Aberrant PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 expression in human scalp and face angiosarcoma.
Angiosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor originating from endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels. The molecular mechanisms of scalp and face angiosarcoma still need to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-like protein (pMAPK), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in scalp and face angiosarcoma and to assess tumor tissue apoptosis.The expression and intracellular distribution of PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 proteins in 21 specimens of human scalp and face angiosarcoma and 16 specimens of human benign hemangioma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.Significantly lower PTEN but higher PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 immunostaining were detected in the angiosarcoma specimens than in the benign hemangioma specimens(P < .01). The angiosarcoma tissues exhibited significantly higher apoptosis indices than the benign hemangioma tissues (P < .01). The positive expression rates of PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 were correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation in the human scalp and face angiosarcoma.The PI3K, MAPK, and TP53 pathways might be involved in angiosarcoma tumorigenesis in humans and may serve as therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of this malignancy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
The Impact of Foundation Medicine Testing on Cancer Patients: A Single Academic Centre Experience.
The use of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has recently allowed significant improvements in cancer treatment. Foundation Medicine
A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with solid tumors who had FM testing between May 1, 2014 and May 1, 2018. Clinical factors and outcomes were measured using descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel
Out of 66 FM tests, eight patients (= 12%) had a direct change in therapy based on the FM tests. Identified were 285 oncogenic mutations (median 1, range 0-31); where TP53 (n = 31, 10.9%), CDKN2A (n = 19, 6.7%), KRAS (n = 16, 5.6%) and APC (n = 9, 3.2%) were the most common FM mutations identified.
A small proportion of FM reports identified actionable mutations and led to direct treatment change. FM testing is expensive and a few of the identified mutations are now part of routine on-site testing. NGS testing is likely to become more widespread, but this research suggests that its true clinical impact may be restricted to a minority of patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Bioinformatics Analysis of Neuroblastoma miRNA Based on GEO Data.
To analyze the changes in downstream genes, signaling pathways, and proteins based on the difference of microRNA (miRNA) expression in neuroblastoma (NB).
GSE128004 second-generation sequencing expression data were downloaded from GEO, and Limma package of R language was used to analyze differential expression, and a volcano map and heat map were drawn; the target genes corresponding to the differential miRNA were found using the miWalk web tool, and GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) were performed. The key genes were identified and verified in the TCGA database.
A total of 34 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened out. Among them, 22 up-regulated miRNAs predicted 1163 target genes and 12 down-regulated miRNAs predicted 1474 target genes. Target genes were enriched and analyzed by KEGG to find the FOXO signal pathway, mTOR signal pathway, AMPK signal pathway, and other signal pathways. After GO analysis, axon formation, regulation of chemical synaptic transmitters, regulation of nerve synapses, regulation of cross-synaptic signals, and other physiological processes were assessed. A total of 16 key genes were obtained by PPI analysis, and the survival analysis of TP53 and ATM genes verified in the TCGA database showed statistical significance.
The 34 differential miRNAs may be related to the occurrence and development of NB. TP53 and ATM are related to the prognosis of NB. The role and mechanism of TP53 and ATM in NB need to be further verified.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine
Malignant plasmacytes in bone marrow detected by flow cytometry as a predictor for the risk stratification system of multiple myeloma.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation of plasma cells and their accumulation within the bone marrow (BM). The flow cytometric analysis is an essential method for the hematological diseases because of high sensitivity.
This study evaluates the indication role of malignant plasmacytes (PCs) in BM detected by flow cytometry for the risk stratification of MM.
Whole BM samples from 92 newly diagnosed MM patients were included in the study. We collected 10
In this study, patients were stratified according to different baseline characteristics and the median ratio of the malignant PCs were compared. The significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) were: Hb < 100 g/L versus ≥100 g/L; β2-microglobulin <3.5 mg/dL versus 3.5-5.5 mg/dL versus >5.5 mg/dL; LDH > 250 U/L versus LDH 250 U/L; ISS I versus ISS II versus ISS III; R-ISS I versus II versus III. The detailed data are showed in Table 2. The significant correlations were observed between the malignant PCs in BM and (Figure 1): plasma cell of biopsy, hemoglobin, β2-microglobulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine. "Double hit" or "triple hit" are defined as containing any two or three of the high risk cytogenetic abnormalities (t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20); del17q; TP53 mutation; 1q21 gain) by mSMAR. "Double or triple hit" had independently unfavorable significance for overall survival. As expected, the malignant PCs of "double or triple hit" group is significantly higher than the group B (one high risk genetic factor) and the group A (normal cytogenetic) (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.019).
Multiparametric flow cytometry is a highly sensitive method to identify and quantify malignant PCs. And the ratio of malignant PCs detected by MFC showed strongly correlation with the severity of the pathology of MM. Malignant PCs in BM detected by flow cytometry could be regarded as a predictor for the risk stratification system of MM. Thus, it should be considered applying in the routine evaluation of MM at diagnosis and after therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-06-01
Journal: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
Comprehensive CRISPR-Cas9 screens identify genetic determinants of drug responsiveness in multiple myeloma.
The introduction of new drugs in the past years has substantially improved outcome in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the majority of patients eventually relapse and become resistant to one or multiple drugs. While the genetic landscape of relapsed/ resistant multiple myeloma has been elucidated, the causal relationship between relapse-specific gene mutations and the sensitivity to a given drug in MM has not systematically been evaluated. To determine the functional impact of gene mutations, we performed combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) of longitudinal patient samples with CRISPR-Cas9 drug resistance screens for lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone, and melphalan. WES of longitudinal samples from 16 MM patients identified a large number of mutations in each patient that were newly acquired or evolved from a small subclone (median 9, range 1-55), including recurrent mutations in TP53, DNAH5, and WSCD2. Focused CRISPR-Cas9 resistance screens against 170 relapse-specific mutations functionally linked 15 of them to drug resistance. These included cereblon E3 ligase complex members for lenalidomide, structural genes PCDHA5 and ANKMY2 for dexamethasone, RB1 and CDK2NC for bortezomib, and TP53 for melphalan. In contrast, inactivation of genes involved in the DNA damage repair pathway, including ATM, FANCA, RAD54B, and BRCC3, enhanced susceptibility to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Resistance patterns were highly drug specific with low overlap and highly correlated with the treatment-dependent clonal evolution in patients. The functional association of specific genetic alterations with drug sensitivity will help to personalize treatment of MM in the future.
Publication Date: 2021-05-06
Journal: Blood advances
Low-burden TP53 mutations in CLL: Clinical impact and clonal evolution within the context of different treatment options.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with TP53 mutations experience chemo-refractory disease and are therefore indicated for targeted therapy. However, the significance of low-burden TP53 mutations with <10% variant allele frequency (VAF) remains a matter of debate. Here we describe clonal evolution scenarios of low-burden TP53 mutations and analyzed their clinical impact in a "real-world" CLL cohort. TP53 status was assessed by targeted NGS in 511 patients entering first-line treatment with chemo/immunotherapy and 159 relapsed patients treated with targeted agents. Within the pre-therapy cohort, 16% of patients carried low-burden TP53 mutations (0.1-10% VAF). While their presence did not significantly shorten event-free survival after first-line therapy, it affected overall survival (OS). For a subgroup with TP53 mutations of 1-10% VAF, the impact on OS was only observed in patients with unmutated IGHV that had not received targeted therapy, as patients benefited from switching to targeted agents regardless of initial TP53 mutational status. Analysis of the clonal evolution of low-burden TP53 mutations showed that the highest expansion rates were associated with FCR in both first and second-line treatment (median VAF increase 14.8x and 11.8x, respectively) in contrast to treatment with less intense chemo/immunotherapy regimens (1.6x) and without treatment (0.8x). In the relapsed cohort, 33% of patients carried low-burden TP53 mutations, which did not expand significantly upon targeted treatment (median VAF change 1x). Sporadic cases of TP53-mut clonal shifts were connected with the development of resistance-associated mutations. Altogether, our data support the incorporation of low-burden TP53 variants in clinical decision-making.
Publication Date: 2021-05-05
TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification in metaplastic breast cancer.
Metaplastic breast cancers (MBCs) are characterized by complex genomes, which seem to vary according to their histologic subtype. TERT promoter hotspot mutations and gene amplification are rare in common forms of breast cancer, but present in a subset of phyllodes tumors. Here, we sought to determine the frequency of genetic alterations affecting TERT in a cohort of 60 MBCs with distinct predominant metaplastic components (squamous, 23%; spindle, 27%; osseous, 8%; chondroid, 42%), and to compare the repertoire of genetic alterations of MBCs according to the presence of TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification. Forty-four MBCs were subjected to: whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 27) or targeted sequencing of 341-468 cancer-related genes (n = 17); 16 MBCs were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the TERT promoter, TP53 and selected exons of PIK3CA, HRAS, and BRAF. TERT promoter hotspot mutations (n = 9) and TERT gene amplification (n = 1) were found in 10 of the 60 MBCs analyzed, respectively. These TERT alterations were less frequently found in MBCs with predominant chondroid differentiation than in other MBC subtypes (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and were mutually exclusive with TP53 mutations (p < 0.001, CoMEt). In addition, a comparative analysis of the MBCs subjected to WES or targeted cancer gene sequencing (n = 44) revealed that MBCs harboring TERT promoter hotspot mutations or gene amplification (n = 6) more frequently harbored PIK3CA than TERT wild-type MBCs (n = 38; p = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). In conclusion, TERT somatic genetic alterations are found in a subset of TP53 wild-type MBCs with squamous/spindle differentiation, highlighting the genetic diversity of these cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-04-18
Journal: NPJ breast cancer
Comprehensive analysis of germline mutations in northern Brazil: a panel of 16 genes for hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome investigation.
Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been a handy tool in clinical practice, mainly due to its efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It has been widely used in genetic diagnosis of several inherited diseases, and, in clinical oncology, it may enhance the discovery of new susceptibility genes and enable individualized care of cancer patients. In this context, we explored a pan-cancer panel in the investigation of germline variants in Brazilian patients presenting clinical criteria for hereditary cancer syndromes or familial history.
Seventy-one individuals diagnosed or with familial history of hereditary cancer syndromes were submitted to custom pan-cancer panel including 16 high and moderate penetrance genes previously associated with hereditary cancer syndromes (APC, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CDKN2A, CHEK2, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, PTEN, RB1, RET, TP53, VHL, XPA and XPC). All pathogenic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing.
We identified a total of eight pathogenic variants among 12 of 71 individuals (16.9%). Among the mutation-positive subjects, 50% were diagnosed with breast cancer and had mutations in BRCA1, CDH1 and MUTYH. Notably, 33.3% were individuals diagnosed with polyposis or who had family cases and harbored pathogenic mutations in APC and MUTYH. The remaining individuals (16.7%) were gastric cancer patients with pathogenic variants in CDH1 and MSH2. Overall, 54 (76.05%) individuals presented at least one variant uncertain significance (VUS), totalizing 81 VUS. Of these, seven were predicted to have disease-causing potential.
Overall, analysis of all these genes in NGS-panel allowed the identification not only of pathogenic variants related to hereditary cancer syndromes but also of some VUS that need further clinical and molecular investigations. The results obtained in this study had a significant impact on patients and their relatives since it allowed genetic counselling and personalized management decisions.
Publication Date: 2021-04-09
Journal: BMC cancer
Precision medicine: preliminary results from the Initiative for Molecular Profiling and Advanced Cancer Therapy 2 (IMPACT2) study.
Precision medicine is associated with favorable outcomes in selected patients with cancer. Herein, we report an interim analysis of IMPACT2, an ongoing randomized study evaluating genomic profiling and targeted agents in metastatic cancer. Patients with metastatic cancer underwent tumor genomic profiling (ClinialTrials.gov: NCT02152254), and 69 patients met the criteria for randomization. Tumor board and multidisciplinary review of molecular alterations optimized treatment selection. From 5/2014 to 4/2017, 320 patients (median age, 63 years; men, 47%) had tumor molecular aberrations, and 213 (66.56%) received anticancer therapy. The most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (42%), KRAS (16%), PIK3CA (12%), and CDKN2A (11%). The median OS was 10.9 months (95% CI, 8.8-12.9). OS was shorter in patients with higher tumor mutational burden. Independent factors associated with shorter OS were age ≥60 years, liver metastases, low albumin levels, high LDH levels, and KRAS and TP53 mutations. Outcomes for randomized patients will be reported after completion of the study.
Publication Date: 2021-03-21
Journal: NPJ precision oncology
Expression of p53 is significantly associated with recurrence-free survival and overall survival in pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB): a report from the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma/DICER1 Registry.
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a primary embryonal malignancy of childhood that is characterized by distinct morphologic types: type Ir (regressed), type I (cystic), type II (cystic and solid), and type III (solid). Prognosis varies by PPB type. Most cases are associated with a germline pathogenic mutation in DICER1; however, there is limited data on the factor(s) at a cellular level that drive progression from type I to type III. In this study, we evaluated the expression of p53 and its prognostic implications. A total of 143 PPB cases were included in the study with the following distribution in PPB types: Ir (14%), I (23%), II (32%), and III (31%). P53 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was recorded as four groups: 0%, 1-25%, 26-75%, and 76-100%. All type I PPBs showed 0-25% p53 expression compared to the higher p53 expression (>25%) in type III PPB (p < 0.0001), to support the argument that p53 has a role in tumor progression. In addition, type Ir with the architectural hallmarks of type I PPB, but lacking the primitive cell population, has negligible p53 expression. High p53 expression (staining observed in >25% of the tumor cells) was significantly associated with age over 1 year (p = 0.0033), neoadjuvant therapy (p = 0.0009), positive resection margin (p = 0.0008) and anaplasia (p < 0.0001). P53 expression was significantly associated with recurrence-free survival (p < 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0350), with higher p53 expression associated with worse prognosis. Comparisons of concordance statistics showed no significant difference in prognostication when using morphologic types compared to p53 expression groups (p = 0.647). TP53 sequence was performed in 16 cases; the most common variant identified was a missense variant (12 cases), and in one case a frameshift truncating variant was noted. Based on these findings, we recommend performing p53 IHC in all newly diagnosed cases of types II and III PPB to further aid in risk stratification.
Publication Date: 2021-02-28
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: p16/p53 immunohistochemistry as a strong predictor of HPV tumour status.
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have a better prognosis than those without HPV infection. Although p16
A total of 110 OPSCC were identified in the database of the pathology department and were studied using p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry. For p16-positive or p16-negative/wild-type patterns-p53 (WT-p53) cases (n = 63), DNA in-situ hybridisation for high-risk HPV was performed, and if negative the HPV status was controlled by HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (n = 19). A significant association between TP53 mutation and pattern of p53 expression was found (WT-p53, seven of 16, P < 0.001). The p16-positive/WT-p53 was significantly associated with HPV
The p16 protein immunopositivity in conjunction with the mutant-type pattern of p53 staining helped to reclassify a subset of p16-positive OPSCC as OPSCC-unrelated HPV. This approach could be routinely applied by pathologists involved in the management of OPSCC, because of their potential therapeutic implications.
Publication Date: 2021-02-10
High prevalence of clonal hematopoiesis-type genomic abnormalities in cell-free DNA in invasive gliomas after treatment.
Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is emerging as an important diagnostic tool in cancer. However, cfDNA alterations may differ from those in tissue and sometimes may reflect processes unrelated to the cancer, including clonal hematopoiesis (CH). We examined plasma cfDNA, tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS), for characterized alterations (excluding variants of unknown significance) in 135 patients with invasive glioma. Overall, 21% (28/135) had ≥1 alteration; 17% (23/135) had CH-type cfDNA mutations. Temozolomide (a mutagenic alkylating agent) with concurrent radiation therapy prior to blood draw was significantly associated with an increase in CH-type mutations, even after age, race/ethnicity, and WHO-grade were considered as confounders (odds ratio [95% confidence interval, CI] 8.98 [1.13-71.46]; P = .04; multivariable analysis). Further, of 18 patients with invasive glioma who had both cfDNA and tissue DNA NGS and had ≥1 cfDNA alteration, 16 (89%) had ≥1 cfDNA alteration not found in their tissue DNA, including CH-type alterations in genes such as TP53 (most common), ATM, GNAS, and JAK2. Altogether, 87% of cfDNA alterations (20/23) observed in the 18 patients were implicated in CH. Finally, examining all 135 patients, CH-type cfDNA mutations were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (hazard ratio [95% CI] 3.28 [1.28-8.40]; P = .01). These findings emphasize that not all characterized cfDNA alterations detected in patients with solid tumors are cancer-related. Importantly, in patients with invasive gliomas who have had prior temozolomide and radiation, CH-related alterations in cfDNA are frequent and correlate with poor outcomes.
Publication Date: 2021-01-27
Journal: International journal of cancer
Unbalanced translocation der(5;17) resulting in a TP53 loss as recurrent aberration in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype.
A complex karyotype, detected in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), is associated with a reduced median survival. The most frequent chromosomal aberrations in complex karyotypes are deletions of 5q and 17p harboring the tumor suppressor gene TP53. The unbalanced translocation der(5;17) involving chromosome 5q and 17p is a recurrent aberration in MDS/AML, resulting in TP53 loss. We analyzed the karyotypes of 178 patients with an unbalanced translocation der(5;17) using fluorescence R-/G-banding analysis. Whenever possible, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (n = 138/141), multicolor FISH (n = 8), telomere length measurement (n = 9), targeted DNA sequencing (n = 13), array-CGH (n = 7) and targeted RNA sequencing (n = 2) were conducted. The der(5;17) aberration was accompanied with loss of genetic material in 7q (53%), -7 (27%), gain of 21q (29%), +8 (17%) and - 18 (16%) and all analyzed patients (n = 13) showed a (likely) pathogenic variant inTP53. The der(5;17) cohort showed significantly shortened telomeres in comparison to the healthy age-matched controls (P < .05), but there was no significant telomere shortening in comparison to MDS/AML patients with a complex karyotype without der(5;17). No fusion genes resulted from the unbalanced translocation. This study demonstrates that the unbalanced translocation der(5;17) is associated with a biallelic inactivation of TP53 due to a deletion of TP53 in one allele and a pathogenic variant of the second TP53 allele. Since the breakpoints are located within (near-) heterochromatic regions, alterations of DNA methylation or histone modifications may be involved in the generation of der(5;17).
Publication Date: 2021-01-25
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer
Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score in germline BRCA2- versus ATM-altered prostate cancer.
The homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score integrates three DNA-based measures of genomic instability, and has been understudied in prostate cancer. Given the recent FDA approval of two PARP inhibitors for prostate cancer, HRD score analysis could help to refine treatment selection. We assessed HRD score (defined as the sum of loss-of-heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions) in three cohorts of primary prostate cancer, including a Johns Hopkins University (JHU) cohort with germline mutations in BRCA2, ATM, or CHEK2 (n = 64), the TCGA cohort (n = 391), and the PROGENE cohort (n = 102). In the JHU cohort, tumors with germline BRCA2 mutations had higher HRD scores (median = 27) than those with germline ATM or CHEK2 mutations (median = 16.5 [p = 0.029] and 9 [p < 0.001], respectively). For TCGA tumors without underlying HR pathway mutations, the median HRD score was 11, significantly lower than ovarian carcinoma lacking BRCA1/2 mutations (median = 28). In the absence of HR gene mutations, the median HRD score was unexpectedly higher among prostate cancers with TP53 mutations versus those without (17 vs. 11; p = 0.015); this finding was confirmed in the PROGENE cohort (24 vs. 16; p = 0.001). Finally, among eight BRCA2-altered patients who received olaparib, progression-free survival trended longer in those with HRD scores above versus below the median (14.9 vs. 9.9 months). We conclude that HRD scores are low in primary prostate cancer and higher in cases with germline BRCA2 or somatic TP53 mutations. Germline BRCA2-altered cases have significantly higher HRD scores than germline ATM-altered or CHEK2-altered cases, consistent with the lower efficacy of PARP inhibitors among the latter.
Publication Date: 2021-01-20
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Full-coverage TP53 deep sequencing of recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma facilitates prognostic assessment after recurrence.
This study aims to evaluate whether the accumulation of TP53 mutations is associated with clinical outcome by comparing full-coverage TP53 deep sequencing of the initial and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Medical records and surgical specimens of 400 patients with HNSCC surgically treated with curative intent, of which 95 patients developed local or locoregional recurrence, were reviewed. Of these patients, 63 were eligible for genomic analysis. Full-coverage TP53 deep sequencing of 126 paired initial and recurrent tumor samples was examined using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Temporal changes in the mutation status, molecular characterization, and clinical outcome were compared. Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression models were used for statistical analysis.
