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Query Topic: intraocular pressure

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elevated intraocular pressure(232)

Antibody and Protein Profiles in Glaucoma: Screening of Biomarkers and Identification of Signaling Pathways.
Glaucoma represents a group of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, constituting the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. To date, chronically elevated intraocular pressure has been identified as the main risk factor and the only treatable symptom. However, there is increasing evidence in the recent literature that IOP-independent molecular mechanisms also play an important role in the progression of the disease. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that glaucoma has an autoimmune component. The main focus nowadays is elucidating glaucoma pathogenesis, finding early diagnostic options and new therapeutic approaches. This review article summarizes the impact of different antibodies and proteins associated with glaucoma that can be detected for example by microarray and mass spectrometric analyzes, which (i) provide information about expression profiles and associated molecular signaling pathways, (ii) can possibly be used as a diagnostic tool in future and, (iii) can identify possible targets for therapeutic approaches.
Publication Date: 2021-12-25
Journal: Biology

optical coherence tomography(108)

Characterization of Retinal Architecture in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 and Correlation with Disease Severity.
Neurodegeneration affects the brain and peripheral nervous system in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). As the retina is also involved, studying the retinal architecture in a cohort of patients could reveal clinically relevant biomarkers. The aim is to investigate retinal architecture in SCA3 to identify potential biomarkers. We evaluated 38 patients with SCA3 and 25 healthy age-matched controls, who underwent visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure measurement, and fundoscopy and macular and peripapillary spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We measured the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness in each quadrant of the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal chart and the macular layer thicknesses in each sector of the inner circle of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (IC-ETDRS) grid. Linear regression analysis was employed to test the associations between retinal parameters and age, disease duration, CAG repeats, and SARA (Scale of the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia) and ICARS (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale) scores in SCA3. In all sectors, except for the temporal quadrant, pRNFL was significantly thinner in SCA3 patients than in controls. Average total macular, ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thicknesses were significantly decreased in SCA3 patients in comparison to controls. The average total macular thickness and the average thicknesses of RNFL, GCL, and IPL negatively correlated with ICARS scores, whereas average GCL and IPL thicknesses negatively correlated with SARA scores. The retinal ganglion cells, their dendrites, and axons are selectively affected in SCA3 patients. The RNFL, GCL, and IPL thicknesses in SD-OCT correlate with the clinical phenotype and represent potential biomarkers for future clinical trials and natural history studies. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Publication Date: 2021-12-23
Journal: Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society

increased intraocular pressure(107)

Ocular manifestation and visual outcomes in herpes zoster ophthalmicus: a prospective study from a tertiary hospital of Eastern India.
To estimate the magnitude of different ocular manifestation in clinically established herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) patients and assessment of the visual outcome after two months of initial examination. An observational prospective study was conducted on 42 clinically diagnosed Tzanck smear positive cases HZO to observe the occurrence and frequency of different ocular manifestation and their visual outcome in 10-month period with 2mo follow up. Full ophthalmological examination using slit lamp, non-contact tonometry, applanation tonometry, direct and indirect ophthalmoscope were performed. Out of 42 patients of HZO, 33 had one or more type of ocular manifestation staring from lid skin involvement to conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic neuritis but no retinal manifestation. More number of HZO cases and ocular manifestation were found with advancement of ages. Young HZO patients were more associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV infected people with HZO infection had more ocular manifestation. Male to female ratio was 2:1 among HZO cases but ocular manifestation occurred more among males. Female with advanced age were involved more. Lid involvement (73.81%), conjunctivitis (69.05%), and keratitis (59.52%) were most common ocular manifestation followed by anterior uveitis (30.95%) and episcleritis (11.90%). Ocular hypertension (42.86%) was associated with almost every ocular manifestation. Among the cases of more than 45 years of age, 9.52% patients acquired 6/6 vision compared to 7.14% patients at and below 45 years of age after 8wk of follow up. The visual outcomes are poor in HZO with advanced age group. Visual outcome of the affected eyes is poor than unaffected eyes. The loss of vision is mainly due to keratitis, anterior uveitis, posterior uveitis, and optic neuritis.
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: International journal of ophthalmology

central corneal thickness(102)

Evaluation of depth perception and association of severity in Glaucoma patients and suspects.
To evaluate depth perception in Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), glaucoma suspects compared to controls and to determine the association between depth perception and severity of glaucoma. This was a hospital based, comparative, cross-sectional study. The ethical clearance was taken from institutional review committee of Institute of Medicine [Reference no.399 (6-11) E There was no differences in age, sex, or best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness (CCT), found among the three groups (POAG, Glaucoma Suspects and Control) respectively. However, there was significant difference in cup disc ratio (CDR) between the groups. Equal number of male and female were there in each group, while in POAG group male to female ratio was 3:2. The mean stereoacuity threshold in control group was 53.5±23.23 seconds of arc with Titmus test and 38.75±18.83 seconds of arc with Frisby stereoacuity test. The difference in threshold was significant between control and glaucoma suspect with Titmus (t=1.991, p=0.05) and with Frisby (t=2.114, p=0.04). The difference was also significant in POAG group by Titmus (t=3.135, p=0.0033) and by Frisby (t=3.014, p=0.004). More so, with increasing severity of glaucoma, the mean threshold of stereopsis increased as seen with both Titmus and Frisby Tests (ANOVA, p < 0.001) CONCLUSION: Primary open angle glaucoma patients and glaucoma suspects, showed significant reduction in depth perception. Decreased stereoacuity was associated with greater glaucomatous visual field loss.
Publication Date: 2021-12-17
Journal: BMC ophthalmology

high intraocular pressure(97)

Protective effect of ultrasound microbubble combined with gross saponins of
To investigate the protective effect of ultrasound microbubble combined with gross saponins of Rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Normal (Group A), high intraocular pressure (IOP, Group B), GSTT (Group C), GSTT + ultrasound (Group D), and GSTT + ultrasound + microbubble destruction (Group E). The high intraocular pressure eye (model eye) was compared to the normal eye (control eye) at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after model establishment. Rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks later to measure the retina thickness using Cirrus OCT, slit lamp photograph, and fundus photography. The retina and optic nerve of rabbits in each group were collected and the stretched retina were prepared for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counting, the optic nerve axon was measured, and a transmission electron microscopy was used. Retina thickness based on Cirrus OCT: mean retinal thickness in Group E was significantly greater than that in Group B, but still thinner than that in Group A. RGCs counts: RGCs counts in Group E were significantly higher than those in Groups B, C, and D but still lower than those in Group A. Quantitative analysis of optic nerve axons: In Group E, the number of optic nerves was increased, diameters of optic nerve axons were decreased, the percentage of optic nerve area occupied by axons was increased, and there were statistically significant differences compared to Groups B, C, and D. Content of GSTT in retina: The content of GSTT in Group E was significantly higher than that in other groups. Observation of the rabbit optic nerves: In Group E, the structure of the myelin sheath of the optic nerve was still intact but less ordered, and the microtubule and microfilament structures in the axons were clear. Combination of the ultrasound microbubble and GSTT can improve the protective effect of GSTT on optic nerve damage in rabbits with ocular hypertension.
Publication Date: 2021-11-05
Journal: Annals of translational medicine

mean intraocular pressure(94)

Twenty-Years of Experience in Childhood Glaucoma Surgery.
To quantify the results of childhood glaucoma treatment over time in a cohort of children with different types of childhood glaucoma. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive cases involving children with primary congenital glaucoma, primary juvenile, and secondary juvenile glaucoma at the Childhood Glaucoma Center, University Medical Center Mainz, Germany from 1995 to 2015 was conducted. The main outcome measure was the long-term development of intraocular pressure. Further parameters such as surgical success, refraction, corneal diameter, axial length, and surgical procedure in children with different types of childhood glaucoma were evaluated. Surgical success was defined as IOP < 21 mmHg in eyes without a need for further intervention for pressure reduction. A total of 93 glaucomatous eyes of 61 childhood glaucoma patients with a mean age of 3.7 ± 5.1 years were included. The overall mean intraocular pressure at first visit was 32.8 ± 10.2 mmHg and decreased to 15.5 ± 7.3 mmHg at the last visit. In the median follow-up time of 78.2 months, 271 surgical interventions were performed (130 of these were cyclophotocoagulations). Many (61.9%) of the eyes that underwent surgery achieved complete surgical success without additional medication. Qualified surgical success (with or without additional medication) was reached by 84.5% of the eyes.
Publication Date: 2021-12-25
Journal: Journal of clinical medicine

acuity intraocular pressure(93)

Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension in a Midwest United States Population.
For patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher intraocular pressure and higher central corneal thickness. Patients with metabolic syndrome were also more likely to have ocular hypertension. To determine whether glaucomatous optic neuropathy, also known as glaucoma, and ocular hypertension are more likely to occur in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients in Olmsted County, MN, USA were identified as having metabolic syndrome based on diagnosis codes, laboratory values, and/or medication use to meet three or more of the five standard criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome: systemic hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and central adiposity defined by increased body mass index. Patients with glaucoma, including primary open angle, low tension, pigment dispersion, and pseudoexfoliation, were identified using diagnostic codes. The charts of patients with glaucoma were individually reviewed to collect visual acuity, intraocular pressure, cup to disc ratio, central corneal thickness, visual field mean deviation, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and treatment of intraocular pressure. Patients with ocular hypertension were separately identified and similarly evaluated. In patients with glaucoma, those with metabolic syndrome had higher intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness compared to those without metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for central corneal thickness, there was no longer a significant difference in intraocular pressure between groups. Metabolic syndrome was also associated with the diagnosis of ocular hypertension, and although central corneal thickness trended higher in patients with metabolic syndrome, it did not attain statistical significance. In Olmsted County, though metabolic syndrome was associated with ocular hypertension and higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma, the results were likely related to a thicker central corneal thickness in this patient population.
Publication Date: 2021-12-04
Journal: Journal of glaucoma

corrected visual acuity(91)

Evaluation of the long-term effect of foldable capsular vitreous bodies in severe ocular rupture.
To evaluate the long-term effect of foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB) in the treatment of severe ocular rupture to provide a practical basis for clinical selection. A total of 26 patients (26 eyes), 23 men and 3 women, with severe ocular rupture who underwent FCVB implantation between March 2018 and September 2018 were retrospectively analysed. All open ocular wounds located in zone III, with preoperative visual acuity grade IV and above (Snellen less than 4/200). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), cornea, anterior chamber, iris, lens, choroid, and retina were evaluated before and after the surgery. The subjective feeling and the location of FCVB were also assessed. The average age of the 26 patients was 36y (20-60y). Postoperative follow-up was from 10 to 14mo. At the end of follow up, BCVA was light perception (LP) in 10 cases, no light perception (NLP) in 13 cases, hand motions (HM) in 3 cases. IOP was 11±5 mm Hg. Corneal degeneration was in 3 cases and corneal endothelial dystrophy was in 7 cases. Shallow anterior chamber was in 8 cases and hyphema was in 8 cases. Organized membrane in the pupil was in 14 cases. Epiphora occurred in 3 cases. FCVB drainage tube exposed in 3 cases. All FCVBs were in their normal location and no rejection occurred. FCVB implantation is a long-term effective treatment and may provide a practical selection for severe ocular rupture.
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: International journal of ophthalmology

postoperative intraocular pressure(57)

Efficacy and safety of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery with phacoemulsification versus non-penetrating glaucoma surgery: a Meta-analysis.
To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) plus phacoemulsification (Phaco-NPGS) and NPGS-alone. We systematically searched various databases and reviewed studies that had evaluated the effects of Phaco-NPGS or NPGS-alone for patients with glaucoma. Primary outcomes included postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and the number of postoperative antiglaucoma medications. Secondary outcomes were the prevalence of complications, incidence of needling or goniopuncture, and surgical success rate. In total, 380 and 424 eyes in NPGS-alone and Phaco-NPGS groups respectively were included. Both postoperative IOP and number of medications were significantly lowered in the Phaco-NPGS group than that in the NPDS-alone group [weighted mean difference (WMD)=-1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.11 to -0.12, Phaco-NPGS superior to NPGS-alone in the reduction of IOP and medications. Phaco-NPGS can be recommended for glaucoma patients with coexisting cataracts owing to its superior efficacy, fewer complications, and postoperative procedures.
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: International journal of ophthalmology

lowering intraocular pressure(55)

Lowering Intraocular Pressure: A Potential Approach for Controlling High Myopia Progression.
High myopia is among the most common causes of vision impairment, and it is mainly characterized by abnormal elongation of the axial length, leading to pathologic changes in the ocular structures. Owing to the close relationship between high myopia and glaucoma, the association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and high myopia progression has garnered attention. However, whether lowering IOP can retard the progression of high myopia is unclear. On reviewing previous studies, we suggest that lowering IOP plays a role in progressive axial length elongation in high myopia, particularly in pathologic myopia, wherein the sclera is more remodeled. Based on the responses of the ocular layers, we further proposed the potential mechanisms. For the sclera, lowering the IOP could inhibit the activation of scleral fibroblasts and then reduce scleral remodeling, and a decrease in the scleral distending force would retard the ocular expansion like a balloon. For the choroid, lowering IOP results in an increase in choroidal blood perfusion, thereby reducing scleral hypoxia and slowing down scleral remodeling. The final effect of these pathways is slowing axial elongation and the development of scleral staphyloma. Further animal and clinical studies regarding high myopia with varied degree of IOP and the changes of choroid and sclera during IOP fluctuation in high myopia are needed to verify the role of IOP in the pathogenesis and progression of high myopia. It is hoped that this may lead to the development of a prospective treatment option to prevent and control high myopia progression.
Publication Date: 2021-11-18
Journal: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

open-angle glaucoma poag(52)

[Laser trials].
This article presents some high-quality and/or frequently cited glaucoma studies. The LiGHT study, which compared selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) with eye drops for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a British study on real-world results after SLT treatment and the ZAP study, which evaluated the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic peripheral iridotomy in suspected bilateral angle closure. The primary endpoint of the LiGHT study was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after 3 years. Furthermore, the costs and cost-effectiveness, disease-specific HRQoL, clinical effectiveness and safety were compiled. The SLT group achieved the target ocular pressure with more visits than the eye drops group. The authors stated that a cost analysis was in favor of the laser group and therefore recommend SLT as a first-line treatment for open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Nevertheless, there are limitations of this trial. The publication by Khawaja et al. on the results after SLT treatment shows that SLT initially has a good effectiveness but this decreases from 70 to 27% after 2 years. The authors also name further limitations of SLT, as its effectiveness depends on the concomitant medication, initial IOP and the severity of glaucoma. The aim of the ZAP trial was to investigate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle closure glaucoma in a Chinese study population. Their results indicate that prophylactic laser iridotomy for suspected angle closure is not to be recommended. This study also has limitations and further studies on this topic are necessary. Im Folgenden stellen wir einige hochwertige und/oder oft zitierte Glaukomstudien vor: die LiGHT-Studie, welche die selektive Lasertrabekuloplastik (SLT) mit IOD(intraokularer Druck)-senkenden Augentropfen für okuläre Hypertonie oder primäres Offenwinkelglaukom (POWG) verglich, eine britische Studie zu Ergebnissen nach SLT-Behandlung und die ZAP-Studie, welche die Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit der prophylaktischen peripheren Iridotomie bei Verdacht auf bilateralen Winkelblock untersuchte. Der primäre Endpunkt der LiGHT-Studie war die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität nach 3 Jahren. Darüber hinaus wurden Kosten und Kosteneffizienz, krankheitsspezifische HRQoL (Health-Related Quality of Life), klinische Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit erhoben. Die SLT-Gruppe erreichte bei mehr Visiten den Zielaugendruck als die Augentropfengruppe. Die Autoren geben an, dass eine Kostenanalyse zugunsten der Lasergruppe ausfällt, und empfehlen daher die SLT als Ersttherapie bei Offenwinkelglaukom und okulärer Hypertonie. Dennoch gibt es Limitierungen dieser Arbeit. Die Publikation von Khawaja et al. zu Ergebnissen nach SLT-Behandlung zeigt, dass die SLT anfänglich eine gute Wirksamkeit aufweist, diese jedoch nach 2 Jahren von 70 auf 27 % abnimmt. Die Autoren nennen weitere Limitierungen der SLT, da ihre Wirksamkeit von der Begleitmedikation, dem anfänglichen IOD und der Schwere des Glaukoms abhängt. Ziel der ZAP-Studie war es, die Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit der prophylaktischen peripheren Laseriridotomie bei primärem Engwinkel in einer chinesischen Studienpopulation zu untersuchen. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass eine prophylaktische periphere Laseriridotomie bei Verdacht auf Winkelblock nicht empfehlenswert ist. Auch diese Studie hat einige Limitierungen. Weitere Studien zu diesem Thema sind notwendig.
Publication Date: 2021-11-10
Journal: Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft

distance visual acuity(51)

Long-term Comparison of Vault and Complications of Implantable Collamer Lens with and without a Central Hole for High Myopia Correction: 5 Years.
To investigate the long-term safety, efficacy, stability, vault, and complications of implantable collamer lens with (ICL V4c) and without (ICL V4) a central hole for correcting high myopia. 78 eyes (40 patients) underwent ICL V4c implantation and 78 eyes (48 patients) underwent ICL V4 implantation were enrolled. They were followed up for 5 years of the uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, spherical equivalent (SE), axial length, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density and vault. The safety indices of the ICL V4c and V4 groups at 5 years were 1.25 ± 0.40 and 1.31 ± 0.40, respectively ( Long-term ICL V4c and ICL V4 implantations are safe, effective, and stable for high myopia correction. ICL V4c can potentially reduce the risk of lens opacification and may be more tolerant to low vault than ICL V4.
Publication Date: 2021-12-14
Journal: Current eye research

intraocular pressure reduction(51)

Weather as a possible risk factor for massive ocular decompression retinopathy: A case report.
Numerous studies described a link between weather phenomena and an increased incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. We report a case of ocular decompression retinopathy with massive premacular haemorrhage secondary to acute intraocular pressure reduction in a patient with acute primary angle closure. At the time of admission, a change in weather conditions occurred with high temperatures and a strong Foehn wind known locally as A healthy 56-year-old man with acute primary angle closure who developed severe ocular decompression retinopathy with large prefoveal subhyaloid haemorrhage after pharmacological treatment was admitted to the hospital. The patient was elected for surgery and underwent vitrectomy with improvement of visual acuity to the baseline vision. This report suggests that, in addition to an abrupt reduction in intraocular pressure as a causative factor, massive ocular decompression retinopathy may be significantly influenced also by environmental factors such as
Publication Date: 2021-11-25
Journal: European journal of ophthalmology

nerve fiber layer(49)

Optical microangiography and progressive ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer loss in primary open angle glaucoma.
To evaluate the association between optical microangiography (OMAG) measurements and progressive ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) loss in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Prospective case-series METHODS: Sixty-three eyes of 38 POAG patients were studied for at least 2 years and with at least 3 optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations. Only those hemifields with mild to moderate functional damage at baseline (106 hemifields) were included in the analysis. OMAG imaging was performed at the baseline visit. Effect of clinical parameters (age, gender, central corneal thickness, presence of disc hemorrhage, mean and fluctuation of intraocular pressure), baseline mean deviation (MD), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness and baseline OMAG measurements (peripapillary and macular perfusion density [PD] and vessel density [VD]) on the rate of change of GCIPL thickness was evaluated using linear mixed models. Average (± standard deviation) MD, quadrant RNFL and sector GCIPL thickness of the analyzed hemifields respectively at baseline were -5.2±2.8 dB, 94.5±20.0 µm, and 72.4±8.7 µm respectively. Peripapillary PD and VD in the quadrant were 43.1±7.0% and 17.0±2.6 mm/mm Lower baseline peripapillary OMAG measurements were significantly associated with a faster rate of GCIPL loss in mild to moderate POAG.
Publication Date: 2021-12-14
Journal: American journal of ophthalmology

raised intraocular pressure(46)

Bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy in a co-occurrence of unilateral iridocorneal endothelial syndrome and chronic angle closure glaucoma.
To report a case of unilateral Iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome- Progressive iris atrophy (PIA) with an overlapping chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG) and to highlight the effect of bilateral Laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in such a co-occurrence. A patient presented to us with bilateral gradual painless progressive diminution of vision. Both eyes (BE) had a clear cornea, shallow peripheral anterior chamber depth, grade 2 nuclear sclerosis, raised intraocular pressure and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In addition, the Left eye (LE) had an irregular anterior chamber, peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) extending to cornea, patchy iris atrophy, subtle corectopia and a low endothelial cell count on specular microscopy. Indentation gonioscopy led to the diagnoses of CACG BE with ICE syndrome- PIA LE. LPI was performed bilaterally. On Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT), there was evident widening of the angle away from PAS in the Right eye as well as in the LE with PIA post LPI. This is a unique case of unilateral PIA with an associated CACG in BE. It is the first case demonstrating the effect of bilateral LPI in such a case scenario. Though not indicated in ICE syndrome, LPI did show short term evidence of significant widening of the angle away from areas of PAS even in the eye with PIA having a limited high PAS and a concurrent primary (chronic) angle closure disease.
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: European journal of ophthalmology

baseline intraocular pressure(42)

An ex vivo model of human corneal rim perfusion organ culture.
The human anterior segment perfusion culture model is a valuable tool for studying the trabecular meshwork (TM) and aqueous humor outflow in glaucoma. The traditional model relies on whole eye globes resulting in high cost and limited availability. Here, we developed a glue-based method which enabled us to use human corneal rims for perfusion culture experiments. Human corneal rim perfusion culture plates were 3D printed. Human corneal rims containing intact TM were attached and sealed to the plate using low viscosity and high viscosity glues, respectively. The human corneal rims were perfused using the constant flow mode, and the pressure changes were recorded using a computerized system. Outflow facility, TM stiffness, and TM morphology were evaluated. When perfused at rates from 1.2 to 3.6 μl/min, the outflow facility was 0.359 ± 0.216 μl/min/mmHg among 10 human corneal rims. The stiffness of the TM in naïve human corneal rim was similar to that of perfusion cultured human corneal rim. Also, the stiffness of TM of corneal rims perfused with dexamethasone was significantly higher than the control. Human corneal rims with glue contamination in the TM could be differentiated by high baseline intraocular pressure as well as high TM stiffness. Histology studies showed that the TM tissues perfused with plain medium appeared normal. We believed that our glued-based method is a useful tool and low-cost alternative to the traditional anterior segment perfusion culture model.
Publication Date: 2021-12-14
Journal: Experimental eye research

retinal ganglion cells(40)

Dietary Antioxidants in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Glaucoma.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma are ophthalmic neurodegenerative diseases responsible for irreversible vision loss in the world population. Only a few therapies can be used to slow down the progression of these diseases and there are no available treatment strategies for reversing the degeneration of the neural retina. In AMD, the pathological process causes the malfunction and damage of the retinal pigmented epithelium and photoreceptors in the macula. In glaucoma, damage of the retinal ganglion cells and their axons is observed and treatment strategies are limited to intraocular pressure lowering. Therefore, other prophylactic and/or therapeutic methods are needed. Oxidative stress is involved in the neurodegenerative process accompanying both AMD and glaucoma; therefore, the use of antioxidant agents would clearly be beneficial, which is supported by the decreased prevalence and progression of AMD in patients adherent to a diet naturally rich in antioxidants. Dietary antioxidants are easily available and their use is based on the natural route of administration. Many preclinical studies both in vitro and using animal models of retinal degeneration showed the efficacy of dietary antioxidants, which was further proved in clinical trials. Resveratrol is beneficial both in AMD and glaucoma animal models, but confirmed only among AMD patients. For AMD, carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids were also proved to be sufficient in preventing neurodegeneration. For glaucoma, coenzyme Q10 and alpha-lipoic acid showed efficacy for decreasing retinal ganglion cell loss and inhibiting the accompanying destructive processes. Interestingly, the benefits of vitamins, especially vitamin E was not confirmed, neither in preclinical nor in clinical studies.
Publication Date: 2021-11-28
Journal: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

intraocular pressure measurements(38)

Differential impact of prostaglandin analogues on agreement of intraocular pressure measurements obtained by Goldmann applanation, rebound, and noncontact tonometry.
To evaluate the effect of topical prostaglandin analogues on agreement of IOP measurements obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), rebound tonometry (RBT), and noncontact tonometry (NCT) in eyes with primary open- angle glaucoma (POAG). Intraocular pressure measurements were obtained using GAT, RBT, and NCT in patients with POAG with or without prostaglandin analogues. The agreement between each tonometry was analysed using Bland-Altman analyses in those with or without prostaglandin analogues. The effect of average IOP on IOP differences was also evaluated. Among a total of 86 subjects included in the study, 44 patients were using prostaglandin analogues. The difference in IOP measured by GAT and RBT was marginally greater in those with (GAT-RBT: - 0.94 ± 1.63 mmHg) prostaglandin analogues than in those without (- 0.33 ± 1.22 mmHg, P = 0.06). The difference in IOP measured by GAT and NCT was significantly greater in the prostaglandin group (GAT-NCT: 2.40 ± 2.89 mmHg) than in the group without prostaglandin analogues (0.41 ± 1.63 mmHg, P < 0.01). While there was no significant relationship between the average of all tonometries and the difference between tonometries in those without prostaglandin analogues, both RBT and NCT underestimated IOP relative to GAT at higher IOP in those using prostaglandin analogues. Intraocular pressure measured by RBT and NCT was similar to that measured by GAT in those without prostaglandin analogues. RBT overestimated and NCT underestimated IOP compared to GAT in those using prostaglandin analogues.
Publication Date: 2021-12-18
Journal: BMC ophthalmology

preoperative intraocular pressure(36)

Non-inferiority of Microhook to Trabectome: Trabectome vs. ab interno Microhook Trabeculotomy Comparative Study (TramTrac Study).
To elucidate the non-inferiority of ab interno microhook trabeculotomy (μTLO) using a recently developed reusable stainless spatula-type microhook device to incise the trabecular meshwork to trabectome (TOM) in terms of the 1-year postoperative outcomes of Japanese patients with glaucoma by means of propensity score analyses. A multicenter retrospective cohort study. We enrolled 553 and 392 patients who underwent TOM and μTLO, respectively, between January 2014 and March 2020 at 10 facilities. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate the propensity score, which indicates the likelihood of treatment assignment (TOM or μTLO). We set the following factors as outcome-related covariates: age, sex, facility, glaucoma disease types, preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma drug score, mean deviation of the Humphrey visual field test and antithrombotic drug use, the presence or absence of combined cataract surgery, and incision range of trabecular meshwork (one or two quadrants). We analyzed four different methods (matching, inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), stratification, and regression adjustment) using the propensity score. We set 15% as the non-inferiority margin based on previous trabectome meta-analysis results. The primary outcome was surgical success at 1 year postoperatively. We defined surgical success as satisfying all three criteria: (1) IOP within 5-21 mmHg; (2) IOP reduction of ≥20% from preoperative IOP; and (3) no additional glaucoma surgery. The 95% confidence interval of risk difference of surgical failure in μTLO in reference to TOM was -12.1 to +9.5% in matching, -12.7 to +11.1% in IPTW, -12.2 to +7.0 in stratification, and -9.7 to +8.1% in regression adjustment, all of which fell within the predetermined non-inferiority margin of 15%. Surgical success of μTLO at 1-year postoperatively was not inferior to that of TOM.
Publication Date: 2021-11-29
Journal: Ophthalmology. Glaucoma

uncontrolled intraocular pressure(34)

The Effectiveness of Propranolol in Managing Hemorrhagic Choroidal and Exudative Retinal Detachment following Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Sturge-Weber Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review.
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a congenital neurological disorder that is characterized by hamartomas involving the skin, brain, and eyes and marked by the presence of the facial port-wine stain, which consequently leads to various ocular complications. Among all ocular comorbidities, glaucoma is the most frequently witnessed in SWS patients with a prevalence of 30%-70%. If glaucoma is refractory to conventional medical management, surgical intervention can be considered. Common complications of glaucoma procedures in SWS are choroidal detachment and suprachoroidal hemorrhage. Moreover, we report a 6-year-old girl, known case of unilateral congenital glaucoma secondary to SWS. Despite being on maximal antiglaucoma drops and undergoing multiple surgical interventions, the patient had uncontrolled intraocular pressure of her right eye. A decision to proceed with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) to the right eye was made. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient developed hemorrhagic choroidal detachment and exudative retinal detachment. A trial of oral propranolol (1.5-2 mg/kg/day) was then initiated for 4 months. After 30 days from oral propranolol course initiation, we started noticing a significant improvement of the hemorrhagic choroidal and exudative retinal detachment. Spontaneously, a marked reduction in subretinal fluid and suprachoroidal hemorrhage was also seen. Thus, the improvement was correlated with the propranolol therapy. Here, we report a significant improvement of the postoperative complications of AGVI in a patient with SWS, following 4 months of oral propranolol course (1.5-2 mg/kg/day). Further studies are needed to determine the dosage, duration, and optimal mechanism by which propranolol works in this situation.
Publication Date: 2021-12-14
Journal: Case reports in ophthalmology

ocular perfusion pressure(33)

Ocular and systemic determinants of perifoveal and macular vessel parameters in healthy African Americans.
To determine the relationship of various systemic and ocular characteristics with perifoveal and macular vessel density in healthy African American eyes. A population-based cross-sectional study of prospectively recruited African Americans ≥40 years of age. Participants underwent 3×3 mm and 6×6 mm macula scans using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), clinical examinations and clinical questionnaires. Participants with glaucoma, severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema were excluded. Custom MATLAB based software quantified vessel area density (VAD) and vessel skeleton density (VSD) in the superficial retinal layer of the macula. Multivariable regression analysis, controlling for inter-eye correlation, was performed to determine systemic and ocular determinants of macular vessel metrics using stepwise selection. Candidate variables included: age, gender, body mass index, history of smoking, history of diabetes, diabetes duration, history of stroke or brain haemorrhage, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, central subfield thickness (CSFT), visual field mean deviation, intraocular pressure, axial length (AL), mean ocular perfusion pressure and signal strength (SS). A total of 2221 OCTA imaged eyes from 1472 participants were included in this study. Reduced perifoveal and macular VAD and VSD were independently associated with longer AL, reduced SS, reduced CSFT and older age. Male gender and lower DBP were also associated with reduced perifoveal and macular VSD. When interpreting OCTA images in a clinical setting, it is important to consider the effects ocular and systemic characteristics may have on the macular microcirculation.
Publication Date: 2021-11-07
Journal: The British journal of ophthalmology

goldmann applanation tonometry(32)

The prophylactic effect of betaxolol 0.5% versus brimonidine 0.2% on IOP elevation after Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy.
Posterior capsule opacification is a common late complication of cataract surgery. Posterior capsule opening with Nd:YAG laser, which is the standard treatment, may cause transient elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). To evaluate the efficacy of betaxolol 0.‌5% compared to brimonidine 0.2%, in prevention of intraocular pressure increase after Nd:YAG Laser posterior capsulotomy. In a double masked randomised clinical trial, 38 eyes from 38 pseudophakic patients over 21 years of age who had significant posterior capsule opacification after phacoemulsification were randomly assigned to receive either betaxolol 0.‌5% (18 eyes) or brimonidine 0.‌2% (20 eyes) one hour before Nd:YAG Laser posterior capsulotomy.‌ Exclusion criteria were: glaucoma or history of glaucoma surgery, active uveitis, active ocular infection, pregnancy, unstable cardiovascular condition and severe asthma and lung diseases. Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry, 1 hour before applying the laser and 4 hours after the laser application. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the baseline mean IOP and the 4-hour post-laser mean IOP. There was a statistically significant decrease in the 4-hour post-laser mean IOP as compared to the baseline mean IOP in each group. The mean IOP change in the betaxolol group, was -2.39 ± 1.79 mm Hg and in the brimonidine group was -4.25 ± 2.20 mm Hg. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.007). None of the patients experienced clinically significant IOP increase (≥5 mm Hg) in either group. Use of a single topical dose of betaxolol 0.5% and brimonidine 0.2%, 1 hour before laser treatment, can prevent significant acute IOP increase after Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, and betaxolol may provide a new alternative for prophylactic use.
Publication Date: 2021-11-11
Journal: Clinical & experimental optometry

central macular thickness(29)

Efficacy of 0.19 mg Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant in Non-infectious Posterior Uveitis Evaluated as Area Under the Curve.
This study reports the outcomes of fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant (FAc, Iluvien This was a retrospective study of patients with NIU-PS and macular thickening undergoing FAc implant at San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). Clinical data, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and central macular thickness (CMT), were collected at the time of FAc administration (baseline) and at 1, 6, and 12 months. The area under the curve (AUC) of the BCVA (AUC Ten eyes of seven patients (60 ± 12 years; 4 male, 57%) were included. The BCVA significantly improved from month 6 (p = 0.03). The CMT improved from month 1 and was persistently lower than baseline until month 12 (p < 0.001). The AUC Better visual acuity at the time of FAc administration was associated with better visual function after FAc. Less severe macular edema correlated with better anatomic response. The FAc implant was a safe option for resolving macular edema secondary to NIU-PS.
Publication Date: 2021-11-18
Journal: Ophthalmology and therapy

endothelial cell count(21)

A Comparative Study of Two Types of Implantation Surgery Methods for Implantable Collamer Lenses.
To investigate the effects of two different surgical methods of implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation on the operation time, visual outcomes, corneal endothelial cell count, and intraocular pressure (IOP). This was a contralateral eye comparison study, a total of 192 eyes from 96 patients were included, and the two eyes from the same patient were randomly assigned to two groups (group 1 and group 2, with 96 eyes in each group). In group 1, after making the corneal incision, ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs) were first injected into the anterior chamber followed by ICL implantation. In group 2, the ICL was first implanted into the anterior chamber followed by OVDs injection. The operation time, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, spherical equivalent, corneal endothelial cell count, and IOP were recorded and analyzed. The operative time in group 1 was significantly longer than that in group 2 ( The two ICL implantation methods had similar clinical outcomes and effects on the corneal endothelial cell count. Additionally, the implantation of an intraocular lens prior to injecting OVDs reduces the operation time and lowers the rate of IOP rise in the early postoperative period, making it safe and effective for ICL implantation.
Publication Date: 2021-12-01
Journal: Journal of ophthalmology

intraocular lens(204)

Gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy is an effective surgical treatment for uveitic glaucoma.
To assess the efficacy and safety of gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) in uveitic glaucoma (UG). A retrospective interventional case series in which 33 eyes of 32 patients with UG underwent GATT with or without concomitant cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation (CE/IOL) at three Canadian treatment centres from October 2015 to 2020. The main outcome measure was surgical success defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤18 mm Hg and at least one of the following: IOP within one mm Hg of baseline on fewer glaucoma medications as compared with baseline or a 30% IOP reduction from baseline on the same or fewer medications. Secondary outcome measures were IOP, medication usage and surgical complications. Mean patient age (mean±SD) was 49±16 years (range: 18-79) and 44% were female. GATT was performed as a standalone procedure in 52% of cases and the remainder were combined with CE/IOL. Surgical success was achieved in 71.8% (SE: 8.7%) of cases. Mean preoperative IOP (±SD) was 31.4±10.8 mm Hg on a median of 4 medications. 59% of patients were on oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) prior to surgery. After 1 year, average IOP was 13.8 mm Hg on a median 1 medication, with 6% of patients being on oral CAIs. No sight threatening complications occurred during surgery or follow-up. GATT is an effective surgical strategy in the management of UG. This microinvasive conjunctival-sparing procedure should be considered early in these patients.
Publication Date: 2021-12-22
Journal: The British journal of ophthalmology

anterior chamber(168)

Aphakic Pupillary Block by an Intact Anterior Vitreous Membrane after Total Lens Extraction by Phacoemulsification.
An 85-year-old Japanese woman with acute primary angle closure in her right eye underwent cataract extraction. Because of the weakness of the Zinn's zonules, all of the lens tissue including the lens capsule was removed by phacoemulsification. Because of the absence of vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber, vitrectomy was not performed. Nine days postoperatively, acute angle closure due to pupillary block by an anterior vitreous membrane developed. To resolve the pupillary block, anterior vitrectomy was performed on the same day. Postoperatively, her symptoms resolved, the anterior chamber deepened, and the intraocular pressure normalized. Although rare, acute angle closure due to pupillary block by an anterior vitreous membrane can occur after total lens extraction with phacoemulsification. If no vitreous prolapse occurs with total lens extraction, an intentional hyaloidotomy using an anterior vitreous cutter or iridectomy should be considered to avoid secondary angle closure.
Publication Date: 2021-12-25
Journal: Case reports in ophthalmology

acuity bcva(150)

Systemic prednisolone versus topical tranexamic acid for prevention of rebleeding in patients with traumatic hyphema: A randomized clinical trial.
To compare the efficacy of systemic prednisolone and topical tranexamic acid (TA) on the rate of rebleeding in patients with macroscopic traumatic hyphema (MTH). In a randomized clinical trial, patients with MTH were randomized to receive oral prednisolone (OP group) or topical TA drops (TA group). Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations including slit lamp examination and fundoscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and check for rebleeding were performed in all cases. Ninety eyes of 90 patients were included, and 45 patients were allocated into each group. Age, sex, IOP, BCVA and grade of hyphema were not different between groups. Rebleeding in the TA group (2 patients, 4.4%) occurred less frequently than in the OP group (7 patients, 15.6%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.081). However, there was a significant difference between the two groups over time in terms of absorption of the MTH (P<0.001). Topical TA appears promising in the management of macroscopic traumatic hyphema.
Publication Date: 2021-12-25
Journal: Journal francais d'ophtalmologie

visual field(134)

