identified 2892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in NPL vs. CRL and 2450 DEGs in NPL vs. NPN. Functional genomics analysis elucidated that inflammatory signaling, toll-like receptor signaling, inflammasome activation, chemotaxis, and apoptosis pathways are involved in NP. The increased leukocytic infiltration in NPL was associated with the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP8) and apoptosis-related genes, such as caspases (CASP3 and CASP7), which could explain placental separation associated with NP. Also, NP was associated with downregulation of several placenta-regulatory genes (ABCG2, GCM1, EPAS1, and NR3C1), angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, FLT1, KDR, and ANGPT2), and glucose transporter coding genes (GLUT1, GLUT10, and GLUT12), as well as upregulation of hypoxia-related genes (HIF1A and EGLN3), which could elucidate placental insufficiency accompanying NP. In conclusion, our findings revealed for the first time, the key regulators and mechanisms underlying placental inflammation, separation, and insufficiency during NP, which might lead to the development of efficacious therapies or diagnostic aids by targeting the key molecular pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-07-10
Journal: Veterinary research


Biomarkers Associated with Regorafenib First-Line Treatment Benefits in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients: REFRAME Molecular Study.
First-line treatment with regorafenib in frail metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients has shown some benefit. To accurately identify such patients before treatment, we studied blood biomarkers and primary tumor molecules. We unveiled serum microRNAs (miRNAs), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in angiogenic-related genes, and Notch 1 expression as biomarkers associated with response or toxicity. MicroRNA array profiling and genotyping of selected SNPs were performed in the blood of fragile mCRC patients treated with regorafenib. Notch 1 and CRC-associated miRNA expression was also analyzed in tumors. High levels of miR-185-5p in serum, rs7993418 in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) gene, and Notch 1 expression in biopsies were associated with a favorable response to treatment. Serum levels of miR-126-3p and miR-152-3p and tumor expression of miR-92a-1-5p were associated with treatment toxicity, particularly interesting in patients exhibiting comorbidities, and high levels of miR-362-3p were associated with asthenia. Additionally, several miRNAs were associated with the presence of metastasis, local recurrence, and peritoneal metastasis. Besides, miRNAs determined in primary tumors were associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. The rs2305948 and rs699947 SNPs in VEGFR2 and VEGFA, respectively, were markers of poor prognosis correlating with locoregional relapse, a higher N stage, and metastatic shedding. In conclusion, VEGF and VEGFR SNPs, miRNAs, and Notch 1 levels are potential useful biomarkers for the management of advanced CRC under regorafenib treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-05-01
Journal: Cancers


Role of Dietary Nutritional Treatment on Hepatic and Intestinal Damage in Transplantation with Steatotic and Non-Steatotic Liver Grafts from Brain Dead Donors.
Herein, we investigate whether: (1) the administration of glucose or a lipid emulsion is useful in liver transplantation (LT) using steatotic (induced genetically or nutritionally) or non-steatotic livers from donors after brain death (DBDs); and (2) any such benefits are due to reductions in intestinal damage and consequently to gut microbiota preservation. In recipients from DBDs, we show increased hepatic damage and failure in the maintenance of ATP, glycogen, phospholipid and growth factor (HGF, IGF1 and VEGFA) levels, compared to recipients from non-DBDs. In recipients of non-steatotic grafts from DBDs, the administration of glucose or lipids did not protect against hepatic damage. This was associated with unchanged ATP, glycogen, phospholipid and growth factor levels. However, the administration of lipids in steatotic grafts from DBDs protected against damage and ATP and glycogen drop and increased phospholipid levels. This was associated with increases in growth factors. In all recipients from DBDs, intestinal inflammation and damage (evaluated by LPS, vascular permeability, mucosal damage, TLR4, TNF, IL1, IL-10, MPO, MDA and edema formation) was not shown. In such cases, potential changes in gut microbiota would not be relevant since neither inflammation nor damage was evidenced in the intestine following LT in any of the groups evaluated. In conclusion, lipid treatment is the preferable nutritional support to protect against hepatic damage in steatotic LT from DBDs; the benefits were independent of alterations in the recipient intestine.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Nutrients


