HPV-negative Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Cervix With Special Focus on Intraepithelial Precursor Lesions.
Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized human papilloma virus (HPV)-independent invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without recognizing the existence of precursor lesions. This is a detailed characterization of 3 preinvasive lesions and 6 invasive SCC negative for HPV-DNA (32 genotypes), HPV-mRNA (14 genotypes) and genomic HPV sequencing. We evaluated histologic features, expression of p16ink4a, p53, CK7, and CK17, aberrations in 50 cancer genes and chromosomal copy number variations. HPV-negative preinvasive lesions were extensive basaloid or highly differentiated keratinizing intraepithelial proliferations of 3 to 20 cell layers thickness, partly with prominent cervical gland involvement. Overall, 2/3 intraepithelial lesions and the in situ component of 1/6 SCC showed p16ink4a block staining, while 1/6 in situ component revealed heterogenous p16ink4a staining. All invasive components of keratinizing SCC were p16ink4a-negative. Preinvasive and invasive SCC showed inconsistent CK7 and CK17 staining. Nuclear p53 overexpression was restricted to the TP53 gene mutated SCC. The highly vascularized peritumoral stroma showed a dense inflammatory infiltrate including plasma cells and intratumoral and peritumoral eosinophilic granulocytes. Inconsistent somatic gene mutations (PIK3CA, STK11, TP53, SMARC2B, and GNAS) occurred predominantly in nonhotspot locations at low mutational frequency in 3/6 SCC. Consistent aberrations included the pathogenic (angiogenic) germline polymorphism Q472H in the KDR gene (7/9 patients), and chromosome 3q gains (4/9 patients). In conclusion, HPV-negative intraepithelial cervical precancerous lesions exist, either as highly differentiated keratinized intraepithelial proliferations reminiscent of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or undifferentiated basaloid intraepithelial lesions with occasional p16ink4a block staining resembling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Gains of chromosome 3q, angiogenic germline variants the inflammatory infiltrate may contribute to progression of HPV-negative cervical carcinogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-14
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
Clinicopathologic and genetic features of metaplastic breast cancer with osseous differentiation: a series of 6 cases.
Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, of which MBC with osseous differentiation (MBC-OD) is extremely rare that only few cases have been reported. This study aimed to present the clinicopathologic and molecular features of MBC-OD.
We collected 6 cases of MBC-OD from five different centers and described its clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics based on the next-generation sequencing. Another 11 cases from the literature were also reviewed to better characterize the tumor.
The tumor primarily showed an osteosarcoma-like appearance, which composed of high cellularity with spindle cells and osteoblast-like cells producing coarse lace-like neoplastic bone (4/6) or osteoid matrix (6/6). 55 somatic mutations including 39 missenses (70.9%), 9 frameshifts (16.4%), 3 splice sites (5.5%), 3 in-frame InDels (5.5%) and 1 nonsense (1.8%) were identified. TP53 was the most frequently mutated genes (5/6, 83.3%), followed by RB1 (3/6, 50.0%), BCOR (2/6, 33.3%), MED12 (2/6, 33.3%), PIK3CA (2/6, 33.3%), and TET2 (2/6, 33.3%). Genetic alterations suggesting therapies with clinical benefit, including mTOR inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi), were observed in five cases. The median follow-up was 21 months (range, 3-80 months). Local recurrence was observed in two cases and three patients displayed distant metastasis. Two patients died of the disease at 3 months and 7 months, respectively.
Based on this series, MBC-OD is a highly aggressive breast tumor with osteosarcoma-like morphology and a high incidence of recurrent disease showing specific genetic profiles.
Publication Date: 2021-05-05
Journal: Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
Outcomes for Patients With IDH-Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Disease relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a major cause of treatment failure for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Maintenance therapy after HCT for patients with targetable mutations such as mutated IDH1 or IDH2 may improve outcomes, and clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing. However, clinical outcomes of IDH1- and IDH2-mutated AML patients after HCT have not been well described. The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and post-HCT outcomes of IDH-mutated AML patients. Survival outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and cumulative incidences of relapse and nonrelapse mortality. In this multicenter retrospective analysis, 112 adult patients with IDH1- or IDH2-mutated AML who underwent HCT and did not receive an IDH inhibitor as maintenance therapy after HCT were identified at Massachusetts General Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Ohio State University. Mutation testing was performed using next-generation sequencing panels. Patient characteristics were collected retrospectively, and their survival outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The median patient age was 64.1 years. The median follow-up was 27.5 months. Among patients, 78.5% had intermediate- or adverse-risk disease by European LeukemiaNET criteria. Fifty-eight percent of patients received intensive induction chemotherapy, 82% of patients underwent HCT during first complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi), and 34% of patients received myeloablative conditioning. Frequently detected co-mutations were DNMT3A (35.7%), NPM1 (33.1%), and FLT3-ITD (13.4%); TP53 mutations were detected in 3.6% of patients. For IDH1-mutated patients transplanted during first CR/CRi, the 1- and 2-year PFS was 75% and 58%, respectively. For IDH2-mutated patients transplanted in first CR/CRi, the 1- and 2-year PFS was 64% and 58%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 31% and 25% for IDH1- and IDH2-mutated cohorts, respectively. Multivariable analysis suggested first CR/CRi and age ≤60 was associated with improved outcomes for IDH2-mutated patients. To date, this is the largest multicenter study of outcomes of IDH-mutated AML patients after HCT. Our analysis provides important benchmarks for analysis and interpretation of results emerging from clinical trials evaluating maintenance IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitor therapy for AML patients after HCT.
Publication Date: 2021-04-13
Journal: Transplantation and cellular therapy
Genomic Sequencing of Cancer-related Genes in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Inverted Papilloma.
The genetic basis of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP)-derived squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not yet been well characterized.
To characterize the genetic abnormalities of SNIP and SNIP-derived SCC and to uncover their differences.
Mutations of 409 genes were analyzed using amplicon targeted sequencing in a total of six papilloma/carcinoma samples from four patients with SNIP-derived SCC.
The genes that were mutated in multiple cases were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (3/6), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (3/6), lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) (3/6), tumor protein p53 (TP53) (3/6), neurofibromin 1 (NF1) (3/6), phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein (PDE4DIP) (3/6), cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6 (CYP2D6) (2/6), fms-related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) (2/6) and myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) (2/6). Of the two cases analyzed in the papilloma-oncology carcinoma pair, one did not have any common mutations; the other showed a staged functional deletion of TP53 during the process of malignant transformation from SNIP to SCC.
CDKN2A, KMT2D, NF1, PDE4DIP, CYP2D6, FLT4, and MYH9 were identified as candidate novel SNIP-derived SCC-related genes.
Publication Date: 2021-01-10
Journal: Anticancer research
Clinical and mutational profiles of adult medulloblastoma groups.
Adult medulloblastomas are clinically and molecularly understudied due to their rarity. We performed molecular grouping, targeted sequencing, and TERT promoter Sanger sequencing on a cohort of 99 adult medulloblastomas. SHH made up 50% of the cohort, whereas Group 3 (13%) was present in comparable proportion to WNT (19%) and Group 4 (18%). In contrast to paediatric medulloblastomas, molecular groups had no prognostic impact in our adult cohort (p = 0.877). Most frequently mutated genes were TERT (including promoter mutations, mutated in 36% cases), chromatin modifiers KMT2D (31%) and KMT2C (30%), TCF4 (31%), PTCH1 (27%) and DDX3X (24%). Adult WNT patients showed enrichment of TP53 mutations (6/15 WNT cases), and 3/6 TP53-mutant WNT tumours were of large cell/anaplastic histology. Adult SHH medulloblastomas had frequent upstream pathway alterations (PTCH1 and SMO mutations) and few downstream alterations (SUFU mutations, MYCN amplifications). TERT promoter mutations were found in 72% of adult SHH patients, and were restricted to this group. Adult Group 3 tumours lacked hallmark MYC amplifications, but had recurrent mutations in KBTBD4 and NOTCH1. Adult Group 4 tumours harboured recurrent mutations in TCF4 and chromatin modifier genes. Overall, amplifications of MYC and MYCN were rare (3%). Since molecular groups were not prognostic, alternative prognostic markers are needed for adult medulloblastoma. KMT2C mutations were frequently found across molecular groups and were associated with poor survival (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis identified histological type (p = 0.026), metastasis (p = 0.031) and KMT2C mutational status (p = 0.046) as independent prognosticators in our cohort. In summary, we identified distinct clinical and mutational characteristics of adult medulloblastomas that will inform their risk stratification and treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-11-12
Journal: Acta neuropathologica communications
EWSR1-PATZ1-rearranged sarcoma: a report of nine cases of spindle and round cell neoplasms with predilection for thoracoabdominal soft tissues and frequent expression of neural and skeletal muscle markers.
The knowledge of clinical features and, particularly, histopathological spectrum of EWSR1-PATZ1-rearranged spindle and round cell sarcomas (EPS) remains limited. For this reason, we report the largest clinicopathological study of EPS to date. Nine cases were collected, consisting of four males and five females ranging in age from 10 to 81 years (average: 49 years). Five tumors occurred in abdominal wall soft tissues, three in the thorax, and one in the back of the neck. Tumor sizes ranged from 2.5 to 18 cm (average 6.6 cm). Five patients had follow-up with an average of 38 months (range: 18-60 months). Two patients had no recurrence or metastasis 19 months after diagnosis. Four patients developed multifocal pleural or pulmonary metastasis and were treated variably by surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The latter seemed to have little to no clinical benefit. One of the four patients was free of disease 60 months after diagnosis, two patients were alive with disease at 18 and 60 months, respectively. Morphologically, low, intermediate, and high-grade sarcomas composed of a variable mixture of spindled, ovoid, epithelioid, and round cells were seen. The architectural and stromal features also varied, resulting in a broad morphologic spectrum. Immunohistochemically, the following markers were most consistently expressed: S100-protein (7/9 cases), GFAP (7/8), MyoD1 (8/9), Pax-7 (4/5), desmin (7/9), and AE1/3 (4/9). By next-generation sequencing, all cases revealed EWSR1-PATZ1 gene fusion. In addition, 3/6 cases tested harbored CDKN2A deletion, while CDKN2B deletion and TP53 mutation were detected in one case each. Our findings confirm that EPS is a clinicopathologic entity, albeit with a broad morphologic spectrum. The uneventful outcome in some of our cases indicates that a subset of EPS might follow a more indolent clinical course than previously appreciated. Additional studies are needed to validate whether any morphological and/or molecular attributes have a prognostic impact.
Publication Date: 2020-10-06
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
p53 immunohistochemistry is an accurate surrogate for TP53 mutational analysis in endometrial carcinoma biopsies.
TP53 mutations are considered a surrogate biomarker of the serous-like 'copy number high' molecular subtype of endometrial carcinoma (EC). In ovarian carcinoma, p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) accurately reflects mutational status with almost 100% specificity but its performance in EC has not been established. This study tested whether p53 IHC reliably predicts TP53 mutations identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in EC biopsy samples for all ECs and as part of a molecular classification algorithm after exclusion of cases harbouring mismatch repair defects (MMRd) or pathogenic DNA polymerase epsilon exonuclease domain mutations (POLEmut). A secondary aim assessed inter-laboratory variability in p53 IHC. From a total of 207 cases from five centres (37-49 cases per centre), p53 IHC carried out at a central reference laboratory was compared with local IHC (n = 164) and curated tagged-amplicon NGS TP53 sequencing results (n = 177). Following consensus review, local and central p53 IHC results were concordant in 156/164 (95.1%) tumours. Discordant results were attributable to both interpretive and technical differences in staining between the local and central laboratories. When results were considered as any mutant pattern versus wild-type pattern staining, however, there was disagreement between local and central review in only one case. The concordance between p53 IHC and TP53 mutation was 155/168 (92.3%) overall, and 117/123 (95.1%) after excluding MMRd and POLEmut EC. Three (3/6) discordant results were in serous carcinomas with complete absence of p53 staining but no detectable TP53 mutation. Subclonal mutant p53 IHC expression was observed in 9/177 (5.1%) cases, of which four were either MMRd or POLEmut. Mutant pattern p53 IHC was observed in 63/63 (100%) serous carcinomas that were MMR-proficient/POLE exonuclease domain wild-type. Optimised p53 IHC performs well as a surrogate test for TP53 mutation in EC biopsies, demonstrates excellent inter-laboratory reproducibility, and has high clinical utility for molecular classification algorithms in EC. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Publication Date: 2019-12-13
Journal: The Journal of pathology