Clinical and genomic characterization of patients diagnosed with the provisional entity acute myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1, a Swedish population-based study.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(9;22)(q34;q11), also known as AML with BCR-ABL1, is a rare, provisional entity in the WHO 2016 classification and is considered a high-risk disease according to the European LeukemiaNet 2017 risk stratification. We here present a retrospective, population-based study of this disease entity from the Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry. By strict clinical inclusion criteria we aimed to identify genetic markers further distinguishing AML with t(9;22) as a separate entity. Twenty-five patients were identified and next-generation sequencing using a 54-gene panel was performed in 21 cases. Interestingly, no mutations were found in NPM1, FLT3, or DNMT3A, three frequently mutated genes in AML. Instead, RUNX1 was the most commonly mutated gene, with aberrations present in 38% of the cases compared to around 10% in de novo AML. Additional mutations were identified in genes involved in RNA splicing (SRSF2, SF3B1) and chromatin regulation (ASXL1, STAG2, BCOR, BCORL1). Less frequently, mutations were found in IDH2, NRAS, TET2, and TP53. The mutational landscape exhibited a similar pattern as recently described in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast crisis (BC). Despite the concomitant presence of BCR-ABL1 and RUNX1 mutations in our cohort, both features of high-risk AML, the RUNX1-mutated cases showed a superior overall survival compared to RUNX1 wildtype cases. Our results suggest that the molecular characteristics of AML with t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 and CML in myeloid BC are similar and do not support a distinction of the two disease entities based on their underlying molecular alterations.
Publication Date: 2021-01-13
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer
Multiparameter flow cytometry applications in the diagnosis of mixed phenotype acute leukemia.
Mixed phenotype acute leukemias (MPALs) represent a rare subgroup of acute leukemias with a poor prognosis. Proper diagnosis and classification of MPAL is extremely important for patients' outcome. Morphology and flow cytometry recognize two types of MPAL: the "bilineal" MPAL with the coexistence of two blast populations of different lineage and truly "biphenotypic" MPAL coexpressing markers of more than one lineage in a homogenous blast population, respectively. The WHO 2008 classification further delineated three categories: associated with t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, associated with KMT2A (mixed lineage leukemia) rearrangements, and nonotherwise specified. These categories remained unchanged in the WHO2016 update. Molecular studies have further underlined the heterogeneity of MPAL. In this review, rules for the correct assignment of acute leukemia to the MPAL category are discussed, including both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry on bone marrow or other tissues biopsies. Comparison of the immunophenotypic classification proposals is provided outlining the explorations mandatory for definitive diagnosis. An extensive review of published data summarizes the reported cytogenetic and molecular anomalies. New developments in the understanding of the early stages of hematopoiesis provide clues to the possible etiopathology of these diseases. Finally, current treatment recommendations are summarized and referenced for clinical use, pointing out that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at an early stage should be considered (at least in adult patients). © 2019 International Clinical Cytometry Society.
Publication Date: 2019-04-30
Journal: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
Concordance of two approaches in monitoring of minimal residual disease in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Fusion transcripts and leukemia-associated immunophenotypes.
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) for fusion transcripts and flow cytometry for leukemia-specific markers are widely used for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but the relation between the results of either method is unclear.
Mononucleated cells from 108 bone marrow samples collected from 55 B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (30 with t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1, 16 with t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 and nine with t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1) were examined in tandem by RQ-PCR and six-color flow cytometry.
MRD results were concordant in 91 of the 108 paired samples (84.2%; K=0.690); 49 samples were MRD-negative while 42 were MRD-positive by both methods, with < 1 log difference in positive MRD estimates in 39 samples (92.9%). Of the 17 discordant samples, 16 were MRD-positive by RQ-PCR but MRD-negative by flow cytometry; the opposite was true in one sample. Kappa value/concordance was 0.690/85.0% (n = 60) for ETV6-RUNX1, 0.842/93.3% (n = 15) for TCF3-PBX1, and 0.535/78.8% (n = 33) for BCR-ABL1. Specific immunophenotypic abnormalities were more prevalent in each genetic subgroup, such as CD38 underexpression, CD58 overexpression, and CD34 overexpression in ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, and BCR-ABL1, respectively.
In most follow-up samples, MRD estimates by two methods are in agreement, especially in patients with TCF3-PBX1.
Publication Date: 2017-01-09
Journal: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
Preleukemic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia: morphologic and immunohistochemical characterization of 7 cases.
Patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) present typically with an elevated white blood cell count (WBC) and cytogenetic or molecular genetic evidence of t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. Rarely, CML patients may present with a normal or mildly elevated WBC and are asymptomatic, and we describe 7 patients in this study. The WBC in these patients ranged from 3.6 to 14.3 K/mm(3) with 50% to 73% granulocytes and 0% blasts. In all patients, t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) was detected by conventional cytogenetics, and BCR-ABL1 fusion was shown, supporting the diagnosis of preleukemic CML (pre-CML). We compared these patients with a group of 5 cases of CML in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 5 bone marrow specimens with a leukemoid reaction (n=5). Reticulin, CD34, and CD61 immunostains were performed on all bone marrow biopsy specimens. Peripheral blood absolute basophilia (≥200/mm(3)) was noted in only 4 of 7 pre-CML cases, whereas it was present in all CML-CP cases and absent in leukemoid reaction cases. The mean ±SD of microvascular density of pre-CML cases (10.0 ± 4.3 vessels/200× field) was twice that of leukemoid reaction cases (5.0 ± 1.0) (P=.02; Student t test) but similar to that of CML-CP cases (12.5 ± 3.6). Microvessels in pre-CML, highlighted by CD34, were tortuous with abnormal branching, although to a lesser extent than those found in CML-CP. Microvessels in leukemoid reaction were generally straight. The percentage of small, hypolobated megakaryocytes, highlighted by CD61 in pre-CML, was 40%, 3 times that found in leukemoid reaction cases (13%) but less than that of CML-CP cases (86%). We conclude that pre-CML should be suspected in patients with a normal to mildly elevated WBC and absolute basophilia. Bone marrow examination can usually distinguish pre-CML from a leukemoid reaction based on the percentage of small, hypolobated megakaryocytes; microvascular density; and morphologic features.
Publication Date: 2016-04-05
Journal: Annals of diagnostic pathology
New and emerging prognostic and predictive genetic biomarkers in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease at the genetic level. Chromosomal abnormalities are used as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers to provide subtype, outcome and drug response information. t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 and high hyper-diploidy are good-risk prognostic biomarkers whereas KMT2A(MLL) translocations, t(17;19)/TCF3-HLF, haploidy or low hypodiploidy are high-risk biomarkers. t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 patients require targeted treatment (imatinib/dasatinib), whereas iAMP21 patients achieve better outcomes when treated intensively. High-risk genetic biomarkers are four times more prevalent in adults compared to children. The application of genomic technologies to cases without an established abnormality (B-other) reveals copy number alterations which can be used either individually or in combination as prognostic biomarkers. Transcriptome sequencing studies have identified a network of fusion genes involving kinase genes -ABL1,ABL2,PDGFRB,CSF1R,CRLF2,JAK2 and EPOR in-vitro and in-vivo studies along with emerging clinical observations indicate that patients with a kinase-activating aberration may respond to treatment with small molecular inhibitors like imatinib/dasatinib and ruxolitinib. Further work is required to determine the true frequency of these abnormalities across the age spectrum and the optimal way to incorporate such inhibitors into protocols. In conclusion, genetic biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of patients with ALL.
Publication Date: 2016-04-02
A revised definition for cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
With improved contemporary therapy, we reassess long-term outcome in patients completing treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to determine when cure can be declared with a high degree of confidence. In six successive clinical trials between 1984 and 2007, 1291 (84.5%) patients completed all therapies in continuous complete remission. The post-therapy cumulative risk of relapse or development of a second neoplasm and the event-free survival rate and overall survival were analyzed according to the presenting features and the three treatment periods defined by relative outcome. Over the three treatment periods, there has been progressive increase in the rate of event-free survival (65.2% vs 74.8% vs 85.1% (P<0.001)) and overall survival (76.5% vs 81.1% vs 91.7% (P<0.001)) at 10 years. The most important predictor of outcome after completion of therapy was the type of treatment. In the most recent treatment period, which omitted the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation, the post-treatment cumulative risk of relapse was 6.4%, death in remission 1.5% and development of a second neoplasm 2.3% at 10 years, with all relapses except one occurring within 4 years of therapy. None of the 106 patients with the t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1, t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AFF1 had relapsed after 2 years from completion of therapy. These findings demonstrate that with contemporary effective therapy that excludes cranial irradiation, approximately 6% of children with ALL may relapse after completion of treatment, and those who remain in remission at 4 years post treatment may be considered cured (that is, less than 1% chance of relapse).
