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Query Topic: ketones

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volatile organic compounds(7)

Comparative Investigation of Combined Metabolomics-Flavoromics during the Ripening of Mango (
A metabolomics-flavoromics approach was conducted to assess the micromolecules of 'Nam Dok Mai Si Thong' and 'Nam Dok Mai No. 4' mango cultivars from two seasons. During ripening, FAMEs, FFAs, fatty alcohols, sterols, and organic acids were dominant at 0-2 days, whereas amino acids, sugars, and volatile organic compounds, including esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes, were at higher levels at 4-8 days. Nine metabolites (palmitic/linoleic/linolenic/citric/malic acids, β-sitosterol, sucrose, glycine, and leucine) and two volatile organic compounds (ethyl octanoate/decanoate) were related to ripening-associated changes within eight days. During ripening, sucrose at 6-8 days, citric/malic acid at 0-2 days, glycine and leucine at 4 days, and ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate at 8 days could be used as quality biomarkers for Nam Dok Mai Si Thong; palmitic/linoleic/linolenic acids at 0 days and β-sitosterol at 0-4 days could be used as quality biomarkers for Nam Dok Mai No. 4.
Publication Date: 2021-10-24
Journal: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)


ketones esters(28)

Divergent Synthesis of α-Fluorinated Carbonyl and Carboxyl Derivatives by Double Electrophilic Activation of Amides.
A straightforward and divergent entry to α-fluorinated carbonyl and carboxyl derivatives is reported. Upon activation of amides with triflic anhydride and a 2-halo-pyridine and subsequent trapping of the resulting keteniminium ions with nucleophiles followed by a second electrophilic activation with NFSI and final hydrolysis, a range of amides can be transformed to α-fluorinated ketones, esters, and amides under mild conditions. Moreover, this reaction can be performed to yield enantioenriched products with a traceless chiral auxiliary.
Publication Date: 2021-10-29
Journal: Organic letters


blood ketones(21)

Exogenous ketosis increases blood and muscle oxygenation but not performance during exercise in hypoxia.
Available evidence indicates that elevated blood ketones are associated with improved hypoxic tolerance in rodents. From this perspective, we hypothesized that exogenous ketosis by oral intake of the ketone ester (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (KE) may induce beneficial physiological effects during prolonged exercise in acute hypoxia. As we recently demonstrated KE to deplete blood bicarbonate, which per se may alter the physiological response to hypoxia, we evaluated the effect of KE both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate intake (BIC). Fourteen highly trained male cyclists performed a simulated cycling race (RACE) consisting of 3h intermittent cycling (IMT
Publication Date: 2021-10-21
Journal: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology


transfer hydrogenation(21)

Mn(I) phosphine-amino-phosphinites: a highly modular class of pincer complexes for enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of aryl-alkyl ketones.
A series of Mn(I) catalysts with readily accessible and more π-accepting phosphine-amino-phosphinite (P'(O)N(H)P) pincer ligands have been explored for the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aryl-alkyl ketones which led to good to high enantioselectivities (up to 98%) compared to other reported Mn-based catalysts for such reactions. The easy tunability of the chiral backbone and the phosphine moieties makes P'(O)N(H)P an alternative ligand framework to the well-known PNP-type pincers.
Publication Date: 2021-10-05
Journal: Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)


acids ketones(18)

Recent progress of autophagy signaling in tumor microenvironment and its targeting for possible cancer therapeutics.
Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, involves degradation of cellular materials, protein aggregate, and dysfunctional organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. Strikingly, autophagy exhibits a dual-sided role in cancer; on the one hand, it promotes clearance of transformed cells and inhibits tumorigenesis, while cytoprotective autophagy has a role in sustaining cancer. The autophagy signaling in the tumor microenvironment (TME) during cancer growth and therapy is not adequately understood. The review highlights the role of autophagy signaling pathways to support cancer growth and progression in adaptation to the oxidative and hypoxic context of TME. Furthermore, autophagy contributes to regulating the metabolic switch for generating sufficient levels of high-energy metabolites, including amino acids, ketones, glutamine, and free fatty acids for cancer cell survival. Interestingly, autophagy has a critical role in modulating the tumor-associated fibroblast resulting in different cytokines and paracrine signaling mediated angiogenesis and invasion of pre-metastatic niches to secondary tumor sites. Moreover, autophagy promotes immune evasion to inhibit antitumor immunity, and autophagy inhibitors enhance response to immunotherapy with infiltration of immune cells to the TME niche. Furthermore, autophagy in TME maintains and supports the survival of cancer stem cells resulting in chemoresistance and therapy recurrence. Presently, drug repurposing has enabled the use of lysosomal inhibitor-based antimalarial drugs like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as clinically available autophagy inhibitors in cancer therapy. We focus on the recent developments of multiple autophagy modulators from pre-clinical trials and the challenges in developing autophagy-based cancer therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-09-10
Journal: Seminars in cancer biology


bond cleavage(17)

Iron-Catalyzed C-C Single-Bond Cleavage of Alcohols.
An iron-catalyzed deconstruction/hydrogenation reaction of alcohols through C-C bond cleavage is developed through photocatalysis, to produce ketones or aldehydes as the products. Tertiary, secondary, and primary alcohols bearing a wide range of substituents are suitable substrates. Complex natural alcohols can also perform the transformation selectively. A investigation of the mechanism reveals a procedure that involves chlorine radical improved O-H homolysis, with the assistance of 2,4,6-collidine.
Publication Date: 2021-10-13
Journal: Organic letters


mmol l(15)

Risk for ketonaemia in type 1 diabetes pregnancies with sensor-augmented pump therapy with predictive low glucose suspend compared with low glucose suspend: a crossover RCT.
To determine the frequency of ketonaemia in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with a sensor-augmented pump (SAP) in predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) mode compared with low glucose suspend (LGS) mode. An open-label crossover pilot RCT in ten women with type 1 diabetes treated with a 640 Medtronic insulin pump, with inclusion between 12-30 weeks of pregnancy. Participants were 1/1 randomly assigned (allocation by statistician using a permuted block size of 2) to either 2 weeks with an SAP in PLGS mode or 2 weeks in LGS mode. After the first 2 weeks, participants were switched to the other mode. Ketones in the participants' serum were measured three times daily (fasting, midday and evening) during the 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the frequency of blood ketones > 0.6 mmol/l. Participants and healthcare providers were not blinded to group assignment for assessment of outcomes. The median gestational week at inclusion was 12.5 weeks (12.0-15.0), participants had a median age of 31.5 years (24.0-33.0), BMI of 26.6 kg/m Despite longer time periods with suspended insulin delivery, pregnant women using an SAP in PLGS mode were not at higher risk of developing ketonaemia compared with those in LGS mode. Women with an SAP in PLGS mode had similar TIR with less time in hypoglycaemia. Clinical Trials NCT04292509 FUNDING: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Publication Date: 2021-10-15
Journal: Diabetologia


urine ketones(14)

Feasibility and Biological Activity of a Ketogenic/Intermittent-Fasting Diet in Patients With Glioma.
To examine the feasibility, safety, systemic biological activity, and cerebral activity of a ketogenic dietary intervention in patients with glioma. Twenty-five patients with biopsy-confirmed World Health Organization grade 2 to 4 astrocytoma with stable disease after adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in an 8-week Glioma Atkins-Based Diet (GLAD). GLAD consisted of 2 fasting days (calories <20% calculated estimated needs) interleaved between 5 modified Atkins diet days (net carbohydrates ≤20 g/d) each week. The primary outcome was dietary adherence by food records. Markers of systemic and cerebral activity included weekly urine ketones, serum insulin, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin-like growth factor-1, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and week 8. Twenty-one patients (84%) completed the study. Eighty percent of patients reached ≥40 mg/dL urine acetoacetate during the study. Forty-eight percent of patients were adherent by food record. The diet was well tolerated, with two grade 3 adverse events (neutropenia, seizure). Measures of systemic activity, including hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and fat body mass, decreased significantly, while lean body mass increased. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated increased ketone concentrations (β-hydroxybutyrate [bHB] and acetone) in both lesional and contralateral brain compared to baseline. Average ketonuria correlated with cerebral ketones in lesional (tumor) and contralateral brain (bHB The GLAD dietary intervention, while demanding, produced meaningful ketonuria and significant systemic and cerebral metabolic changes in participants. Ketonuria in participants correlated with cerebral ketone concentration and appears to be a better indicator of systemic activity than patient-reported food records. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02286167.
Publication Date: 2021-07-09
Journal: Neurology


trifluoromethyl ketones(12)

Asymmetric cross-aldol reactions of α-keto hydrazones and α,β-unsaturated γ-keto hydrazones with trifluoromethyl ketones.
α-Keto hydrazones and α,β-unsaturated γ-keto hydrazones are suitable pro-nucleophiles for asymmetric cross-aldol reactions with trifluoromethyl ketones
Publication Date: 2021-10-27
Journal: Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)


esters alcohols(11)

Grain starch, fatty acids, and amino acids determine the pasting properties in dry cultivation plus rice cultivars.
A field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of cultivars under flooding irrigation and dry cultivation (D) on starch, fatty acids, and amino acids metabolism, starch physicochemical traits, and pasting properties of rice flour. In this study, high-quality cultivar (HH) had better pasting properties among all other cultivars in D treatment. DHH supported higher short-branch chain amylopectin to develop the crystalline regions. Besides, DHH increased C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, glutamate, aspartate, lysine, and threonine, and reduced glutelin and prolamine levels in head rice. Higher pasting properties in DHH was also supported by higher CO in esters and ketones, CO in carboxylic acid, esters, alcohols, and ethers, OH in alcohols before pasting and lower CO and CO in carboxylic acid, CO in aldehydes, and CO, CO and OH in carboxylic acid after pasting. Overall, these findings improve pasting properties to maintain a higher cooking quality in dry cultivation.
Publication Date: 2021-11-06
Journal: Food chemistry


esters amides(11)

gem-Difluoroallylation of Aryl Halides and Pseudo Halides with Difluoroallylboron Reagents in High Regioselectivity.
We report the palladium-catalyzed gem-difluoroallylation of aryl halides and pseudo halides with 3,3-difluoroallyl boronates in high yield with high regioselectivity, and we report the preparation of the 3,3-difluoroallyl boronate reactants by a copper-catalyzed defluorinative borylation of inexpensive gaseous 3,3,3-trifluoropropene with bis(pinacolato)diboron. The gem-difluoroallylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides proceeds with low catalyst loading (0.1 mol % [Pd]) and tolerates a wide range of functional groups, including primary alcohols, secondary amines, ethers, ketones, esters, amides, aldehydes, nitriles, halides, and nitro groups. This protocol extends to aryl iodides, chlorides, and triflates, as well as substituted difluoroallyl boronates, providing a versatile synthesis of gem-difluoroallyl arenes that we show to be valuable intermediates to a series of fluorinated building blocks.
Publication Date: 2021-09-24
Journal: Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)


hydrocarbons alcohols(10)

Mineral content, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds of gluten-free tarhana formulated with different cereal and pulse flours.
This research was intended to determine the effect of different cereal and pulse flours and commercial gluten-free flour on the mineral content, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds of the gluten-free tarhana (cereal-based fermented dry soup). In order to produce the gluten-free tarhana, white bean (BF), chickpea (CF), commercial gluten-free (GWF), yellow lentil (LF), and rice (RF) flours were used. The Mg, K, Al, and Mn contents of tarhanas obtained using different pulse and cereal flours were found to be quite high compared to tarhanas produced with commercial GWF. The utilization of different cereal and pulse flours in the tarhana formulation resulted in an increase in the percentage (30.37-51.47%) of the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPUFA). The highest (452.4 µg/g) and the lowest (241.17 µg/g) total concentration of all compounds were detected in BF and GWF, respectively. The highest number (21) of compounds belonged to terpenes and terpenoids, followed by acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alkanes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that cereal and pulse flours can be used to produce acceptable tarhana with improved nutritional quality in terms of mineral and fatty acid contents. The results of the current study may be useful and applicable to food manufacturers producing gluten-free products for celiac patients.
Publication Date: 2021-09-14
Journal: Journal of food science


mg dl(10)

Correlation between ketones and mental fatigue in high fat-induced obese and non-obese rats.
Obesity, often caused by a diet high in calories and low physical activity, may induce physical fatigue, as experienced via decreased locomotor activity and mental fatigue such as impaired cognition. This study aims to evaluate glucose and ketone levels secondary to high-fat diet (HFD) exposure and signs of physical and mental fatigue. Fifty-four 7-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were assigned to either an HFD (n = 28) or a standard diet (SD; n = 26) for a 6-week period during which body weight, blood glucose, and ketones were measured twice per week. An open field (OF) paradigm was used to measure locomotor activity, while novel object recognition (NOR) test was used as an indicator of cognition. Animals in the HFD group weighed more than SD rats (8.4 g; p < 0.05) starting at Day 11, blood glucose levels were higher in the HFD group versus SD rats (3.9 mg/dl; p < 0.05) beginning in Week 5, and ketones were lower for the HFD versus the SD group throughout the study (0.34 mmol/L on average; p < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in locomotor activity between the HFD and SD groups (p = 0.12), regardless of diet, higher ketone levels were associated with increased NOR time and ratio between the familiar and novel objects (p < 0.01). Thus, this study provides evidence that an increased level of ketones is associated with greater cognitive performance and a lesser probability of experiencing mental fatigue.
Publication Date: 2021-07-02
Journal: Physiological reports


urinary ketones(10)

Can Ketogenic Diet Therapy Improve Migraine Frequency, Severity and Duration?
Migraine is the third most common condition worldwide and is responsible for a major clinical and economic burden. The current pilot trial investigated whether ketogenic diet therapy (KDT) is superior to an evidence-informed healthy "anti-headache" dietary pattern (AHD) in improving migraine frequency, severity and duration. A 12-week randomised controlled crossover trial consisting of the two dietary intervention periods was undertaken. Eligible participants were those with a history of migraines and who had regularly experienced episodes of moderate or mildly intense headache in the previous 4 weeks. Migraine frequency, duration and severity were assessed via self-report in the Migraine Buddy© app. Participants were asked to measure urinary ketones and side effects throughout the KDT. Twenty-six participants were enrolled, and 16 participants completed all sessions. Eleven participants completed a symptom checklist; all reported side-effects during KDT, with the most frequently reported side effect being fatigue (
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)


acids aldehydes(9)

A Predictive Strategy Based on Volatile Profile and Chemometric Analysis for Traceability and Authenticity of Sugarcane Honey on the Global Market.
Sugarcane honey (SCH) is a syrup produced on Madeira Island and recognized by its unique aroma, a complex attribute of quality with an important influence on the final consumer's acceptance of the product, and determined by a complex mixture of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during its traditional making process and storage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the volatile profile of genuine SCH produced by a regional certified producer for seven years and compare it with syrups from non-certified regional producers and with producers from different geographical regions (Spain, Egypt, Brazil and Australia), as a powerful strategy to define the volatomic fingerprint of SCH. Different volatile profiles were recognized for all samples, with 166 VOCs being identified belonging to different chemical classes, including furans, ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols. Chemometric analysis allowed (i) the differentiation between all syrups, being more pronounced between SCH and other syrups; and (ii) the identification of 32 VOCs as potential markers for the traceability and authenticity of SCH on the global market.
Publication Date: 2021-08-08
Journal: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)


serum ketones(8)

Renal Involvement in Children with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Onset: A Pilot Study.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adulthood. No studies have examined the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI)-that enhances the risk of later CKD-and renal tubular damage (RTD)-that can evolve to AKI-in children with onset of T2DM. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and possible features of AKI and RTD in a prospectively enrolled population of children with onset of T2DM. We consecutively enrolled 10 children aged 12.9 ± 2.3 years with newly diagnosed T2DM. AKI was defined according to the KDIGO criteria. RTD was defined by abnormal urinary beta-2-microglobulin and/or tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP) <85% and/or fractional excretion of Na >2%. None of the patients developed AKI, whereas 3/10 developed RTD with high beta-2-microglobulin levels (range: 0.6-1.06 mg/L). One of these three patients also presented with reduced TRP levels (TRP = 70%). Proteinuria was observed in two out of three patients with RTD, while none of patients without RTD had proteinuria. Patients with RTD presented higher beta-2-microglobulin, acute creatinine/estimated basal creatinine ratio, and serum ketones levels compared with patients without RTD. In conclusion, in our pilot observation, we found that none of the 10 children with T2DM onset developed AKI, whereas three of them developed RTD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Children (Basel, Switzerland)


hetero aryl(7)

Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Unstrained Aryl Ketones via Ligand-Promoted C-C Bond Olefination.
Mizoroki-Heck reaction of unstrained aryl ketone with acrylate/styrene is accomplished via palladium-catalyzed ligand-promoted C-C bond cleavage. Various (hetero)aryl ketones are compatible in the reaction, affording the alkene product in good to excellent yields. Further applications in the late-stage olefination of some drugs, natural products, and fragrance-derived aryl ketones demonstrate the synthetic utility of this protocol. By employing ketone as both the directing group and the leaving group, 1,2-bifunctionalization is achieved via sequential
Publication Date: 2021-03-05
Journal: Organic letters


including ketones(7)