Of the recurrent tumors, 22% harbored accumulation of TP53 mutations, and 16% lost the original mutation. The accumulation of TP53 mutations was significantly more frequent in oral cancer than in pharyngeal or laryngeal cancer (33% vs. 7%, p = 0.016). Two-year post-recurrence survival (PRS) was associated with TP53 status for recurrent tumors, but not for initial tumors. The TP53 status for recurrent tumors was an independent risk factor in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-17.8; p = 0.0023).
Approximately one-third of the recurrent HNSCC cases showed a different TP53 status from the initial tumor. Temporal changes in the mutation status differed by primary site. Full-coverage TP53 deep sequencing of recurrent tumors was useful in predicting post-recurrence prognosis.
Publication Date: 2020-11-30
Journal: Oral oncology
The survival impact of CKS1B gains or amplification is dependent on the background karyotype and TP53 deletion status in patients with myeloma.
Gains or amplification (amp) of chromosome 1q21/CKS1B are reported to be a high-risk factor in myeloma. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the impact of CKS1B gain/amp on overall survival in the context of other genetic aberrations, such as TP53 deletion, FGFR3-IGH, IGH-MAF, MYEOV/CCND1-IGH, and RB1, as well as karyotype. The cohort included 132 myeloma patients with CKS1B gain/amp detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. There were 72 men and 60 women with a median age of 65 years (range 39-88 years). A normal, simple, or complex karyotype was observed in 39.5%, 5.4%, and 55% of patients, respectively. "Double hit," defined as CKS1B gain/amp coexisting with TP53 deletion, or "triple hit," defined as double hit plus t(4;14)FGFR3-IGH or t(14;16)IGH-MAF, were identified in 25 patients (18.9%) and five patients (3.8%), respectively. Double and triple hit were highly associated with a complex karyotype (p = 0.02). Ninety-nine patients (99/128, 77.3%) received stem cell transplantation. The median follow-up time was 48.2 months (range 2-104 months); 68 patients (51.5%) died, with a median overall survival of 58.8 months. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed that double hit with TP53 deletion (p = 0.0031), triple hit (p = 0.01), and complex karyotype (p = 0.0009) were each independently associated with poorer overall survival. Stem cell transplantation was associated with better overall survival, mainly in patients with a double or triple hit and complex karyotype (p = 0.003). These findings indicate that the inferior outcome of myeloma patients with CKS1B gain/amp is attributable to the high number of high-risk patients in this group. The prognostic impact of CKS1B gain/amp depends on the background karyotype and TP53 status.
Publication Date: 2020-09-11
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
FoundationOne® CDx gene profiling in Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients: a single-institution experience.
The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mutation profiles of Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients.
Next-generation sequencing was performed using FoundationOne® CDx on 17 PDAC patients who were treated by surgical resection at Kyushu University Hospital between February 2016 and January 2019. The tumor mutational burden and microsatellite instability status were also assessed.
There were 16 patients (94%) with KRAS mutations, 13 (76%) with TP53 mutations, three (18%) with SMAD4 mutations, and one (6%) with a CDKN2A mutation. All patients had at least one pathogenic variant or a likely pathogenic variant. No patient had targeted therapies that matched with any clinical benefit according to FoundationOne® CDx. An unresectable PDAC patient with BRCA2-mutant disease was successfully treated by conversion surgery using platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Currently, FoundationOne® CDx might be difficult to use on PDAC patients, although further investigations with larger study populations are called for.
Publication Date: 2020-09-05
Journal: Surgery today
Revisiting MET: Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic, MET-Amplified Esophagogastric Cancers.
Metastatic esophagogastric cancers (EGCs) have a poor prognosis with an approximately 5% 5-year survival. Additional treatment approaches are needed. c-MET gene-amplified tumors are an uncommon but potentially targetable subset of EGC. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated in patients with MET-amplified EGC and compared with those without MET amplification to facilitate identification of these patients and possible treatment approaches.
Patients with locally advanced or metastatic MET-amplified EGC at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were identified using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, with a gene-to-control ratio of ≥2.2 defined as positive. Non-MET-amplified patients identified during the same time period who had undergone tumor genotyping and treatment at MGH were evaluated as a comparison group.
We identified 233 patients evaluated for MET amplification from 2002 to 2019. MET amplification was seen in 28 (12%) patients versus 205 (88%) patients without amplification. Most MET-amplified tumors occurred in either the distal esophagus (n = 9; 32%) or gastroesophageal junction (n = 10; 36%). Of MET-amplified patients, 16 (57%) had a TP53 mutation, 5(18%) had HER2 co-amplification, 2 (7.0%) had EGFR co-amplification, and 1 (3.5%) had FGFR2 co-amplification. MET-amplified tumors more frequently had poorly differentiated histology (19/28, 68.0% vs. 66/205, 32%; p = .02). Progression-free survival to initial treatment was substantially shorter for all MET-amplified patients (5.6 vs. 8.8 months, p = .026) and for those with metastatic disease at presentation (4.0 vs. 7.6 months, p = .01). Overall, patients with MET amplification had shorter overall survival (19.3 vs. 24.6 months, p = .049). No difference in survival was seen between low MET-amplified tumors (≥2.2 and <25 MET copy number) compared with highly amplified tumors (≥25 MET copy number).
MET-amplified EGC represents a distinct clinical entity characterized by rapid progression and short survival. Ideally, the identification of these patients will provide opportunities to participate in clinical trials in an attempt to improve outcomes.
This article describes 233 patients who received MET amplification testing and reports (a) a positivity rate of 12%, similar to the rate of HER2 positivity in this data set; (b) the clinical characteristics of poorly differentiated tumors and nodal metastases; and (c) markedly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in MET-amplified tumors. Favorable outcomes are reported for patients treated with MET inhibitors. Given the lack of published data in MET-amplified esophagogastric cancers and the urgent clinical importance of identifying patients with MET amplification for MET-directed therapy, this large series is a valuable addition to the literature and will have an impact on future practice.
Publication Date: 2020-08-21
Journal: The oncologist
Mutational profiling of lung adenocarcinoma in China detected by next-generation sequencing.
NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancers. The purpose of this study is to screen cancer-related mutations in early LUAD in China through NGS technology, determine their correlation with clinical characteristics and provide basis for treatment decisions.
In this study, we performed a 583 gene panel to detect the mutational spectrum of the tumors which were collected from 98 LUAD patients. The sequencing data and clinical characteristics were analyzed.
Mutations were identified in 94.9% of patients. EGFR had the highest mutation frequency which was detected in 66% of the patients and was significantly associated with female gender and non-smoking history. Other genes with high mutation frequency were TP53 (37%), ERBB2 (24%), BCOR (22%), ZFHX3 (19%), BTG1 (17%), ATR (16%), WWTR1 (15%), etc. TP53 mutations were significantly associated with medium and low differentiation of tumors; BCOR and BLM mutations with gender; WWTR1 mutations with age; and ATR mutations with visceral pleura invasion were observed. 61% of the patients harbored at less one actionable alteration associated with FDA-recognized or investigational drugs.
Multiple mutations in LUAD patients in this study have not previously been reported in NSCLC. Moreover, mutations in driver genes including EGFR, TP53, BCOR, BLM, WWTR1, and ATR were significantly related to clinical features. The panel used in this study is an effective approach for molecular analysis and can be applied in personalized treatment decision-making and drug development.
Publication Date: 2020-06-24
Journal: Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
Mucinous borderline ovarian tumors with BRAF
Mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs) are relatively rare. It has been proposed that a subset of mucinous cystadenomas (MCAs) may progress to mucinous borderline tumors (MBTs), and then to MOCs. KRAS is the predominantly mutated gene in MOC; however, other associated mutations and the mechanism underlying carcinogenesis in MOC remain unclear. Here, we assessed molecular genetic alterations in mucinous ovarian tumors and constructed mutation profiles.
Using the Sanger sequencing method, we assessed genetic mutations (KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA) in 16 cases of MOC, 10 cases of MBT, and 12 cases of MCA.
Among MOC cases, the prevalence of G12D and G13D KRAS mutations was 43.8% (7/16). No MOC cases showed V600E BRAF and TP53 mutations. Among MBT cases, the prevalence of G12D KRAS mutation was 20.0% (2/10), those of TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were nil, and that of V600E BRAF mutation was 40% (4/10). None of the genetic mutations assessed were detected among MCA cases.
These results suggest that MBT with V600E BRAF mutation may rarely progress to MOC, while MBT with G12D or G13D KRAS mutation may more commonly progress to MOC.
Publication Date: 2020-06-20
Journal: Archives of gynecology and obstetrics