[Changes in quality of life of glaucoma patients over a period of 8 years].
The quality of life (QoL) of glaucoma patients is affected by many factors. In particular, patient activity is compromised by the chronicity of the disease. In this study, we evaluated the change in QoL and its impact on activities over a period of 8 years. A total of 43 patients with glaucomatous optic nerve damage were enrolled in this retrospective longitudinal observational study. Changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and visual field (VF) parameters, number of IOP-lowering eye drops and IOP-lowering surgery were assessed over a period of 8 years. Assessment of QoL was obtained by patient-reported visual functioning using the Rasch-calibrated glaucoma activity limitation 9 (GAL-9) questionnaire at baseline and after 8 years. The BCVA of the better eye changed from 0.16 ± 0.22 to 0.21 ± 0.14 logMAR, whereas there was a change from 0.27 ± 0.25 to 1.39 ± 1.1 logMAR in the worse eye. The VF parameter mean deviation (MD) of the better eye changed from -2.39 ± 4.55 dB to -4.83 ± 5.09 dB, while it altered significantly from -8.86 ± 5.86 dB to -12.05 ± 8.07 dB in the worse eye. Values of GAL‑9 changed from -2.39 ± 2.14 to -1.38 ± 2.78 (in the Rasch analysis, more negative values account for a better QoL), according to a sum score change from 79.17 ± 19.63 to 69.22 ± 27.95. This change showed a highly significant correlation with the MD at follow-up, especially with the worse eye (r = 0.43). The impact of the MD at follow-up on QoL could also be well predicted in a regression model. The QoL of glaucoma patients decreased significantly over time. Changes in the VF, particularly of the worse eye, have a great impact on reported functioning. Careful treatment, especially of the eye with greater glaucomatous damage, is mandatory. HINTERGRUND: Die Lebensqualität von Glaukompatienten wird von vielen Faktoren beeinflusst. Insbesondere die Aktivität wird durch die chronische Erkrankung beeinträchtigt. Diese Studie evaluiert Veränderungen der Lebensqualität über Aktivitätseinschränkungen in einem Zeitraum von 8 Jahren. Dreiundvierzig Patienten mit glaukomatösem Papillenschaden wurden in diese retrospektive longitudinale Beobachtungsstudie eingeschlossen. Veränderungen des Intraokulardrucks (IOD) und der bestkorrigierten Sehschärfe (BCVA) sowie Gesichtsfeldparameter, Anzahl der den Intraokulardruck (IOD) senkenden Medikation und der durchgeführten augendrucksenkenden Operationen wurden über einen Zeitraum von 8 Jahren erhoben. Die Lebensqualität und Aktivitätseinschränkung der Patienten wurden mit dem Rasch-kalibrierten Fragebogen „Glaucoma Activity Limitation 9“ (GAL-9) bei Einschluss und 8 Jahre später erhoben. Die Sehschärfe des besseren Auges änderte sich von 0,16 ± 0,22 auf 0,21 ± 0,14 logMAR, die des schlechteren Auges von 0,27 ± 0,25 auf 1,39 ± 1,1 logMAR. Die mittlere Defekttiefe im Gesichtsfeld („mean deviation“ [MD]) des besseren Auges entwickelte sich von −2,39 ± 4,55 dB auf −4,83 ± 5,09 dB, die des schlechteren Auges von −8,86 ± 5,86 dB auf −12,05 ± 8,07 dB. Die Werte des kalibrierten GAL‑9 zeigten eine Veränderung von −2,39 ± 2,14 auf −1,38 ± 2,78 (negativere Werte in der spezifischen Rasch-Analyse bedeuten eine bessere Lebensqualität), was im Summenscore einer Änderung des Gesamtwertes von 79,17 ± 19,63 auf 69,22 ± 27,95 entspricht. Diese Veränderungen korrelierten signifikant mit der MD in der Folgeuntersuchung nach 8 Jahren, insbesondere am schlechteren Auge (r = 0,43). Auch in einer Regressionsanalyse konnte der Einfluss der MD auf die Entwicklung der Lebensqualität gut vorhergesagt werden. Die Lebensqualität bei an Glaukom erkrankten Patienten nimmt im Laufe der Zeit signifikant ab. Veränderungen des Gesichtsfeldes, insbesondere am schlechteren Auge, haben einen großen Einfluss. Sorgfältige Therapie, gerade des Auges mit ausgeprägterem glaukomatösem Schaden, ist daher von großer Wichtigkeit.
Publication Date: 2021-12-04
Journal: Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft

blood pressure(110)

Ankle-brachial index and ocular diseases in a Russian population.
To assess potential associations between the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) and ocular disorders. In the population-based cross-sectional Russian Ural Eye and Medical Study including 5,899 (80.5%) out of 7328 eligible participants aged 40+ years, the participants underwent a series of ocular and medical examinations including measurement of ABI. Blood pressure measurements of both arms and ankles were available for 3187 (54.0%) individuals. The mean ABI was 1.26 ± 0.19 (median:1.20; range: 0.61, 2.20). In multivariate analysis, a higher ABI was associated with younger age (P < 0.001; non-standardized regression coefficient B: -0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.002, -0.001), female sex (P < 0.001; B: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.04), lower body mass index (P < 0.001; B: -0.004; 95% CI: -0.006, -0.003), lower waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.01; B: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.02), lower glucose serum concentration (P = 0.008; B: -0.005; 95% CI: -0.009, -0.001), lower prevalence of arterial hypertension (P < 0.001; B: -0.14; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.12), higher mean systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001; B: 0.003; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.003), and higher prevalence of any alcohol consumption (P < 0.001; B: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.04). In that multivariate model, prevalence of glaucoma (P = 0.67) as a whole, open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.86) and angle-closure glaucoma (P = 0.54), stage of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (P = 0.57), prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.88), prevalence and stage of diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.30, and P = 0.29, respectively), nuclear cataract (P = 0.32, and P = 0.41, resp.), cortical cataract (P = 0.33, and P = 0.92, resp.), subcapsular cataract (P = 0.74 and P = 0.60, resp.), and pseudoexfoliation (P = 0.44 and P = 0.47, resp.), intraocular pressure (P = 0.52), axial length (P = 0.20), and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (P = 0.55) were not significantly associated with the ABI. In this ethnically mixed population from Russia, none of the major ocular diseases was associated with ABI suggesting that subclinical atherosclerosis is not markedly associated with the aetiology of these ocular disorders.
Publication Date: 2021-12-01
Journal: Eye (London, England)

optic nerve(102)

Effects of Acute Intracranial Pressure Changes on Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Humans and Pig Model.
The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a layer of fenestrated connective tissue tethered to the posterior sclera across the scleral canal in the optic nerve head (ONH). It is located at the interface of intracranial and intraocular compartments and is exposed to intraocular pressure (IOP) anteriorly and intracranial pressure (ICP) or Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure (CSFP) posteriorly. We hypothesize that the pressure difference across LC will determine LC position and meridional diameter of scleral canal (also called Bruch's membrane opening diameter; BMOD). We enrolled 19 human subjects undergoing a medically necessary lumbar puncture (LP) to lower CSFP and 6 anesthetized pigs, whose ICP was increased in 5 mm Hg increments using a lumbar catheter. We imaged ONH using optical coherence tomography and measured IOP and CSFP/ICP at baseline and after each intervention. Radial tomographic ONH scans were analyzed by two independent graders using ImageJ, an open-source software. The following ONH morphological parameters were obtained: BMOD, anterior LC depth and retinal thickness. We modeled effects of acute CSFP/ICP changes on ONH morphological parameters using ANOVA (human study) and generalized linear model (pig study). For 19 human subjects, CSFP ranged from 5 to 42 mm Hg before LP and 2 to 19.4 mm Hg after LP. For the six pigs, baseline ICP ranged from 1.5 to 9 mm Hg and maximum stable ICP ranged from 18 to 40 mm Hg. Our models showed that acute CSFP/ICP changes had no significant effect on ONH morphological parameters in both humans and pigs. We conclude that ONH does not show measurable morphological changes in response to acute changes of CSFP/ICP. Proposed mechanisms include compensatory and opposing changes in IOP and CSFP/ICP and nonlinear or nonmonotonic effects of IOP and CSFP/ICP across LC.
Publication Date: 2021-12-14
Journal: Current eye research

axial length(92)

Comparing the Differences in Slowing Myopia Progression by Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A Scleral Cross-linking before and after Lens-induced Myopia in Guinea Pigs.
To compare the effectiveness and differences in slowing myopia progression in Guinea pigs by riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) scleral cross-linking (sCXL) before and after lens-induced myopia (LIM). Forty 4-week-old Guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): CXL-A, CXL-B, LIM, and Control groups. The right eyes in CXL-A, CXL-B, LIM groups were treated with -10.00 D lenses from 4 to 10-week old and the left eyes were untreated. In CXL-A and CXL-B groups, riboflavin/UVA sCXL was performed on the right eyes at 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age, respectively. Both eyes were untreated in Control group. The intraocular pressure (IOP), the axial length (AXL), and the refraction were measured in vivo at 4, 8, and 10 weeks of age. At 10 weeks of age, the right eyes were enucleated for the tensile test and transmission electron microscopy observations. The myopia has been successfully induced in LIM and CXL-B groups during 4-8 weeks. In CXL-A group, the growth rate of AXL and myopic refraction was markedly inhibited during 4-8 weeks and the inhibitory effects diminished during 8-10 weeks. During 8-10 weeks, the growth rate of AXL and myopic refraction in CXL-B were marked suppressed. At 10 weeks of age, the myopia refraction was lower and the AXL was shorter in CXL-A group in comparison to CXL-B group. The IOP was not significantly different among the 4 groups of eyes at 4, 8, and 10 weeks of age. The scleral stiffness, the fibril diameters, and the fibril density of the sclera were significantly increased in CXL-A and CXL-B groups compared to LIM group. Riboflavin/UVA sCXL administrated before and after the myopia modeling could both slow the myopia progression in Guinea pigs. The before-myopia preventative sCXL showed lower myopic refraction in the same age comparison between the cross-linked groups. The effect of riboflavin/UVA sCXL might reduce over time and the long-term effect should be further investigated. This sCXL intervention might control the ultrastructure alterations of the sclera during the myopia remodeling.
Publication Date: 2021-12-23
Journal: Current eye research

iop elevation(54)

A multi-scale/multi-physics model for the theoretical study of the vascular configuration of retinal capillary plexuses based on OCTA data.
The retinal tissue is highly metabolically active and is responsible for translating the visual stimuli into electrical signals to be delivered to the brain. A complex vascular structure ensures an adequate supply of blood and oxygen, which is essential for the function and survival of the retinal tissue. To date, a complete understanding of the configuration of the retinal vascular structures is still lacking. Optical coherence tomography angiography has made available a huge amount of imaging data regarding the main retinal capillary plexuses, namely the superficial capillary plexuses (SCP), intermediate capillary plexuses (ICP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP). However, the interpretation of these data is still controversial. In particular, the question of whether the three capillary plexuses are connected in series or in parallel remains a matter of debate. In this work, we address this question by utilizing a multi-scale/multi-physics mathematical model to quantify the impact of the two hypothesized vascular configurations on retinal hemodynamics and oxygenation. The response to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is also simulated depending on whether the capillary plexuses are connected in series or in parallel. The simulation results show the following: (i) in the in series configuration, the plexuses exhibit a differential response, with DCP and ICP experiencing larger pressure drops than SCP; and (ii) in the in parallel configuration, the blood flow redistributes uniformly in the three plexuses. The different vascular configurations show different responses also in terms of oxygen profiles: (i) in the in series configuration, the outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer (INL) are those most affected by CRVO and IOP elevation; and (ii) in the in parallel configuration the INL and ganglion cell layer are those most affected. The in series results are consistent with studies on paracentral acute middle maculopathy, secondary to CRVO and with studies on IOP elevation, in which DCP and ICP and the retinal tissues surrounding them are those most affected by ischemia. These findings seem to suggest that the in series configuration better describes the physiology of the vascular retinal capillary network in health and disease.
Publication Date: 2021-12-02
Journal: Mathematical medicine and biology : a journal of the IMA

iop -lowering(48)

One-Year Efficacy and Safety of the PAUL Glaucoma Implant Using a Standardized Surgical Protocol.
The PAUL Glaucoma Implant is an effective intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering device with an acceptable safety profile. Its design as a nonvalved device with a small tube diameter using a vicryl ligation suture around the tube that is posteriorly reabsorbed instead of an ab luminal stent makes it an option in cases selected for glaucoma drainage device implantation. The aim was to determine the 1-year efficacy and safety of PAUL Glaucoma Implant using a uniform, standardized surgical procedure. Retrospective, cohort study. Patient charts were screened between December 2018 and January 2020, with inclusion requiring a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Primary outcome was IOP-lowering at 12 months, with surgical success defined as ≤18 mm Hg and at least 30% reduction and higher than 5 mm Hg. Absolute success was achieved if no IOP-lowering medication was needed and qualified success if otherwise. Safety outcomes were also analyzed. A standardized protocol was followed in all cases, which included mitomycin C application and 1 vicryl ligation of the tube. A total of 24 eyes from 21 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Median patient age at time of surgery was 42 years (range: 1 to 76 y). IOP decreased from 31.4 (10.0) mm Hg in preoperative period to 12.5 (4.3) mm Hg in the last follow-up (P<0.001). Qualified success criteria were fulfilled by 75% of cases, while absolute success was 33%. The mean number of IOP-lowering drugs used before surgery was 3.0 and 0.9 at the 12-month visit (P<0.001). No postoperative hypotony requiring intervention was recorded. PAUL Glaucoma Implant appears to be a safe and effective glaucoma drainage implant for the treatment of moderate and advanced glaucoma.
Publication Date: 2021-12-22
Journal: Journal of glaucoma

statistically significant(46)

Effect of pupil dilation on intraocular pressure in preterm and term infants.
To evaluate the effect of pupil dilation on intraocular pressure in preterm and term newborns. This prospective study involved 55 eyes of 28 preterm infants and 38 eyes of 20 term infants. The infants were divided into two groups according to their gestational ages at birth as follows: preterm group, <37 weeks and term group, ≥37 weeks. Pupil dilation was attained with tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 2.5%. Intraocular pressure measurements were performed with Icare PRO (Icare Finland Oy, Helsinki, Finland) before and after pupil dilation. A paired t test was used to compare the measurements before and after pupil dilation. The mean intraocular pressure change was -1.04 ± 3.03 mmHg (6.20/-11.40 mmHg) in the preterm group and -0.39 ± 2.81 mmHg (4.60/-9.70 mmHg) in the term group. A statistically significant difference in intraocular pressure was observed only in the preterm group after pupil dilation (p=0.01). An unexpected alteration in intraocular pressure in newborns may occur after pupil dilation, especially in preterm infants.
Publication Date: 2021-12-02
Journal: Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia

thickness cct(43)

[Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in children with congenital glaucoma].
Purpose - to determine the values of central corneal thickness (CCT) in children depending on the level of intraocular pressure (IOP) and the stage of congenital glaucoma (CG). Clinical studies were carried out in the eye department of the clinic at the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute. The study involved 18 patients (36 eyes) aged 9 to 11 years (mean age 9.3±1.6 years) with confirmed diagnosis of CG. All patients underwent basic ophthalmologic examination prior to surgical and conservative treatment. In addition to basic methods, axial eye length and CCT were determined using an automatic non-contact tonometer/pachymeter manufactured by NIDEK (USA). Analysis of the obtained data showed that in initial, moderate and advanced stages of glaucoma, the CCT values were significantly lower than the age norm values. This indicates stretching of the fibrous capsule and thinning of the cornea in glaucoma. In terminal stage CG, the CCT values practically did not differ from the age norm, but were higher than in initial, moderate and advanced stages of the disease. The noted thickening of the corneal membrane in terminal stage may be explained by edema of the corneal tissue as a result of elevated IOP. The age norm values of CCT should be taken into account when characterizing the severity of glaucomatous process in children. Compared to the age norm, the cornea is significantly thinner in children aged 9 to 11 years with initial, moderate and advanced stages of CG, and becomes significantly thicker in terminal stage, which is associated with edema caused by elevated IOP. Определить показатели центральной толщины роговицы (ЦТР) у детей в зависимости от уровня внутриглазного давления (ВГД) и стадии врожденной инфантильной глаукомы. Клинические исследования проведены в офтальмологическом отделении клиники Ташкентского педиатрического медицинского института. Обследовано 18 больных (36 глаз) в возрасте от 9 до 11 лет (9,3±1,6 года) с установленным диагнозом врожденной инфантильной глаукомы (ВИГ). Всем пациентам проводили стандартное офтальмологическое обследование до хирургического и консервативного лечения. В дополнение к стандартным методикам проводили определение величины переднезадней оси глазного яблока, измерение ЦТР на автоматическом бесконтактном тонометре-пахиметре фирмы NIDEK (США). Анализ полученных данных показал: при начальной, развитой и далекозашедшей стадиях глаукомы показатели ЦТР оказались достоверно ниже соответствующих возрастных значений. Это свидетельствует о растяжении фиброзной капсулы и истончении роговицы при глаукоме. При терминальной стадии заболевания показатели ЦТР практически не отличались от возрастной нормы, но были выше, чем при начальной, развитой и далекозашедшей стадиях ВИГ. Отмеченное утолщение корнеальной оболочки при терминальной стадии, возможно, объясняется отеком роговичной ткани вследствие повышенного ВГД. Для объективной характеристики тяжести глаукомного процесса у детей необходимо учитывать возрастную норму ЦТР. У детей в возрасте от 9 до 11 лет при начальной, развитой и далекозашедшей стадиях ВИГ роговица достоверно истончается по сравнению с возрастной нормой и достоверно утолщается при терминальной стадии, что связано с отеком вследствие повышения ВГД.
Publication Date: 2021-11-03
Journal: Vestnik oftalmologii

meshwork tm(42)

Characterizing the metabolic profile of dexamethasone treated human trabecular meshwork cells.
The trabecular meshwork (TM) is the leading site of aqueous humor outflow in the eye and plays a critical role in maintaining normal intraocular pressure. When the TM fails to maintain normal intraocular pressure, glaucoma may develop. Mitochondrial damage has previously been found in glaucomatous TM cells; however, the precise metabolic activity of glaucomatous TM cells has yet to be quantitatively assessed. Using dexamethasone (Dex) treated primary human TM cells to model glaucomatous TM cells, we measure the respiratory and glycolytic activity of Dex-treated TM cells with an extracellular flux assay. We found that Dex-treated TM cells had quantifiably altered metabolic profiles, including increased spare respiratory capacity and ATP production rate from oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, we propose that reversing or preventing these metabolic changes may represent an avenue for future research.
Publication Date: 2021-12-14
Journal: Experimental eye research

iop reduction(39)

In Situ Gelling Electrospun Ocular Films Sustain the Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effect of Timolol Maleate: In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and Pharmacodynamic Assessment.
Most common intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction regimens for the management of glaucoma include the topical use of eye drops, a dosage form that is associated with short residence time at the site of action, increased dosing frequency, and reduced patient compliance. In situ gelling nanofiber films comprising poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poloxamer 407 were fabricated via electrospinning for the ocular delivery of timolol maleate (TM), aiming to sustain the IOP-lowering effect of the β-blocker, compared to conventional eye drops. The electrospinning process was optimized, and the physicochemical properties of the developed formulations were thoroughly investigated. The fiber diameters of the drug-loaded films ranged between 123 and 145 nm and the drug content between 5.85 and 7.83% w/w. Total in vitro drug release from the ocular films was attained within 15 min following first-order kinetics, showing higher apparent permeability (
Publication Date: 2021-12-09
Journal: Molecular pharmaceutics

iop control(39)

Intraocular Pressure Control Following Phacoemulsification in Eyes with Pre-existing Aurolab Aqueous Drainage Implant (AADI).
To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP) control after phacoemulsification in adult glaucomatous eyes with a functioning non-valved Aurolab Aqueous Drainage Implant (AADI) compared to eyes that did not have cataract extraction post AADI. In this retrospective study, we reviewed records of 47 patients (47 eyes) who had a clear-corneal phacoemulsification after AADI placement with a minimum of 2 years of follow up. The control group included 89 patients (89 eyes) who had a functional AADI at 1 year, minimum of 3 years of follow up post AADI implantation, and no cataract extraction. The main outcome measure was failure (IOP >21▒mmHg or increased by >20% from pre-phacoemulsification level requiring at least 1 additional glaucoma medication, IOP ≤5▒mmHg, reoperation for glaucoma, or loss of light perception vision). The median interval between AADI and phacoemulsification was 11.5 months (range: 4-68▒mo), and the mean follow up time after phacoemulsification was 35.6±6.4 months. The cumulative probability of failure was 14% (95% CI=6-31%) in the phaco group and 6% (95% C I=3-13%) in the control group at 2-years (P=0.11). Mean IOP was reduced from 16.5±4.5▒mmHg preoperatively to 15.4±4.7▒mmHg at 2 years after phacoemulsification (P=0.10). Mean LogMAR visual acuity improved from 1.1±0.6 preoperatively to 0.6±0.7 at 2 years after phacoemulsification (P<0.001). In eyes with a pre-existing AADI, phacoemulsification resulted in visual improvement without a significant rise in IOP or increased risk of AADI failure after 2 years follow up.
Publication Date: 2021-10-11
Journal: Journal of glaucoma

21 mmhg(38)

The influence of etiology on surgical outcomes in neovascular glaucoma.
The authors sought to evaluate visual outcomes in patients with varying etiologies of neovascular glaucoma (NVG), who were treated with glaucoma drainage devices (GDD). This was a retrospective case series of patients at a large academic teaching institution who had surgical intervention for neovascular glaucoma between September 2011 and May 2019. Eyes were included if there was documented neovascularization of the iris/angle with an intraocular pressure (IOP) > 21 mmHg at presentation. Eyes must also have been treated with surgical intervention that included a GDD. Primary outcome measure was visual acuity at the 1-year post-operative visit. Secondary outcome measure was qualified success after surgery defined by: pressure criteria (5 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), no re-operation for elevated IOP, and no loss of LP vision. One hundred twenty eyes met inclusion criteria. 61.7% had an etiology of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), 23.3% had retinal vein occlusions (RVO), and the remaining 15.0% suffered from other etiologies. Of patients treated with GDD, eyes with PDR had better vision compared to eyes with RVO at final evaluation (p = 0.041). There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.027) in the mean number of glaucoma medications with Ahmed eyes (n = 70) requiring 1.9 medications and Baerveldt eyes (n = 46) requiring 1.3 medications at final evaluation. In our study, many patients with NVG achieved meaningful vision, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and IOP control after GDD. Outcomes differed between patients with PDR and RVO in favor of the PDR group. Different GDD devices had similar performance profiles for VA and IOP outcomes. Direct prospective comparison of Baerveldt, Ahmed, and cyclophotocoagulation represents the next phase of discovery.
Publication Date: 2021-12-22
Journal: BMC ophthalmology

1 week(35)

Changing trend in the morphology of cataracts at a tertiary eye care centre in South India due to COVID-19-pandemic related national lockdown.
To study the changing trends in the morphology of cataracts at a tertiary eye care center in South India due to COVID-19 pandemic-related national lockdown. A retrospective study conducted at a tertiary eye care center in Andhra Pradesh state of South India, which included 1724 patients (1753 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery at our center during April 2019-July 2019 (1298 eyes of 1271 patients) and April 2020-July 2020 (455 eyes of 453 patients). Factors studied included preoperative lens status, associated phacodonesis or subluxation, pupil size, other eye lens status, associated retinal problems, glaucoma, and complications during surgery. Postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal clarity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and disc status at postoperative day 1, 1 week, and 1-month visits were compared. A significantly lower proportion of nuclear sclerosis (decreased from 83.2% in last year before lockdown to 55.2% during lockdown) and significantly higher proportions of mature, brown, or black cataract and phacomorphic, phacolytic, or Morgagnian cataract (increased from 15.5% in last year before lockdown to 43.8% during lockdown) were observed. The proportion of small-incision cataract surgery decreased significantly (from 63.2% to 57.4%), whereas the proportion of phacoemulsification increased significantly (from 35.9% to 41.5%) during lockdown as compared to last year. A significantly higher proportion of eyes with small pupils and association with retinal pathology were also observed during the lockdown. During the national lockdown, there was a shift from nuclear sclerosis grade toward mature, brown, black grade of cataracts. In addition, the proportion of small-incision cataract surgery decreased significantly whereas the proportion of phacoemulsification increased significantly during the lockdown. More number of cataracts with small pupils and associated retinal pathology were observed during the lockdown.
Publication Date: 2021-11-28
Journal: Indian journal of ophthalmology

iop measurements(34)

Long-term changes in ocular rigidity following scleral buckling for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
To investigate the long-term effect of scleral buckling on corneal biomechanics and the effect of change of scleral properties on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. This is a prospective case series, patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment prepared for scleral buckling were included. Goldmann applanation tonometry was used to measure IOP (GAT IOP). Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) was used to measure corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), goldmann-corrected IOP (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) preoperatively, and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Thirty-three eyes included in the final analysis, with an average age 38.4 ± 16.2 years. CH and CRF decreased significantly at first, third, sixth months post-scleral buckling; however, this effect decreased with time as follows; preoperative: 8.9 ± 1.5 and 8.5 ± 2.1, first month: 6.8 ± 1.6 and 7.1 ± 1.8 (P value = 0.00, 0.002), third month: 7.8 ± 1.5 and 7.6 ± 1.6 (P value = 0.001, 0.008), and sixth month: 7.7 ± 1.3 and 7.6 ± 1.7 (P value = 0.002, 0.055). IOP cc was 19.3 ± 3.6, 17.1 ± 4, and 17.6 ± 2.9 at 1, 3, and 6 months, and these readings were significantly higher than GAT (13.6 ± 7.6, 12.4 ± 5.1, and 12.1 ± 2.9, P values = 0.00) and IOPg (14.9 ± 3.6, 13.5 ± 4.1, and 13.9 ± 3.5, P values = 0.00). The change in CH at each visit is correlated with the difference between the IOPcc and GAT measurements. The conventional Goldmann applanation tonometry underestimates post buckle IOP measurements due corneal biomechanics changes. ORA might be an alternative and accurate method of measurement; however, further investigation is warranted.
Publication Date: 2021-11-25
Journal: International ophthalmology

field vf(27)

Association of the CYP39A1 G204E Genetic Variant with Increased Risk of Glaucoma and Blindness in Patients with Exfoliation Syndrome.
Carriers of functionally deficient mutations in the CYP39A1 gene have been recently reported to have a 2-fold increased risk of exfoliation syndrome (XFS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of blindness and related clinical phenotypes of XFS patients carrying the loss-of-function CYP39A1 G204E mutation in comparison with XFS patients without any CYP39A1 mutation. Retrospective case study. A total of 35 patients diagnosed with XFS carrying the CYP39A1 G204E mutation and 150 XFS patients without any CYP39A1 mutation who were randomly selected from the Japanese XFS cohort. Two-sided Fisher exact test with an alpha level < 0.05 was used to estimate the significance of the calculated odds ratio (OR) for all categorical measures. Comparisons between groups of subjects were performed using linear mixed effect models with group as random effect and taking possible dependence between eyes within a subject into account. Primary analysis compared the incidence of blindness (defined as visual acuity [VA] < 0.05 decimal), prevalence of exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), history of glaucoma surgery, and indices of glaucoma severity such as visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD), intraocular pressure (IOP), and vertical cup-disc ratio (CDR) between CYP39A1 G204E carriers and those without any CYP39A1 mutation. The overall risk for blindness was significantly higher in XFS patients carrying the CYP39A1 G204E variant (10/35 [28.6%]) compared with XFS patients without any CYP39A1 mutations (8/150 [5.4%]; odds ratio [OR], 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7-20.2]; P < 0.001). A higher proportion of XFS patients with the CYP39A1 G204E mutation (23/35 [65.7%]) had evidence of XFG in at least 1 eye compared with the comparison group (41/150 [27.3%]; OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.4-11.4]; P < 0.0001). Significantly higher peak IOP, larger vertical CDR, and worse VF MD were also found in CYP39A1 G204E variant carriers (P < 0.001). Additionally, patients with the CYP39A1 G204E mutation (18/35 [51.4%]) required more laser or glaucoma surgical interventions compared with those without any CYP39A1 mutation (32/150 [21.3%], P < 0.001). Patients with XFS carrying the CYP39A1 G204E mutation had significantly increased risk of blindness, higher occurrence of XFG, and more severe glaucoma compared with patients with XFS without any CYP39A1 mutation.
Publication Date: 2021-11-12
Journal: Ophthalmology

layer rnfl(27)

Short-term effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on IOP, RNFL thickness, and the optic nerve head blood flow measured by OCTA.
To study the influence of weight reduction after bariatric surgery on the intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and blood flow of optic nerve head by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This prospective observational cohort study included 60 obese patients. Body mass index (BMI), IOP, RNFL, and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, rim area, and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density were assessed before and 3 months after bariatric surgery. The BMI and the IOP showed significant postoperative reduction to 40.45 ± 4.3 kg/m No significant effect of bariatric surgery on the RNFL thickness and the optic nerve head blood flow measured by OCTA despite a significant IOP reduction 3 months post-surgical. OCTA can be a useful tool to assess the short-term influence of significant weight reduction on the retinal microcirculation. Despite a significant BMI and IOP reduction following bariatric surgery in obese patients, the vascular flow of the ONH, measured by OCTA, and the RNFL thickness were not significantly affected. The former might be attributed to the complex autoregulatory mechanisms related to the ONH and its microcirculation.
Publication Date: 2021-10-08
Journal: European journal of ophthalmology

age gender(25)

Evaluation of Adverse Effects of Topical Glaucoma Medications on Trabeculectomy Outcomes Using the Glaucoma Medications Intensity Index.
Trabeculectomy is commonly performed for glaucoma when medications are unable to control disease progression or have intolerable adverse effects. Previous studies have suggested that a higher number of and/or longer treatment duration with preoperative topical glaucoma medications are associated with a higher risk of trabeculectomy failure, but most of these studies lack quantification of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between preoperative exposure to topical glaucoma medications and trabeculectomy outcome, using a new method for quantifying accumulated exposure. Consecutive patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) who underwent primary trabeculectomy between 2013 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The Glaucoma Medications Intensity Index (GMII) was calculated for each eye by multiplying the number of drops per week by duration of use (in years). The relationship between the GMII and postoperative outcome in terms of 1- and 2-year success rates and survival time was analyzed. A total of 55 eyes from 40 subjects were analyzed, all with follow-up > 6 months (mean 2.72 ± 1.46 years). The GMII for eyes with successful (n = 41) and failed (n = 14) outcome at last visit was 111.71 ± 78.59 and 167.41 ± 85.04, respectively, and significantly higher in failed eyes (P = 0.03). Univariate regression analysis of age, gender, cup-disc ratio, previous phacoemulsification, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, preoperative number of glaucoma medications/treatment duration/intraocular pressure (IOP), and GMII showed age and GMII to be possible predictors of treatment failure. On subsequent multivariate analysis, only GMII was correlated with failure (odds ratio 1.021, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.05; P = 0.05). When GMII ≥ 80, the postoperative survival time was shorter (P = 0.02), the 1-year IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and number of needlings performed were higher (P = 0.03, P  < 0.01, P  < 0.03, respectively), and reduction in glaucoma medication was less (P = 0.02). The GMII can be used to predict eyes at higher risk for trabeculectomy that may benefit from additional perioperative intervention or treatment. It can also help the surgeon time the surgery before the GMII becomes too high, thereby optimizing the patient's postoperative outcome.
Publication Date: 2021-12-22
Journal: Ophthalmology and therapy

trabeculoplasty slt(25)

Five-Year Long-Term Follow-Up of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Open-Angle Glaucoma.
Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is known as a safe laser therapy for an effective reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic success of SLT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients with a long-term follow-up of 5 years. Forty-six eyes of forty OAG patients, some with previous intraocular surgery, underwent SLT (24 males, 16 females). Therapeutic success was categorized as: category (I) - IOP reduction ≤ 21 mmHg and > 20% compared to baseline IOP with additional glaucoma medication; category (II) - IOP reduction ≤ 18 mmHg and > 30% compared to baseline IOP with additional glaucoma medication; category (III) - IOP reduction ≤ 18 mmHg without any additional glaucoma medication at all follow-ups. Therapeutic failure was defined as the necessity of any further glaucoma surgery (IV). (1) SLT was well tolerated in all eyes, and no severe side effects or complications were recorded. (2) After 1-year follow-up, therapeutic success was 27% (I), 30% (II), and 3% (III). The therapeutic failure rate was 40% (IV). (3) After 2 years follow-up, therapeutic success was 7% (I), 10% (II), and 0% (III). The therapeutic failure rate was 83% (IV). (4) After 3 years follow-up, the therapeutic failure rate increased up to 100% (IV). SLT seemed to be effective in lowering IOP in the first year in the present cohort, however, the long-term effect is low and additional local therapy or surgical interventions are necessary. Die selektive Lasertrabekuloplastik (SLT) ist als sichere Lasertherapie zur effektiven Senkung des Augeninnendrucks (IOD) bekannt. Ziel dieser Studie war es, den therapeutischen Erfolg der SLT bei Patienten mit Offenwinkelglaukom (OWG) in einem Langzeit-Follow-up von 5 Jahren zu untersuchen. 46 Augen von 40 OWG-Patienten mit teilweise vorheriger intraokularer Operation wurden einer SLT unterzogen (24 Männer, 16 Frauen). Der Therapieerfolg wurde wie folgt kategorisiert: Kategorie (I) – IOD-Senkung ≤ 21 mmHg und > 20% im Vergleich zum Ausgangsdruck mit zusätzlicher Glaukommedikation; Kategorie (II) – IOD-Senkung ≤ 18 mmHg und > 30% im Vergleich zum Ausgangsdruck mit zusätzlicher Glaukommedikation; Kategorie (III) – IOD-Senkung ≤ 18 mmHg ohne zusätzliche Glaukommedikation bei allen Nachuntersuchungen. Als Therapieversagen wurde die Notwendigkeit einer weiteren Glaukomoperation definiert (IV). ERGEBNISSE: (1) Die SLT wurde in allen Augen gut vertragen und es wurden keine schweren Nebenwirkungen oder Komplikationen festgestellt. (2) Nach 1 Jahr Nachbeobachtung betrug der Therapieerfolg 27% (I), 30% (II) und 3% (III). Die Rate der Therapieversager lag bei 40% (IV). (3) Nach 2 Jahren Nachbeobachtung betrug der Therapieerfolg 7% (I), 10% (II) und 0% (III). Die Rate der Therapieversager lag bei 83% (IV). (4) Die Rate der Therapieversager stieg auf 100% nach 3 Jahren Nachbeobachtung (IV). Die SLT scheint bei der Senkung des IOD im 1. Jahr in der vorliegenden Kohorte wirksam zu sein, der Langzeiteffekt ist jedoch gering und es sind zusätzliche lokale Therapien oder chirurgische Eingriffe erforderlich.
Publication Date: 2021-12-19
Journal: Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

mmhg p(17)

Prevalence and clinical profile of glaucoma patients in rural Nigeria-A hospital based study.
To determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of participants with glaucoma attending a public eye care facility in Nigeria. Hospital based retrospective study of glaucoma participants aged 50 years and above seen over a 5-year period. Descriptive statistics summarized the demographic, clinical characteristics and treatment of the participants and determined the association of variables with gender and age. Prevalence of the glaucoma by type, and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were also calculated. Of the 5482 case files that were reviewed, 995 (18.15%, 95% Cl 17.15-19.19%) had glaucoma particularly primary open angle glaucoma (11.55%, 95%CI 10.73-12.42%) and were mostly females (564, 56.7%) aged 69 ± 12 years (range, 50-103 years). In contrast to other glaucoma types, the prevalence of primary angle closure glaucoma (3.68, 95%CI 3.22-4.22) increased by 15% over 5 years. The mean intraocular pressure ranged from 15-50 mmHg but higher in females than males (27.8 ± 6.1mmHg versus 26.6 ± 6.0 mmHg, P <0.05) who had comparable VA (0.58 ± 0.4 Log MAR) and cup-disc ratios (P >0.05). On presentation, the glaucoma hemi field test (GHFT) was outside the normal limits in 45.5% and 54.5% of males and females, respectively. The type of visual field defect was associated with glaucoma type (P = 0.047). Arcuate scotoma was most common (35.5%) across glaucoma types, paracentral scotoma more common in Secondary glaucoma while Seidel scotoma was highest in NTG (19.3%). Beta-blocker was the mainstay of management (42.2%) but more likely to be prescribed to males while more females received carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The high prevalence of glaucoma in older people remains a public health problem in Nigeria. The fact that about half of the participants presented with visual field defect suggests there is a need for public health messages to emphasize on early glaucoma screening, detection and management.
Publication Date: 2021-12-03
Journal: PloS one

n 1(3)

Adequate Silicone Oil Tamponade by Utilizing the Space of Anterior Segment for Complicated Retinal Detachment: Technique, Efficacy, and Safety.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adequate silicone oil (SO) tamponade procedure in patients with complicated retinal detachment. Thirty-one eyes in 31 patients were enrolled in this prospective case series. Adequate SO tamponade was performed by injecting the SO into the vitreous cavity and the entire anterior chamber, followed by posterior capsulotomy and inferior peripheral iridotomy. Preoperative and follow-up data including retinal anatomic reattachment and SO status, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications and management were collected and analyzed. Twenty-nine eyes presented with complete retinal reattachment after subsequent SO removal with a primary success rate of 93.5%. Seventeen patients (54.8%) had complete anterior chamber SO migration to the vitreous cavity within the first postoperative day. The average time for anterior chamber SO migration was 2.3 ± 1.8 days. No oil-fluid interface in the vitreous cavity was observed in all the eyes, indicating a relatively adequate SO tamponade. Acute intraocular pressure elevation occurred in 16 (51.6%) eyes and was controllable under medication (n = 16) and anterior chamber paracentesis (n = 1). Two patients developed recurrent retinal detachment and received SO removal and a secondary adequate SO tamponade. At final follow-up, all the eyes had SO removal for at least 3 months and retinas maintained completely attached. The adequate SO tamponade procedure offers a simple, safe, and efficacious treatment alternative for complicated retinal detachment.
Publication Date: 2021-10-06
Journal: Asia-Pacific journal of ophthalmology (Philadelphia, Pa.)


Viscocanalostomy and combined phacoemulsification with viscocanalostomy: A five-year follow-up.
To assess the effectiveness and safety of viscocanalostomy (VC) and phaco-viscocanalostomy (PV) surgeries in eyes with a five-year follow-up. Retrospective review of patients who underwent VC and PV between January 2010 and December 2012 in the Stanley Eye Unit Abergele, UK. Patients were included for the analysis if they had a full 5-year follow-up or required redo surgery in the 5-year period. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) of <21 mmHg. The subanalysis included IOP <16 mmHg, IOP reduction >20%, and IOP reduction >30%, the complication rate, and the drop in the use of glaucoma medications post-surgery. A total of 370 eyes from 303 patients were included for the analysis. The mean preoperative IOP was 23 mmHg ± 5.3 mmHg with an average of 3.0 ± 0.1 medications. By year 5, this was reduced to 14.3 mmHg ± 6.5 mmHg with a mean of 1.0+/- 0.9 medications; 47.8% of the eyes had an IOP of <21 mmHg by year 5 without medication with a total of 92.6% of the eyes reaching this target with medication. The main complication in this group was the perforation of the Trabeculo Descemet's Window (TDW) but this was not associated with a poorer outcome. This large data set of eyes undergoing VC surgery demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of this technique over 5 years.
Publication Date: 2021-12-24
Journal: Indian journal of ophthalmology


Clinical features of intravitreal dexamethasone implantation in vitrectomized eyes of patients with diabetic macular edema.
To identify the clinical outcomes of intravitreal dexamethasone implantation (IVD) in previously vitrectomized eyes of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We performed a retrospective observational study. We recorded central subfield thickness (CST), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure (IOP) up to 12 months after IVD implant placement. We compared the duration of IVD action, IOP trends, and the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHTN) after the first IVD treatment of non-vitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes. We also compared the CST, BCVA, number of IVD treatments, and prevalence of OHTN between the two groups after 12 months. We found no significant between-group differences in the CST, BCVA, or the prevalence of OHTN during treatment. However, the duration of action of the first IVD treatment was significantly shorter in vitrectomized eyes, and these eyes required more IVD treatments during the 12-month follow-up period. The maximal average IOP was observed at 2 months after the first IVD treatment in the non-vitrectomized group, but 1 month after the first IVD treatment in the vitrectomized group. These findings suggest that the IVD pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differ between vitrectomized and non-vitrectomized eyes. Nevertheless, given the relatively long-lasting effectiveness of treatment and the good clinical results, consecutive IVD treatments may be beneficial for DME patients with previously vitrectomized eyes.
Publication Date: 2021-12-16
Journal: Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)


Complications associated with the use of two types of silicone oil in vitreoretinal surgeries: A single tertiary center experience in Oman.
The objective of this study is to describe complications associated with the use of two types of silicone oil (SO) (1000 centistokes [cs] and 5000 cs) in vitreoretinal surgery in Oman. This is a retrospective descriptive study on all patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgeries in which SO injection or removal was done. The study was conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017. Demographic data, lens status of the eye at the time of SO injection, type of SO used (1000 cs or 5000 cs), and complications associated with SO were collected. A total of 107 eyes of 103 patients were included in the study. SO 1000 cs was used in 66 eyes and SO 5000 cs was used in 41 eyes. A total of 29 eyes (27%) developed SO-related complications, which included SO emulsification in 14 eyes (13.1%), raised intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg in 19 eyes (17.8%), and band keratopathy in 4 eyes (3.7%). SO emulsification was seen in eight eyes (12.1%) in whom SO 1000 cs was used and in five eyes (12.2%) in whom SO 5000 cs ( SO was found to be a relatively safe adjunct in vitreoretinal surgery. SO-related complications such as SO emulsification, raised IOP, and band keratopathy were observed in less than one-third of study eyes. No difference was noted in emulsification rate between SO 1000 cs and SO 5000 cs. Further studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up period are warranted.
Publication Date: 2021-12-10
Journal: Oman journal of ophthalmology


A novel viewpoint in glaucoma therapeutics: enriched environment.
Glaucoma is one of the world's most frequent visual impairment causes and leads to selective damage to retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Despite glaucoma's most accepted risk factor is increased intraocular pressure (IOP), the mechanisms behind the disease have not been fully elucidated. To date, IOP lowering remains the gold standard; however, glaucoma patients may still lose vision regardless of effective IOP management. Therefore, the exclusive IOP control apparently is not enough to stop the disease progression, and developing new resources to protect the retina and optic nerve against glaucoma is a goal of vast clinical importance. Besides pharmacological treatments, environmental conditions have been shown to prevent neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss current concepts on key pathogenic mechanisms involved in glaucoma, the effect of enriched environment on these mechanisms in different experimental models, as well as recent evidence supporting the preventive and therapeutic effect of enriched environment exposure against experimental glaucomatous damage. Finally, we postulate that stimulating vision may become a non-invasive and rehabilitative therapy that could be eventually translated to the human disease, preventing glaucoma-induced terrible sequelae resulting in permanent visual disability.
Publication Date: 2021-12-18
Journal: Neural regeneration research


Spiroplasma species as a rare cause of congenital cataract and uveitis: a case series.
To date, only four cases of ocular spiroplasma infection have been reported in the entire ophthalmic literature. We add two more cases to raise awareness of this sight-threatening congenital disease that manifests as cataract with ocular inflammation. Both infants were referred for cataracts associated with ocular inflammation. Case 1, a 3-week-old neonate presented with unilateral cataract, ocular inflammation and elevated intraocular pressure. Case 2 was a 3-month-old infant with bilateral cataract and panuveitis. Lensectomies with or without vitrectomy and subsequent analyses of the specimens were performed. Transmission electron microscopy and multiplex polymerase chain reaction or 16 s rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction revealed spiroplasma species. Spiroplasma as a very rare cause for congenital cataract might be underdiagnosed. We recommend performing polymerase chain reaction to probe for spiroplasma species in congenital cataracts with an inflammatory component.
Publication Date: 2021-12-17
Journal: BMC ophthalmology


Use of Amniotic Membrane in MMC-Augmented Trabeculectomy: A Retrospective Comparative Study.
Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) has shown promising results as an antifibrotic agent in trabeculectomy. We aimed to evaluate the additional effect of AMT in MMC-augmented trabeculectomy. This retrospective study analyzed the results of the first 12 postoperative months of glaucomatous eyes submitted to Moorfields Safer Surgery Trabeculectomy with MMC alone (non-AMT group) compared to MMC and AMT (AMT group). Both groups were compared in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP), number of antihypertensive medications and need for surgical reinterventions. Absolute and relative success rates 12 months after surgery were defined as IOP <18 mmHg, without and with the use of antihypertensive medications, respectively. The analysis included 51 eyes of 45 glaucoma patients (29 eyes in the non-AMT group and 22 in the AMT group). Mean IOP decreased from 24.72±5.11 mmHg and 26.86±10.62 mmHg preoperatively in non-AMT and AMT groups to 12.86±4.22 mmHg and 12.60±4.43 mmHg, respectively, at 12 months (p = 0.84). Postoperative number of medications decreased significantly in both groups. Absolute success was seen in 71% of non-AMT eyes and 55% of AMT eyes (p = 0.46), whereas relative success was obtained in 14% and 30%, respectively (p = 0.55). Reinterventions were needed in 28% of the eyes (11 bleb injection/needling and 4 Ahmed tube implantation) in the non-AMT group and in 27% of the AMT group (10 bleb injection/needling and 1 Ahmed tube implantation) (p = 0.89). Trabeculectomy combined with MMC and AMT did not show better results than trabeculectomy with MMC alone.
Publication Date: 2021-12-07
Journal: Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)


Efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy versus phacogoniotomy in advanced primary angle-closure glaucoma: study protocol for a multicentre non-inferiority randomised controlled trial (PVP Study).
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) has a high prevalence and blinding rate across Asia. The first-line treatment of PACG is surgery, and phacotrabeculectomy remains the mainstream surgery for advanced PACG. However, it may cause vision-threatening complications with long learning curve. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery has been gradually used in PACG combined with cataract surgery and achieved efficacy without excessive injury, of which goniotomy is the most commonly performed. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a multicentre, non-inferiority randomised controlled clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of phacotrabeculectomy versus phacogoniotomy in advanced PACG. This is a non-inferiority multicentre randomised controlled trial and will be conducted at eight ophthalmic departments and institutes in China. 124 patients with advanced PACG will be enrolled and randomised to undergo phacotrabeculectomy or phacogoniotomy. Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations will be performed before and after the surgery. The primary outcome is the change of intraocular pressure at 12 months after surgery compared with the baseline intraocular pressure. An extended follow-up period of 36 months will be required. Cumulative success rate of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and number of anti-glaucomatous medications will also be compared between the groups as secondary outcomes. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethical committee of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, China (ID: 2021KYPJ090) and all subcentres. All the participants will be required to provide written informed consent. The results will be disseminated through scientific meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. NCT04878458.
Publication Date: 2021-12-10
Journal: BMJ open


Removal of a congenital corneal dermoid through tumor excision and lamellar keratoplasty in a young child: A case report.
Corneal dermoids are a rare cause of corneal opacification, consisting of abnormal mesoblastic tissue surrounded by epithelium. Here, we describe the case of a 1-year-old child who had a congenital corneal dermoid in the left eye since birth; thus, the patient underwent tumor excision followed by keratoplasty. A 1-year-old girl was brought to the hospital by her parents, who had been noticing a mass on the surface of her left eyeball since birth. The patient had no other previous or concurrent disease nor family history for dermoids. No abnormalities were present in the cornea and the anterior and posterior segments of the right eye. Eye movement, intraocular pressure, and the position of the upper eyelid of the left eye were normal. No signs of conjunctival hyperemia were present. The tumor presented as a yellowish-pink mass with hair and veins on the surface. The patient was initially diagnosed with a keratoconjunctival tumor of the left eye by a clinical doctor. Corneal tumor resection combined with keratoplasty was performed in the patient. Eye drops with 1% cyclosporine were administered 3 times per day to prevent immune rejection. Based on postoperative pathological examinations, the final diagnosis was a corneal dermoid. The patient had an uneventful healing process and rapid corneal re-epithelization. The ocular surface was stable during the follow-up visits, and no complications emerged. We report a rare case of congenital corneal dermoid. We learned that close follow-up is needed after surgery in such cases.
Publication Date: 2021-12-11
Journal: Medicine


Success Rate of Augmented Trabeculectomy in Primary Congenital Glaucoma.
To evaluate the outcome of trabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C in primary congenital glaucoma and to document the complications of the procedure in young children. This was a prospective study of children younger than 2 years with primary congenital glaucoma who were treated with primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. After surgery, patients were observed for a minimum of 1 year. Trabeculectomy success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 21 mm Hg or less without (absolute success) or with (qualified success) topical antiglaucoma medications. Surgical success was assessed at 1, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Seventy-four eyes of 42 children were included in the current study. The mean age was 11.7 ± 8.5 months. Of the 42 children, 57.2% were male and 42.8% were female. The mean IOP after surgery was significantly lower than the preoperative IOP ( Augmented trabeculectomy is a useful primary procedure in children with primary congenital glaucoma. Topical glaucoma medications supplement the success of the procedure.
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus


Clinical Experience in Patients with Ocular Burns Treated with Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis Implantation with or Without Prophylactic Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation.
To compare outcomes in eyes with ocular burns following Boston Type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation with and without prophylactic pars plana tube surgery. A retrospective review of patients with ocular burns who underwent KPro surgery at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center was performed. Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients without a preoperative diagnosis of glaucoma before KPro surgery met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative glaucoma was defined as a history of a durable elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 25 mmHg at different time points, which resulted in the introduction of anti-glaucoma medication or surgical intervention. Sixteen eyes underwent KPro alone (Group 1), and 10 eyes received KPro with prophylactic pars plana tube surgery (Group 2). Group 1 and Group 2 were similar in the proportions of the ocular burn type and preoperative clock hours of peripheral anterior synechiae by ultrasound biomicroscopy (1.88 ± 1.63 vs. 2.30 ± 1.83; P = 0.54). Before KPro surgery, 62.5% of eyes in Group 1 and 50.0% of eyes in Group 2 had intraocular surgeries (P = 0.53). The follow-up time was 18 months. At the final follow-up time, the two groups had similar visual acuity (1.34 ± 0.87 logMAR, 1.03 ± 0.71 logMAR; P = 0.35) and eyes with a C/D ratio ≥ 0.8 (7/16, 2/10; P = 0.21), but more eyes in Group 1 developed glaucoma de novo than eyes in Group 2 (62.5%, 20%; P = 0.04) and had undergone secondary glaucoma surgery after KPro implantation (7/16 vs. 0/10; P = 0.02). In eyes injured with ocular burns, KPro implantation with prophylactic pars plana tube surgery may be a feasible option to rehabilitate visual acuity and decrease the incidence of glaucoma de novo.
Publication Date: 2021-12-24
Journal: Ophthalmology and therapy


Cytokine and Complement Response in the Glaucomatous βB1-CTGF Mouse Model.
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease leading to a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve axons. An activation of the complement system seems to contribute to cell loss in this disease. Hence, we investigated a possible initiation of the complement system and the cytokine response in the βB1-CTGF glaucoma model. In these mice, intraocular pressure is elevated, which is the main glaucoma risk factor in patients, and RGC loss occurs at 15 weeks of age. Therefore, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistological experiments were performed in 5-, 10-, and 15-week-old βB1-CTGF animals and their corresponding wildtypes (WT) to analyze the expression of several complement system factors. We could show that mRNA levels of the terminal complement pathway components
Publication Date: 2021-12-07
Journal: Frontiers in cellular neuroscience


The Effect of Periocular Negative Pressure Application on Intraocular and Retrobulbar Pressure in Human Cadaver Eyes.
To investigate the effect of applying negative pressure (vacuum) to the periocular space on intraocular pressure (IOP) and retrobulbar pressure (RBP) by use of the Multi-Pressure Dial (MPD) system (Equinox Ophthalmic, Inc.). Two eyes of two full body cadavers were studied. In each subject, the retrobulbar space, posterior segment and intra-goggle space were cannulated to provide direct IOP, RBP and intra-goggle pressure measurements via a pressure transducer data acquisition system. The goggles of the MPD system were placed over the eyes of each subject, and multiple test runs were performed, with negative pressure settings programmed to 5, 10 and 20 mmHg. IOP and RBP measurements were continuously obtained during each run and plotted against time for analysis. For both subjects, the mean reduction (± standard deviation) in IOP was 1.6 ± 0.9 (10%), 3.5 ± 1.8 (23%) and 5.6 ± 2.0 (37%) mmHg at programmed negative pressure levels of - 5, - 10 and - 20 mmHg, respectively. The overall mean change in RBP (mmHg) during negative pressure application was 0.02 ± 0.14 at - 5 mmHg, 0.03 ± 0.19 at - 10 mmHg and - 0.01 ± 0.18 at - 20 mmHg. In both subjects, the magnitude of RBP change during application of negative pressure fell below the uncertainty of the measurement system. The application of negative pressure to the periocular space with the MPD decreases IOP but does not affect RBP.
Publication Date: 2021-12-16
Journal: Ophthalmology and therapy


Acute iris toxicity following bilateral gel stent implantation with mitomycin-C and intracameral moxifloxacin January consultation #1.
A 72-year-old woman with moderate primary open-angle glaucoma was referred for management of her glaucoma and photophobia. Her ocular history is significant for routine cataract surgery in both eyes 6 years prior to presentation. She was diagnosed with glaucoma 7 months prior to presentation at which time the patient underwent sequential, ab externo, open conjunctival, Xen Gel Stent (Allergan, Inc.) placement with mitomycin-C (MMC) in each eye, approximately 2 weeks apart. The history obtained directly from the surgeon revealed that MMC dosing was 0.2 mL in a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL delivered through subconjunctival injection after placement of the gel stent. Intracameral moxifloxacin was injected at the time of surgery, and moxifloxacin and Maxitrol eyedrops were used in the postoperative period. The patient noted that, approximately 1 month after each surgery, she developed significant photophobia. An outside examination noted bilateral tonic pupils and concern for early bleb failure in the left eye. 2 months after the initial gel stent placement in the left eye, she underwent a bleb revision with a McCannel suture iris cerclage in the left eye. The intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes remained well controlled off pressure-lowering medications; however, the tonic pupils and photophobia persisted. The patient was subsequently referred for further assessment. At presentation, the patient's corrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye. Applanation tonometry IOP was 17 mm Hg and 14 mm Hg for the right and left eyes, respectively. Pupils were tonic and irregular. The lack of pupillary response prevented testing for relative afferent pupillary defects directly or by reverse testing. Slitlamp examination of the right eye was notable for a minimally elevated superior bleb and severe iris stromal atrophy with diffuse transillumination defects. The intraocular lens (IOL) appeared well positioned in the capsular bag without signs of pseudophacodonesis (Figure 1JOURNAL/jcrs/04.03/02158034-202201000-00021/figure1/v/2021-12-20T152346Z/r/image-tiff). The left eye was notable for a diffuse superior bleb and similar iris and IOL findings to the right eye, except for 2 McCannel iris sutures in the iris stroma (Figure 2JOURNAL/jcrs/04.03/02158034-202201000-00021/figure2/v/2021-12-20T152346Z/r/image-tiff). In both eyes, the anterior chambers were deep and quiet, and there were no corneal endothelial abnormalities. Fundus examinations of both the right and left eyes were notable for glaucomatous-appearing optic nerves and otherwise healthy macula, vessels, and periphery. Gonioscopy revealed open angles in each eye with fairly marked, densely layered pigment throughout the inferior angle and trabecular meshwork. The gel stents were positioned just anteriorly to the trabecular meshwork superiorly, well away from iris tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) showed moderate to severe thinning inferiorly and superiorly in the right eye, with mild to moderate thinning inferiorly in the left eye (Supplemental Figure 1, Ganglion cell analysis correlated with the NFL findings (Supplemental Figure 2, Humphrey visual field testing revealed a dense superior arcuate in the right eye and moderate inferior arcuate in the left eye (Supplemental Figures 3 and 4, OCT of the macula in both eyes was unremarkable. Finally, specular microscopy showed normal endothelial density and configuration of each eye (Supplemental Figure 5, What part of the patient's ocular history would you consider relevant to the development of tonic, atrophic pupils? What additional information would you want to know to help refine your differential diagnosis? What is your preferred surgical technique when implanting the Xen Gel Stent? Please include whether ab interno or ab externo and open or closed conjunctival approach to be used and mention antifibrosis dosing and method of administration. Finally, what would be your approach for managing this patient's severe photophobia, in the setting of her moderate open-angle glaucoma?
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: Journal of cataract and refractive surgery


Deletion of transcription factor AP-2β from the developing murine trabecular meshwork region leads to progressive glaucomatous changes.
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness and can result from abnormalities in anterior segment structures required for aqueous humor outflow, including the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC). Transcription factors such as AP-2β play critical roles in anterior segment development. Here, we show that the Mgp-Cre knock-in (Mgp-Cre.KI) mouse can be used to target the embryonic periocular mesenchyme giving rise to the TM and SC. Fate mapping of male and female mice indicates that AP-2β loss causes a decrease in iridocorneal angle cells derived from Mgp-Cre.KI-expressing populations compared to controls. Moreover, histological analyses revealed peripheral iridocorneal adhesions in AP-2β mutants that were accompanied by a decrease in expression of TM and SC markers, as observed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, rebound tonometry showed significantly higher intraocular pressure (IOP) that was correlated with a progressive significant loss of retinal ganglion cells, reduced retinal thickness, and reduced retinal function, as measured using an electroretinogram, in AP-2β mutants compared with controls, reflecting pathology described in late-stage glaucoma patients. Importantly, elevated IOP in AP-2β mutants was significantly reduced by treatment with latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog that increases unconventional outflow. These findings demonstrate that AP-2β is critical for TM and SC development, and that these mutant mice can serve as a model for understanding and treating progressive human primary angle-closure glaucoma.
Publication Date: 2021-11-26
Journal: Journal of neuroscience research


The eye of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): Ophthalmic examination findings and diagnostic tests.
To describe ophthalmic examination and diagnostic values for Schirmer tear test (STT), intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal horizontal diameter (CHD), palpebral fissure length (PFL), fundoscopy, and palpebral conjunctiva microbiota from healthy giant anteaters. Twelve giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), 11 adults and one juvenile, five males and seven females. The animals were submitted to general anesthesia and ophthalmic evaluation with portable slit-lamp biomicroscope, Finoff transilluminator, and fundoscopy, as well as STT, bacterial culture from palpebral conjunctiva, rebound tonometry IOP, and measurement of PFL and CHD. Data compiled were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey tests. The results (mean ± standard deviation) were as follows: STT 8.04 ± 6.21 mm/min; IOP 10.92 ± 2.45 mmHg; PFL 0.75 ± 0.11 cm; CHD 0.96 ± 0.10 cm. Out of the 24 eyes swab samples for bacterial culture, 17 were positive, with three genera of Gram-positive bacteria identified Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus sp., and Corynebacterium sp. Gram-negative bacteria were not isolated from any of the samples. As conservation work in this vulnerable species continues, this report on basic ophthalmic examination and diagnostic parameters will be helpful improve their treatment and care. More ophthalmic studies are encouraged in animals within the Pilosa order.
Publication Date: 2021-12-18
Journal: Veterinary ophthalmology


Mapping of choriocapillaris vascular density in young and aged healthy subjects.
To compare macular vascular density (VD) of the choriocapillaris (CC) between young and aged healthy individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed enrolling young and senior healthy individuals of Caucasian race and an axial length (AL) lower than 26 mm, and without systemic or ophthalmological diseases. CC VD was imaged with DRI Triton OCTA using a 6 × 6 mm macular analysis. Internal software delimited CC boundaries and gave colour pictures, which were analysed and codified into numbers, and a grid of 30 × 30 VD values was obtained. Two-dimension (2D) and three-dimension (3D) representations were created. 53 eyes of 53 young healthy individuals and 30 eyes of 30 senior healthy individuals were enrolled. Mean age was 27.17 ± 3.90 years, and 67.00 ± 7.41 years, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no differences in intraocular pressure (IOP) or AL (23.73 ± 0.79 mm, 23.18 ± 0.80 mm, respectively, p = 0.24). There were differences in foveal VD and in temporal perifoveal macula, but not in nasal perifoveal macula. Foveal VD was the highest in both groups. Foveal CC VD has been found to be considerably high with this method, and it is the area which most decreases with age. Nasal perifoveal VD is not reduced in older individuals. These outcomes are opposite to other studies using different methods but they are in line with previous histological findings.
Publication Date: 2021-12-10
Journal: European journal of ophthalmology


Assessment of temporal and spatial distribution patterns of aerosol produced by air-puff non-contact tonometer.
To assess the distribution pattern of aerosol in the aspect of time and direction during the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by air-puff non-contact tonometer (NCT) and further offer references for protection from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in the routine ophthalmic examination. A single-center observational study was conducted in the ophthalmology clinics of Peking University Third Hospital. Two air quality detectors were equipped to assess the generated particulate matter (PM) concentration simultaneously within 30 s after IOP measurement in the outpatient hall. Detector A was fixed next to the NCT as a reference, while Detector B was fixed 1 meter away. The participants were divided into two groups depending on the position of Detector B. The generation of aerosol was compared within different groups and time intervals. 144 participants were enrolled in the final analysis. At a 1 m distance from the NCT, the PM NCT may produce aerosol after the IOP measurement by air-puff. The generated PM
Publication Date: 2021-12-04
Journal: European journal of ophthalmology


Optic disc cupping after circumpapillary Pd-103 slotted plaque radiation therapy.
To investigate vascular and morphologic optic disc changes after slotted plaque radiation therapy for choroidal melanoma involving the optic disc. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine patients with choroidal melanoma involving the optic nerve. Each melanoma was treated with palladium-103 slotted plaque brachytherapy (incorporating and/or surrounding the optic nerve sheath) between 2005 and 2019. Imaging of the optic nerve before and after radiation allowed for documentation and evaluation of optic nerve pallor and cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) changes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) CDR measurements and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded pretreatment and at follow-up. Of these patients, 22 also had OCT angiography (OCT-A) images with sufficient quality for evaluation of blood vessel density and length. Differences in cup-to-disc measurements were correlated with changes in OCT-A-measured vessel density and length. Following slotted plaque radiation therapy, there was no significant increase in IOP or optic nerve pallor. OCT and colour photography revealed significant increases (both p < 0.001) in CDR from pretreatment to the last follow-up. Increased CDRs on OCT were significantly correlated to OCT-A-measured change in vessel length (p = 0.027). Similarly, increased CDR ratios on fundus photography were significantly correlated with OCT-A-measured change in vessel density (p = 0.043) and length (p = 0.019). Fundus photography and OCT measurements revealed increased optic disc cupping following slotted plaque radiation therapy. Cupping was associated with OCT-A evidence of synchronous progressive peripapillary vascular occlusion and attenuation. Therefore, slotted plaque radiation-induced peripapillary and papillary ischemia was associated with increased CDR ratios and optic disc cupping.
Publication Date: 2021-12-21
Journal: Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie