Natural biflavonoids as potential therapeutic agents against microbial diseases.
Microbes broadly constitute several organisms like viruses, protozoa, bacteria, and fungi present in our biosphere. Fast-paced environmental changes have influenced contact of human populations with newly identified microbes resulting in diseases that can spread quickly. These microbes can cause infections like HIV, SARS-CoV2, malaria, nosocomial Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or Candida infection for which there are no available vaccines/drugs or are less efficient to prevent or treat these infections. In the pursuit to find potential safe agents for therapy of microbial infections, natural biflavonoids like amentoflavone, tetrahydroamentoflavone, ginkgetin, bilobetin, morelloflavone, agathisflavone, hinokiflavone, Garcinia biflavones 1 (GB1), Garcinia biflavones 2 (GB2), robustaflavone, strychnobiflavone, ochnaflavone, dulcisbiflavonoid C, tetramethoxy-6,6″-bigenkwanin and other derivatives isolated from several species of plants can provide effective starting points and become a source of future drugs. These biflavonoids show activity against influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), dengue, HIV-AIDS, coxsackieviral, hepatitis, HSV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), protozoal (Leishmaniasis, Malaria) infections, bacterial and fungal infections. Some of the biflavonoids can provide antiviral and protozoal activity by inhibition of neuraminidase, chymotrypsin-like protease, DV-NS5 RNA dependant RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase (RT), fatty acid synthase, DNA polymerase, UL54 gene expression, Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation, recombinant cysteine protease type 2.8 (r-CPB2.8), Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase or cause depolarization of parasitic mitochondrial membranes. They may also provide anti-inflammatory therapeutic activity against the infection-induced cytokine storm. Considering the varied bioactivity of these biflavonoids against these organisms, their structure-activity relationships are derived and wherever possible compared with monoflavones. Overall, this review aims to highlight these natural biflavonoids and briefly discuss their sources, reported mechanism of action, pharmacological uses, and comment on resistance mechanism, flavopiridol repurposing and the bioavailability aspects to provide a starting point for anti-microbial research in this area.
Publication Date: 2021-01-26
Journal: The Science of the total environment