Quantification of volatile organic compounds by secondary electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry.
Secondary electrospray ionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (SESI-HRMS) is a direct mass spectrometry technique, which can identify trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in real time without sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation. SESI-HRMS has been successfully applied in multiple applications, including breath analysis, animals and plants VOCs emissions, analysis of headspace of cell cultures and indoor and outdoor air. The range of areas where the technique can potentially have a substantial impact is very broad. However, one critical aspect that requires further development to consolidate the technique is absolute quantification. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop a quantitative method for eight representative VOCs, including ketones (acetone, 2-butanone and 2-pentanone), alkenes (isoprene and α-terpinene) and aromatics (toluene, styrene and mesitylene). The mass spectrometric platform includes a commercial SESI source hyphenated with a Q-Exactive hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer. Within the concentration range of 0-100 ppbv studied, the optimal coefficient of determination for linear regression (R
Publication Date: 2021-09-21
Journal: Analytica chimica acta


ketones imines(6)

Imine Reduction with Me
Although there exists a variety of different catalysts for hydroboration of organic substrates such as aldehydes, ketones, imines, nitriles etc., recent evidence suggests that tetra-coordinate borohydride species, formed by activation, redistribution, or decomposition of boron reagents, are the true hydride donors. We then proposed that Me
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)


aldehydes esters(6)

N-Heterocyclic carbene complexes enabling the α-arylation of carbonyl compounds.
The considerable importance of α-arylated carbonyl compounds, which are widely used as final products or as key intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry, has prompted numerous research groups to develop efficient synthetic strategies for their preparation in recent decades. In this context, the α-arylation of carbonyl compounds catalyzed by transition-metal complexes have been particularly helpful in constructing this motif. As illustrated in this contribution, tremendous advances have taken place using palladium- and nickel-NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes as pre-catalysts for the arylation of a wide range of ketones, aldehydes, esters and amides with electron-rich, electron-neutral, electron-poor, and sterically hindered aryl halides or pseudo-halides. Despite significant progress, especially in asymmetric α-arylations promoted by chiral NHC ligands, there are numerous challenges which have and continue to encourage further studies on this topic. Some of these are presented in this report.
Publication Date: 2021-05-06
Journal: Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)


alcohols acids(6)

Influence of Eurotium cristatum and Aspergillus niger individual and collaborative inoculation on volatile profile in liquid-state fermentation of instant dark teas.
The three instant dark teas were produced from instant green tea (IGT) by liquid-state fermentations using the microorganisms Eurotium cristatum (EFT), Aspergillus niger (AFT), and sequential inoculation of E. cristatum/A. niger (EAFT), respectively. The volatile compounds of four tea samples were extracted by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with chemometrics. A total of 97 volatile compounds were tentatively identified to distinguish three fermented instant dark from IGT. Alcohols, acids, esters, ketones, aldehydes, and heterocyclics could be clearly distinguished by principal component analysis (PCA), venn diagram, heatmap analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Descriptive sensory analysis revealed that AFT had a moldy, woody and herbal aroma; EFT showed woody and herbal aroma; and EAFT smelled an herbal, sweet, minty and floral aroma. This study indicates that fermentation using different microorganisms is critical in forming unique aroma characteristics of instant dark teas.
Publication Date: 2021-02-16
Journal: Food chemistry


ketones phenols(6)

Volatile Compounds, Sensory Profile and Phenolic Compounds in Fermented Rice Bran.
Rice bran (RB), a by-product of the rice milling process, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Current studies have suggested that fermentation can enhance the bioactivities of RB. This study is aimed to analyse the volatile compounds and sensory profile of fermented RB from two cultivars (Inpari 30 and Cempo Ireng) that are well-known in Indonesia, as well as to measure total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Volatile compounds of fermented RB were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction. The optimum TPC and antioxidant activity were observed after 72 h fermentation of RB. The 55 volatile compounds were identified in fermented and non-fermented RB. They were classified into alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, phenols, esters, benzene, terpenes, furans, lactone, pyridines, pyrazines, and thiazoles. Volatile compounds were significantly different among the varieties. The sensory analysis showed that the panelists could differentiate sensory profiles (color, taste, flavor, and texture) between the samples. Fermentation can enhance the acceptance of RB. These studies may provide opportunities to promote the production of fermented RB as a functional ingredient with enhanced bioactivity for health promotion.
Publication Date: 2021-06-03
Journal: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)


alcohols phenols(5)

From longevity grass to contemporary soft gold: Explore the chemical constituents, pharmacology, and toxicology of Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & vaniot essential oil.
Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot is known as the longevity grass in eastern countries for its warm effect to cure many cold diseases. It has been widely used in medicine, food, bathing, moxibustion, and fumigation for more than two thousand years. Nowadays it even becomes the cultural symbol of the Dragon Boat Festival. In traditional application, A. argyi is considered to be an important hemostatic drug and a common drug for gynecological diseases. In modern application, the Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot essential oil (AAEO) is regarded as the important medicinal substance of A. argyi, and has been made into many health products, forming a large-scale A. argyi industry. This review aims to summarize the research status of AAEO and evaluate its application value. The manuscript focuses on the reported extraction methods, chemical components and influencing factors, pharmacological action, and toxicity. In the literature search, several databases, such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Elsevier, CNKI, and Wanfang, were searched for key words, including "Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot essential oil," "Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot," "cineole," "caryophyllene," "cyclamen," "borneol," and "camphor." At present, more than 200 kinds of chemical components have been detected in AAEO, including terpenes, ketones (aldehydes), alcohols (phenols), acids (esters), alkanes (olefins) hydrocarbons, and so on. It has great anti-disease-resistant microorganism, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-cancer effects in clinical treatment and has good development potential and application prospects. Present review provides an insight into chemical composition, extraction method, quality influencing factors, pharmacological action and toxicological action of AAEO. As an important traditional medicine herb, remarkable efficacy has been demonstrated in comprehensive literature reports, which has shown the great medicinal potential of this plant. However, the toxicity of AAEO cannot be ignored, the exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated.
Publication Date: 2021-07-12
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology


alkanes ketones(5)

[Emission Characteristics and Environment Impacts of VOCs from Typical Rubber Manufacture].
The emission characteristics of VOCs from three typical rubber manufacture industries were studied by GC-MS/FID. Maximum incremental reactivity(MIR) and fractional aerosol coefficient(FAC) were employed to evaluate the ozone formation potential(OFP) and secondary organic aerosol(SOA) formation potential. The results show that the VOC types emitted from the manufacturing of rubber products mainly include alkanes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and benzene series. For traditional rubber products manufactured through rubber mixing and vulcanization, the main pollutants are ketones and alcohols, whereas for production processes involving gluing and painting, the main pollutants belong to the benzene series. In terms of ozone impact, the traditional processes contribute to ozone formation mainly through oxygenated hydrocarbons. In industries that utilize adhesives and paints, the extensive use of these organic solvents lead to a significantly higher contribution of the benzene series than other VOC species to ozone formation; the benzene series account for 82.9% of the total contribution. In terms of SOA impact, the benzene series are the main contributor to SOA, whereas the contribution of VOCs from traditional processes is small; hence, SOA primarily originates from the gluing and painting processes. Therefore, in traditional production of rubber products through rubber mixing and vulcanization, the emission of oxygenated hydrocarbons should be preferentially controlled, whereas for rubber industries utilizing gluing and painting processes, the emission of benzene series should be preferentially controlled.
Publication Date: 2021-10-29
Journal: Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue


acids esters(5)

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of swine manure and cellulose: Influence of mutual interaction of intermediates on properties of the products.
Co-hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of livestock manure and biomass might improve the fuel properties of the hydrochar due to the high reactivity of the biomass-derived intermediates with the abundant oxygen-containing functionalities. However, the complicated compositions make it difficult to explicit the specific roles of the individual components of biomass played in the co-HTC process. In this study, cellulose was used for co-HTC with swine manure to investigate the influence on the properties of the hydrochar. The yield of hydrochar obtained from co-HTC reduced gradually with the cellulose proportion increased, and the solid yield was lower than the theoretical value. This was because the cellulose-derived intermediates favored the stability of the fragments from hydrolysis of swine manure. The increased temperature resulted in the reduction of the hydrochar yield whereas the prolonged time enhanced the formation of solid product. The interaction of the co-HTC intermediates facilitated the formation of O-containing species, thus making the solid more oxygen- and hydrogen-rich with a higher volatility. In addition, the co-HTC affected the evolution of functionalities like -OH and CO during the thermal treatment of the hydrochar and altered its morphology by stuffing the pores from swine manure-derived solid with the microspheres from HTC of cellulose. The interaction of the varied intermediates also impacted the formation of amines, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, aromatics and the polymeric products in distinct ways.
Publication Date: 2021-06-13
Journal: The Science of the total environment


ketones furans(4)

Roasting process shaping the chemical profile of roasted green tea and the association with aroma features.
Roasting process impacts the chemical profile and aroma of roasted tea. To compare the impacts of far-infrared irradiation and drum roasting treatments (light, medium and heavy degrees), the corresponding roasted teas were prepared from steamed green tea for chemical analyses and quantitative descriptive analysis on aroma, and correlations between volatiles and aroma attributes were studied. There were 8 catechins, 13 flavonol glycosides and 105 volatiles quantified. Under heavy roasting treatments, most catechins and flavonol glycosides decreased, and aldehydes, ketones, furans, pyrroles/pyrazines, and miscellaneous greatly increased, while far-infrared irradiated teas had distinct nutty aroma compared with the roasty and burnt odor of drum roasted teas. The weighted correlation network analysis result showed that 56 volatiles were closely correlated with the aroma attributes of roasted teas. This study reveals the differential chemical and sensory changes of roasted teas caused by different roasting processes, and provides a novel way for flavor chemistry study.
Publication Date: 2021-03-14
Journal: Food chemistry


terpenes(27)

Optimization of HS-SPME for GC-MS Analysis and Its Application in Characterization of Volatile Compounds in Sweet Potato.
Volatile compounds are the main chemical species determining the characteristic aroma of food. A procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HP-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to investigate the volatile compounds of sweet potato. The experimental conditions (fiber coating, incubation temperature and time, extraction time) were optimized for the extraction of volatile compounds from sweet potato. The samples incubated at 80 °C for 30 min and extracted at 80 °C by the fiber with a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coating for 30 min gave the most effective extraction of the analytes. The optimized method was applied to study the volatile profile of four sweet potato cultivars (Anna, Jieshu95-16, Ayamursaki, and Shuangzai) with different aroma. In total, 68 compounds were identified and the dominants were aldehydes, followed by alcohols, ketones, and terpenes. Significant differences were observed among the volatile profile of four cultivars. Furthermore, each cultivar was characterized by different compounds with typical flavor. The results substantiated that the optimized HS-SPME GC-MS method could provide an efficient and convenient approach to study the flavor characteristics of sweet potato. This is the basis for studying the key aroma-active compounds and selecting odor-rich accessions, which will help in the targeted improvement of sweet potato flavor in breeding.
Publication Date: 2021-10-14
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)


reductive(26)

A Substrate-Binding Metal-Organic Layer Selectively Catalyzes Photoredox Ene-Carbonyl Reductive Coupling Reactions.
Intermolecular photoredox ene-carbonyl reductive coupling reactions typically have low product selectivity owing to competing dimerization and/or reduction of ketyl radicals. Herein, we report a metal-organic layer (MOL), Hf-Ir-OTf, as a bifunctional photocatalyst for selective photoredox reductive coupling of ketones or aldehydes with electron-deficient alkenes. Composed of iridium-based photosensitizers (Ir-PSs) and triflated Hf
Publication Date: 2021-11-06
Journal: Journal of the American Chemical Society


acetone(21)

Measuring Photodissociation Product Quantum Yields Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study with Ketones.
Measurements of photolysis quantum yields are challenging because of the difficulties in measuring the first-generation photodissociation products, interference from other products or contaminants, sufficient photon fluxes and/or low absorption cross sections of the photolyte to make detectable amounts of products, and quantification of the photon flux. In the case of acetone (and other atmospherically relevant ketones) the uncertainty in the photolysis quantum yield creates uncertainty in the calculated OH radical and acyl peroxy nitrate production in the atmosphere. We present a new method for determining photodissociation product quantum yields by measuring acyl peroxy radicals (RC(O)O
Publication Date: 2021-07-30
Journal: The journal of physical chemistry. A


fasting(18)

Body mass index is inversely associated with capillary ketones at the time of colonoscopy: Implications for SGLT2i use.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at the time of colonoscopy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with ketone concentrations in SGLT2i-treated type 2 diabetes compared with non-SGLT2i-treated diabetes, and those with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and normoglycaemia. Cross-sectional, multicentre, observational study June-December 2020 in four Australian tertiary hospitals. Capillary glucose and ketones were measured in people undergoing colonoscopy: 37 SGLT2i-treated and 105 non-SGLT2i-treated type 2 diabetes, 65 IFG and 151 normoglycaemia. Body mass index (BMI), age, glucose, fasting duration and where relevant, HbA1c and time since last SGLT2i dose. In SGLT2i-treated diabetes, BMI (ρ = -0.43 [95% confidence interval: -0.67, -0.11]) and duration since last SGLT2i dose (ρ = -0.33 [-0.60, 0.00]) correlated negatively with increasing ketones, but there was no correlation with fasting duration. In non-SGLT2i-treated diabetes, BMI correlated negatively (ρ = -0.24 [-0.42, -0.05]) and fasting duration positively (ρ = 0.26 [0.07, 0.43]) with ketones. In IFG participants, only fasting duration correlated with ketones (ρ = 0.28 [0.03, 0.49]). In normoglycaemic participants, there were negative correlations with BMI (ρ = -0.20 [-0.35, -0.04]) and fasting glucose (ρ = -0.31 [-0.45, -0.15]) and positive correlations with fasting duration (ρ = 0.20 [0.04, 0.35]) and age (ρ = 0.19 [0.03, 0.34]). Multiple regression analysis of the entire cohort showed BMI, age and fasting glucose remained independently associated with ketones, but in SGLT2i-treated participants only BMI remained independently associated. In SGLT2i-treated diabetes, lower BMI was a novel risk factor for higher ketones precolonoscopy. Pending larger confirmatory studies, extra vigilance for ketoacidosis is warranted in these people.
Publication Date: 2021-10-27
Journal: Clinical endocrinology


ii(18)

Solvent-free benzylic oxidation of aromatics over Cu(II)-containing propylsalicylaldimine anchored on the surface of mesoporous silica catalysts.
A sustainable method was used to produce aromatic ketones by the solvent-free benzylic oxidation of aromatics over mesoporous Cu(II)-containing propylsalicylaldimine anchored on the surface of Santa Barbara Amorphous type material-15 (CPSA-SBA-15) catalysts. For comparison, mesoporous Cu(II)-containing propylsalicylaldimine anchored with Mobil Composition of Matter-41 (CPSA-MCM-41) was assessed for these reactions under similar reaction conditions. The washed CPSA-SBA-15(0.2) (W-CPSA-SBA-15(0.2)) catalyst was prepared using an easy chemical method for the complete removal of non-framework CuO nanoparticle species on the surface of pristine CPSA-SBA-15(0.2) (p-CPSA-SBA-15(0.2) prepared with 0.2 wt% of Cu, and its catalytic activity was evaluated with different reaction parameters, oxidants and solvents. In order to confirm the catalytic stability, the recyclability was assessed, and the performance of hot-filtration experiments was also evaluated. All the catalysts used for these catalytic reactions were characterized using many instrumental techniques to pinpoint the mesoporous nature and active sites of the catalysts. The proposed reaction mechanism has been well documented on the basis of catalytic results obtained for solvent-free oxidation of aromatics. Based on the catalytic results, we found that W-CPSA-SBA-15(0.2) is a very ecofriendly catalyst with exceptional catalytic activity.
Publication Date: 2021-10-07
Journal: Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)


β(15)

Zinc-Catalyzed β-Functionalization of Cyclopropanols via Enolized Homoenolate.
We report herein a zinc-catalyzed β-allylation of cyclopropanols with Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with retention of the cyclopropane ring. The reaction is promoted by a zinc aminoalkoxide catalyst, affording cyclopropyl-fused α-alkylidene-δ-valerolactone derivatives in moderate to good yields. Mechanistic experiments suggest that the present reaction does not proceed via direct β-C-H cleavage of the cyclopropanol, but involves zinc homoenolate and its enolization to generate a key bis-nucleophilic species. α-Allylation of this "enolized homoenolate" with MBH carbonate would be followed by regeneration of the cyclopropane ring and irreversible lactonization. The enolized homoenolate mechanism has also been proven to allow for β-functionalization with alkylidenemalononitrile as the reaction partner. A sequence of the present reaction and known cyclopropanol transformation provides an opportunity to transform a simple cyclopropanol into α,β- or β,β-difunctionalized ketones.
Publication Date: 2021-10-30
Journal: Journal of the American Chemical Society


terpenoids(13)

Analysis of flavor formation during production of Dezhou braised chicken using headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spec-trometry (HS-GC-IMS).
In order to help the poultry industry to generate higher quality products, the headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) technique was used to identify volatile substances formed during the processing of Dezhou braised chicken (DBC). A total of 37 volatile substances including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, terpenoids, furans and pyrazines were identified during DBC processing across seven sampling stages. The analyses identified 2-ethylhexanol as a key flavor chemical within the chicken carcasses, and found that ethyl acetate, 1-hexanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and 1-pentanol were mainly produced during the deep-frying stage of processing. Stewing with herbs and spices was found to be an important stage in the flavor impartation process. 2-Butanone, n-nonanal, heptanal and ethanol were positively related to processing stage 3, whereas processing stage 4 was characterized by ethyl propanoate, benzaldehyde, butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan and 2-heptanone. The processing stages 5, 6 and 7 were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from each other.
Publication Date: 2021-09-13
Journal: Food chemistry