Novel methods for cold exposure of skeletal muscle in vivo and in vitro show temperature-dependent myokine production.
Proteins secreted from skeletal muscle serving a signalling role have been termed myokines. Many of the myokines are exercise factors, produced and released in response to muscle activity. Cold exposures affecting muscle may occur in recreational, occupational and therapeutic settings. Whether muscle temperature independently affects myokine profile, is still to be elucidated. We hypothesized that manipulating muscle temperature by means of external cooling would change myokine production and release. In the present study we have established new models for cold exposure of muscle in vivo and in vitro where rat hind limb or cultured human myotubes were cooled to 18 °C. After a recovery period, muscle tissue, cells and culture media were harvested for further analysis by qPCR and immunoassays. Expression of several myokine genes were significantly increased after cold exposure in both models: in rat muscle, mRNA levels of CCL2 (p = 0.04), VEGFA (p = 0.02), CXCL1 (p = 0.02) and RBM3 (p = 0.02) increased while mRNA levels of IL-6 (p = 0.03) were decreased; in human myotubes, mRNA levels of IL6 (p = 0.01), CXCL8 (p = 0.04), VEGFA (p = 0.03) and CXCL1 (p < 0.01) were significantly increased, as well as intracellular protein levels of IL-8 (CXCL8 gene product; p < 0.01). The corresponding effect on myokine secretion was not observed, on the contrary, IL-8 (p = 0.02) and VEGF (VEGFA gene product) p < 0.01) concentrations in culture media were reduced after cold exposure in vitro. In conclusion, cold exposure of muscle in vivo and in vitro had an effect on the production and release of several known exercise-related myokines. Myokine expression at the level of mRNA and protein was increased by cold exposure, whereas secretion tended to be decreased.
Publication Date: 2021-05-22
Journal: Journal of thermal biology


Multilevel systems biology analysis of lung transcriptomics data identifies key miRNAs and potential miRNA target genes for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The spread of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected both the public health and the global economy. The current study was aimed at analysing the genetic sequence of this highly contagious corona virus from an evolutionary perspective, comparing the genetic variation features of different geographic strains, and identifying the key miRNAs as well as their gene targets from the transcriptome data of infected lung tissues. A multilevel robust computational analysis was undertaken for viral genetic sequence alignment, phylogram construction, genome-wide transcriptome data interpretation of virus-infected lung tissues, miRNA mapping, and functional biology networking. Our findings show both genetic similarities as well as notable differences in the S protein length among SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS viruses. All SARS-CoV-2 strains showed a high genetic similarity with the parent Wuhan strain, but Saudi Arabian, South African, USA, Russia and New Zealand strains carry 3 additional genetic variations like P333L (RNA -dependant RNA polymerase), D614G (spike), and P4715L (ORF1ab). The infected lung tissues demonstrated the upregulation of 282 (56.51%) antiviral defensive response pathway genes and downregulation of 217 (43.48%) genes involved in autophagy and lung repair pathways. By miRNA mapping, 4 key miRNAs (hsa-miR-342-5p, hsa-miR-432-5p, hsa-miR-98-5p and hsa-miR-17-5p), targeting multiple host genes (MYC, IL6, ICAM1 and VEGFA) as well as SARS-CoV2 gene (ORF1ab) were identified. Systems biology methods offer a new perspective in understanding the molecular basis for the faster spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The antiviral miRNAs identified in this study may aid in the ongoing search for novel personalized therapeutic avenues for COVID patients.
Publication Date: 2021-06-23
Journal: Computers in biology and medicine


Drug discovery in rheumatoid arthritis with joint effusion identified by text mining and biomedical databases.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term systemic disease that primarily affects multiple synovial joints throughout the body. Some patients with severe joint effusion even require repeated arthrocentesis or arthroscopic debridement to relieve symptoms, which causes them much suffering mentally and physically. This text-mining study was designed to find potential drugs that target key genes in this disease. Firstly, we performed text mining by two keywords ("rheumatoid synovitis" and "joint effusion") to get a common set of genes. Secondly, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis performed on these genes, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Subsequently, the significant genes clustered in the PPI network were chose to execute gene-drug interaction analysis for potential drug discovery. Through text mining, 68 overlapping genes were identified as an initial set of key genes. Construction of the initial gene set's PPI network showed that 25 genes clustered in a significant gene module. Ultimately, 8 out of 25 genes could be targetable by a total of 19 drugs. The final 8 genes (PTGS2, TNF, VEGFA, IL1B, CCL2, VWF, IL6, and ESR1) and 19 drugs may provide significant therapeutic value for rheumatoid arthritis patients with joint effusion.
Publication Date: 2021-05-13
Journal: Annals of palliative medicine


Potential of thrombospondin-1 in treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome rat model: a preliminary study.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological endocrine disease in reproductive women, and the endocrine levels are also affected by diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) on PCOS rat model. We established the PCOS rat model, the serum hormones including TSP-1 expression were determined and morphological characteristics were investigated to evaluate the model. These above endocrine and morphological features were investigated again to evaluate the effect of TSP-1 treatment. In the PCOS model group, the serum hormones change (higher luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estrogen) and decreased TSP-1 expression levels were found compared with the control group. Besides, the morphological characteristics of PCOS were also observed in the model group. After TSP-1 treatment, the higher TSP-1, ANGPT2, PDGFB and PDGFD expression levels, the lower LH and T levels, decreased vessel density as well as VEGFA and ANGPT1 expression levels were found compared with the control group, and the ovary morphological changes were also observed in the TSP-1 experimental group. TSP-1 delivery system might be an alternative therapy for PCOS treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology


[Study on network pharmacological mechanism of "treating different diseases with same method" of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in treating diabetic nephropathy, diabetic encephalopathy and diabetic cardiomyopathy].
Pharmacology network was used to investigate the common key target and signaling pathway of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in the protection against diabetic nephropathy(DN), diabetic encephalopathy(DE) and diabetic cardiomyopathy(DCM). The chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were obtained through TCMSP database and literature mining, and SwissTargetPrediction database was used to predict potential targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were obtained through OMIM and GeneCards databases. The overlapped targets of component targets and disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were obtained, and the network of "chemical component-target-disease" was established. The enriched GO and KEGG of the overlapped genes were investigated by using ClueGo plug-in with Cytoscape. At the same time, the PPI network was constructed through STRING database, and the common key targets for the treatment of three diseases by Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were obtained through topological parametric mathematical analysis by Cytoscape. A total of 166 chemical components and 835 component targets were screened out from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. Briefly, 216, 194 and 230 disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were collected, respectively. And 54, 45 and 57 overlapped targets were identified when overlapping these disease targets with component targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, respectively. Enrichment analysis indicated that the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway were the common pathways in the protection of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM. Network analysis of the overlapped targets showed that TNF, STAT3, IL6, VEGFA, MAPK8, CASP3 and SIRT1 were identified as key targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM, the selected key targets were verified by literature review, and it was found that TNF, IL6, VEGFA, CASP3 and SIRT1 had been reported in the literature. In addition, there were the most compounds corresponding to the commom core target STAT3, indicating that more compounds in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could regulate STAT3. This study indicated that Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma potentially protected against DN, DE and DCM through regulating AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway and 7 common targets including TNF, STAT3, IL6, VEGFA, MAPK8, CASP3 and SIRT1. This study provided a reference for the research of "different diseases with same treatment" and also elucidated the potential mechanism of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM.
Publication Date: 2021-05-29
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica


An evidence update on the protective mechanism of tangeretin against neuroinflammation based on network pharmacology prediction and transcriptomic analysis.
Although the protective effects of tangeretin on neuroinflammation have been proven in cell and animal experiments, few studies explore its underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we used the network pharmacology method combined with the transcriptome approach to investigate its underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism in human microglial cells. Based on network pharmacology analysis, four putative target proteins and ten potential pathways were identified. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the related phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were well-supported by transcriptome data. Meanwhile, transcriptome analysis supplemented two crucial targets: the insulin receptor (InsR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) receptor. Subsequently, VEGFA, EGFR, IGF-1 receptor, and InsR were further verified on the protein level. Taken together, we assumed that tangeretin could exert protective effects on neuroinflammation by decreasing the expression of VEGFA, EGFR, InsR, and IGF-1 receptor in the PI3K-AKT, MAPK, mTOR signaling pathway. More importantly, it is for the first time to show that the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of tangeretin through VEGFA, EGFR, IGF-1 receptor, InsR, and mTOR signaling pathway. These works offer new insight into the anti-neuroinflammatory functions of tangeretin and propose novel information on further anti-inflammatory mechanism studies.
Publication Date: 2021-06-05
Journal: European journal of pharmacology


Activated mesangial cells induce glomerular endothelial cells proliferation in rat anti-Thy-1 nephritis through VEGFA/VEGFR2 and Angpt2/Tie2 pathway.
We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation in anti-Thy-1 nephritis. We established anti-Thy-1 nephritis and co-culture system to explore the underlying mechanism of ECs proliferation in vivo and in vitro. EdU assay kit was used for measuring cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect protein expression. ELISA was used to measure the concentration of protein in serum and medium. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to qualify the mRNA and protein expression. siRNA was used to knock down specific protein expression. In anti-Thy-1 nephritis, ECs proliferation was associated with mesangial cells (MCs)-derived vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and ECs-derived angiopoietin2 (Angpt2). In vitro co-culture system activated MCs-expressed VEGFA to promote vascular endothelial growth factor receptor2 (VEGFR2) activation, Angpt2 expression and ECs proliferation, but inhibit TEK tyrosine kinase (Tie2) phosphorylation. MCs-derived VEGFA stimulated Angpt2 expression in ECs, which inhibited Tie2 phosphorylation and promoted ECs proliferation. And decline of Tie2 phosphorylation induced ECs proliferation. In anti-Thy-1 nephritis, promoting Tie2 phosphorylation could alleviate ECs proliferation. Our study showed that activated MCs promoted ECs proliferation through VEGFA/VEGFR2 and Angpt2/Tie2 pathway in experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and in vitro co-culture system. And enhancing Tie2 phosphorylation could alleviate ECs proliferation, which will provide a new idea for MPGN treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-05-15
Journal: Cell proliferation


Network Pharmacology Approach to Uncover the Mechanism Governing the Effect of Simiao Powder on Knee Osteoarthritis.
To explore the molecular mechanism of Simiao powder in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Based on oral bioavailability and drug-likeness, the main active components of Simiao powder were screened using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). GeneCard, OMIM, DisGeNET, DrugBank, PharmGkb, and the Therapeutic Target Database were used to establish target databases for knee osteoarthritis. Cytoscape software was used to construct a visual interactive network diagram of "active ingredient - action target - disease." The STRING database was used to construct a protein interaction network and analyze related protein interaction relationships. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) biological process enrichment analysis were performed on the core targets. Additionally, Discovery Studio software was used for molecular docking verification of active pharmaceutical ingredients and disease targets. Thirty-seven active components of Simiao powder were screened, including 106 common targets. The results of network analysis showed that the targets were mainly involved in regulating biological processes such as cell metabolism and apoptosis. Simiao powder components were predicted to exert their therapeutic effect on the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway. The molecular docking results showed that the active components of Simiao powder had a good match with the targets of IL1B, MMP9, CXCL8, MAPK8, JUN, IL6, MAPK1, EGF, VEGFA, AKT1, and PTGS2. Simiao powder has multisystem, multicomponent, and multitarget characteristics in treating knee osteoarthritis. Its possible mechanism of action includes inhibiting the inflammatory response, regulating immune function, and resisting oxidative stress to control the occurrence and development of the disease. Quercetin, wogonin, kaempferol, beta-sitosterol, and other active ingredients may be the material basis for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
Publication Date: 2020-12-31
Journal: BioMed research international


Differential effects of risuteganib and bevacizumab on AMD cybrid cells.
Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments are currently used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. Chronic, repetitive treatments with anti-VEGF may have unintended consequences beyond the inhibition of angiogenesis. Most recently, clinical trials have been conducted with risuteganib (RSG, Luminate®), which is anti-angiogenic and has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction play a major role in development of AMD. Transmitochondrial cybrids are cell lines established by fusing human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells that are Rho0 (lacking mtDNA) with platelets isolated from AMD subjects or age-matched normal subjects. Cybrid cell lines have identical nuclei but mitochondria from different subjects, enabling investigation of the functional consequences of damaged AMD mitochondria. The present study compares the responses of AMD cybrids treated with bevacizumab (Bmab, Avastin®) versus risuteganib (RSG, Luminate®). Cybrids were created by fusing mtDNA depleted ARPE-19 cells with platelets from AMD or age-matched normal patients. AMD (n = 5) and normal (n = 3) cybrids were treated for 48 h with or without 1x clinical dose of 1.25 mg/50 μl (25,000 μg/ml) of Bmab or 1.0 mg/50 μl (20,000 μg/ml) of RSG. Cultures were analyzed for levels of cleaved caspase 3/7 and NucLight Rapid Red staining (IncuCyte® Live Cell Imager), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, JC1 assay) or reactive oxygen species (ROS, H2DCFDA assay). Expression levels of genes related to the following pathways were analyzed with qRT-PCR: Apoptosis (BAX, BCL2L13, CASP-3, -7, -9); angiogenesis (VEGFA, HIF1α, PDGF); integrins (ITGB-1, -3, -5, ITGA-3, -5, -V); mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, POLG); oxidative stress (SOD2, GPX3, NOX4); inflammation (IL-6, -18, -1β, IFN-β1); and signaling (P3KCA, PI3KR1). Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software. The untreated AMD cybrids had significantly higher levels of cleaved caspase 3/7 compared to the untreated normal cybrids. The Bmab-treated AMD cybrids showed elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3/7 compared to untreated AMD or RSG-treated AMD cybrids. The Bmab-treated cybrids had lower ΔΨm compared to untreated AMD or RSG-treated AMD cybrids. The ROS levels were not changed with Bmab or RSG treatment. Results showed that Bmab-treated cybrids had higher expression levels of inflammatory (IL-6, IL1-β), oxidative stress (NOX4) and angiogenesis (VEGFA) genes compared to untreated AMD, while RSG-treated cybrids had lower expression levels of apoptosis (BAX), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and integrin (ITGB1) genes. These data suggest that the mechanism(s) of action of RSG, an integrin regulator, and Bmab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody, affect the AMD RPE cybrid cells differently, with the former having more anti-apoptosis properties, which may be desirable in treating degenerative ocular diseases.
Publication Date: 2020-10-20
Journal: Experimental eye research


HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) versus adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection may lead to one or both diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). The complete interactions of the virus with host cells in both diseases is yet to be determined. This study aims to construct an interaction network for distinct signaling pathways in these diseases based on finding differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HAM/TSP and ATLL. We identified 57 hub genes with higher criteria scores in the primary protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). The ontology-based enrichment analysis revealed following important terms: positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in meiotic cell cycle and positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter by histone modification. The upregulated genes TNF, PIK3R1, HGF, NFKBIA, CTNNB1, ESR1, SMAD2, PPARG and downregulated genes VEGFA, TLR2, STAT3, TLR4, TP53, CHUK, SERPINE1, CREB1 and BRCA1 were commonly observed in all the three enriched terms in HAM/TSP vs. ATLL. The constructed interaction network was then visualized inside a mirrored map of signaling pathways for ATLL and HAM/TSP, so that the functions of hub genes were specified in both diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-03-25
Journal: BMC research notes


Mitofusin-2 is a novel anti-angiogenic factor in pancreatic cancer.
Aberrant expression of mitofusin-2 (MFN2) has been found to be associated with vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study aimed to investigate the expression of MFN2 in pancreatic cancer (PC) and the role of MFN2 in vascular endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis. Protein and mRNA expression of MFN2 and VEGFA were measured. The CCK-8 assay, tube formation assay, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the effects of MFN2 overexpression on HUVEC growth, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Western blot and immunocytochemical staining were conducted to measure alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis regulators and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), angiopoietin-1 gene (ANGPT1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) expression in HUVECs. The results showed that MFN2 levels were significantly decreased in tumor tissues. Contrasting results were observed for VEGFA mRNA levels. MFN2 overexpression inhibited cell growth while promoting the formation of apoptotic bodies in HUVECs. Additionally, MFN2 overexpression enhanced the protein expression of p21 and p27 while attenuating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, VEGFA, VEGFR2, ANGPT1, and TIPM1 in HUVECs. In conclusion, MFN2 expression negatively correlates with VEGFA expression in PC and inhibits endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-05-21
Journal: Journal of gastrointestinal oncology