pubmed > TP53 > akt1

Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanisms of
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of TwHF on CVD remain elusive. This study revealed the pharmacological mechanisms of TwHF acting on CVD based on a pharmacology approach. The active compounds were selected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database according to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). The potential targets of TwHF were obtained from the SwissTargetPrediction database. The CVD-related therapeutic targets were collected from the DrugBank, the GeneCards database, and the OMIM database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was generated by the STITCH database. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed by R package. The network of drug-targets-diseases-pathways was constructed by the Cytoscape software. The 41 effective ingredients of TwHF and the 178 common targets of TwHF and CVD-related were collected. Furthermore, AKT1, amyloid precursor protein (APP), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), and cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53) were identified as the core targets involved in the mechanism of TwHF on CVD. Top ten GO (biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions) and KEGG pathways were screened with a These findings demonstrate that the main active compound of TwHF, the core targets, and pathways maybe provide new insights into the development of a natural therapy for the prevention and treatment of CVD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: BioMed research international

Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanism of Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae in the Treatment of Radiation Pneumonia by Using Network Pharmacology.
Radiation pneumonia (RP) is the most common complication of radiotherapy to the thorax and seriously affects the survival rate and quality of life of patients. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) is an ancient Chinese medicine, whose main pharmacological effect is to promote blood circulation and remove stasis. A growing number of studies have proved that RSM has a good effect on RP. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear and needs to be fully elucidated. The effective components and predictive targets of RSM were analyzed by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database, and the related targets of RP were predicted by GeneCards database. The common targets of the two targets mentioned above were analyzed by protein-protein interaction on the STRING website, GO and KEGG analysis on the DAVID website, visualization by CytoScape3.7.0, and screening for Hubber gene by cytoHubber plug-in. A search of the TCMSP database revealed that RSM contains 65 chemical constituents and 165 potential protein targets. A total of 2,162 protein targets were found to be associated with RP. The top 10 hub genes were obtained by MCC algorithm for 70 common genes, including TP53, CASP3, MAPK1, JUN, VEGFA, STAT3, PTGS2, IL6, AKT1, and FOS. By analyzing the Gene Ontology, The anti-radiation pneumonia effect of RSM is that it performs molecular functions (protein homodimerization activity) in the nucleus through three biological processes (positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter,Extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway). Through KEGG analysis, the mechanism of RSM treatment of radiation pneumonia may be through PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, TNF signaling pathways. Through network pharmacology analysis, we found the possible target genes of RSM on RP and revealed the most likely signaling pathway, providing theoretical basis for further elucidating the potential mechanism of RSM on RP.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

The Mechanism of Xiaoyao San in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer by Network Pharmacology and the Effect of Stigmasterol on the PI3K/Akt Pathway.
This study was aimed at exploring the regulatory mechanism of Xiaoyao San (XYS) and its main compound, Stigmasterol, in the biological network and signaling pathway of ovarian cancer (OC) through network pharmacology-based analyses and experimental validation. The active compounds and targets of XYS were studied by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). The GeneCards and OMIM databases were used to screen common targets of XYS in the treatment of OC. Combined with the STRING database and Cytoscape 3.6.0, the core compounds and targets of XYS were obtained. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of core target genes were carried out by using the Metascape and DAVID databases. Molecular docking has been achieved by using the AutoDock Vina program to discuss the interaction of the core targets and compounds of XYS in the treatment of OC. The effect of Stigmasterol on proliferation and migration were assessed by CCK8 and wound healing assay. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expressions of PI3K, Akt, and PTEN after treatment of Stigmasterol. A total of 113 common targets of XYS for the treatment of OC were obtained from 975 targets related to OC and 239 targets of XYS's effect. The main compounds of XYS include Quercetin, Naringenin, Isorhamnetin, and Stigmasterol, which mainly regulate the targets such as TP53, Akt1, and MYC and PI3K/Akt, p53, and cell cycle signal pathways. At the same time, molecular docking showed that Stigmasterol and Akt1 had good docking conformation. Stigmasterol inhibited OC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and reduced the protein and mRNA expressions of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Stigmasterol as the one of the main compounds of XYS suppresses OC cell activities through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Disease markers

Therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism of calycosin for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study was designed to understand the pivotal anti-cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) targets and pathways of calycosin through network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses. In this study, bioinformatics tools were employed to characterize and identify the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of calycosin for CIRI management. The network pharmacology data identified potential, merged CIRI-associated targets of calycosin including tumor protein p53 (TP53), protein kinase B (AKT1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Molecular docking analysis indicated the binding efficacy of calycosin with three of the targets, namely TP53, AKT1, and VEGFA. The biological processes of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI are mainly involved in the improvement of endothelial cell proliferation and growth, inflammatory development, and cellular metabolism. In addition, the anti-CIRI actions of calycosin were primarily through suppression of the toll-like receptor, PI3K-AKT, TNF, MAPK, and VEGF signaling pathways. Taken together, the current bioinformatic findings revealed pivotal targets, biological functions, and pharmacological mechanisms of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI. In conclusion, calycosin, a functional phytoestrogen, can be potentially used for the treatment of CIRI in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Journal: Aging

Dynamics of circulating tumor DNA during postoperative radiotherapy in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective observational study.
This study was performed to evaluate circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) kinetics during postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) at surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Stage II/III patients with post-NAC residual TNBC who required PORT were prospectively included in this study between March 2019 and July 2020. For 11 TNBC patients, next-generation sequencing targeting 38 genes was conducted in 55 samples, including tumor tissue, three plasma samples, and leukocytes from each patient. The plasma samples were collected at three-time points; pre-PORT (T0), after 3 weeks of PORT (T1), and 1 month after PORT (T2). Serial changes in ctDNA variant allele frequency (VAF) were analyzed. Somatic variants were found in the tumor specimens in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. Mutated genes included TP53 (n = 7); PIK3CA (n = 2); and AKT1, APC, CSMD3, MYC, PTEN, and RB1 (n = 1). These tumor mutations were not found in plasma samples. Plasma ctDNA variants were detected in three (27.3%) patients at T0. Mutations in EGFR (n = 1), CTNNB1 (n = 1), and MAP2K (n = 1) was identified with ctDNA analysis. In two (18.2%) patients, the ctDNA VAF decreased through T1 and T2 while increasing at T2 in one (9.1%) patient. After a median follow-up of 22 months, no patient showed cancer recurrence. Among patients with post-NAC residual TNBC, more than a quarter exhibited a detectable amount of ctDNA after curative surgery. The ctDNA VAF changed variably during the course of PORT. Therefore, ctDNA kinetics can serve as a biomarker for optimizing adjuvant treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-06-22
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

Exploring polyps to colon carcinoma voyage: can blocking the crossroad halt the sequence?
Colorectal cancer is an important public health concern leading to significant cancer associate mortality. A vast majority of colon cancer arises from polyp which later follows adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and carcinoma sequence. This whole process takes several years to complete and recent genomic and proteomic technologies are identifying several targets involved in each step of polyp to carcinoma transformation in a large number of studies. Current text presents interaction network of targets involved in polyp to carcinoma transformation. In addition, important targets involved in each step according to network biological parameters are also presented. The functional overrepresentation analysis of each step targets and common top biological processes and pathways involved in carcinoma indicate several insights about this whole mechanism. Interaction networks indicate TP53, AKT1, GAPDH, INS, EGFR, and ALB as the most important targets commonly involved in polyp to carcinoma sequence. Though several important pathways are known to be involved in CRC, the central common involvement of PI3K-AKT indicates its potential for devising CRC management strategies. The common and central targets and pathways involved in polyp to carcinoma progression can shed light on its mechanism and potential management strategies. The data-driven approach aims to add valuable inputs to the mechanism of the years-long polyp-carcinoma sequence.
Publication Date: 2021-06-12
Journal: Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology

Network pharmacology identifies IL6 as an important hub and target of tibolone for drug repurposing in traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a complex network of signals mediating inflammatory, proliferative and apoptotic processes during its acute and chronic phases. Current therapies mitigate damage and are mainly for palliative care and there are currently no effective therapies for secondary damage. This suggests a need to discover a compound with a greater spectrum of action that can control various pathological aspects of TBI. Here we used a network pharmacology approach to explore the benefits of tibolone, an estrogen and androgen receptor agonist with broader actions in cells, as a possible repurposing drug for TBI therapy. Using different databases we retrieved the targets significantly associated to TBI and tibolone, obtaining 2700 and 652, respectively. The top 10 GO enriched terms were mostly related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Following protein-protein functional analysis, the top connected proteins were related to kinase activity (MAPK1/14/3, AKT1 PIK3R1), apoptosis (TP53, CASP3), growth factors (EGFR), estrogen signalling (ESR1) and inflammation (IL6, TNF), with IL6 as an important signalling hub belonging to the top GO categories. Thus, we identified IL6 as a cellular node which we then validated using molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MMGBSA) and docking to explore which tibolone metabolite might interact with this protein. Both 3α and 3β-OH tibolone seemed to bind better to IL6 at important sites responsible for its binding to IL6R. In conclusion, our study demonstrates key hubs involved in TBI pathology which indicates IL6 as a target molecule of tibolone as drug repurposing for TBI therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-06-01
Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie

Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Explore the Underlying Mechanism of Huangqi Gegen Decoction for Treating Diabetic Nephropathy.
Huangqi Gegen decoction (HGD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat diabetic nephropathy in China, while the pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of HGD for treating diabetic nephropathy (DN). Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP), UniProt, and SwissTargetPrediction databases were used to search the active ingredients and potential targets of HGD. In addition, multiple disease-related databases were used to collect DN-related targets. Common targets of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were established using the STRING database. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database. At last, AutoDockVina was used to conduct molecular docking verification for the core components and targets. A total of 27 active ingredients and 354 putative identified target genes were screened from HGD, of which 99 overlapped with the targets of DN and were considered potential therapeutic targets. Further analysis showed that the HGD activity of quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and beta-sitosterol ingredients is possible through VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53 targets involved in TNF, toll-like receptors, and MAPK-related pathways, which have anti-inflammatory, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, and autophagy effects, relieve renal fibrosis and renal cortex injury, and improve renal function, thus delaying the development of DN. The molecular docking results showed that quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, beta-sitosterol had a good binding activity with VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53. This study demonstrated that HGD might take part in the treatment of DN through multicomponent, multitarget, and multichannel combined action.
Publication Date: 2021-05-27
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

Identification and Validation of SNP-Containing Genes With Prognostic Value in Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although the diagnosis and treatment of this disease have substantially improved in recent years, the five-year survival rate of gastric cancer is still low due to local recurrence and distant metastasis. An in-depth study of the molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer and related prognostic markers will help improve the quality of life and prognosis of patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and verify key SNPs in genes with prognostic value for gastric cancer. SNP-related data from gastric cancer patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and the functions and pathways of the mutated genes were analyzed using DAVID software. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database and visualized by Cytoscape software, and molecular complex detection (MCODE) was used to screen the PPI network to extract important mutated genes. Ten hub genes were identified using cytoHubba, and the expression levels and the prognostic value of the central genes were determined by UALCAN and Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Finally, quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to verify the expression of the hub genes in gastric cancer cells. From the database, 945 genes with mutations in more than 25 samples were identified. The PPI network had 360 nodes and 1616 edges. Finally, cytoHubba identified six key genes (TP53, HRAS, BRCA1, PIK3CA, AKT1, and SMARCA4), and their expression levels were closely related to the survival rate of gastric cancer patients. Our results indicate that TP53, HRAS, BRCA1, PIK3CA, AKT1, and SMARCA4 may be key genes for the development and prognosis of gastric cancer. Our research provides an important bioinformatics foundation and related theoretical foundation for further exploring the molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer and evaluating the prognosis of patients.
Publication Date: 2021-05-15
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

Deciphering Pharmacological Mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Decoction for Spinal Cord Injury by Network Pharmacology Approach.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of the Chinese herbal formula Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), which is commonly used to treat nerve injuries, in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) using a network pharmacology method. BYHWD-related targets were obtained by mining the TCMSP and BATMAN-TCM databases, and SCI-related targets were obtained by mining the DisGeNET, TTD, CTD, GeneCards, and MalaCards databases. The overlapping targets of the abovementioned targets may be potential therapeutic targets for BYHWD anti-SCI. Subsequently, we performed protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, screened the hub genes using Cytoscape software, performed Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and finally achieved molecular docking between the hub proteins and key active compounds. The 189 potential therapeutic targets for BYHWD anti-SCI were overlapping targets of 744 BYHWD-related targets and 923 SCI-related targets. The top 10 genes obtained subsequently included AKT1, IL6, MAPK1, TNF, TP53, VEGFA, CASP3, ALB, MAPK8, and JUN. Fifteen signaling pathways were also screened out after enrichment analysis and literature search. The results of molecular docking of key active compounds and hub target proteins showed a good binding affinity for both. This study shows that BYHWD anti-SCI is characterized by a multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway synergy and provides new insights to explore the specific mechanisms of BYHWD against SCI.
Publication Date: 2021-05-13
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

Therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of action of curcumin against Zika virus: In silico and in vitro analyses.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, that could cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), characterized by microcephaly, neurological complications and fetal deaths. No specific treatments for ZIKV are currently available, highlighting the urgent global need to identify and develop therapeutic agents. Drug repositioning of approved natural compounds can provide effective alternative solutions for novel antiviral development. The current study focused on curcumin, a component of turmeric known to exert diverse antiviral effects. We integrated in silico information from publicly available databases to predict interactions between curcumin and potential targets of ZIKV. In our network analysis, we identified four targets, TP53, AKT1, PTEN, and TNF, which were identified as potential targets associated with ZIKV. Based on retrieved targets, we performed molecular docking study and identified curcumin-TNF showed the strongest binding among four targets. The anti-Zika effects of curcumin were validated in vitro with the aid of antiviral and plaque reduction assay. Curcumin at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 μM displayed significant antiviral activity in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In view of its natural abundance and prevalence in the human diet, curcumin holds significant promise for treatment of ZIKV infections.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: European journal of pharmacology

Genetic Analysis and Targeted Therapy Using Buparlisib and MK2206 in a Patient with Triple Metachronous Cancers of the Kidney, Prostate, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: A Case Report.
Multiple primary cancers (MPC) occurring in the same individual is considered rare but being increasingly recognized owing to the longer cancer survival nowadays. Despite of accumulating experience in diagnosis, effective treatment remains to be problematic in many scenarios. Genetic testing-based targeted therapy could be an invaluable option for both diagnosis and treatment of such patients. Here we present a 74-year-old male with triple primary cancers including kidney, prostate, and lung with metastatic tumor on the costal bones. The patient visited the hospital for persistent cough and hemoptysis, and a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the left lung was made by bioptic fiberoptic bronchoscopy. A previous history included renal cancer controlled by Sorafenib and prostate cancer controlled by Goserelin. Radiotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy failed to help the patient and the tumor size increased over a period of 6 months. In order to seek better therapeutical options, we performed targeted sequencing using the cancerous tissues from his lung, kidney, and prostate cancers. Briefly, the results identified VHL, EGFR, PIK3CA, TP53, and AKT1 mutations in lung cancer, AKT1, FGFR2, and TP53 mutations in renal cancer, and FGFR2 mutations in prostate cancer. A combined medication targeting PIK3CA and AKT1 signaling was recommended and the patient was given BKM120 (PIK3CA, Phase III clinical trial) and MK2206 (AKT, phase III clinical trial). Revisit chest CTs after 4 months and 9 months showed a significant shrinkage of tumor size by 40% and 80%, respectively. Our experience demonstrated a good example that genetic analysis could be valuable to diagnose and precisely treat multiple primary cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

Impact of clinical targeted sequencing on endocrine responsiveness in estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.
Clinical targeted sequencing allows for the selection of patients expected to have a better treatment response, and reveals mechanisms of resistance to molecular targeted therapies based on actionable gene mutations. We underwent comprehensive genomic testing with either our original in-house CLHURC system or with OncoPrime. Samples from 24 patients with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer underwent targeted sequencing between 2016 and 2018. Germline and somatic gene alterations and patients' prognosis were retrospectively analyzed according to the response to endocrine therapy. All of the patients had one or more germline and/or somatic gene alterations. Four patients with primary or secondary endocrine-resistant breast cancer harbored germline pathogenic variants of BRCA1, BRCA2, or PTEN. Among somatic gene alterations, TP53, PIK3CA, AKT1, ESR1, and MYC were the most frequently mutated genes. TP53 gene mutation was more frequently observed in patients with primary endocrine resistance compared to those with secondary endocrine resistance or endocrine-responsive breast cancer. Recurrent breast cancer patients carrying TP53-mutant tumors had significantly worse overall survival compared to those with TP53-wild type tumors. Our 160-gene cancer panel will be useful to identify clinically actionable gene alterations in breast cancer in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-04-16
Journal: Scientific reports

Integrating network pharmacology and experimental evidence to decipher the cardioprotective mechanism of Yiqihuoxue decoction in rats after myocardial infarction.
"Qi deficiency and blood stasis" syndrome is one of the most common syndromes treated with Traditional Chinese Medicine among ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients in clinic. As a Chinese herbal formula with the function of tonifying Qi and activating blood, Yiqihuoxue Decoction (YQHX) has been frequently proven to be effective in the clinical treatment of IHD. The cardioprotective mechanisms of YQHX in treating ischemic heart disease were investigated, with emphasis on the key targets and pathways. In the present study, the potential targets of compounds identified in YQHX were predicted using PharmMapper, Symmap, and STITCH databases, and a "herb-compound-target" network was constructed using Cytoscape. Subsequently, the GO and KEGG functional enrichment analyses were analyzed using the DAVID database. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed using STRING to obtain the key target information. Besides, we used a myocardial ischemia rat model to investigate the cardioprotective effects of YQHX. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting were used to observe apoptotic bodies and confirm protein expressions of key candidate targets, respectively. Network pharmacology showed that a total of 141 potential targets were obtained from these databases. The functional analysis results revealed that the targets of YQHX were largely associated with apoptosis, and the PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways might represent key functional pathways. The hub genes of network include ALB, TP53, AKT1, TNF, VEGFA, EGFR, MAPK1, CASP3, JUN, FN1, MMP9, and MAPK8. In vivo, YQHX significantly improved cardiac function and suppressed apoptosis in ischemic rat myocardium. Furthermore, YQHX could significantly upregulate Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, and inhibit JNK phosphorylation. Based on network pharmacology and experimental evidence, this study proves that the cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of YQHX depend on multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway. In particular, YQHX exerts anti-apoptotic effects potentially by regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 and JNK-MAPK pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-03-28
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

Salivary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Is a Histologically Diverse Single Entity With Recurrent AKT1 E17K Mutations: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Characterization With Proposal for a Unified Classification.
Mucin-producing salivary adenocarcinomas were historically divided into separate colloid carcinoma, papillary cystadenocarcinoma, and signet ring cell carcinoma diagnoses based on histologic pattern, but have recently been grouped together in the adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified category. It is currently unclear if these tumors represent 1 or more distinct entities and how they are related to well-circumscribed papillary mucinous lesions with recurrent AKT1 E17K mutations that were recently described as salivary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Here, we sought to evaluate the clinicopathologic and molecular features of salivary mucinous adenocarcinomas to clarify their classification. We identified 17 invasive mucin-producing salivary adenocarcinomas, 10 with a single histologic pattern, and 7 with mixed patterns. While most tumors demonstrated papillary growth (n=15), it was frequently intermixed with colloid (n=6) and signet ring (n=3) architecture with obvious transitions between patterns. All were cytokeratin 7 positive (100%) and cytokeratin 20 negative (0%). Next-generation sequencing performed on a subset demonstrated recurrent AKT1 E17K mutations in 8 cases (100%) and TP53 alterations in 7 cases (88%). Of 12 cases with clinical follow-up (median: 17 mo), 4 developed cervical lymph node metastases, all of which had colloid or signet ring components. Overall, overlapping histologic and immunohistochemical features coupled with recurrent AKT1 E17K mutations across patterns suggests that mucin-producing salivary adenocarcinomas represent a histologically diverse single entity that is closely related to tumors described as salivary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. We propose a unified mucinous adenocarcinoma category subdivided into papillary, colloid, signet ring, and mixed subtypes to facilitate better recognition and classification of these tumors.
Publication Date: 2021-03-20
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology

Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking on the Molecular Mechanism of Luo-hua-zi-zhu (LHZZ) Granule in the Prevention and Treatment of Bowel Precancerous Lesions.
The Luo-hua-zi-zhu (LHZZ) granule has been widely used for the treatment of colorectal adenoma (CRA), which is a precursor of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the active components of LUZZ and its mechanism of action against CRA have not yet been elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effect of LHZZ on CRA and explore its pharmacological mechanisms. First, a total of 24 chemical constituents were identified in the 50% aqueous methanol extract of LHZZ granule based on the mass fragment patterns and mass spectral library using the high resolution UPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS system. Subsequently, based on a network pharmacology study, 16 bioactive compounds and 28 targets of the LHZZ associated with CRA were obtained, forming a compound-target network. Molecular docking tests showed tight docking of these compounds with predicted targeted proteins. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network identified AKT1, CASP3, TP53 and EGFR as hub targets. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway network and pathway-target-compound network revealed that the apoptosis pathway was enriched by multiple signaling pathways and multiple targets, including the hub targets. Finally, the reliability of the core targets was evaluated using molecular docking technology and
Publication Date: 2021-03-12
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology

Network Pharmacology Interpretation of Fuzheng-Jiedu Decoction against Colorectal Cancer.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the pathogenic factors of colorectal cancer (CRC) are "deficiency, dampness, stasis, and toxin," and Fuzheng-Jiedu Decoction (FJD) can resist these factors. In this study, we want to find out the potential targets and pathways of FJD in the treatment of CRC and also explain from a scientific point of view that FJD multidrug combination can resist "deficiency, dampness, stasis, and toxin." We get the composition of FJD from the TCMSP database and get its potential target. We also get the potential target of colorectal cancer according to the OMIM Database, TTD Database, GeneCards Database, CTD Database, DrugBank Database, and DisGeNET Database. Subsequently, PPI analysis, KEGG pathways analysis, and GO biological processes analysis were carried out for the target of FJD in the therapy of colorectal cancer. In addition, we have also built a relevant network diagram. In this study, we identified four core compounds of FJD in the therapy of colorectal cancer, including quercetin, kaempferol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. At the same time, we also obtained 30 core targets, including STAT3, INS, TP53, VEGFA, AKT1, TNF, IL6, JUN, EGF, CASP3, MAPK3, MAPK1, MAPK8, SRC, IGF1, CCND1, ESR1, EGFR, PTEN, MTOR, FOS, PTGS2, CXCL8, HRAS, CDH1, BCL2L1, FN1, MMP9, ERBB2, and JAK2. FJD treatment of colorectal cancer mainly involves 112 KEGG pathways, including FoxO (hsa04068) signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt (hsa04151) signaling pathway, HIF-1 (hsa04066) signaling pathway, T cell receptor (hsa04660) signaling pathway, and ErbB (hsa04012) signaling pathway. At the same time, 330 GO biological processes were summarized, including cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune. In this study, we found that FJD can regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and immunity, and angiogenesis through PI3K-Akt signaling pathway to play an anti-CRC effect.
Publication Date: 2021-03-11
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM

KRAS/GNAS-testing by highly sensitive deep targeted next generation sequencing improves the endoscopic ultrasound-guided workup of suspected mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cysts or dilated pancreatic ducts are often found by cross-sectional imaging, but only mucinous lesions can become malignant. Therefore, distinction between mucinous and non-mucinous lesions is crucial for adequate patient management. We performed a prospective study including targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of cell-free DNA in the diagnostic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided workup. Pancreatic cyst(s) or main duct fluid obtained by EUS-guided FNA was analysed by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytology and deep targeted NGS of 14 known gastrointestinal cancer genes (AKT1, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, GNAS, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4, TP53, APC) with a limit of detection down to variant allele frequency of 0.01%. Results were correlated to histopathology and clinical follow-up. One hundred and thirteen patients with pancreatic cyst(s) and/or a dilated pancreatic main duct (≥5 mm) were screened. Sixty-six patients had to be excluded, mainly due to inoperability or small cyst size (≤10 mm). Forty-seven patients were enrolled for further analysis. A final diagnosis was available in 27 cases including 8 negative controls. In 43/47 (91.5%) of patients a KRAS- and/or GNAS-mutation was diagnosed by NGS. 27.0% of the KRAS-mutated and 10.0% of the GNAS-mutated lesions harbored multiple mutations. KRAS/GNAS-testing by NGS, cytology, and CEA had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.7/100%, 38.1/100%, and 42.1/75.0%, respectively. KRAS/GNAS-testing was significantly superior to CEA (P = .0209) and cytology (P = .0016). In conclusion, KRAS/GNAS-testing by deep targeted NGS is a suitable method to distinguish mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic lesions, suggesting its usage as a single diagnostic test. Results must be confirmed in a larger cohort.
Publication Date: 2021-03-10
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer

[Mechanism of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules in treating constipation based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].
To explore the mechanism of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules in treating constipation by means of network pharmacology and molecular docking approach. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and Bioinfoematics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN) were applied to obtain chemical components and potential targets of eight herbs in Shouhui Tongbian Capsules according to the screening principles of oral availability(OB)≥30% and drug-like property(DL)≥0.18. Disease targets relating to constipation were screened out through GeneCards, PharmGkb and other databases, drug targets were integrated with disease targets, and intersection targets were exactly the potential action targets of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules for treating constipation; PPI network of potential targets was constructed using STRING platform, and GO(gene ontology) analysis and KEGG(Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathway data were obtained to conduct enrichment analysis and predict its mechanism of action. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to construct a network of "medicinal materials-chemical components-drug targets", and the network topology analysis was carried out on the PPI network to obtain its main components and key targets. Molecular docking between components and key targets of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules verified the accuracy of network pharmacological analysis results. The PPI network analysis showed 92 chemical components, including quercetin, stigmaste-rol, aloe-emodin, rhein, and key targets for instance AKT1, MAPK1, IL6, JUN, TNF and TP53. The enrichment analysis of KEGG screened out 157 signal pathways(P<0.01), mainly involving interleukin 17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, thyroid hormone signaling pathway. Quercetin, resveratrol and lysine with top degree value had a rational conformation in docking site of protein crystal complexes. This study preliminarily showed that various active ingredients in Shouhui Tongbian Capsules could regulate multiple signaling pathways, increase intestinal smoothness and peristalsis function, ensure smooth intestinal lumen, and play a role in treating constipation by acting on key targets, such as AKT1, MAPK1, IL6 and JUN.
Publication Date: 2021-03-02
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica

Using Network Pharmacology to Explore the Mechanism of Peach Kernel-Safflower in the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.
The mechanism of peach kernel-safflower in treating diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated using network pharmacology. Network pharmacology methodology was applied to screen the effective compounds of peach kernel-safflower in the SymMap and TCMSP databases. Potential targets were then screened in the ETCM, SEA, and SymMap databases to construct a compound-target network. This was followed by screening of DN targets in OMIM, Gene, and GeneCards databases. The common targets of drugs and diseases were selected for analysis in the STRING database, and the results were imported into Cytoscape 3.8.0 to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Next, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed. Finally, Schrödinger molecular docking verified the reliability of the results. A total of 23 effective compounds and 794 potential targets resulted from our screening process. Quercetin and luteolin were identified as the main effective ingredients in peach kernel-safflower. Furthermore, five key targets (VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53), AGE-RAGE, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, IL-17, and HIF-1 signaling pathways may be involved in the treatment of DN using peach kernel-safflower. This study embodies the complex network relationship of multicomponents, multitargets, and multipathways of peach kernel-safflower to treat DN and provides a basis for further research on its mechanism.
Publication Date: 2021-02-20
Journal: BioMed research international

pik3ca akt1(3)

il6 tnf(3)

akt1 tnf(3)

tnf il6(3)

il-6 tp53(3)

targets tp53(3)

tnf signaling pathway(3)

akt1 mapk1(3)

tumor protein p53(3)

patients(3)

mapk1 tp53(2)

n(2)

tnf vegfa(2)

casp3 jun(2)

mapk1 jun(2)

vegfa casp3(2)

fn1 mmp9(2)

il6 mapk1(2)

tp53 il6(2)

akt1 casp3(2)

casp3 mapk1(2)

akt1 pten(2)

tp53 hras(2)

cdkn1b h2ax(2)

h2ax rad50(2)

casp3 tp53(2)

pik3ca erbb2(2)

tp53 casp3(2)

including tp53(2)

p 0 39(1)

70 8(1)

ptgs2 hmox1(1)

formononetin kaempferol(1)

kaempferol quercetin(1)

akt1 brca1(1)

il2rb ggh(1)

akt1 egf(1)

hras brca1(1)

kaempferol beta-sitosterol(1)

cdkn1a akt1(1)

apc csmd3(1)

bcl-xl bcl-2(1)

tp53 erbb2(1)

akt1 gapdh(1)