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Query Topic: leishmania vaccine

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leishmaniasis visceral leishmaniasis vl(30)

Immunomodulatory role of Th17 pathway in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar is a vector borne protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent mainly India, Nepal and Bangladesh. It is a major public health problem in these countries mostly affecting the socio-economically poor population. Leishmaniasis ranks the third most important disease after malaria and filariasis but is still considered as one of the neglected tropical diseases of the world. For development of better therapeutic agents and effective vaccine against VL, there is a need to understand host immunological changes that play a vital role during course of infection. Therefore, we investigated the role of Th17 pathway in Balb/c mice during Leishmania donovani infection and treatment with amphotericin B. Mice were divided in four groups i.e. Control, Infected, Uninfected treated and Infected treated. The cytokine levels were estimated in the spleen of Balb/c mice on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 28, 35, 45 and 60 post infection and during course of treatment. The mRNA levels of the Th17 pathway during active Leishmania donovani infection and after treatment were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein levels by flow cytometry and ELISA. Results of our study revealed that active infection was associated with low levels of Th17 cytokines IL-17, IL-22 and IL-23 and elevated levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TGF-β. Amphotericin B treatment restored production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. The levels of transcription factor RORγt were found to correlate with the levels of IL-17 during infection and also after chemotherapy whereas STAT3 levels were elevated during infection and vice versa after treatment. The findings of this study suggest that Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are associated with protection against VL infection and development of any interventions or chemotherapeutic agents targeting Th17 pathway could be an important approach for VL treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-11-14
Journal: Immunobiology

balb c mice(246)

Immunogenicity and potential protection of DNA vaccine of Leishmania martiniquensis against Leishmania infection in mice.
In Thailand, Leishmania martiniquensis is the predominant species causing cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Its incidence has been increasing among immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We developed a prototype DNA vaccine using a partial consensus sequence of the cysteine protease B (cpb) gene derived from L. martiniquensis from Thai patients. The laboratory inbred strain of albino BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2-week intervals (weeks 0, 2, and 4) with cpb plasmid DNA (pcDNA_cpb) with or without the adjuvant, monoolein (pcDNA_cpb-MO). Mice were challenged at week 6 with L. martiniquensis promastigotes. Sera were analysed for IgG1, IgG2a, interferon gamma and interleukin 10 (IFN-γ and IL-10, respectively) levels at weeks 0, 4, and 9. Additionally, livers and spleens were also analysed for parasite burden using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain (qPCR) assays. Three weeks after promastigote challenge, vaccinated mice showed significantly increased levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ while IL-10 level was significantly reduced when compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01). Parasite burden in the livers and spleens of vaccinated mice significantly decreased. In addition, a significant increase in mature granuloma formation in the livers when compared with those of the control group (p < 0.05) was found, indicating increased T-helper cells (Th1)-induced inflammation and destruction of amastigotes. Monoolein produced a booster effect to enhance the mouse Th1 protective immunity. The prototype DNA vaccine could induce a Th1 immune response that conferred potential protection to the L. martiniquensis promastigote challenge in BALB/c mice.
Publication Date: 2021-10-21
Journal: Journal of infection in developing countries

canine visceral leishmaniasis(76)

A chimeric vaccine combined with adjuvant system induces immunogenicity and protection against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.
In Brazil, canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health problem due to its alarming growth. The high prevalence of infected dogs reinforces the need for a vaccine for use in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. In the present study, we evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the best dose of Chimera A selected through the screening of cytokines production important in disease. BALB/c mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with three doses and challenged intravenously with 1 × 10
Publication Date: 2021-04-21
Journal: Vaccine

cutaneous leishmaniasis cl(75)

Determinants of Unresponsiveness to Treatment in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Focus on Anthroponotic Form Due to
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a curable disease; however, due to various risk factors, unresponsiveness to CL treatments is inevitable. The treatment of CL has been firmly correlated with multiple determinants, such as demographical, clinical, and environmental factors, the host's immune response, poor treatment adherence, the parasite's genetic make-up, and
Publication Date: 2021-06-19
Journal: Frontiers in microbiology

leishmania major infection(67)

Lactococcus lactis expressing sand fly PpSP15 salivary protein confers long-term protection against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice.
Cutaneous leishmaniasisis a vector-borne disease transmitted by Leishmania infected sand flies. PpSP15 is an immunogenic salivary protein from the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Immunization with PpSP15 was shown to protect against Leishmania major infection. Lactococcus lactis is a safe non-pathogenic delivery system that can be used to express antigens in situ. Here, the codon-optimized Ppsp15-egfp gene was cloned in pNZ8121 vector downstream of the PrtP signal peptide that is responsible for expression and secretion of the protein on the cell wall. Expression of PpSP15-EGFP recombinant protein was monitored by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blot. Also, expression of protein in cell wall compartment was verified using whole cell ELISA, Western blot and TEM microscopy. BALB/c mice were immunized three times with recombinant L. lactis-PpSP15-EGFPcwa, and the immune responses were followed up, at short-term (ST, 2 weeks) and long-term (LT, 6 months) periods. BALB/c mice were challenged with L. major plus P. papatasi Salivary Gland Homogenate. Evaluation of footpad thickness and parasite burden showed a delay in the development of the disease and significantly decreased parasite numbers in PpSP15 vaccinated animals as compared to control group. In addition, immunized mice showed Th1 type immune responses. Importantly, immunization with L. lactis-PpSP15-EGFPcwa stimulated the long-term memory in mice which lasted for at least 6 months.
Publication Date: 2020-01-04
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases

susceptible balb c(53)

Efficacy of intranasal LaAg vaccine against Leishmania amazonensis infection in partially resistant C57Bl/6 mice.
We have previously demonstrated that intranasal vaccination of highly susceptible BALB/c mice with whole Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg) leads to protection against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we evaluate the response of partially resistant C57BL/6 mice to vaccination as a more representative experimental model of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. C57BL/6 mice from different animal facilities were infected with L. amazonensis (Josefa strain) to establish the profile of infection. Intranasal vaccination was performed before the infection challenge with two doses of 10 μg of LaAg alone or associated with the adjuvant ADDAVAX® by instillation in the nostrils. The lesion progression was measured with a dial caliper and the parasite load by limited dilution assay in the acute and chronic phases of infection. Cytokines were quantified by ELISA in the homogenates of infected footpads. C57BL/6 mice from different animal facilities presented the same L. amazonensis infection profile, displaying a progressive acute phase followed by a controlled chronic phase. Parasites cultured in M199 and Schneider's media were equally infective. Intranasal vaccination with LaAg led to milder acute and chronic phases of the disease. The mechanism of protection was associated with increased production of IFN-gamma in the infected tissue as measured in the acute phase. Association with the ADDAVAX® adjuvant did not improve the efficacy of intranasal LaAg vaccination. Rather, ADDAVAX® reduced vaccination efficacy. This study demonstrates that the efficacy of adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination with LaAg is extendable to the more resistant C57Bl/6 mouse model of infection with L. amazonensis, and is thus not exclusive to the susceptible BALB/c model. These results imply that mucosal immunomodulation by LaAg leads to peripheral protection irrespective of the genetic background of the host.
Publication Date: 2016-10-08
Journal: Parasites & vectors

public health problem(44)

From infection to vaccination: reviewing the global burden, history of vaccine development, and recurring challenges in global leishmaniasis protection.
Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem and the second most lethal parasitic disease in the world due to the lack of effective treatments and vaccines. Even when not lethal, leishmaniasis significantly affects individuals and communities through life-long disabilities, psycho-sociological trauma, poverty, and gender disparity in treatment. This review discusses the most relevant and recent research available on Pubmed and GoogleScholar highlighting leishmaniasis' global impact, pathogenesis, treatment options, and lack of effective control strategies. An effective vaccine is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality, lower health care costs, and reduce the economic burden of leishmaniasis for endemic low- and middle-income countries. Since there are several forms of leishmaniasis, a pan- Despite advances in pre-clinical vaccine research, approval of a human leishmaniasis vaccine still faces major challenges - including manufacturing of candidate vaccines under Good Manufacturing Practices, developing well-designed clinical trials suitable in endemic countries, and defined correlates of protection. In addition, there is a need to explore Challenge Human Infection Model to avoid large trials because of fluctuating incidence and prevalence of leishmanasis.
Publication Date: 2021-09-14
Journal: Expert review of vaccines

blood mononuclear cells(43)

Evolution of antigen-specific immune responses in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.
Despite immunization appearing to be the most appropriate strategy for long-term control of the vector-borne leishmaniases, no sustainable vaccine is currently available against any form of leishmaniasis. We therefore evaluated, in the context of vaccine antigen candidates, antigen-specific immune response at various stages of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from healthy volunteers and CL patients (caused by either Leishmania major or L tropica) were incubated with crude Leishmania proteins (soluble Leishmania antigen; SLA), single recombinant proteins (TSA, LeIF, LmSTI1) or chimeric fusion proteins (LEISH-F2 and LEISH-F3). The concentrations of immune modulatory cytokines were then determined. While we did not detect appreciable antigen-specific IL-5 secretion, SLA induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 in cultures from early active lesion CL patients and even from healthy individuals. Conversely, interferon (IFN)-γ responses to SLA and recombinant proteins followed a similar pattern, developing only in the late active CL lesion phase. Once established, antigen-specific IFN-γ responses persisted in cured CL patients. Together, our results provide further insight into the development of immune responses during CL and further validate the selection of LEISH-F2 and LEISH-F3 as vaccine antigen candidates.
Publication Date: 2020-12-23
Journal: Parasite immunology

sand fly saliva(32)

Conserved and distinct morphological aspects of the salivary glands of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis: an anatomical and ultrastructural study.
Sand flies are vectors of Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis in vertebrates, including man. The sand fly saliva contains powerful pharmacologically active substances that prevent hemostasis and enhance Leishmania spp. infections. On the other hand, salivary proteins can protect vaccinated mice challenged with parasites. Therefore, sand fly salivary proteins are relevant for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and can be a potential target for a vaccine against leishmaniasis. Despite this, studies on sand fly salivary glands (SGs) are limited. The present study analyzes, in detail, the morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the SGs of sand fly vectors of the genera Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus. We used histology, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and lectin labeling associated with confocal laser microscopy. The SGs have conserved and distinct morphological aspects according to the distinct sand fly species. Each SG has a single rounded lobe constituting of c.100-120 secretory cells. The SG secretory cells, according to their ultrastructure and lectin binding, were classified into five different subpopulations, which may differ in secretory pathways. To the best of our knowledge, these morphological details of sand fly salivary glands are described for the first time. Further studies are necessary to better understand the role of these different cell types and better relate them with the production and secretion of the saliva substances, which has a fundamental role in the interaction of the sand fly vectors with Leishmania.
Publication Date: 2020-09-05
Journal: Parasites & vectors

autoclaved leishmania major(26)

Therapeutic Modalities in Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness and Safety of the Treatment Options.
Post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is one of the important neglected tropical diseases, which has a tremendous epidemiological significance, being the reservoir of kala-azar. Relapse and resistance to treatment along with the lack of a drug of choice and consensus treatment guideline pose a significant problem in the management of PKDL. The aim of this article was to review the available therapeutic options for PKDL, with special emphasis on their pharmaco-dynamics, pharmaco-kinetics, effectiveness, safety, tolerability, and cost factor. A comprehensive English language literature search was done for therapeutic options in PKDL across multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane) for keywords (alone and in combination). MeSH as well as non-MeSH terms such as "Kala-azar," "Leishmaniasis" AND "Treatment," "Management," "Antimony Sodium Gluconate," "Meglumine Antimoniate," "Amphotericin B," "Paromomycin," "Miltefosine" were taken into consideration. Among 576 relevant articles, 15 were deemed relevant to this review. These articles were evaluated using "Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM)" AND "strength of recommendation taxonomy" (SORT) with respect to the level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The review includes 15 studies. The use of sodium stibogluconate is being discouraged because of multiple documented reports of treatment failure. Liposomal amphotericin B is emerging as a favorable option, owing to its superiority in terms of effectiveness and safety profile. Miltesfosine is the drug of choice in India because of the ease of oral administration and minimal risk of toxicity. Isolated Paromomycin alone is not effective in PKDL; however, combination therapy with sodium stibogluconate is found to be safe and effective. Combination of amphotericin B and miltefosine is one of the excellent options. Immunotherapy with combination of alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major (Alum/ALM) vaccine + Bacille Calmette-Gu´erin (BCG) has shown promising results. Kala-azar continues to haunt the tropical countries and PKDL being its reservoir is threatening its elimination. With the availability of drugs such as liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine, apart from the advent of immunotherapy, the future of treatment of this condition looks promising.
Publication Date: 2021-04-30
Journal: Indian journal of dermatology

activated c kinase(24)

A comprehensive analysis of LACK (Leishmania homologue of receptors for activated C kinase) in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis.
The Leishmania homologue of activated C kinase (LACK) a known T cell epitope from soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) that confers protection against Leishmania challenge. This antigen has been found to be highly conserved among Leishmania strains. LACK has been shown to be protective against L. donovani challenge. A comprehensive analysis of several LACK sequences was completed. The analysis shows a high level of conservation, lower variability and higher antigenicity in specific portions of the LACK protein. This information provides insights for the potential consideration of LACK as a putative candidate in the context of visceral Leishmaniasis vaccine target.
Publication Date: 2013-10-22
Journal: Bioinformation

leishmania donovani(318)

Molecular docking analysis of an isoflavone derivative with the protein phosphatase 1 from Leishmania donovani.
Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected diseases with high morbidity and mortality rate. Severe side effects with existing drug and lack of proper vaccine encouraged us to design alternative models to combat the disease. We showed that PP1 of Leishmania donovani mediates immunomodulation in host macrophages needed for parasite survival. Therefore, it is of interest to report the molecular docking analysis of 512 isoflavone derivatives with the phosphatase 1 protein from Leishmania donovani to highlight compound 362 (5-hydroxy-5-{9-[2-methoxy-2-(2-methylfuran-3-yl) ethyl]-1H, 3H, 4H, 10bH-pyrano[4,3-c]chromen-3-yl}pentanoic acid) having good binding features and acceptable ADMET properties for further consideration.
Publication Date: 2021-11-23
Journal: Bioinformation

leishmania infantum(257)

Live attenuated Leishmania major p27 gene knockout as a novel vaccine candidate: A study on safety, protective immunity and efficacy against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum.
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is an important parasitic e disease caused by Leishmania infantum and is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies primarily between canines and secondarily to humans. Recently, we showed that immunization with Leishmania major p27 gene knockout (Lmp27
Publication Date: 2021-10-12
Journal: Acta tropica

vaccine candidates(167)

A T-Cell Epitope-Based Multi-Epitope Vaccine Designed Using Human HLA Specific T Cell Epitopes Induces a Near-Sterile Immunity against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting 12 million people annually. Even in the second decade of the 21st century, it has remained without an effective vaccine for human use. In the current study, we designed three multiepitope vaccine candidates by the selection of multiple IFN-γ inducing MHC-I and MHC-II binder T-cell specific epitopes from three previously identified antigen genes of
Publication Date: 2021-10-27
Journal: Vaccines

present study(130)

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Canine Leishmaniasis in Egypt.
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is caused by The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of CanL in dogs from Egypt and assessed the associated risk factors. The study was conducted from 2019 to 2020 in five governorates situated in Northern Egypt. Serum samples from 450 asymptomatic dogs were serologically examined by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, the seroprevalence rate of CanL was 21.3% and the highest rates were observed in Cairo and Giza governorates. The univariable analysis revealed that the seropositivity of CanL was strongly related to the dogs' ages, length of hair, absence of veterinary care or application of insecticides, and the type of floor of their shelters. The risk factors that were found to be associated with CanL in exposed dogs were: age group 2-4 years old (OR = 12, 95% CI: 1.6-92.3); short hair (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.2-3.6); absence of veterinary care (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8); no application of insecticides (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.5-6.5) and their residence in a shelter with an earthen floor (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.7-2.9). Based on the present results, CanL is present in Egyptian dogs and this increases the possibility of transmission by sand fly to humans with whom they have contact. Consequently, an efficient monitoring programme and effective control measures are important to reduce the risk of infection.
Publication Date: 2021-10-23
Journal: Veterinary sciences

leishmania species(118)

Current status of nanoscale drug delivery and the future of nano-vaccine development for leishmaniasis - A review.
The study of tropical diseases like leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, has not received much attention even though it is the second-largest infectious disease after malaria. As per the WHO report, a total of 0.7-1.0 million new leishmaniasis cases, which are spread by 23 Leishmania species in more than 98 countries, are estimated with an alarming 26,000-65,000 death toll every year. Lack of potential vaccines along with the cost and toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB), the most common drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis, has raised the interest significantly for new formulations and drug delivery systems including nanoparticle-based delivery as anti-leishmanial agents. The size, shape, and high surface area to volume ratio of different NPs make them ideal for many biological applications. The delivery of drugs through liposome, polymeric, and solid-lipid NPs provides the advantage of high biocomatibilty of the carrier with reduced toxicity. Importantly, NP-based delivery has shown improved efficacy due to targeted delivery of the payload and synergistic action of NP and payload on the target. This review analyses the advantage of NP-based delivery over standard chemotherapy and natural product-based delivery system. The role of different physicochemical properties of a nanoscale delivery system is discussed. Further, different ways of nanoformulation delivery ranging from liposome, niosomes, polymeric, metallic, solid-lipid NPs were updated along with the possible mechanisms of action against the parasite. The status of current nano-vaccines and the future potential of NP-based vaccine are elaborated here.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie

leishmania parasites(92)

Chemical control and insecticide resistance status of sand fly vectors worldwide.
Phlebotomine sand flies are prominent vectors of Leishmania parasites that cause leishmaniasis, which comes second to malaria in terms of parasitic causative fatalities globally. In the absence of human vaccines, sand fly chemical-based vector control is a key component of leishmaniasis control efforts. We performed a literature review on the current interventions, primarily, insecticide-based used for sand fly control, as well as the global insecticide resistance (IR) status of the main sand fly vector species. Indoor insecticidal interventions, such as residual spraying and treated bed nets are the most widely deployed, while several alternative control strategies are also used in certain settings and/or are under evaluation. IR has been sporadically detected in sand flies in India and other regions, using non-standardized diagnostic bioassays. Molecular studies are limited to monitoring of known pyrethroid resistance mutations (kdr), which are present at high frequencies in certain regions. As the leishmaniasis burden remains a major problem at a global scale, evidence-based rational use of insecticidal interventions is required to meet public health demands. Standardized bioassays and molecular markers are a prerequisite for this task, albeit are lagging behind. Experiences from other disease vectors underscore the need for the implementation of appropriate IR management (IRM) programs, in the framework of integrated vector management (IVM). The implementation of alternative strategies seems context- and case-specific, with key eco-epidemiological parameters yet to be investigated. New biotechnology-based control approaches might also come into play in the near future to further reinforce sand fly/leishmaniasis control efforts.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases

neglected tropical(89)

In vitro evaluation of CRISPR PX-LmGP63 vector effect on pathogenicity of Leishmania major as a primary step to control leishmaniasis.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by intracellular obligate parasites (Leishmania spp.) carried by the blood-sucking of female sandflies and transmitted between mammalian hosts. Despite the high incidence and prevalence of Leishmania cases in many countries, it has been a neglected tropical disease. The current treatment approaches are limited by the complications such as loss of fertility and drug resistance. It is, therefore, essential to find new medicines to treat leishmaniasis. CRISPR/Cas9 as a powerful genome-editing tool provides the opportunity to create precise genetic manipulation to investigate the molecular basis of different leishmaniasis cases. Therefore, our main goal was to evaluate the CRISPR PX-LmGP63 vector effect on pathogenicity of Leishmania majorin vitroto challenge for using CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapeutic CL through the reduction of L. major pathogenicity by manipulating the GP63 gene. In this study, L. major parasites were transfected with CRISPR/Cas9 vectors constructed by electroporation and then added to macrophage cells on RPMI. The effect of CRISPR/Cas9 constructs on GP63 mutation, viability, and status of L. major was investigated by counting phagocytic parasites into macrophages and DNA sequence analysis. Our data validate that the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in L. major creates a new stop codon and disrupts the frame sheet of the gene by creating a new insertion (thymine), which prevents its expression. In addition, the parasite count was significantly different in the case and control of infected macrophages (P < 0.05). This study shows the successfully targeted manipulation of the L. major GP63 gene via the adaptation of the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool. The manipulation of GP63 revealed a reduction in the infection load compared to wild-type parasite infection. Therefore, more studies are necessary for this field to help achieve a new method for the prevention and treatment of CL disease.
Publication Date: 2021-11-10
Journal: Microbial pathogenesis

dna vaccine(87)

Quantitative evaluation of PpSP15-LmSTI1 fusion gene expression following transfection with an alphavirus-derived self-amplifying mRNA and conventional DNA vaccine platforms.
New vaccine platforms are crucial to address complex parasitic infections such as cutaneous leishmaniasis. Self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) based vaccines represent the next generation nucleic acid-based platform. In the present study, we compared the expression levels of PpSP15-LmSTI1 fusion gene in BHK-21 cells following transfection with Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-derived SAM, SFV-derived plasmid DNA (pSFV-PD) and conventional plasmid DNA (pcDNA3.1+). PpSP15-LmSTI1 fusion gene expression levels were evaluated at different time points, using quantitative Real-time PCR. All data were validated and normalized by two internal control genes. According to the results, mean values of relative expression were significantly higher for SFV-PD SAM/fusion than pcDNA/fusion and pSFV-PD/fusion at all concentrations and time points. Our results showed that higher levels of PpSp15-LmSTI1 antigen expression could be achieved using a SAM vector than pcDNA and pSFV-PD, making it a valuable and efficient alternative to conventional plasmid DNA-based vaccines against leishmaniasis.
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: Molecular and cellular probes

protective efficacy(61)

Protective Efficacy in a Hamster Model of a Multivalent Vaccine for Human Visceral Leishmaniasis (MuLeVaClin) Consisting of the KMP11, LEISH-F3+, and LJL143 Antigens in Virosomes, Plus GLA-SE Adjuvant.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe clinical form of leishmaniasis, fatal if untreated. Vaccination is the most cost-effective approach to disease control; however, to date, no vaccines against human VL have been made available. This work examines the efficacy of a novel vaccine consisting of the
Publication Date: 2021-11-28
Journal: Microorganisms

leishmania mexicana(54)

Activity In Vitro of 2-Chloro-N-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-Thiazolyl]Acetamide Against Promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana: An Apoptosis Inducer.
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by insects that proliferate mainly in impoverished environments of tropical climates. In the absence of an effective vaccine, pharmacological treatment is the main tool to combat this disease. The objective of this work was to analyze the anti-leishmanial activity of 2-chloro-N-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-thiazolyl] acetamide (AT) in promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. The biological activity of the compound was evaluated using a sulphorhodamine B cytotoxicity test and the integrity of the erythrocytes was evaluated by a lysis test. The anti-trypanosomatid activity was evaluated in vitro, a cell death assay was performed by flow cytometry (IP/Annexin V stain) and a parasite growth recovery assay was performed. The AT showed a CC50 value of 0.031 µM for HeLa cells after 24 h of exposure, which did not induce erythrocyte lysis. On the other hand, the AT showed an IC50 value of 0.086 µM for L. mexicana (promastigote form) after 24 h of interaction. The compound was capable of inducing apoptosis in the parasites and did not allow recovery after 24 h of exposure. This study provides valuable information with the objective of developing new drugs for the treatment of this disease, although more research on this molecule is needed to improve its biological activity.
Publication Date: 2021-02-23
Journal: Acta parasitologica

dendritic cells(51)

Effects of Dendritic Cell Vaccine Activated with Components of Lieshmania Major on Tumor Specific Response.
Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute essentially to the outset and course of immune responses. So in patients with malignancy, there have been considerable interests in use of these cells in different interventions. To evaluate the impact of Leishmania major's components on DC maturation and their use as a therapeutic agent against tumor cells. The cancer model was induced by injection of WEHI-164 cells (BALB/c derived fibrosarcoma cell line) subcutaneously in the right flank of animals. Bone-marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) were cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4. After 5 days, tumor lysate, Leishmania major's lysate, and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were added to the culture and incubated for 2 days. IL-12 production in DCs was measured by ELISA. For Immunotherapy, Mice received DCs subcutaneously around the tumor site. Two weeks after DCs injection, cytotoxicity assay and infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes were evaluated. Our results showed that immunotherapy with dendritic cells exposed to Leishmania extract led to producing a higher amount of IL-12, compare to the control group. A considerable increment in specific cytotoxic T cells activity, diminished tumor growth rate and improved survival of immunized animals were seen. This study indicates that the use of Leishmania major extract, as well as LPS, can enhance the efficiency of DC-based vaccines and provides a basis for the use of Leishmania major in DC-targeted clinical therapies.
Publication Date: 2019-12-31
Journal: Iranian journal of immunology : IJI

drug resistance(48)

GC-MS screening and antiparasitic action of
Looming drug resistance cases of leishmaniasis infection are an undeniably serious danger to worldwide public health, also jeopardize the efficacy of available drugs. Besides this, no successful vaccine is available till date. Since the ancient era, many plants and their parts have been used as medicines against various ailments. Hence, the importance of drug development for new molecules against
Publication Date: 2021-11-19
Journal: Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology

leishmanial antigens(48)

Nano-co-delivery of lipophosphoglycan with soluble and autoclaved leishmania antigens into PLGA nanoparticles: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory effects against visceral leishmaniasis.
The aim of the present study was to encapsulate lipophosphoglycan molecule (LPG) which is one of the most immunogenic antigens of Leishmania parasites into PLGA nanoparticles with autoclaved or soluble leishmanial antigens, characterize synthetized nanoparticles with different methods and evaluate their in vitro/in vivo immunostimulatory activities to develop new vaccine candidates. PLGA nanoparticles including LPG and autoclaved leishmania antigen (ALA) or soluble leishmania antigen (ALA) were synthetized by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The synthetized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and Zeta-sizer instruments for determination of size, zeta potentials and polydispersity index (PDI) values. The antigen release profiles and encapsulation efficiencies were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Griess reaction and ELISA tests were used for measurements of produced nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine levels of macrophages and splenocytes treated with nanoparticles. For determination of protective effects of nanoparticles, parasite reduction in livers and spleens of immunized mice were calculated by LDU values post-infection. According to results, (SLA-LPG) PLGA NPs and (ALA-LPG) PLGA NPs possessed the sizes of 253 and 307 nm respectively. Antigen-loaded nanoparticles elevated the released NO amounts from macrophages for 14 and 18-folds in contrast to control. Furthermore, synthetized nanoparticles significantly triggered macrophages to produce excessive levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines. Besides it was detected that vaccination of mice with (SLA-LPG) PLGA NPs and (ALA-LPG) PLGA NPs elicited approximately 80% protection from Visceral Leishmaniasis. Furthermore, (SLA-LPG) PLGA NPs and (ALA-LPG) PLGA NPs lead to 10 to 14-folds increase in secreted Th1 cytokine levels from splenocytes than control demonstrating abundantly stimulation of T cell response following to vaccination with nano-vaccine formulations. These results reveal that both (SLA-LPG) PLGA NPs and (ALA-LPG) PLGA NPs have excellent immunostimulatory activities and they are promising nanovaccine formulations for the prevention of leishmaniasis in near future.
Publication Date: 2021-02-07
Journal: Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications

leishmaniasis vaccine(47)

Overcoming roadblocks in the development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.
The leishmaniases represent a group of parasitic diseases caused by infection with one of several species of We describe some of the existing roadblocks to the development and implementation of an effective leishmaniasis vaccine, based on a review of recent literature found on PubMed, BioRxiv and MedRxiv. In addition to discussing scientific unknowns that hinder vaccine candidate identification and selection, we explore gaps in knowledge regarding the commercial and public health value propositions underpinning vaccine development and provide a route map for future research and advocacy. Despite significant progress, leishmaniasis vaccine development remains hindered by significant gaps in understanding that span the vaccine development pipeline. Increased coordination and adoption of a more holistic view to vaccine development will be required to ensure more rapid progress in the years ahead.
Publication Date: 2021-11-04
Journal: Expert review of vaccines

leishmaniasis cvl(41)

Performance of recombinant proteins in diagnosis and differentiation of canine visceral leishmaniasis infected and vaccinated dogs.
Control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), a major zoonotic disease in Brazil and many other tropical and subtropical countries, remains difficult as an accurate and reliable diagnosis is still missing. In endemic regions, infected dogs are the main parasitic reservoir host of human Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection. Vaccination of dogs against Leishmania infection constitutes an important strategy to prevent or to better control CVL, thus, a serological test that can discriminate between antibodies induced by immunization versus infection is highly desirable in order to improve and simplify diagnosis. Here, four recombinant proteins were evaluated for their ability to detect and differentiate between dogs that are infected with Leishmania or have been immunized with the anti-Leishmania vaccine Leish-Tec®. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the four Leishmania-specific IgG ELISA revealed superior performance of rK28, followed by rKLO8, rK39 and rLb6H. The rK28-based ELISA revealed not only the best accuracy against CVL, but also the lowest cross-reactivity with sera from Leish-Tec® immunized dogs. Our data show that the rK28-based ELISA is highly suitable for CVL screening as it shows high sensitivity with simultaneous low cross-reactivity. Further, the high specificity of the rKLO8 indicates its suitability for the confirmation of CVL diagnosis.
Publication Date: 2020-08-29
Journal: European journal of microbiology & immunology

killed leishmania(40)

Pam3CSK4 adjuvant given intranasally boosts anti-Leishmania immunogenicity but not protective immune responses conferred by LaAg vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.
The use of adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a well-established practice to improve immunogenicity and protective immunity against diseases. Previously, we have demonstrated the feasibility of intranasal vaccination with the antigen of killed Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes (LaAg) against experimental leishmaniasis. In this work, we sought to optimize the immunogenic effect and protective immunity against murine visceral leishmaniasis conferred by intranasal delivery of LaAg in combination with a synthetic TLR1/TLR2 agonist (Pam3CSK4). Intranasal vaccination with LaAg/PAM did not show toxicity or adverse effects, induced the increase of delayed-type hypersensitivity response and the production of inflammatory cytokines after parasite antigen recall. However, mice vaccinated with LaAg/PAM and challenged with Leishmania infantum presented significant reduction of parasite burden in both liver and spleen, similar to those vaccinated with LaAg. Although LaAg/PAM intranasal vaccination had induced higher frequencies of specific CD4
Publication Date: 2019-03-01
Journal: Microbes and infection

leishmania tarentolae(34)

Immunization with Leishmania tarentolae-derived norovirus virus-like particles elicits high humoral response and stimulates the production of neutralizing antibodies.
Noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Unfortunately, the development of an effective norovirus vaccine has proven difficult and no prophylactic vaccine is currently available. Further research on norovirus vaccine development should be considered an absolute priority and novel vaccine candidates are needed. One of the recent approaches in safe vaccine development is the use of virus-like particles (VLPs). VLP-based vaccines show great immunogenic potential as they mimic the morphology and structure of viral particles without the presence of the virus genome. This study is the first report showing successful production of norovirus VLPs in the protozoan Leishmania tarentolae (L. tarentolae) expression system. Protozoan derived vaccine candidate is highly immunogenic and able to not only induce a strong immune response (antibody titer reached 10 Norovirus VLPs produced in L. tarentolae could be relevant for the development of the norovirus vaccine.
Publication Date: 2021-09-26
Journal: Microbial cell factories

chagas disease(34)

[Climate change and vector-borne diseases in Argentina].
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoiding the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the installation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETVs) continúan siendo un desafío para los esfuerzos de agencias de salud pública, ya que mantienen o están aumentando su impacto sobre la salud de las comunidades afectadas. La característica común de las ETVs es que la única manera de prevenir exitosamente nuevas infecciones es evitar el contacto entre vectores y humanos. No existen vacunas y no existirán en un futuro previsible para las principales ETVs que afectan la salud pública en Argentina. Aunque las epidemias de dengue desde 2009 atrajeron la atención mediática, otras ETVs, tales como Chagas o leishmaniasis, afectan la salud pública en Argentina desde hace décadas. Sobre ellas, y otras que potencialmente podrían instalarse en el territorio nacional (West Nile, Lyme, etc) hay repetidas referencias mediáticas que explican su recrudecimiento por el cambio climático. El argumento se basa en que la "tropicalización" del clima en regiones templadas promueve la instalación de ETVs en áreas previamente no favorables para ellas. Aunque existen muchas evidencias de que el clima está cambiando, son pocas las evidencias de que sea el clima el principal factor que promueve el recrudecimiento de las ETVs en Argentina. En este artículo, se discute la situación de los vectores de enfermedades en Argentina (con énfasis en triatominos), su vinculación con el llamado cambio climático y las actividades de control de vectores implementados por agencias gubernamentales de salud pública.
Publication Date: 2021-06-18
Journal: Medicina

leishmania viannia(24)

Contribution of Leishmania braziliensis antigen-specific CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK and CD3+CD56+NKT cells in the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients: Cytotoxic, activation and exhaustion profiles.
The pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is dictated mainly by the immune-mediated-tissue inflammation developed. The understanding of the immunological mechanisms that generate tissue damage or resolution of lesions is the key to the development of effective vaccine protocols and proper therapeutic schemes. It is clear that the specific immune response mediated by T cells is responsible for the beneficial outcome of the disease, however, the roles of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK and NKT cell subpopulations in immunopathogenesis of CL need to be elucidated. Peripheral blood cells from patients before, during and after the antimonial therapy, as well as healthy individuals (HI) were cultured with (LbAgS) or without (NS) L. braziliensis antigens (LbAg). Afterwards, the frequencies of LbAg-specific-cytotoxic CD8+ T, CD4+ T, NK and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells, as well as their activation and exhaustion profiles, were defined by flow cytometry. We observed higher frequencies of CD8+ T, NK and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells and lower frequencies of CD4+ T lymphocytes in LbAgS cell cultures from patients before treatment. The specific response to LbAg resulted in an expansion of cytotoxic-activated CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells, before and during treatment, indicating specificity in the response by these cells against L. braziliensis. Furthermore, comparing the differences of frequencies of cytotoxic-activated CD4+T, CD8+T, and NK cells, among before and during treatment patients and HI groups, we conclude that these cell populations are in charge of immune response elicited by antimonial therapy. Interestingly, we also observed that NK cells were induced by LbAg to an exhaustion profile during all clinical stages of the disease. The increased antigen-specific activation and cytotoxic activity are in line with the strong inflammatory response described in this disease, a likely cause of tissue damage. These findings reinforce the involvement of these distinct cytotoxic-activated cell populations in the immunopathogenesis of CL, showing a character of specificity in this immune response.
Publication Date: 2020-03-24
Journal: PloS one

vl caused(23)

Critical Antileishmanial in vitro Effects of Highly Examined Gold Nanoparticles.
The current therapeutic armory for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by GNP were synthesized and characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and for optical properties by UV-visible spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of GNP was measured by the MTT proliferation assay. The antileishmanial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated against GNP showed a strong SPR peak at 520 nm and mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of 56.0 ± 10 nm, 0.3 ± 0.1 and -27.0 ± 3 mV, respectively. The GNPs were smooth and spherical with a mean particle diameter of 20 ± 5 nm. Nanoparticles [1.2-100 µM] did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line, but exerted significant activity against both promastigotes and amastigote stages of GNP may provide a platform to conjugate antileishmanial drugs onto the surface of nanoparticles to enhance their therapeutic effectiveness against VL. Further work is warranted, involving more in-depth mechanistic studies and in vivo investigations.
Publication Date: 2021-11-06
Journal: International journal of nanomedicine

major alm(21)

Immunization Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Alginate Microspheres Loaded With Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponins.
Leishmania antigens are weak immunogens and need to be potentiated by various adjuvants and delivery systems. Alginate microspheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as immunoadjuvant have been used to enhance the immune response against Autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). Microspheres were prepared by an emulsification technique and characterized for size, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of encapsulates. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-weeks intervals using ALM plus QS loaded microspheres [(ALM+QS)ALG], ALM encapsulated with alginate microspheres [(ALM)ALG], (ALM)ALG + QS, ALM + QS, ALM alone or PBS. The intensity of infection induced by L. major challenge was assessed by measuring size of footpad swelling. The strongest protection, showed by significantly (P < 0.05) smaller footpad, were observed in mice immunized with (ALM)ALG+QS. The (ALM+QS)ALG, ALM and PBS groups showed the least protection and highest swelling, while the (ALM)ALG and ALM+QS showed an intermediate protection with no significant difference. The mice immunized with (ALM+QS)ALG showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (P<0.05). The highest IFN-γ and IL-4 production was seen in ALM+QS (P<0.01). It is concluded that QS adjuvant has a mixed Th1/Th2 effect and has increased both humoral and cellular immune responses.
Publication Date: 2016-09-20
Journal: Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR

antigens sla(21)

Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with Whole and Soluble Leishmania Antigens, and Evaluation of Their Immunogenecity in a Mouse Model of Leishmaniasis.
Although there have been numerous attempts to develop vaccines for Leishmaniasis, no vaccine can be found against Leishmania in routine use for an effective global vaccination. It seems that one of the reasons for the low efficacy of such vaccines is the lack of a suitable adjuvant. To evaluate the effects of chitosan nanoparticles containing whole Leishmania lysate antigen (WLL) and soluble leishmania antigens (SLA), a first generation Leishmania vaccine, on the type of immune response generated in BALB/c in a murine model of leishmaniasis. The optimum coating ratio between the polymer and antigens was determined according to their physico-chemical properties such as particle size and zeta potential. Chitosan nanoparticles were loaded with antigens via ionic gelation method. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously three times with various nanoparticulate and free antigens with 2-week intervals. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference concerning the footpad thickness of mice immunized with nanoparticulate formulations containing either SLA or WLL during the experiment period; these formulations induced a strong mixed Th1/Th2 type immune response characterized by the production of IFN-γ and IL-4, and high levels of IgG2a IgG1 anti-Leishmania antibody. Nanoparticulate formulations (CHT: SLA and CHT: WLL) are not suitable candidates for preferential induction of a pure Th1-type immune response and immunization against Leishmania infection. However, it might be a good strategy in other infectious diseases where a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response is required.
Publication Date: 2018-12-30
Journal: Iranian journal of immunology : IJI

viannia braziliensis(16)

Effect on cellular recruitment and the innate immune response by combining saponin, monophosphoryl lipid-A and Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis antigens for a vaccine formulation.
The poor immunogenicity displayed by some antigens has encouraged the development of strategies to improve the immune response and safety of vaccine candidates, resulting in an intense search for substances that potentiate vaccine response. Adjuvants have these properties helping vaccine candidates to induce a strong, durable, and fast immune response. In this study, we evaluated the specific immune response of adjuvants alone, Saponin (SAP), Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) and Monophosphoryl lipid-A SE (MPL-SE®) and in combination with total antigen of L. braziliensis (LB): LBSAP, LBIFA and LBMPL. The specific immune response induced by these compositions demonstrated that they were powerfully immunogenic, increasing cellular infiltration in the skin. Draining lymph nodes cultures showed that LBIFA and LBMPL have higher ability to increase the capacity of APCs to present antigens, with increased frequency of CD11c
Publication Date: 2019-10-03
Journal: Vaccine

lipophosphoglycan lpg(13)

Leishmania lipophosphoglycan components: A potent target for synthetic neoglycoproteins as a vaccine candidate for leishmaniasis.
Leishmania is an obligate intracellular pathogen that invades phagocytic host cells. Due to its high morbidity and mortality rates, leishmaniasis attracts significant attention. The disease, which is caused by Leishmania parasites, is distributed worldwide, particularly among developing communities, and causes fatal complications if not treated expediently. Unfortunately, the existing treatments are not preventive and do not impede Leishmania infection. Many drugs available for leishmaniasis are becoming less effective due to emerging resistance in some Leishmania species. Other drugs have drawbacks such as low cost-effectiveness, toxicity, and side effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers leishmaniasis to be a major public health problem and suggests that the best prevention is to develop a vaccine for this dangerous disease. In this review, we focus on the unique components of lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a component of the Leishmania cell wall, particularly [Galp(1 → 4)-β-[Manp-(1 → 2)-α-Manp-(1 → 2)-α]-Manp] in the cryptic tetrasaccharide cap, and on synthetic approaches as a potent candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine.
Publication Date: 2020-04-04
Journal: Carbohydrate polymers


Leishmaniasis causes parasitic infections, especially in developing countries. The disease has not yet been controlled because of the absence of an effective vaccine and low-cost treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-11-27
Journal: Archives of Razi Institute


Human leishmaniasis vaccines: Use cases, target population and potential global demand.
The development of vaccines against one or all forms of human leishmaniasis remains hampered by a paucity of investment, at least in part resulting from the lack of well-evidenced and agreed estimates of vaccine demand. Starting from the definition of 4 main use cases (prevention of visceral leishmaniasis, prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis, prevention of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis), we have estimated the size of each target population, focusing on those endemic countries where incidence levels are sufficiently high to justify decisions to adopt a vaccine. We assumed a dual vaccine delivery strategy, including a wide age-range catch-up campaign before the start of routine immunisation. Vaccine characteristics and delivery parameters reflective of a target product profile and the likely duration of the clinical development effort were considered in forecasting the demand for each of the four indications. Over a period of 10 years, this demand is forecasted to range from 300-830 million doses for a vaccine preventing visceral leishmaniasis and 557-1400 million doses for a vaccine preventing cutaneous leishmaniasis under the different scenarios we simulated. In a scenario with an effective prophylactic visceral leishmaniasis vaccine, demand for use to prevent or treat post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis would be more limited (over the 10 years ~160,000 doses for prevention and ~7,000 doses for treatment). Demand would rise to exceed 330,000 doses, however, in the absence of an effective vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis. Because of the sizeable demand and potential for public health impact, a single-indication prophylactic vaccine for visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, and even more so a cross-protective prophylactic vaccine could attract the interest of commercial developers. Continuous refinement of these first-of-their kind estimates and confirmation of country willingness and ability to pay will be paramount to inform the decisions of policy makers and developers in relation to a leishmaniasis vaccine. Positive decisions can provide a much-needed contribution towards the achievement of global leishmaniasis control.
Publication Date: 2021-09-22
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases


Heterocyclic Diamines with Leishmanicidal Activity.
Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases with a worldwide prevalence of 12 million people. There are no effective human vaccines for its prevention, and outdated drugs hamper treatment. Therefore, research aimed at developing new therapeutic tools to fight leishmaniasis remains a crucial goal today. With this purpose in mind, here, we present 10 new compounds made up by linking alkylated ethylenediamine units to pyridine or quinoline heterocycles with promising in vitro and in vivo efficacy against promastigote and amastigote forms of
Publication Date: 2021-11-05
Journal: ACS infectious diseases


The Comparison of the IFN-ɤ, TNF-α and IL-10 Cytokines in Healing and Non-healing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Leishmaniasis is one of the main vectors borne and neglected tropical parasitic diseases. T cell cytokine responses are highly important in the presentations of disease such as control or progression, and understanding of the host immunological response is valuable in diagnosis, follow-up, and vaccine designs. In the current study, the profile of IFN-ɤ, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines was investigated through the ELISA technique in PBMCs isolated from antimony resistance and susceptible patients. In this experimental study, 54 patients with healing (n=27) or non-healing (n=27) CL were recruited. Lesion samples were collected to determine the genotype of The IFN-ɤ and TNF-α cytokines were significantly increased in the healing group treated with both SLA antigen and PHA mitogen ( The profile of IFN-ɤ, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines are crucially associated with the response of treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-10-12
Journal: Iranian journal of parasitology


Determinants of Innate Immunity in Visceral Leishmaniasis and Their Implication in Vaccine Development.
Leishmaniasis is endemic to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is transmitted by the bite of an infected sand fly. The multifaceted interactions between
Publication Date: 2021-10-30
Journal: Frontiers in immunology


Murine Susceptibility to
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic infectious disease broadly distributed worldwide, causing a range of diseases with clinical outcomes ranging from self-healing infections to chronic disfiguring disease. The effective immune response to this infection is yet to be more comprehensively understood and is fundamental for developing drugs and vaccines. Thus, we used experimental models of susceptibility (BALB/c) and partial resistance (C57BL/6) to
Publication Date: 2021-10-19
Journal: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology


Leishmania Parasite: the Impact of New Serum-Free Medium as an Alternative for Fetal Bovine Serum
Flagellated protozoan of the genus Leishmania is the causative agent of vector-borne parasitic diseases of leishmaniasis. Since the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins requires the cultivation of host cells in a serum-free medium, the elimination of FBS can improve the possibility of large-scale culture of Leishmania parasite. In the current study, we aimed at evaluating a new serum-free medium in Leishmania parasite culture for future live Leishmania vaccine purposes. Recombinant L. tarentolae secreting PpSP15-EGFP and wild type L. major were cultured in serum-free (complete serum-free medium [CSFM]) and serum-supplemented medium. The growth rate, protein expression, and infectivity of cultured parasites in both conditions was then evaluated and compared. Diff-Quick staining and epi-fluores¬cence microscopy examination displayed the typical morphology of L. major and L. tarentolae-PpSP15-EGFP promastigote grown in CSFM medium. The amount of EGFP expression was similar in CSMF medium compared to M199 supplemented with 5% FBS in flow cytometry analysis of L. tarentolae-PpSP15-EGFP parasite. Also, a similar profile of PpSP15-EGFP proteins was recognized in Western blot analysis of L. tarentolae-PpSP15-EGFP cultured in CSMF and the serum-supplemented medium. Footpad swelling and parasite load measurements showed the ability of CSFM medium to support the L. major infectivity in BALB/C mice. This study demonstrated that CSFM can be a promising substitute for FBS supplemented medium in parasite culture for live vaccination purposes.
Publication Date: 2021-09-05
Journal: Iranian biomedical journal


Antileishmanial potential of immunomodulator gallic acid against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.
The menace of the enfeebling disease leishmaniasis prevails due to the inaccessibility of effective vaccine and chemotherapy. Hence in the pursuit of finding novel alternative options with reasonable efficacy, immunomodulation, leishmanicidal activity and fewer side effects, screening of compounds from natural sources is needed. This study was focused on in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial screening of gallic acid (GA) against Leishmania donovani infection in BALB/c mice. GA showed in vitro parasiticidal activity and IC
Publication Date: 2021-08-05
Journal: Parasite immunology


Role of two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase associated proteins (Endothelial Monocyte Activating Polypeptides 1 and 2) of Leishmania donovani in chemotaxis of human monocytes.
Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. It is a fatal form of leishmaniasis prevalent in Indian subcontinent. Since there are no human licensed vaccines available for leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic drugs remain the only means for combating parasitic infections. We have earlier identified a total of 26 amino-acyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS) along with five stand-alone editing domains and two aaRS-associated proteins in Leishmania donovani. In addition to their canonical role of tRNA aminoacylation, aaRS have been involved in novel functions by acquiring novel domains during evolution. The aaRS-associated proteins have been reported to be analogous to a human cytokine, EMAP II, as they possess a modified version of the heptapeptide motif responsible for the cytokine activity. In this manuscript, we report the characterization of two L. donovani aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase associated proteins which showed a human chemokine like activity. Both the proteins, L. donovani EMAP-1 and EMAP-2, possess a modified form of the heptapeptide motif, which is responsible for cytokine activity in human EMAP-2. LdEMAP-1 and LdEMAP-2 were cloned, expressed, and purified. Both LdEMAP-1 and LdEMAP-2 proteins in the promastigote stage were found to be localized in cytoplasm as confirmed by immunofluorescence. In case of L. donovani infected human THP-1 derived macrophages, secretion of LdEMAP-1 and LdEMAP-2 proteins in the cytosol of the macrophages was observed. The role of LdEMAP-1 and LdEMAP-2 in the aminoacylation of rLdTyrRS was also tested and LdEMAP-2 but not LdEMAP-1 increased the rate of aminoacylation of tyrosyl tRNA synthetase (rLdTyrRS). L. donovani EMAP-1 and EMAP-2 proteins managed to exhibit the capability of attracting human origin cells as determined by chemotaxis assay, and also were able to induce the secretion of cytokines from macrophages like their human counterpart (EMAP II). Our working hypothesis is that both of these proteins might be involved in helping the parasite to establish the infection within the host.
Publication Date: 2021-09-13
Journal: Acta tropica


Intranasal vaccine from whole Leishmania donovani antigens provides protection and induces specific immune response against visceral leishmaniasis.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease associated with high fatality rate in developing countries. Although the drug pipeline is constantly improving, available treatments are costly and live-threatening side effects are not uncommon. Moreover, an approved vaccine against human leishmaniasis does not exist yet. Using whole antigens from Leishmania donovani promastigotes (LdAg), we investigated the protective potential of a novel adjuvant-free vaccine strategy. Immunization of mice with LdAg via the intradermal or the intranasal route prior to infection decreases the parasitic burden in primary affected internal organs, including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Interestingly, the intranasal route is more efficient than the intradermal route, leading to better parasite clearance and remarkable induction of adaptive immune cells, notably the helper and cytotoxic T cells. In vitro restimulation experiments with Leishmania antigens led to significant IFN-γ secretion by splenocytes; therefore, exemplifying specificity of the adaptive immune response. To improve mucosal delivery and the immunogenic aspects of our vaccine strategy, we used polysaccharide-based nanoparticles (NP) that carry the antigens. The NP-LdAg formulation is remarkably taken up by dendritic cells and induces their maturation in vitro, as revealed by the increased expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC II. Intranasal immunization with NP-LdAg does not improve the parasite clearance in our experimental timeline; however, it does increase the percentage of effector and memory T helper cells in the spleen, suggesting a potential induction of long-term memory. Altogether, this study provides a simple and cost-effective vaccine strategy against visceral leishmaniasis based on LdAg administration via the intranasal route, which could be applicable to other parasitic diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases


Evasion of the complement system by Leishmania through the uptake of factor H, a complement regulatory protein.
Escaping the complement system is an important step in the establishment of infections. Some pathogens have acquired the ability to inactivate the complement system to ensure successful infection. This has been observed in parasites from the genus Leishmania, which inactivate C3b molecules deposited on their surface through the membrane protease GP63. In the present study, we describe a new mechanism that also acts through C3b inactivation. This mechanism involves the binding of the complement regulatory molecule factor H from serum. Factor H signals a plasma protease (factor I) to inactivate C3b molecules deposited on the surface of the parasites. According to our results, Leishmania infantum, L. amazonensis, and L. braziliensis recruit factor H from human serum. The absorption of factor H by L. infantum was studied in detail to better understand how it works. L. infantum binds factor H from human serum and factor H-like proteins from dog serum. When exposed to purified factor H, promastigotes bind this regulatory molecule and inactivate C3b in the presence of factor I. This indicates the existence of an as yet unidentified factor H-binding outer surface molecule functioning as a receptor. The two mechanisms (GP63 and factor H binding) work independently, as Leishmania promastigotes with inhibited GP63 can easily inactivate C3b molecules on the surface of the parasite. The identification of the factor H receptor could lead to the development of a vaccine target for leishmaniasis control, as blocking antibodies to factor H binding could impair the mechanism of C3b inactivation, making the parasite more susceptible to the complement system.
Publication Date: 2021-10-03
Journal: Acta tropica


Immune induction by adjuvanted Leishmania donovani vaccines against the visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum. Currently, the patients are treated with chemotherapeutic drugs; however, their toxicity limits their use. It would be desirable to develop a vaccine against this infection. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of different vaccine formulations at variable time points. Heat-killed (HK) antigen of Leishmania donovani was adjuvanted with two adjuvants (AddaVax and Montanide ISA 201) and three immunizations at a gap of 2 weeks (wk) were given to BALB/c mice. After 2 weeks of the last booster, mice were given challenge infection and sacrificed before challenge and after 4wk, 8wk, and 12 wk post-challenge. Significant protective immunity was observed in all the immunized animals and it was indicated by the notable rise in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, remarkably declined parasite burden, a significant increase in the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-12, interleukin-17 (Th1 cytokines), and IgG2a in contrast to infected control mice. Montanide ISA 201 with HK antigen provided maximum protection followed by AddaVax with HK and then HK alone. These findings elaborate on the importance of the tested adjuvants in the vaccine formulations against murine visceral leishmaniasis.
Publication Date: 2021-02-06
Journal: Immunobiology


Anti-Leishmania braziliensis activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione and its Cu(II) and Ag(I) complexes.
Leishmaniasis, included in the priority list of the WHO, remains as a neglected disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. There is no vaccine available for human leishmaniasis, and the current treatment is based on old drugs that cause serious side effects. Herein, we initially studied the cellular distribution of the virulence factor gp63, the major metallopeptidase, in a virulent strain of Leishmania braziliensis, and then we measured the inhibitory effects of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione), and its metal complexes, [Cu(phendione)
Publication Date: 2021-08-08
Journal: Parasitology research


Antibodies elicited by the CaniLeish® vaccine: long-term clinical follow-up study of dogs in Spain.
The prevention of canine leishmaniosis in healthy dogs requires a multimodal approach combining repellents with an effective vaccine. A vaccine that modulates the cell-mediated immune response against the protozoan has been available in Europe since 2012 (CaniLeish®, Virbac, France). The aim of the present study was to monitor dogs vaccinated with CaniLeish® to examine the kinetics of the antibody response and the safety and tolerance of CaniLeish®. Dogs vaccinated with CaniLeish® were monitored for 12 months. In follow-up visits at baseline (primovaccination or annual booster) (Visit 1, V1), and 1 (V2), 4 (V3), 8 (V4) and 12 (V5) months later, we examined antibody response kinetics using two serology techniques (IFAT and Speed Leish K™). Tolerance to CaniLeish® and its safety were also monitored. Anti-L. infantum IgG antibodies were determined in 242 dogs (125 dogs after primovaccination (Group P) and 117 dogs after booster vaccination (Group B). In addition, 46, 22 and 19 dogs were followed for 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. At baseline, 100% of dogs in Group P returned negative IFAT and Speed Leish K™ test results while 9.4% (11/117) in Group B tested IFAT positive though Speed Leish K™ negative. In subsequent visits, seropositivity was detected by IFAT in 31.2% (Group P) and 41% (Group B) of the dogs in V2; 16.8% (Group P) and 10.2% (Group B) in V3; 6.4% (Group P) and 8.5% (Group B) in V4; and 3.2% (Group P) and 5.9% (Group B) in V5. All dogs tested Speed Leish K™ negative except two, in which it was later confirmed by molecular testing that they were not infected. Adverse events that could be associated with the vaccine were detected in 20 out of 314 dogs (6.4%). The good clinical status of all dogs was confirmed in an exhaustive clinical exam and haemato-biochemical profile. The Canileish® vaccine was well-tolerated with exceptions that did not appear to be related to age, sex, race or size of vaccinated dogs. Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected by IFAT in 31.9-40.3% of the dogs 1 month after vaccination, and these antibodies could still be detected in 3.2% of the dogs 1 year later. This means that veterinarians need to use other tools (eg. PCR) to correctly diagnose seropositive dogs.
Publication Date: 2021-02-25
Journal: Parasitology research


A Chimera of Th1 Stimulatory Proteins of
Immunotherapy, a treatment based on host immune system activation, has been shown to provide a substitute for marginally effective conventional chemotherapy in controlling visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the deadliest form of leishmaniasis. As the majority of endemic inhabitants exhibit either subclinical or asymptomatic infection which often develops into the active disease state, therapeutic intervention seems to be an important avenue for combating infections by stimulating the natural defense system of infected individuals. With this perspective, the present study focuses on two immunodominant
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: BioMed research international


Enhanced activation of blood neutrophils and monocytes in patients with Ethiopian localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in response to Leishmania aethiopica Neutrophil activation in Ethiopian cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Recent studies suggest an essential role of the innate immune effector cells neutrophils and monocytes in protection or disease progression in the early course of Leishmania infection. In areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia most individuals are exposed to bites of infected sandflies. Still only a minor ratio of the inhabitants develops symptomatic disease. Neutrophils, followed by monocytes, are the first cells to be recruited to the site of Leishmania infection, the initial response of neutrophils to parasites appears to be crucial for the protective response and disease outcome. Our working hypothesis is that neutrophils and/or monocytes in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) patients may have defects in function of innate immune cell that contribute to failure to parasite clearance that lead to establishment of infection. The response of cells in Ethiopian LCL patients and healthy controls to Leishmania aethiopica and to the Toll like receptor (TLR) agonists lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and macrophage activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) was investigated by assessing the cell surface expression of CD62L (on neutrophil and monocyte) and CD66b (only on neutrophil), as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by using whole blood-based assays in vitro. No impaired response of neutrophils and monocytes to the microbial constituents LPS and MALP-2 was observed. Neutrophils and monocytes from LCL patients responded stronger to Leishmania aethiopica in the applied whole blood assays than cells from healthy individuals. These experimental findings do not support the hypothesis regarding a possible dysfunction of neutrophils and monocytes in cutaneous leishmaniasis. On the contrary, these cells react stronger in LCL patients as compared to healthy controls. The differential response to L. aethiopica observed between LCL patients and healthy controls have the potential to serve as biomarker to develop FACS based diagnostic/ prognostic techniques for LCL.
Publication Date: 2021-05-25
Journal: Acta tropica


NDK/NME proteins: a host-pathogen interface perspective towards therapeutics.
No effective vaccine is available for any parasitic disease. The treatment to those is solely dependent on chemotherapy, which is always threatened due to development of drug resistance in bugs. This warrants identification of new drug targets. Here, we discuss Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) of pathogens that alter host's intra and extracellular environment, as novel drug targets to simultaneously tackle multiple pathogens. NDKs having diverse functions, are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes (the mammal NDKs are called NMEs [non-metastatic enzymes]). However, NDKs and NMEs have been separately analysed in the past for their structure and functions. The role of NDKs of pathogen in modulation of inflammation, phagocytosis, apoptosis, and ROS generation in host is known. Conversely, its combined contribution in host-pathogen interaction has not been studied yet. Through the sequence and domain analysis, we found that NDKs can be classified in two groups. One group comprised NMEs 1-4 and few NDKs of select essential protozoan parasites and the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The other group included NME7 and the other NDKs of those parasites, posing challenges in the development of drugs specifically targeting pathogen NDKs, without affecting NME7. However, common drugs targeting group 2 NDKs of pathogens can be designed, as NME7 of group 2 is expressed only in ciliated host cells. This review thus analyses comparatively for the first time the structures and functions of human NMEs and pathogen NDKs and predicts the possibilities of NDKs as drug targets. In addition, pathogen NDKs have been now provided a nomenclature in alignment with the NMEs of humans.
Publication Date: 2021-09-05
Journal: Current genetics


Lymphatic filariasis and visceral leishmaniasis coinfection: A review on their epidemiology, therapeutic, and immune responses.
Coinfection is less commonly observed in individuals around the world, yet it is more common than the single infection. Around 800 million people worldwide are infected with helminths as a result of various diseases. Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are chronic, deadly, crippling, and debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Due to poor hygienic conditions, poverty, and genetic predisposition, those living in endemic areas are more likely to develop both leishmaniasis and filariasis. One of the key challenges in the management of LF/VL coinfection is the development of an effective therapeutic strategy that not only treats the first episode of VL but also prevents LF. However, there is a scarcity of knowledge and data on the relationship between LF and VL coinfection. While reviewing it was apparent that only a few studies relevant to LF/VL coinfections have been reported from southeastern Spain, Sudan, and the Indian subcontinents, highlighting the need for greater research in the most affected areas. We also looked at LF and VL as a single disease and also as a coinfection. Some features of the immune response evolved in mammalian hosts against LF and VL alone or against coinfection are also discussed, including epidemiology, therapeutic regimens, and vaccines. In addition to being potentially useful in clinical research, our findings imply the need for improved diagnostic methodology and therapeutics, which could accelerate the deployment of more specific and effective diagnosis for treatments to lessen the impact of VL/LF coinfections in the population.
Publication Date: 2021-09-01
Journal: Acta tropica


A Novel Chimeric Antigen as a Vaccine Candidate against
The present study was conducted in the Parasitology Department of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran during 2017-2019. Several bioinformatics methods at online servers were used for prediction of different aspects of poly-epitope, including, physico-chemical attributes, allergenicity, antigenicity, secondary and tertiary structures, B-cell, T-cell and MHC (I, II) potential epitopes of LACK, LEIF, GP63 and SMT antigens of After designing the construct (GLSL), the outputs of PTM sites demonstrated that the poly-epitope had 57 potential sites for phosphorylation. Furthermore, the secondary of GLSL structure includes 59.42%, 20.94% and 19.63% for random coil, extended strand and alpha-helix, respectively. The GLSL is an immunogenic protein with an acceptable antigenicity (0.8410) and non-allergen. Afterward, 20 potential epitopes of LACK, LEIF, GP63 and SMT antigens were linked by a flexible linker (SAPGTP), then was synthesized, and sub-cloned in pLEXY- neo2. The results were confirmed the expression of 38.7 kDa poly-epitope in secretory and cytosolic sites, separately. A good expression in the
Publication Date: 2021-09-25
Journal: Iranian journal of parasitology


Evaluation of protection induced by in vitro maturated BMDCs presenting CD8
Leishmaniasis is a complex vector-borne disease mediated by Leishmania parasite and a strong and long-lasting CD4
Publication Date: 2021-02-14
Journal: Experimental parasitology


Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Three Strains of Viscerotropic Leishmania Isolated from Patients with Different Epidemiological Types of Visceral Leishmaniasis in China.
There are three epidemiological types of visceral leishmaniasis in China, which are caused by Leishmania strains belonging to the L. donovani complex. The mechanisms underlying their differences in the population affected, disease latency, and animal host, etc., remain unclear. We investigated the protein abundance differences among Leishmania strains isolated from three types of visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas in China. Promastigotes of the three Leishmania strains were cultured to the log phase and harvested. The protein tryptic digests were analyzed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), followed by label-free quantitative analysis. The MS experiment was performed on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. Raw spectra were quantitatively analyzed with the MaxQuant software (ver and matched with the reference database. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using the bioinformatics method. The MS analysis was repeated three times for each sample. A total of 5012 proteins were identified across the KS-2, JIASHI-5 and SC6 strains in at least 2 of the three samples replicate. Of them, 1758 were identified to be differentially expressed at least between 2 strains, including 349 with known names. These differentially expressed proteins with known names are involved in biological functions such as energy and lipid metabolic process, nucleotide acid metabolic process, amino acid metabolic process, response to stress, cell membrane/cytoskeleton, cell cycle and proliferation, biological adhesion and proteolysis, localization and transport, regulation of the biological process, and signal transduction. The differentially expressed proteins and their related biological functions may shed light on the pathogenicity of Leishmania and targets for the development of vaccines and medicines.
Publication Date: 2021-05-22
Journal: Acta parasitologica


Development of dominant epitope-based vaccines encoding Gp63, Kmp-11 and Amastin against visceral leishmaniasis.
The most dangerous form of leishmaniasis is Visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The elimination of VL depends not only on agent treatments but also on effective vaccines against Leishmania parasites. Epitope-based vaccines composed of alternative short antigenic epitopes have the advantages of MHC epitope easy designing, which has broad application prospects. In a previous study, we analyzed Leishmania Gp63, Kmp-11 and Amastin protein sequence in silico, and found that the amino acid fragments of Gp63 (138-360aa), Kmp-11 (1-91aa) and Amastin (1-72aa) were rich in dominant epitopes. In this study, we used the three amino acid fragments as multi-epitope vaccine candidates to construct DNA and protein vaccines. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with the DNA and protein vaccines by DNA prime-protein boost strategy and challenged with Leishmania promastigotes. To evaluate vaccine immunogenicity and immunoprotection, serum specific antibody titers and cytokines were detected using ELISA, splenic CD3
Publication Date: 2021-04-29
Journal: Immunobiology


MPLA and AddaVax
There is so far no vaccine approved for human leishmaniasis, mainly because of the lack of appropriate adjuvants. This study aimed to evaluate in mice the capacity of a mixture of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and AddaVax
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: Microorganisms


Preclinical validation of a live attenuated dermotropic Leishmania vaccine against vector transmitted fatal visceral leishmaniasis.
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease is caused by Leishmania donovani parasites with no vaccine available. Here we produced a dermotropic live attenuated centrin gene deleted Leishmania major (LmCen
Publication Date: 2021-08-01
Journal: Communications biology


Green Approach: ''A Forwarding Step for Curing Leishmaniasis-A Neglected Tropical Disease''.
The present review focuses on a dreaded vector-mediated leishmaniasis, with the existing therapeutic approaches including a variety of drugs along with their limitations, the treatment with natural compounds, and different types of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs). As evidenced, various metallic NPs, comprising silver, silver oxide, gold, zinc oxide, titanium, lead oxide,
Publication Date: 2021-06-15
Journal: Frontiers in molecular biosciences


Melittin as a promising anti-protozoan peptide: current knowledge and future prospects.
Protozoan diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness still levy a heavy toll on human lives. Deplorably, only few classes of anti-protozoan drugs have thus far been developed. The problem is further compounded by their intrinsic toxicity, emergence of drug resistance, and the lack of licensed vaccines. Thus, there is a genuine exigency to develop novel anti-protozoan medications. Over the past years, melittin, the major constituent in the venom of European honeybee Apis mellifera, has gathered the attention of researchers due to its potential therapeutic applications. Insofar as we are aware, there has been no review pertinent to anti-protozoan properties of melittin. The present review outlines the current knowledge about anti-protozoan effects of melittin and its underlying mechanisms. The peptide has proven to be efficacious in killing different protozoan parasites such as Leishmania, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Trypanosoma in vitro. Apart from direct membrane-disruptive activity, melittin is capable of destabilizing calcium homeostasis, reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, disorganizing kinetoplast DNA, instigating apoptotic cell death, and induction of autophagy in protozoan pathogens. Emerging evidence suggests that melittin is a promising candidate for future vaccine adjuvants. Transmission-blocking activity of melittin against vector-borne pathogens underscores its potential utility for both transgenic and paratransgenic manipulations. Nevertheless, future research should focus upon investigating anti-microbial activities of melittin, alone or in combination with the current anti-protozoan medications, against a far broader spectrum of protozoan parasites as well as pre-clinical testing of the peptide in animal models.
Publication Date: 2021-05-14
Journal: AMB Express


Intranasal immunization with chitosan microparticles enhances lack-dna vaccine protection and induces specific long-lasting immunity against visceral leishmaniasis.
Development of a protective vaccine against Leishmania depends on antigen formulation and adjuvants that induce specific immunity and long-lasting immune responses. We previously demonstrated that BALB/c mice intranasally vaccinated with a plasmid DNA encoding the p36/LACK leishmanial antigen (LACK-DNA) develop a protective immunity for up to 3 months after vaccination, which was linked with the systemic expression of vaccine mRNA in peripheral organs. In this study, LACK-DNA vaccine was associated with biocompatible chitosan microparticles cross-linked with glyceraldehyde (CMC) to boost the long-lasting immunity against the late L. infantum challenge. Infection at 7 days, 3 or 6 months after vaccination resulted in significantly lower parasite loads when compared with non-vaccinated controls. Besides, LACK-DNA-chitosan vaccinated mice showed long-time protection observed after the late time point challenge. The achieved protection was correlated with an enhanced spleen cell responsiveness to parasite antigens, marked by increased proliferation and IFN-γ as well as decreased IL-10 production. Moreover, we found diminished systemic levels of TNF-α that was compatible with the better health condition observed in LACK-DNA/CMC vaccinated-infected mice. Together, our data indicate the feasibility of chitosan microparticles as a delivery system tool to extend the protective immunity conferred by LACK-DNA vaccine, which may be explored in vaccine formulations against Leishmania parasite infections.
Publication Date: 2021-09-07
Journal: Microbes and infection


Nanotechnology based solutions for anti-leishmanial impediments: a detailed insight.
As a neglected tropical disease, Leishmaniasis is significantly instigating morbidity and mortality across the globe. Its clinical spectrum varies from ulcerative cutaneous lesions to systemic immersion causing hyperthermic hepato-splenomegaly. Curbing leishmanial parasite is toughly attributable to the myriad obstacles in existing chemotherapy and immunization. Since the 1990s, extensive research has been conducted for ameliorating disease prognosis, by resolving certain obstacles of conventional therapeutics viz. poor efficacy, systemic toxicity, inadequate drug accumulation inside the macrophage, scarce antigenic presentation to body's immune cells, protracted length and cost of the treatment. Mentioned hurdles can be restricted by designing nano-drug delivery system (nano-DDS) of extant anti-leishmanials, phyto-nano-DDS, surface modified-mannosylated and thiolated nano-DDS. Likewise, antigen delivery with co-transportation of suitable adjuvants would be achievable through nano-vaccines. In the past decade, researchers have engineered nano-DDS to improve the safety profile of existing drugs by restricting their release parameters. Polymerically-derived nano-DDS were found as a suitable option for oral delivery as well as SLNs due to pharmacokinetic re-modeling of drugs. Mannosylated nano-DDS have upgraded macrophage internalizing of nanosystem and the entrapped drug, provided with minimal toxicity. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) was tackling by the utilization of nano-DDS designed for topical delivery including niosomes, liposomes, and transfersomes. Transfersomes, however, appears to be superior for this purpose. The nanotechnology-based solution to prevent parasitic resistance is the use of Thiolated drug-loaded and multiple drugs loaded nano-DDS. These surfaces amended nano-DDS possess augmented IC
Publication Date: 2021-04-17
Journal: Journal of nanobiotechnology


Antileishmanial effect of silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis, characterization, in vivo and in vitro assessment.
The drugs used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cannot effectively penetrate lesions. Nanogold and nanosilver have been used for treating or enhancing drug delivery in CL. The present study used Commiphora molmol (myrrh) to synthesize silver nanoparticles (MSNPs). The MSNPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, antiparasitic effect of myrrh silver nanoparticles (MSNPs) was assessed on Leishmania major both in vitro and in vivo. Five concentrations of MSNPs (10, 50, 80, 100, and 150 μl/100 μL) were used to study their effect on L. major cultures in vitro, and MSNPs were also applied topically to subcutaneous lesions in mice in vivo. The results showed that the MSNPs were 49.09 nm in size. MSNPs, showed a marked and significant (p ≤ 0.05) growth inhibition of L. major promastigotes which was concentration dependent. Overall, the higher concentrations (100, 150 μl/100 μL had a significantly greater inhibitory effect for the MSNPs in comparison to the chemical nanoparticles (CNPs) and pentostam at the same concentrations. Lesions healed completely in 21 d after MSNP treatment in vivo, while pentostam, a commercial drug, and CNPs showed a moderate healing effect on the lesions. Thus, MSNPs were more effective than pentostam and CNPs both in the in vivo and in vitro studies. MSNPs can therefore be promising candidates for various nanomedicine applications.
Publication Date: 2021-02-12
Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie


Identification of a Protective
There is currently no clinically effective vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis because of poor understanding of the Ags that elicit protective CD4
Publication Date: 2020-07-31
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)


An appraisal of the scientific current situation and new perspectives in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Leishmaniasis is a Neglected Tropical Diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is a major health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and can produce three different clinical manifestations, among which cutaneous leishmaniasis has a higher incidence in the world than the other clinical forms. There are no recognized and reliable means of chemoprophylaxis or vaccination against infections with different forms of leishmaniasis. In addition, chemotherapy, unfortunately, remains, in many respects, unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is a continuing and urgent need for new therapies against leishmaniasis that are safe and effective in inducing a long-term cure. This review summarizes the latest advances in currently available treatments and improvements in the development of drug administration. In addition, an analysis of the in vivo assays was performed and the challenges facing promising strategies to treat CL are discussed. The treatment of leishmaniasis will most likely evolve into an approach that uses multiple therapies simultaneously to reduce the possibility of developing drug resistance. There is a continuous effort to discover new drugs to improve the treatment of leishmaniasis, but this is mainly at the level of individual researchers. Undoubtedly, more funding is needed in this area, as well as greater participation of the pharmaceutical industry to focus efforts on the development of chemotherapeutic agents and vaccines for this and other neglected tropical diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-06-01
Journal: Acta tropica


Toll-like receptor-7/8 agonist kill Leishmania amazonensis by acting as pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory agent.
Evaluation of the anti-Leishmanial activity of imidazoquinoline-based TLR7/8 agonists. TLR7/8-active imidazoquinolines (2 and 3) were synthesized and assessed for activity against Leishmania amazonensis-intracellular amastigotes using mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines was determined in infected and non-infected macrophages. The imidazoquinolines, 2 and 3, were primarily agonists of TLR7 with compound 3 also showing modest TLR8 activity. Docking studies showed them to occupy the same binding pocket on TLR7 and 8 as the known agonists, imiquimod and resiquimod. Compounds 2 and 3 inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis-intracellular amastigotes with the most potent compound (3, IC50 = 5.93 µM) having an IC50 value close to miltefosine (IC50 = 4.05 µM), a known anti-Leishmanial drug. Compound 3 induced macrophages to produce ROS, NO and inflammatory cytokines that likely explain the anti-Leishmanial effects. This study shows that activating TLR7 using compounds 2 or 3 induces anti-Leishmanial activity associated with induction of free radicals and inflammatory cytokines able to kill the parasites. While 2 and 3 had a very narrow cytotoxicity window for macrophages, this identifies the possibility to further develop this chemical scaffold to less cytotoxic TLR7/8 agonist for potential use as anti-Leishmanial drug.
Publication Date: 2021-05-04
Journal: The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology


Vaccines against leishmaniasis: using controlled human infection models to accelerate development.
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that is defined by the World Health Organization as vaccine preventable. Although several new candidate vaccines are in development, no vaccine has successfully reached the market for human use. Several species of We describe the history and recent development of experimental and deliberate infection using A new cutaneous
Publication Date: 2021-10-20
Journal: Expert review of vaccines


Adjuvant effects of TLR agonist gardiquimod admixed with Leishmania vaccine in mice model of visceral leishmaniasis.
Tropical and subtropical areas of the world are affected by leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania spp. It has been categorized as an NTD (neglected tropical disease) because of its negligence. The sand fly of genus Phlebotomus acts as the vector for the transmission of the promastigote form of this protozoan parasite to the mammalian host where it converts to amastigote form in the macrophages. Visceral form of leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly infection in the endothelial system of the human and other mammals. Only a few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the treatment of this infectious disease whereas no vaccine is available for the control of leishmanial infection. Therefore in the current study, we have tested the effects of gardiquimod (a TLR agonist) as an adjuvant in combination with the formalin-killed antigen of L. donovani as a vaccine. The mice were vaccinated thrice at an interval of 2 weeks and challenged with L. donovani promastigotes after 2 weeks of the last vaccination. We assessed the parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, humoral and cell-mediated immune response in BALB/c mice before and after challenge infection with L. donovani. Immunized mice were found to have the least parasite load, high DTH response, elevated levels of Th1 cytokines, IgG2a, and nitric oxide than non-immunized and infected control mice. The efficacy of the vaccine was boosted with the use of adjuvant gardiquimod that depicts its potential as an adjuvant in this study. Our study is reporting the adjuvant effects of gardiquimod for the first time. Further studies using other Leishmania species can be performed to signify its role.
Publication Date: 2021-05-31
Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases


Reversed Immunoglycomics Identifies α-Galactosyl-Bearing Glycotopes Specific for
All healthy humans have high levels of natural anti-α-galactosyl (α-Gal) antibodies (elicited by yet uncharacterized glycotopes), which may play important roles in immunoglycomics: (a) potential protection against certain parasitic and viral zoonotic infections; (b) targeting of α-Gal-engineered cancer cells; (c) aiding in tissue repair; and (d) serving as adjuvants in α-Gal-based vaccines. Patients with certain protozoan infections have specific anti-α-Gal antibodies, elicited against parasite-derived α-Gal-bearing glycotopes. These glycotopes, however, remain elusive except for the well-characterized glycotope Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAcα, expressed by
Publication Date: 2021-09-02
Journal: JACS Au


In vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Some Ethiopian Medicinal Plants.
Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites, which remains a burden for developing countries. The lack of a vaccine as well as the emergence of resistance toward the recommended drugs pose a challenge for the control of the disease. This urges the demand for new antileishmanial agents to prevent and treat this disease. Consequently, four Ethiopian plants were selected and tested for their antileishmanial activity against two Leishmanial parasites. Methanol (80%) was used to macerate the plant materials. In vitro antipromastigote activity of the crude extracts was then tested against promastigotes and axenically cultured amastigotes of From the four plants' extracts, The findings from this study demonstrate that crude extracts of
Publication Date: 2021-01-26
Journal: Journal of experimental pharmacology


The role of IL-32 in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced trained immunity in infections caused by different Leishmania spp.
Cells of the innate immune system undergo long-term functional reprogramming in response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) exposure via a process called trained immunity, conferring nonspecific protection to unrelated infections. Here, we investigate whether BCG-induced trained immunity is able to protect against infections caused by different Leishmania spp., protozoa that cause cutaneous and mucosal or visceral lesions. We used training models of human monocytes with BCG and subsequent infection by L. braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. infantum, and the vaccination of wild-type and transgenic mice for IL-32γ before in vivo challenge with parasites. We demonstrated that monocytes trained with BCG presented enhanced ability to kill L. braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. infantum through increased production of reactive oxygen species. Interleukin (IL)-32 appears to play an essential role in the development of trained immunity. Indeed, BCG exposure induced IL-32 production in human primary monocytes, both mRNA and protein. We have used a human IL-32γ transgenic mouse model (IL-32γTg) to study the effect of BCG vaccination in different Leishmania infection models. BCG vaccination decreased lesion size and parasite load in infections caused by L. braziliensis and reduced the spread of L. amazonensis to other organs in both infected wild-type (WT) and IL-32γTg mice. In addition, BCG reduced the parasite load in the spleen, liver and bone marrow of both WT and IL-32γTg mice infected with L. infantum. BCG vaccination increased inflammatory infiltrate in infected tissues caused by different Leishmania spp. In all infections, the presence of IL-32γ was not mandatory, but it increased the protective and inflammatory effects of BCG-induced training. BCG's ability to train innate immune cells, providing protection against leishmaniasis, as well as the participation of IL-32γ in this process, pave the way for new treatment strategies for this neglected infectious disease.
Publication Date: 2021-07-15
Journal: Microbial pathogenesis


Immunologic response and memory T cells in subjects cured of tegumentary leishmaniasis.
The main clinical forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). L.braziliensis infection is characterized by an exaggerated production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, cytokines involved in parasite destruction, but also in the pathology. Maintenance of an antigen-specific immune response may be important for resistance to re-infection and will contribute for vaccine development. In the present work we investigated the immune response in CL and ML cured individuals. Participants in the present study included 20 CL and 20 ML patients, who were evaluated prior to, as well as 2 to 15 years after therapy. IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha production were determined by ELISA in supernatants of mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble L.braziliensis antigen (SLA). The frequency of memory CD4+ T cell populations was determined by FACS. Here we show that the majority of CL and ML patients did not produce in vitro IFN-gamma in response to SLA after cure. In the cured individuals who responded to SLA, effector memory (CD45RA-CCR7-) CD4+ T cells were the ones producing IFN-gamma. Because a large percent of CL and ML cured patients lost SLA-induced IFN-gamma production in peripheral blood, we performed Leishmania skin test (LST). A positive LST was found in 87.5% and 100% of CL and ML cured individuals, respectively, who did not produce IFN-gamma or IL-2 in vitro. This study shows that in spite of losing in vitro antigen-specific response to Leishmania, cured CL and ML subjects retain the ability to respond to SLA in vivo. These findings indicate that LST, rather than IFN-gamma production, may be a better assessment of lasting immunity to leishmaniasis in human studies, and thus a better tool for assessing immunization after vaccine. Furthermore, in cured individuals which maintains Leishmania-specific IFN-gamma production, effector memory CD4+ T cells were the main source of this cytokine.
Publication Date: 2013-11-12
Journal: BMC infectious diseases


Sphingomyelin liposome bearing whole
Whole BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously, three times with 2-week intervals, with Empty-liposome (E-lipo), Particulate WLL, Liposome-WLL, Liposome-SLA and control Buffer, three times every 2-week. Protection was assessed through measuring the swollen footpads and the load of parasites in the spleen. Other factors were used to assess the response of immune system by means of IgG subclasses, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels and intracellular cytokine assay in cultured splenocytes. Although liposomal WLL were stable in terms of physicochemical properties, mice received Liposome-WLL did not reduce footpad swelling. The load of parasites in spleen and levels of IL-4- were also higher compared to other immunized groups. In terms of IgG isotypes, no considerable difference observed in mice received Liposome-WLL or other formulations. Liposome-WLL could be a suitable vaccine delivery system when a Th2 response is desired. Also, further studies are warranted to fully understand the role of sphingomyelin in inducing an immune response.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: Iranian journal of basic medical sciences


Natural biflavonoids as potential therapeutic agents against microbial diseases.
Microbes broadly constitute several organisms like viruses, protozoa, bacteria, and fungi present in our biosphere. Fast-paced environmental changes have influenced contact of human populations with newly identified microbes resulting in diseases that can spread quickly. These microbes can cause infections like HIV, SARS-CoV2, malaria, nosocomial Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or Candida infection for which there are no available vaccines/drugs or are less efficient to prevent or treat these infections. In the pursuit to find potential safe agents for therapy of microbial infections, natural biflavonoids like amentoflavone, tetrahydroamentoflavone, ginkgetin, bilobetin, morelloflavone, agathisflavone, hinokiflavone, Garcinia biflavones 1 (GB1), Garcinia biflavones 2 (GB2), robustaflavone, strychnobiflavone, ochnaflavone, dulcisbiflavonoid C, tetramethoxy-6,6″-bigenkwanin and other derivatives isolated from several species of plants can provide effective starting points and become a source of future drugs. These biflavonoids show activity against influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), dengue, HIV-AIDS, coxsackieviral, hepatitis, HSV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), protozoal (Leishmaniasis, Malaria) infections, bacterial and fungal infections. Some of the biflavonoids can provide antiviral and protozoal activity by inhibition of neuraminidase, chymotrypsin-like protease, DV-NS5 RNA dependant RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase (RT), fatty acid synthase, DNA polymerase, UL54 gene expression, Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation, recombinant cysteine protease type 2.8 (r-CPB2.8), Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase or cause depolarization of parasitic mitochondrial membranes. They may also provide anti-inflammatory therapeutic activity against the infection-induced cytokine storm. Considering the varied bioactivity of these biflavonoids against these organisms, their structure-activity relationships are derived and wherever possible compared with monoflavones. Overall, this review aims to highlight these natural biflavonoids and briefly discuss their sources, reported mechanism of action, pharmacological uses, and comment on resistance mechanism, flavopiridol repurposing and the bioavailability aspects to provide a starting point for anti-microbial research in this area.
Publication Date: 2021-01-26
Journal: The Science of the total environment


Cloning, high-level gene expression and bioinformatics analysis of SP15 and LeIF from Leishmania major and Iranian Phlebotomus papatasi saliva as single and novel fusion proteins: a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis.
Early exacerbation of cutaneous leishmaniasis is mainly affected by both the salivary and Leishmania parasite components. Little is known of the vaccine combination made by immunogenic proteins of sandfly saliva (SP15) with Leishmania parasites (LeIF) as a single prophylactic vaccine, namely SaLeish. Also, there are no data available to determine the species-specific sequence of SP15 isolated from the Iranian Phlebotomus papatasi. Integrated bioinformatics and genetic engineering methods were employed to design, optimize and obtain a vector-parasite-based vaccine formulation in a whole-length fusion form of LeIF-SP15 against leishmaniasis. Holistic gene optimization was initially performed to obtain a high yield of pure 'whole-SaLeish' expression using bioinformatics analyses. Genomic and salivary gland RNAs of wild-caught P. papatasi were extracted and their complementary DNA was amplified and cloned into pJET vector. The new chimeric protein of whole-SaLeish and randomly selected transcripts of native PpIRSP15 (GenBank accession nos. MT025054 and MN938854, MN938855 and MN938856) were successfully expressed, purified and validated by immunoblotting assay. Furthermore, despite the single amino acid polymorphisms of PpIRSP15 found at positions Y23 and E73 within the population of wild Iranian sandflies, antigenicity and conservancy of PpIRSP15 epitopes remained constant to activate T cells. The SaLeish vaccine strategy takes advantage of a plethora of vector-parasite immunogenic proteins with potential protective efficacy to stimulate both the innate and specific cellular immune responses against Leishmania parasites.
Publication Date: 2020-11-07
Journal: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


Leishmania eukaryotic elongation Factor-1 beta protein is immunogenic and induces parasitological protection in mice against Leishmania infantum infection.
Treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is hampered mainly by the toxicity and/or high cost of antileishmanial drugs. What is more, variability on sensitivity and/or specificity of diagnostic tests hinders effective disease management. In this context, prophylactic vaccination should be considered as a strategy to prevent disease. In the present study, immunogenicity of the Leishmania eukaryotic Elongation Factor-1 beta (EF1b) protein, classified as a Leishmania virulence factor, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and tested, for the first time, as a vaccine candidate against Leishmania infantum infection. The antigen was administered as DNA vaccine or as recombinant protein (rEF1b) delivered in saponin. BALB/c mice immunization with a DNA plasmid and recombinant protein plus saponin induced development of specific Th1-type immunity, characterized by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, GM-CSF, both T cell subtypes and antileishmanial IgG2a isotype antibodies, before and after infection. This immunological response to the vaccines was corroborated further by parasitological analysis of the vaccinated and then challenged mice, which showed significant reductions in the parasite load in their liver, spleen, bone marrow and draining lymph nodes, when compared to the controls. Vaccination using rEF1b/saponin induced a more robust Th1 response and parasitological protection when compared to the DNA vaccine. Furthermore, in vitro analysis of lymphoproliferation, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in human PBMC cultures showed as well development of a specific Th1-type response. In conclusion, data suggest that EF1b could be a promising vaccine candidate to protect against L. infantum infection.
Publication Date: 2021-01-25
Journal: Microbial pathogenesis


Immunogenicity of HLA-DR1 and HLA-A2 peptides derived from Leishmania major Gp63 in golden hamsters.
This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and humoral and cellular immune response of three heterologous vaccines against Leishmania infantum, yet containing synthetic peptides from Leishmania major in the experimental model in hamsters. Through bioinformatics analyses, two Leishmania major Gp63 peptides were predicted and selected for vaccine formulations. Hamsters were divided into four groups, with each group receiving doses of three vaccine formulations containing HLA-DR1 or HLA-A2 peptides plus Montanide
Publication Date: 2020-08-02
Journal: Parasite immunology


Sirolimus enhances the protection achieved by a DNA vaccine against Leishmania infantum.
Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical parasitic diseases, mainly affecting vulnerable populations of countries with poor socioeconomic status. Development of efficient vaccines is a priority due to the increasing incidence of drug resistance and toxicity to current treatments. In the search for a safe and efficient protective vaccine for human and dog visceral leishmaniases, we analyzed the suitability of the immunomodulatory drug sirolimus (SIR) to boost a preventive DNA vaccine against leishmaniasis. SIR is an already marketed drug that has been described to boost immune protection against different disease models and has also emerged as a promising therapeutic drug against L. major. Syrian hamsters were treated with SIR concomitantly with the administration of a DNA vaccine formulation consisting in four plasmids carrying the Leishmania genes LACK, TRYP, PAPLE22 and KMPII, respectively. Two weeks after the last vaccination, the animals were infected intraperitoneally with L. infantum parasites. Five weeks post-infection the parasite load was measured by real-time PCR in target tissues and immune response was evaluated by determining anti-Leishmania specific antibodies in combination with cytokine expression in the spleen. Our results show that the DNA vaccine itself efficiently reduced the burden of parasites in the skin (P = 0.0004) and lymph nodes (P = 0.0452). SIR administration also enhanced the protection by reducing the parasite load in the spleen (P = 0.0004). Vaccinated animals with or without SIR co-treatment showed lower IFN-γ expression levels than those found in the spleen of control animals. mRNA expression levels of NOS2 and IL-10 were found to be significantly higher in the vaccinated plus SIR treated group. Co-administration of SIR enhances a DNA vaccination regimen against L. infantum, improving the reduction of parasite load in skin, lymph node and spleen. The analysis of immune markers in the spleen after challenge suggests that the trend to recover naïve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10, and the concurrent higher expression of NOS2, may be responsible for the protection induced by our vaccine co-administered with SIR.
Publication Date: 2020-06-11
Journal: Parasites & vectors