pubmed > TP53 > 0 001

Can TP53-mutant follicular adenoma be a precursor of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma?
Mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene are highly prevalent in thyroid anaplastic carcinomas (AC) but are also reported in some well-differentiated cancers and even in benign adenomas. The natural history of TP53-mutant adenomas and whether they may represent a precursor for well-differentiated cancer or AC is largely unknown. Similarly, the frequency of TP53 mutations in thyroid nodules found on routine molecular analysis of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples is not established. A database on 44,510 FNA samples from thyroid nodules with predominantly indeterminate cytology tested using ThyroSeq v3 was reviewed to identify TP53-mutant cases and analyze their genetic profile and available clinicopathological findings. Among 260 (0.6%) selected thyroid nodules, 36 had an isolated TP53 mutation and 224 carried a combination of TP53 with other genetic alterations. No significant difference was observed between these groups with respect to patient age, gender, nodule size, and spectrum of TP53 mutations. Histopathologically, 86% of the resected nodules with isolated TP53 mutations were benign (mostly adenomas), whereas 82% of nodules carrying TP53 mutations co-occurring with other alterations were cancers (P = 0.001), including de-differentiated AC. TP53-mutant benign tumors and well-differentiated cancers often had scattered single neoplastic cells with bizarre nuclei resembling those comprising AC. Our study demonstrates that a small but distinct proportion of thyroid nodules carry a TP53 mutation, either as a single genetic event or in combination with other alterations. While the latter is mostly cancers prone to dedifferentiation, there is at least a theoretical possibility that TP53-mutated adenomas may represent a precursor for such cancers, including AC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-16
Journal: Endocrine-related cancer

Integrated molecular characterisation of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma identifies opportunities for stratification.
Endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (EnOC) is an under-investigated ovarian cancer type. Recent studies have described disease subtypes defined by genomics and hormone receptor expression patterns; here, we determine the relationship between these subtyping layers to define the molecular landscape of EnOC with high granularity and identify therapeutic vulnerabilities in high-risk cases. Whole exome sequencing data were integrated with progesterone and oestrogen receptor (PR and ER) expression-defined subtypes in 90 EnOC cases following robust pathological assessment, revealing dominant clinical and molecular features in the resulting integrated subtypes. We demonstrate significant correlation between subtyping approaches: PR-high (PR + /ER + , PR + /ER-) cases were predominantly CTNNB1-mutant (73.2% vs 18.4%, P < 0.001), while PR-low (PR-/ER + , PR-/ER-) cases displayed higher TP53 mutation frequency (38.8% vs 7.3%, P = 0.001), greater genomic complexity (P = 0.007) and more frequent copy number alterations (P = 0.001). PR-high EnOC patients experience favourable disease-specific survival independent of clinicopathological and genomic features (HR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.71). TP53 mutation further delineates the outcome of patients with PR-low tumours (HR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.14-5.75). A simple, routinely applicable, classification algorithm utilising immunohistochemistry for PR and p53 recapitulated these subtypes and their survival profiles. The genomic profile of high-risk EnOC subtypes suggests that inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, alongside PARP inhibitors, represent promising candidate agents for improving patient survival. Patients with PR-low TP53-mutant EnOC have the greatest unmet clinical need, while PR-high tumours-which are typically CTNNB1-mutant and TP53 wild-type-experience excellent survival and may represent candidates for trials investigating de-escalation of adjuvant chemotherapy to agents such as endocrine therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: NPJ precision oncology

Overexpression of NOP58 as a Prognostic Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A TCGA Data-Based Analysis.
NOP58 ribonucleoprotein, a core component of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins, is involved in various cell physiological processes. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains very unclear. We aim to investigate NOP58 expression and its probable prognostic value in patients with HCC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. RNA sequencing data and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with HCC were collected from TCGA database. Expression of NOP58 in HCC tissues and normal tissues was analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Patients were divided into high and low subgroups according to median expression of NOP58. Logistic regression, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were conducted to annotate biological function and immune infiltration of NOP58. NOP58 was significantly overexpressed in HCC tissues and correlated with significantly high tumor stage [odds ratio (OR) 10.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.01-10.03; P = 0.003], advanced pathologic stage (OR 10.02, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P < 0.001), advanced histologic stage (OR 10.03, 95% CI 10.02-10.04; P < 0.001), vascular invasion (OR 10.02, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P = 0.003), poor performance status (OR 10.01, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P = 0.003), and Mut-TP53 status (OR 10.02, 95% CI 10.01-10.03; P < 0.001). Elevated NOP58 expression had poor disease-specific survival (DSS; P < 0.001), progression-free interval (P = 0.006), and overall survival (OS; P < 0.001). NOP58 expression was independently correlated with OS (HR 1.731, 95% CI 10.037-2.890; P = 0.036). GSEA demonstrated that various cell cycle pathways along with RB-1 pathway, interleukin-10 signaling, regulation of TP53 activity, and P53 downstream pathway were differentially enriched in NOP58 high expression phenotype. NOP58 expression was positively correlated with infiltrating the levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Overexpression of NOP58 is negatively correlated with overall survival in patients with HCC and might be a potential biomarker for prognosis of HCC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-21
Journal: Advances in therapy

Verrucous carcinoma of the oesophagus is a genetically distinct subtype of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oesophageal verrucous carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare and morphologically distinct type of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Diagnosing VSCC on biopsy material is challenging, given the lack of significant atypia and the presence of keratinising epithelium and exophytic growth. The molecular pathogenesis of VSCC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise the genomic landscape of VSCC in comparison to conventional oesophageal SCC. Three cases of VSCC from the Brigham and Women's Hospital pathology archive were identified. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue was used for p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC), high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in-situ mRNA hybridisation (ISH) and DNA isolation. Tumour DNA was sequenced using a targeted massively parallel sequencing assay enriched for cancer-associated genes. Three additional cases of VSCC were identified by image review of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) oesophageal SCC cohort. VSCC cases were negative for p16 IHC and high-risk HPV ISH. TP53 mutations (P < 0.001) and copy number variants (CNVs) for CDKN2A (P < 0.001), CDKN2B (P < 0.01) and CCND1 (P < 0.01) were absent in VSCC and significantly less frequent in comparison to conventional SCC. Five VSCC cases featured SMARCA4 missense mutations or in-frame deletions compared to only four of 88 conventional SCC cases (P < 0.001). VSCC featured driver mutations in PIK3CA, HRAS and GNAS. Recurrent CNVs were rare in VSCC. VSCC is not only morphologically but also genetically distinct from conventional oesophageal SCC, featuring frequent SMARCA4 mutations and infrequent TP53 mutations or CDKN2A/B CNVs. Molecular findings may aid in establishing the challenging diagnosis of VSCC.
Publication Date: 2021-05-08
Journal: Histopathology

RB1 and TP53 co-mutations correlate strongly with genomic biomarkers of response to immunity checkpoint inhibitors in urothelial bladder cancer.
Muscle invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (MIBC) present RB1 and TP53 somatic alterations in a variable percentage of tumors throughout all molecular subtypes. MIBCs with neuroendocrine features have a high response rate to immunity checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Whether the presence of somatic co-alterations in these 2 genes in MIBCs is relevant to their responsiveness to ICIs is not known. The potential correlation of different genomic biomarkers of response to ICIs like tumor mutational burden (TMB), single nucleotide variants (SNV) predicted neoantigens, DNA damage response (DDR) genes, DNA somatic signatures and TILs infiltrate was explored in patients with somatic co-alterations in RB1 and TP53 (RB1&TP53) as compared with patients with no alterations in any (double wild type, DWT) or with alterations in just one of the 2 genes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pancancer BLCA dataset of cystectomy specimens (n = 407) with mutation, copy number alterations and transcriptomic (RNA sequencing) data as well as the IMVigor 210 study (n = 348) of metastatic urothelial bladder cancers treated with atezolizumab (PD-L1 inhibitor) with clinical response data containing transcriptomic (RNA sequencing), along with a subset (n = 274) with mutation and copy number data were used for this purpose. A novel tumor microenvironment metascore (TMM) was developed based in a LASSO regularized Cox model with predictive and prognostic ability. Samples with co-altered RB1&TP53: a) were enriched in immunity effectors (CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes, NK cells) and display higher scores of a T cell inflamed signature; b) have a higher TMB, higher number of SNV predicted neoantigens and higher TILs fractions; c) have a higher number of DDR mutated and deep deleted DDR genes; d) have DNA somatic signatures 2 and 13 related to APOBEC mutagenesis. Using the IMVigor 210 dataset, RB1&TP53 samples had the highest response rate to atezolizumab and a strong correlation with TMB and TMM. The consensus molecular subtype classification in the IMVigor 210 dataset showed a significant correlation with both the response to treatment (p = 0.001, Chisquare) and the presence of RB1 and TP53 genomic alterations (p < 0.001, Chisquare). RB1&TP53 co-alterations are strongly associated with genomic biomarkers of response to ICIs in MIBCs.
Publication Date: 2021-04-22
Journal: BMC cancer

TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification in metaplastic breast cancer.
Metaplastic breast cancers (MBCs) are characterized by complex genomes, which seem to vary according to their histologic subtype. TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification are rare in common forms of breast cancer, but present in a subset of phyllodes tumors. Here, we sought to determine the frequency of genetic alterations affecting TERT in a cohort of 60 MBCs with distinct predominant metaplastic components (squamous, 23%; spindle, 27%; osseous, 8%; chondroid, 42%), and to compare the repertoire of genetic alterations of MBCs according to the presence of TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification. Forty-four MBCs were subjected to: whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 27) or targeted sequencing of 341-468 cancer-related genes (n = 17); 16 MBCs were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the TERT promoter, TP53 and selected exons of PIK3CA, HRAS, and BRAF. TERT promoter hotspot mutations (n = 9) and TERT gene amplification (n = 1) were found in 10 of the 60 MBCs analyzed, respectively. These TERT alterations were less frequently found in MBCs with predominant chondroid differentiation than in other MBC subtypes (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and were mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations (p < 0.001, CoMEt). In addition, a comparative analysis of the MBCs subjected to WES or targeted cancer gene sequencing (n = 44) revealed that MBCs harboring TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification (n = 6) more frequently harbored PIK3CA than TERT wild-type MBCs (n = 38; p = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). In conclusion, TERT somatic genetic alterations are found in a subset of TP53 wild-type MBCs with squamous/spindle differentiation, highlighting the genetic diversity of these cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-04-18
Journal: NPJ breast cancer

Plasma tumor gene conversions after one cycle abiraterone acetate for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a biomarker analysis of a multicenter international trial.
Plasma tumor DNA fraction is prognostic in metastatic cancers. This could improve risk stratification before commencing a new treatment. We hypothesized that a second sample collected after one cycle of treatment could refine outcome prediction of patients identified as poor prognosis based on plasma DNA collected pre-treatment. Plasma DNA [128 pre-treatment, 134 cycle 2 day 1 (C2D1), and 49 progression] from 151 chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients in a phase II study of abiraterone acetate (NCT01867710) were subjected to custom targeted next-generation sequencing covering exons of these genes: TP53, AR, RB1, PTEN, PIK3CA, BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CDK12, CHEK2, FANCA HDAC2 and PALB2. We also captured 1500 pan-genome regions enriched for single nucleotide polymorphisms to allow detection of tumor DNA using the rolling B-allele method. We tested associations with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Plasma tumor DNA detection was associated with shorter OS [hazard ratio (HR): 2.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.77-4.73, P ≤ 0.0001] and PFS (HR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.36-3.11, P < 0.001). Using a multivariable model including plasma tumor DNA, patients who had a TP53, RB1 or PTEN gene alteration pre-treatment and at C2D1 had a significantly shorter OS than patients with no alteration at either time point (TP53: HR 7.13, 95% CI 2.37-21.47, P < 0.001; RB1: HR 6.24, 95% CI 1.97-19.73, P = 0.002; PTEN: HR 11.9, 95% CI 3.6-39.34, P < 0.001). Patients who were positive pre-treatment and converted to undetectable had no evidence of a difference in survival compared with those who were undetectable pre-treatment (P = 0.48, P = 0.43, P = 0.5, respectively). Progression samples harbored AR gain in all patients who had gain pre-treatment (9/49) and de novo AR somatic point mutations were detected in 8/49 patients. Plasma gene testing after one cycle treatment refines prognostication and could provide an early indication of treatment benefit.
Publication Date: 2021-04-02
Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology

Relationship between TP53 and interleukin-6 gene variants and the risk of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus development in the Kermanshah province.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that results from insufficient secretion or insulin resistance, or both. Insulin secretion deficiency leads to chronic hyperglycemia along with impaired metabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. This study aimed to investigate the TP53 gene SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) rs1042522 genotype and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene SNP rs1800795 genotype in DM and control groups. This study was performed on 70 patients with type 1 DM, 100 patients with type 2 DM without related complications, 66 control subjects for type 1 DM, and 95 control subjects for type 2 DM. The control groups were matched regarding age and gender and did not have a familial relationship with the patient groups. All the subjects were residents of Kermanshah, located in the western part of Iran. Polymorphisms of TP53 and IL-6 genes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and HbA1c were measured using the ELISA and immunoturbidometric methods. The frequency of genotypes (CC, CG, GG) of the TP53 gene codon 72 in type 1 DM and its control group were significantly different (P= 0.013). Likewise, the frequency of genotypes (CC, CG, GG) of the TP53 gene codon 72 was significantly different between type 2 DM and control groups (P <0.001). The frequency of genotypes (GG, GC, CC) of G174C polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene was different between type 1 DM and control group as well as between type 2 DM and its control group, but it was not statistically significant. SNP rs1042522 genotypes in the dominant form (CG + GG vs. CC) (OR= 3.880; P < 0.001) and alleles G vs. C alleles (OR= 0.384; P < 0.001) increased the risk of type 2 DM significantly. There was no significant difference between type 1 and type 2 DM groups and respected control groups regarding the frequency of the IL-6 gene SNP rs1800795 alleles. The G allele of SNP rs1042522 encoding the TP53 gene increases the risk of developing DM in the population of the Kermanshah province, Iran.
Publication Date: 2021-03-27
Journal: Journal of medicine and life

Genetic Determinants of Outcome in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.
Genetic alterations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) are increasingly well-characterized, but their impact on outcome and prognosis remain unknown. This bi-institutional study of patients with confirmed iCCA (n=412) used targeted next-generation sequencing of primary tumors to define associations among genetic alterations, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. The most common oncogenic alterations were IDH1 (20%), ARID1A (20%), TP53 (17%), CDKN2A (15%), BAP1 (15%), FGFR2 (15%), PBRM1 (12%), and KRAS (10%). IDH1/2 mutations (mut) were mutually exclusive with FGFR2 fusions (fus), but neither was associated with outcome. For all patients, TP53 (p<0.0001), KRAS (p=0.0001), and CDKN2A (p<0.0001) alterations predicted worse overall survival (OS). These high-risk alterations were enriched in advanced disease but adversely impacted survival across all stages, even when controlling for known correlates of outcome (multifocal disease, lymph node involvement, bile duct type, periductal infiltration). In resected patients (n=209), TP53mut (HR=1.82, 95%CI=1.08-3.06, p=0.03) and CDKN2A deletions (del) (HR=3.40, 95%CI=1.95-5.94, p<0.001) independently predicted shorter OS, as did high-risk clinical variables (multifocal liver disease [p<0.001]; regional lymph node metastases [p<0.001]), whereas KRASmut (HR=1.69, 95%CI=0.97-2.93, p=0.06) trended toward statistical significance. The presence of both or neither high-risk clinical or genetic factors represented outcome extremes (median OS=18.3 vs. 74.2 months, p<0.001), with high-risk genetic alterations alone (median OS=38.6 months, 95%CI=28.8-73.5) or high-risk clinical variables alone (median OS=37.0 months, 95%CI=27.6-NA) associated with intermediate outcome. TP53mut, KRASmut, and CDKN2Adel similarly predicted worse outcome in patients with unresectable iCCA. CDKN2Adel tumors with high-risk clinical features were notable for limited survival and no benefit of resection over chemotherapy. TP53, KRAS, and CDKN2A alterations were independent prognostic factors in iCCA when controlling for clinical and pathologic variables, disease stage, and treatment. Since genetic profiling can be integrated into pre-treatment therapeutic decision-making, combining clinical variables with targeted tumor sequencing may identify patient subgroups with poor outcome irrespective of treatment strategy.
Publication Date: 2021-03-26
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)

Significant impact of circulating tumour DNA mutations on survival in metastatic breast cancer patients.
Mutational analysis of circulating tumour (ct) DNA holds promise as an effective tool to predict the course of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In the present study we used targeted next generation sequencing of ctDNA to evaluate the impact of cancer driven mutations on the prognosis of MBC. The study included 59 oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+), HER2-negative MBC patients. Sequencing analysis was performed in ESR1, PIK3CA, ERBB2, PTEN, TP53, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and AR. At baseline, patients started receiving either chemotherapy (34%; n = 20) or cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor therapy in combination with endocrine therapy (CDK4/6i+ET; 66%; n = 39). Overall, 64.4% (n = 38) of the patients carried at least one pathogenic or likely-pathogenic mutation. Number of ctDNA mutations was significantly linked with worse progression free survival (PFS; p = 0.003) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.007). Furthermore, ctDNA load, defined by the number of mutant ctDNA molecules per mL plasma, significantly correlated with PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p = 0.001). Furthermore, mutational status of ESR1 and TP53 significantly predicted PFS (p = 0.024 and p = 0.035, respectively) and OS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.035, respectively). These results emphasizes the clinical value of ctDNA mutational analysis in the management of advanced breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-03-26
Journal: Scientific reports

Clinical significance of cytogenetic and molecular genetic abnormalities in 634 Chinese patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
To explore the relevance of cytogenetic or molecular genetic abnormalities to clinical variables, including clinical and laboratory characteristics and prognosis in Chinese patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). A total of 634 consecutive patients diagnosed with MDS at The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from June 2008 to May 2018 were retrospectively included in this study. All patients had evaluable cytogenetic analysis, and 425 patients had MDS-related mutations sequencing. 38.6% of patients displayed abnormal karyotypes. The most common cytogenetic abnormality was +8 (31%). Sole +8 was related to female (p = 0.002), hemoglobin >10 g/dL (p = 0.03), and <60 years old (p = 0.046). TP53 mutations were associated with complex karyotype (CK) (p < 0.001). DNMT3A mutations correlated with -Y (p = 0.01) whereas NRAS mutations correlated with 20q- (p = 0.04). The overall survival (OS) was significantly inferior in patients with +8 compared with those with normal karyotype (NK) (p = 0.003). However, the OS of sole +8 and +8 with one additional karyotypic abnormality was not different from NK (p = 0.16), but +8 with two or more abnormalities had a significantly shorter OS than +8 and +8 with one additional karyotypic abnormality (p = 0.02). In multivariable analysis, ≥60 years old, marrow blasts ≥5% and TP53 mutations were independent predictors for poor OS (p < 0.05), whereas SF3B1 mutations indicated better prognosis. Male IDH1 and IDH2 mutations and marrow blasts ≥5% were independent risk factors for worse leukemia free survival (LFS) (p < 0.05). In this population of Chinese patients, trisomy 8 is the most common karyotypic abnormality. Patients with +8 showed a poorer OS compared with patients with NK. Sole +8 and +8 with one additional karyotypic abnormality had similar OS with NK, whereas +8 with two or more abnormalities had a significantly shorter OS. DNMT3A mutations correlated with -Y and NRAS mutations correlated with 20q-. TP53 mutations were associated with CK and had a poor OS. SF3B1 mutations indicated a favorable OS. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations independently indicated inferior LFS.
Publication Date: 2021-02-21
Journal: Cancer medicine

Decoding the Evolutionary Response to Ensartinib in Patients With ALK-Positive NSCLC by Dynamic Circulating Tumor DNA Sequencing.
By implementing dynamic circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis, we explored the impact of TP53 mutations on tumor evolution and resistance mechanisms to ensartinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who progressed on crizotinib were treated with ensartinib. Blood samples for ctDNA analysis were collected at baseline, cycle 3 day 1, and progression disease (PD) and analyzed with a 212-gene panel. A total of 440 samples were collected from 168 patients. Baseline TP53 mutations (20.2%) significantly correlated with inferior progression-free survival (4.2 mo versus 11.7 mo, p < 0.0001). Patients with TP53 mutations had higher mutation load than those without TP53 mutations at baseline (13.79 ± 3.72 versus 4.67 ± 0.39, p < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in mutation load between these groups at cycle 3 day 1 (5.89 ± 2.25 versus 3.72 ± 0.62, p = 0.425), patients with mutated TP53 developed more mutations at PD (7.07 ± 1.25 versus 3.20 ± 0.33, p = 0.003). Frequency and abundance of secondary ALK mutations G1269A, G1202R, and E1210K increased markedly at PD than baseline. In patients without secondary ALK mutations, we identified ALK-independent resistance mechanisms including bypass signaling activation, downstream effector protein reactivation, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and epigenetic dysregulation. Our study highlighted the advantage of ctDNA analysis for monitoring tumor evolution. TP53 mutations promoted genetic evolution and accelerated occurrence of resistance. We also unveiled ALK-dependent resistance mechanisms, mainly by G1269A, G1202R, and E1210K mutations, and ALK-independent resistance mechanisms to ensartinib.
Publication Date: 2021-02-16
Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

Role of next generation sequencing-based liquid biopsy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: impact of STK11, KRAS and TP53 mutations and co-mutations on outcome.
Characterization of tumor-related genetic alterations is promising for the screening of new predictive markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aim of the study was to evaluate prognostic and predictive role of most frequent tumor-associated genetic alterations detected in plasma before starting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Between January 2017 and October 2019, advanced NSCLC patients were prospectively screened with plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS) while included in two trials: VISION (NCT02864992), using Guardant360 A total of 103 patients receiving ICIs were analyzed: median overall survival (OS) was 20.8 (95% CI: 16.7-24.9) months and median immune-related progression free disease (irPFS) 4.2 (95% CI: 2.3-6.1) months. TP53 mutations in plasma negatively affected OS both in patients treated with ICIs and in control group (P=0.001 and P=0.009), indicating a prognostic role. STK11 mutated patients (n=9) showed a trend for worse OS only if treated with ICIs. The presence of KRAS/STK11 co-mutation and KRAS/STK11/TP53 co-mutation affected OS only in patients treated with ICIs (HR =10.936, 95% CI: 2.337-51.164, P=0.002; HR =17.609, 95% CI: 3.777-82.089, P<0.001, respectively), indicating a predictive role. Plasma genotyping demonstrated prognostic value of TP53 mutations and predictive value of KRAS/STK11 and KRAS/STK11/TP53 co-mutations.
Publication Date: 2021-02-12
Journal: Translational lung cancer research

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: p16/p53 immunohistochemistry as a strong predictor of HPV tumour status.
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have a better prognosis than those without HPV infection. Although p16 A total of 110 OPSCC were identified in the database of the pathology department and were studied using p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry. For p16-positive or p16-negative/wild-type patterns-p53 (WT-p53) cases (n = 63), DNA in-situ hybridisation for high-risk HPV was performed, and if negative the HPV status was controlled by HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (n = 19). A significant association between TP53 mutation and pattern of p53 expression was found (WT-p53, seven of 16, P < 0.001). The p16-positive/WT-p53 was significantly associated with HPV The p16 protein immunopositivity in conjunction with the mutant-type pattern of p53 staining helped to reclassify a subset of p16-positive OPSCC as OPSCC-unrelated HPV. This approach could be routinely applied by pathologists involved in the management of OPSCC, because of their potential therapeutic implications.
Publication Date: 2021-02-10
Journal: Histopathology

Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score in germline BRCA2- versus ATM-altered prostate cancer.
The homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score integrates three DNA-based measures of genomic instability, and has been understudied in prostate cancer. Given the recent FDA approval of two PARP inhibitors for prostate cancer, HRD score analysis could help to refine treatment selection. We assessed HRD score (defined as the sum of loss-of-heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions) in three cohorts of primary prostate cancer, including a Johns Hopkins University (JHU) cohort with germline mutations in BRCA2, ATM, or CHEK2 (n = 64), the TCGA cohort (n = 391), and the PROGENE cohort (n = 102). In the JHU cohort, tumors with germline BRCA2 mutations had higher HRD scores (median = 27) than those with germline ATM or CHEK2 mutations (median = 16.5 [p = 0.029] and 9 [p < 0.001], respectively). For TCGA tumors without underlying HR pathway mutations, the median HRD score was 11, significantly lower than ovarian carcinoma lacking BRCA1/2 mutations (median = 28). In the absence of HR gene mutations, the median HRD score was unexpectedly higher among prostate cancers with TP53 mutations versus those without (17 vs. 11; p = 0.015); this finding was confirmed in the PROGENE cohort (24 vs. 16; p = 0.001). Finally, among eight BRCA2-altered patients who received olaparib, progression-free survival trended longer in those with HRD scores above versus below the median (14.9 vs. 9.9 months). We conclude that HRD scores are low in primary prostate cancer and higher in cases with germline BRCA2 or somatic TP53 mutations. Germline BRCA2-altered cases have significantly higher HRD scores than germline ATM-altered or CHEK2-altered cases, consistent with the lower efficacy of PARP inhibitors among the latter.
Publication Date: 2021-01-20
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Genome-wide association study of the TP53 R249S mutation in hepatocellular carcinoma with aflatoxin B1 exposure and infection with hepatitis B virus.
Exposure to dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induces DNA damage and mutation in the TP53 gene at codon 249, known as the TP53 R249S mutation, and is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AFB1 and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) together exert synergistic effects that promote carcinogenesis and TP53 R249S mutation in HCC. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of whole genome exons was conducted using 485 HCC patients with chronic HBV infection. This was followed by an independent replication study conducted using 270 patients with chronic HBV infection. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate TP53 expression in all samples. This showed a correlation between codon 249 mutations and TP53 expression. Susceptibility variants for the TP53 R249S mutation in HCC were identified based on both the GWAS and replication study. The associations between identified variants and the expression levels of their located genes were analyzed in 20 paired independent samples. The likelihood of positive TP53 expression was found to be higher in HCC patients with the R249S mutation both in the GWAS (P<0.001) and the replication study (P=0.006). The combined analyses showed that the TP53 R249S mutation was significantly associated with three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): ADAMTS18 rs9930984 (adjusted P=4.84×10 TP53 expression is significantly associated with the R249S mutation in HCC. Our collective results suggest that rs9930984, rs75218075, and rs8022091 are associated with R249S mutation susceptibility in HCC patients exposed to AFB1 and HBV infection.
Publication Date: 2021-01-19
Journal: Journal of gastrointestinal oncology

The Mutational Landscape of Metastatic Castration-sensitive Prostate Cancer: The Spectrum Theory Revisited.
Emerging data suggest that metastasis is a spectrum of disease burden rather than a binary state, and local therapies, such as radiation, might improve outcomes in oligometastasis. However, current definitions of oligometastasis are solely numerical. To characterize the somatic mutational landscape across the disease spectrum of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) to elucidate a biological definition of oligometastatic CSPC. This was a retrospective study of men with mCSPC who underwent clinical-grade sequencing of their tumors (269 primary tumor, 25 metastatic sites). Patients were classified as having biochemically recurrent (ie, micrometastatic), metachronous oligometastatic (≤5 lesions), metachronous polymetastatic (>5 lesions), or de novo metastatic (metastasis at diagnosis) disease. We measured the frequency of driver mutations across metastatic classifications and the genomic associations with radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and time to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The frequency of driver mutations in TP53 (p =  0.01), WNT (p =  0.08), and cell cycle (p =  0.04) genes increased across the mCSPC spectrum. TP53 mutation was associated with shorter rPFS (26.7 vs 48.6 mo; p =  0.002), and time to CRPC (95.6 vs 155.8 mo; p =  0.02) in men with oligometastasis, and identified men with polymetastasis with better rPFS (TP53 wild-type, 42.7 mo; TP53 mutated, 18.5 mo; p =  0.01). Mutations in TP53 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.45; p =  0.004) and DNA double-strand break repair (IRR 1.61; p <  0.001) were associated with a higher number of metastases. Mutations in TP53 were also independently associated with shorter rPFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.59; p =  0.03) and the development of CRPC (HR 1.71; p =  0.01) on multivariable analysis. This study was limited by its retrospective nature, sample size, and the use of commercially available sequencing platforms, resulting in a limited predefined set of genes examined. Somatic mutational profiles reveal a spectrum of metastatic biology that helps in redefining oligometastasis beyond a simple binary state of lesion enumeration. Oligometastatic prostate cancer is typically defined as less than three to five metastatic lesions and evidence suggests that using radiation or surgery to treat these sites improves clinical outcomes. As of now, treatment decisions for oligometastasis are solely defined according to the number of lesions. However, this study suggests that tumor mutational profiles can provide a biological definition of oligometastasis and complement currently used numerical definitions.
Publication Date: 2021-01-10
Journal: European urology

Genotype-Specific Differences in Circulating Tumor DNA Levels in Advanced NSCLC.
Plasma-based circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an established biomarker for molecular profiling with emerging applications in disease monitoring in multiple tumor types, including, NSCLC. However, determinants of ctDNA shedding and correlation with tumor burden are incompletely understood, particularly in advanced-stage disease. We retrospectively analyzed ctDNA-based and tissue-based genomic data and imaging from 144 patients with NSCLC. Tumor burden was quantified with computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging for the overall cohort and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT in a subset of patients. There was a moderate but statistically significant correlation between ctDNA variant allele frequency and multiple imaging measures of tumor burden such as CT volume (rho = 0.34, p ≤ 0.0001) and metabolic tumor volume (rho = 0.36, p = 0.003). This correlation was strongest in KRAS-mutant tumors (rho = 0.56, p ≤ 0.001), followed by TP53 mutants (rho = 0.43, p ≤ 0.0001), and weakest in EGFR-mutated (EGFR+) tumors (rho = 0.24, p = 0.077). EGFR+ tumors with EGFR copy number gain had significantly higher variant allele frequency than EGFR+ without copy number gain (p ≤ 0.00001). In multivariable analysis, TP53 and EGFR mutations, visceral metastasis, and tumor burden were independent predictors of increased ctDNA shedding. Levels of detectable ctDNA were affected not only by tumor burden but also by tumor genotype. The genotype-specific differences observed may be due to variations in DNA shedding and cellular turnover. These findings have implications for the emerging use of ctDNA in NSCLC disease monitoring and early detection.
Publication Date: 2021-01-04
Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

Co-expression of cancer driver genes: IDH-wildtype glioblastoma-derived tumorspheres.
Driver genes of GBM may be crucial for the onset of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype (WT) glioblastoma (GBM). However, it is still unknown whether the genes are expressed in the identical cluster of cells. Here, we have examined the gene expression patterns of GBM tissues and patient-derived tumorspheres (TSs) and aimed to find a progression-related gene. We retrospectively collected primary IDH-WT GBM tissue samples (n = 58) and tumor-free cortical tissue samples (control, n = 20). TSs are isolated from the IDH-WT GBM tissue with B27 neurobasal medium. Associations among the driver genes were explored in the bulk tissue, bulk cell, and a single cell RNAsequencing techniques (scRNAseq) considering the alteration status of TP53, PTEN, EGFR, and TERT promoter as well as MGMT promoter methylation. Transcriptomic perturbation by temozolomide (TMZ) was examined in the two TSs. We comprehensively compared the gene expression of the known driver genes as well as MGMT, PTPRZ1, or IDH1. Bulk RNAseq databases of the primary GBM tissue revealed a significant association between TERT and TP53 (p < 0.001, R = 0.28) and its association increased in the recurrent tumor (p  < 0.001, R = 0.86). TSs reflected the tissue-level patterns of association between the two genes (p < 0.01, R = 0.59, n = 20). A scRNAseq data of a TS revealed the TERT and TP53 expressing cells are in a same single cell cluster. The driver-enriched cluster dominantly expressed the glioma-associated long noncoding RNAs. Most of the driver-associated genes were downregulated after TMZ except IGFBP5. GBM tissue level expression patterns of EGFR, TERT, PTEN, IDH1, PTPRZ1, and MGMT are observed in the GBM TSs. The driver gene-associated cluster of the GBM single cells were enriched with the glioma-associated long noncoding RNAs.
Publication Date: 2020-12-16
Journal: Journal of translational medicine

PDL1 high expression without TP53, KEAP1 and EPHA5 mutations could better predict survival for patients with NSCLC receiving atezolizumab.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high expression of PDL1 are more likely to benefit from atezolizumab. There are no relevant research focusing on the relationship between the PDL1 expression and clinical variables and gene mutation types among NSCLC patients. NSCLC patients with confirmed PDL1 expression and gene mutation information from OAK study were included in our study. Logistic regression proportional model was applied to analyze the risk factors on PDL1 high expression. The biomarker evaluable population (BEP) was screened to analyze the gene mutation informaion among these patients. High frequency gene mutations were screened based on different PDL1 expressions. Moreover, the log rank test was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) difference based on different gene mutation types. A total of 838 patients with NSCLC were included in our study. White patients are more likely to have PDL1 ≥ 1% (P = 0.004). ERBB4, EP300, PREX2, SLIT2, EPHB1 and IGF2R mutations were high frequency mutations in patients with high PDL1 expression, and the patients with EGFR, SMARCA4, EPHA5, FAT1, STK11, TET2 mutations were more likely to be seen in negative PDL1 expression group. Worse survival could be found in patients with KEAP1 (P < 0.001), TP53 (P = 0.004) and EPHA5 (P = 0.013) mutations who received atezolizumab compared with those who had none of these gene mutations. Importantly, for PDL1 high patients without KEAP1, EPHA5, TP53 mutations receiving atezolizumab, they all showed relatively longer median survival with 22.47, 22.18 and 23.33 months, respectively (all, P < 0.01). Different high frequency gene mutations could be found between the patients with high and negative PDL1. PDL1 expression combined with specific gene mutation may better predict the survival for patients receiving atezolizumab.
Publication Date: 2020-11-29
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)