Publication Date: 2014-05-02
Vincristine sulfate liposomal injection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Vincristine (VCR) is one of the most extensively used cytotoxic compounds in hemato-oncology. VCR is particularly important for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a disease that accounts for approximately one-third of all childhood cancer diagnoses. VCR's full therapeutic potential has been limited by dose-limiting neurotoxicity, classically resulting in autonomic and peripheral sensory-motor neuropathy. In the last decade, however, the discovery that liposomal encapsulation of chemotherapeutics can modulate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a compound has stimulated much interest in liposomal VCR (vincristine sulfate liposomal injection [VSLI]) formulations for the treatment of ALL and other hematological malignancies. Promising data from recent clinical trials investigating VSLI in adults with ALL resulted in US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (t[9;22]/BCR-ABL1) (Ph)-negative (Ph-) disease. Additional clinical trials of VSLI in adults and children with both Ph-positive (Ph+) and Ph- ALL are ongoing. Here we review the preclinical and clinical experience to date with VSLI for ALL.
Publication Date: 2013-11-16
Journal: International journal of nanomedicine
Subclones with the t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 rearrangement occur in AML and seem to cooperate with distinct genetic alterations.
In AML, cooperation of mutations suppressing differentiation ('class-II-mutations') with 'class-I-mutations' increasing cell proliferation is frequent. In rare cases of myeloid malignancies, the BCR-ABL1 fusion was reported to cooperate as class-I-mutation with class-II-mutations, but most cases had to be classified as blast phase of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). We identified five cases of Philadelphia positive subclones in AML occurring in coincidence with other genetic lesions: 1:220 patients with inv(16)/CBFB-MYH11 (0·5%), 2:272 AML cases with t(8;21)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (0·7%), 1:1029 NPM1-mutated AML (0·1%), and one patient with s-AML following MDS with a 5q-deletion. Four patients had m-BCR (e1a2) BCR-ABL1 transcripts; one case only had an M-BCR (b3a2) breakpoint. These cases allow some interesting conclusions: The BCR-ABL1 rearrangement apparently can cooperate with the NPM1 mutation similar to other class-I-mutations. The identification of Philadelphia positive subclones in <1% of patients with CBF-leukaemias fits well with previous observations that most CBF-AML are accompanied by activating mutations in genes enhancing proliferation. Since we observed the occurrence of the Philadelphia positive subclones at diagnosis, at relapse, or throughout the disease, the time point of the emergence of Philadelphia subclones seems variable in AML. Clinical research should further concentrate on Philadelphia positive subclones in AML to assess the clinical impact.
Publication Date: 2011-02-01
Journal: British journal of haematology
Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as diagnostic molecular screening of 4 common fusion chimeric genes in Taiwanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
The classification of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by specific chromosomal translocations has prognostic implications for risk-directed therapy. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a useful tool for detecting fusion transcripts from common chromosomal translocations of ALL cells.
Multiplex RT-PCR and nested-PCR assays were used to detect ALL-type BCR-ABL1 transcripts of the t(9;22), TCF-PBX1 transcripts of t(1;19), the MLL-AF4 transcripts of t(4;11), and 2 variants of ETV6-RUNX1 of the cryptic t(12;21) in 148 leukemic samples upon diagnosis. The patients received risk-directed protocols of the Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-ALL-2002 that consisted of multiple chemotherapeutic agents of different intensities. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were analyzed for genetic abnormalities detected by multiplex PCR and conventional cytogenetic analysis by the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel test. The Cox proportional hazards model was implemented to identify independent prognostic factors for EFS and OS.
In this cohort of Taiwanese children, the relative frequencies of the 4 translocations of B-lineage ALL were 8% with ALL-type t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1, 4% with (1;19)/TCF-PBX1, 2% with t(4;11)/MLL-AF4, and 17.6% with t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1. Patients with t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 fusion, hyperdiploidy, and t(1;19)/TCF-PBX1 fusion had the most favorable outcomes, whereas those with the t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 fusion or t(4;11) and other MLL gene rearrangement had poor prognosis (P<0.001 for EFS and OS). BCR-ABL1, MLL gene rearrangement, and very high-risk group were independent prognostic factors after Cox regression analysis.
The biological factors of leukemia cells are associated with treatment outcomes in childhood ALL. Multiplex RT-PCR assay is an efficient and sensitive diagnostic tool that may improve the ability to accurately and rapidly risk-stratify children with ALL.
Publication Date: 2010-10-12
Journal: Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology