IL-10 as an Indicator for Predicting Clinical Progression in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients.
The aim of this research was to estimate the expression of interleukin-10 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients before and after chemotherapy in order to evaluate its role as a marker of disease progression.
Flow cytometry was used to detect the serum IL-10 levels in ALL patients before and during chemotherapy. Patients were divided into either complete remission (CR) group and non-remission (NR) group, before chemotherapy group and during chemotherapy group, B-ALL group and T-ALL group, WT-1 positive group and BCR-ABL1 positive group. The changes in serum IL-10 concentration before and during the chemotherapy were analyzed.
IL-10 serum levels were significantly elevated in ALL patients at the onset of disease, and it was also more elevated in the NR group compared to the CR group. There is a significant reduction in IL-10 serum levels in ALL patients after effective chemotherapy. There was no significant difference between the before chemotherapy group and during chemotherapy group. Regardless of chemotherapy, the IL-10 levels of patients whose bone marrow achieved complete remission were lower than the patients who have not (p < 0.05). The same result can be seen in B or T-ALL groups. There was no significant difference in IL-10 serum levels between the group with WT-1(+) or BCR-ABL1(+) and the group with WT-1(-) or BCR-ABL1(-) (p > 0.05). In some ALL patients, increased IL-10 concentrations may be correlated to the number of peripheral blood leukemic cells.
The increase of serum IL-10 level may be a possible marker of disease progression in ALL.
Publication Date: 2021-10-17
Journal: Clinical laboratory
Quantitative analysis of IKZF1 gene deletions in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: higher levels are associated with a poorer prognosis.
To assess the prognostic effect of different levels of IKZF1 gene deletions in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). IKZF1 Δ2-8/ALB deletions were quantified using multiplex real-time quantitative PCR in newly diagnosed pediatric BCP-ALL patients. Seventy-four patients with IKZF1 deletions ≥ 0.01% were included. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: IKZF1 deletions <1% (group A) and ≥1% (group B). Group B patients had a higher BCR-ABL1 positive rate than group A patients. The proportions of patients who had an age at onset ≥10 years old, and white blood cell count ≥50 × 10
Publication Date: 2021-09-29
Journal: Pediatric hematology and oncology
The role of ponatinib in adult BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic transplantation: a real-life retrospective multicenter study.
The experience of third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib treatment in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph'+ ALL) patients post-allogeneic transplantation is limited. We retrospectively collected data on 25 Ph'+ ALL patients who were started on ponatinib after allogeneic transplantation between July 2015 and July 2019 from nine transplantation centers in Italy. Ponatinib was given in prophylaxis in five (20%), as pre-emptive treatment in seven (28%), and as salvage therapy in thirteen (52%) patients. It was combined with donor leukocyte infusions in ten patients. Half of the patients (12/25) harbored T315I mutation of BCR/ABL1, while in the remaining mutational analysis was negative or not performed. Among the 20 patients who received ponatinib as pre-emptive/salvage treatment, complete molecular response was achieved in 15 (75%) patients. Estimated overall survival at 2-year post-initiation of treatment in the whole cohort was 65% (respectively 60%, 60%, and 78% for the prophylaxis, pre-emptive, and salvage therapy groups). In patients with T315I-positive mutational status, the estimated 2-year survival was 40%. Fourteen patients (56%) experienced toxicity, requiring temporary or definitive suspension of treatment. In conclusion, treatment of Ph'+ ALL patients with ponatinib after transplantation is effective, although the question of adequate drug dose and treatment duration remains unanswered.
Publication Date: 2021-03-29
Journal: Annals of hematology
BCR-ABL1 positive AML or CML in blast crisis? A pediatric case report with inv(3) and t(9;22) in the initial clone.
The co-occurrence of an inversion inv(3)(q21q26)/GATA2-MECOM and a Philadelphia translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11)/BCR-ABL1 in the context of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has only rarely been described. To our knowledge, this co-occurrence has been reported in six pediatric patients with CML but not in pediatric patients with AML. Here, we report on a 7-year-old girl, who, presented with a t(9;22) and inv(3) in 14 of 15 metaphases and an additional monosomy 7 was detected in 5 of these metaphases (ISCN: 46,XX,inv(3)(q21q26),t(9;22)(q34q11)/45,idem,-7/46,XX). The p190 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript was detected by multiplex PCR and targeted RNA sequencing. Due to these results, a clear distinction between a CML in blast crisis and a BCR-ABL1 positive AML was not possible. The patient was treated according to the treatment recommendations of the AML-BFM study group and additionally received tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy (Dasatinib). The treatment with Dasatinib was successful in eliminating the inv(3)/t(9;22) clone, but the ancestral inv(3) clone persisted. Based upon these findings we diagnosed an AML with inv(3) and a secondary acquisition of t(9;22). This treatment as well as an allogenic transplantation has led to a complete remission of the disease up to this date (21 months post diagnosis).
Publication Date: 2021-03-02
Journal: Cancer genetics
NPM1 Mutated, BCR-ABL1 Positive Myeloid Neoplasms: Review of the Literature.
Breakpoint cluster region - Abelson (BCR-ABL1) chimeric protein and mutated Nucleophosmin (NPM1) are often present in hematological cancers, but they rarely coexist in the same disease. Both anomalies are considered founder mutations that inhibit differentiation and apoptosis, but BCR-ABL1 could act as a secondary mutation conferring a proliferative advantage to a pre-neoplastic clone. The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification lists the provisional acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with BCR-ABL1, which must be diagnosed differentially from the rare blast phase (BP) onset of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), mainly because of the different therapeutic approach in the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Here we review the BCR/ABL1 plus NPMc+ published cases since 1975 and describe a case from our institution in order to discuss the clinical and molecular features of this rare combination, and report the latest acquisition about an occurrence that could pertain either to the rare AML BCR-ABL1 positive or the even rarer CML-BP with mutated NPM1 at the onset. Differential diagnosis is based on careful analysis of genotypic and phenotypic features and anamnestic, clinical evolution, and background data. Therapeutic decisions must consider the broader clinical aspects, the comparatively mild effects of TKI therapy versus the great benefit that might bring to most of the patients, as may be incidentally demonstrated by our case history.
Publication Date: 2020-11-17
Journal: Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases
Dasatinib associated lymphadenopathy in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient: A case report.
Dasatinib associated lymphadenopathy (DAL) is a rare adverse event in chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML). A case of voluminous lymphadenopathy in the context of DAL is presented.
A 40-year-old male patient was diagnosed with BCR-ABL1 positive chronic stage CML 2 years ago and achieved complete molecular response on nilotinib, which was switched to dasatinib due to nilotinib intolerance. After 5 months on dasatinib, the patient presented with a large mass in the axillary region.
Common infectious and autoimmune etiologies of lymphadenopathy were ruled out. The positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated a hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy highly suspicious of lymphoma. The subsequent biopsy excluded lymphoma or extramedullary blastic transformation of CML and revealed reactive lymphadenopathy with mixed (cortical and paracortical) pattern. Clinical history and clinicopathological correlation suggested the diagnosis of DAL.
Dasatinib was discontinued and the patient remained in close follow-up. TKI treatment with nilotinib was reinitiated.
Lymphadenopathy resolved clinically at 4 weeks and normalization of PET/CT findings was documented at 9 weeks after cessation of the drug. TKI treatment with nilotinib was reinitiated with good tolerance.
DAL may present with voluminous lymphadenopathy consistent with malignancy in clinical and imaging workup. We describe the spectrum of lesions associated with DAL and identify common features with drug-induced lymphadenopathy.
Publication Date: 2020-11-08
Focal blast crisis in concomitant myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Leukemic transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a well-established phenomenon. However, co-occurrence of MDS and CML is a rare phenomenon, with few reports to date. Though blast crisis typically occurs systemically with MDS or CML, rare reports of focal transformation with myeloid sarcoma (MS) have been described. We present the first known case of concomitant MDS and CML on imatinib that developed focal blastic transformation, where the leukemic clone was BCR-ABL1 positive. Local irradiation and second-generation TKI was enough to attain long-term remission. Herein, we discuss MS and its implications in both CML and MDS.
Publication Date: 2020-11-03
Journal: Leukemia research reports
Update on CML-Like Disorders.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is defined for many years as BCR-ABL1 positive disease, but older publications refer to a poor prognosis, clinically heterogeneous entity termed 'BCR-ABL1 negative CML' constituting about 5% of CML cases. Apart from very rare CML cases with cytogenetically cryptic, atypical variant BCR-ABL1 fusions that had been inadvertently missed during the diagnostic work up, most of these cases would now be classified as a subtype of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), such as atypical CML (aCML), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), or chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). A minority would be classified as systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm (SM-AHN), myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms associated with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1 or with PCM1-JAK2 (MLN-eo), or chronic eosinophilic leukemia not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS).
Publication Date: 2020-08-31
Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
Secondary acquisition of BCR-ABL1 fusion in de novo GATA2-MECOM positive acute myeloid leukemia with subsequent emergence of a rare KMT2A-ASXL2 fusion.
Secondary acquisition of t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)/BCR-ABL1 fusion in the context of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(3)(q21q26)/GATA2-MECOM rearrangement has been rarely reported. Furthermore, t(2;11)(p23;q23)/KMT2A-ASXL2 fusion has been rarely described with only a single case reported to date. We report a 45-year-old male with a diagnosis of de novo AML harboring GATA2-MECOM rearrangement in conjunction with a related subclone with concomitant inv(3) and t(9;22). The patient was treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) which lead to disappearance of the inv(3)/t(9;22) subclone and subsequent expansion of the inv(3) ancestral clone. The patient was started on a 7+3 induction regimen with TKI but had persistent disease. He was placed on several additional treatment protocols and only achieved morphologic remission with a combination of fludarabine, cytarabine and filgrastim with TKI. Approximately 11.5 months after diagnosis the patient relapsed with the inv(3) clone predominating initially, followed by return of the inv(3)/t(9;22) subclone and the emergence of a second subclone with concomitant inv(3) and t(2;11)(p23;q23). Mate-pair sequencing was performed and identified a KMT2A-ASXL2 in-frame fusion, which was only recently described in a single case of therapy-related AML. For BCR-ABL1 positive AML, which generally carries a poor prognosis, treatment with TKIs has been proposed in combination with standard chemotherapy. In our case, treatment with TKI alone led to initial response of the BCR-ABL1 positive clone, but the ancestral clone quickly expanded and subsequent standard AML therapy may have led to further clonal evolution and re-emergence of the BCR-ABL1 clone in the absence of therapeutic selection.
Publication Date: 2020-01-07
Journal: Cancer genetics
Lineage of measurable residual disease in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in treatment-free remission.
Approximately half of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in sustained deep molecular response who discontinue tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remain in treatment-free remission (TFR). Some of these patients have measurable residual disease (MRD) by BCR-ABL1 mRNA testing, and most have detectable BCR-ABL1 DNA by highly sensitive methods. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting and BCR-ABL1 DNA PCR to investigate the lineage of residual CML cells in TFR. Twenty patients in TFR for >1 year provided blood for sorting into granulocytes, monocytes, B cells, T cells, and NK cells. MRD was identified predominantly in the lymphoid compartment and never in granulocytes. B cells were more often BCR-ABL1 positive than T cells (18 vs 11/20 patients) and at higher levels (median 10
Publication Date: 2019-11-27
Heterogeneous BCR-ABL1 signal patterns identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization are associated with leukemic clonal evolution and poorer prognosis in BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia.
Although extensive use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has resulted in high and durable response rate and prolonged survival time in patients with BCR-ABL1 positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia, relapse and drug resistance still remain big challenges for clinicians. Monitoring the expression of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and identifying ABL kinase mutations are effective means to predict disease relapse and resistance. However, the prognostic impact of BCR-ABL1 signal patterns detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) remains largely unaddressed.
BCR-ABL1 signal patterns were analyzed using FISH in 243 CML-chronic phase (CML-CP), 17 CML-blast phase (CML-BP) and 52 BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.
The patterns of BCR-ABL1 signals presented complexity and diversity. A total of 12 BCR-ABL1 signals were observed in this cohort, including 1R1G2F, 1R1G1F, 2R1G1F, 1R2G1F, 2R2G1F, 1R2G2F, 1R1G3F, 1G3F, 2G3F, 1G4F, 1R1G4F and 1R4F. Complex BCR-ABL1 signal patterns (≥ two types of signal patterns) were observed in 52.9% (n = 9) of the CML-BP patients, followed by 30.8% (n = 16) of the ALL patients and only 2.1% (n = 5) of the CML-CP patients. More importantly, five clonal evolution patterns related to disease progression and relapse were observed, and patients with complex BCR-ABL1 signal patterns had a poorer overall survival (OS) time compared with those with single patterns (5.0 vs.15.0 months, p = 0.006).
Our data showed that complex BCR-ABL1 signal patterns were associated with leukemic clonal evolution and poorer prognosis in BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia. Monitoring BCR-ABL1 signal patterns might be an effective means to provide prognostic guidance and treatment choices for these patients.
Publication Date: 2019-10-09
Journal: BMC cancer
The Promise and the Reality of Genomics to Guide Precision Medicine in Pediatric Oncology: The Decade Ahead.
Much has been written about the promise of "precision medicine," especially in oncology, where somatic mutations can influence the response of cancer cells to "targeted therapy." There have been successful examples of targeted therapy improving the outcome of some childhood cancers, such as the addition of an ABL class tyrosine kinase inhibitor to conventional chemotherapy substantially improving the cure rate for patients with BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although there are other mutations serving as putative targets in various childhood leukemias and solid tumors, effective targeted therapy has yet to be established for them in prospective clinical trials. There are also uncertainties about which "targeted therapy" to use when patients have multiple targetable genomic lesions in their cancer cells, given the paucity of data upon which to develop evidence-based guidelines for selecting and integrating targeted agents for individual patients. There are also multiple examples of inherited germline variants for which evidence-based guidelines have been developed by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium to guide the selection and dosing of medications in children with cancer. Clinical pharmacology is poised to play a critical role in both the discovery and development of new targeted anticancer agents and their evidence-based translation into better treatment for children with cancer. To embrace these challenges and opportunities of "precision medicine," clinical and basic pharmacologists must expand the depth of our science and the bandwidth of our translational capacity if we are to optimize precision medicine and advance the treatment of cancer in children and adults.
Publication Date: 2019-09-29
Journal: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
IKZF1 deletion and co-occurrence with other aberrations in a child with chronic myeloid leukemia progressing to acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare disease in children. Different from that in adults, childhood CML involves transformative events occurring over a short time period. CML transformation to lymphoid blast phase (BP) is associated with copy number abnormalities, characteristic of BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but not of CML in the chronic phase. Here, we present an unusual case of CML progressing to BP in a 1.6-year-old child, harboring IKZF1, PAX5, CDKN2A, and ETV6 deletions at diagnosis. It remains to be addressed whether distinct mechanisms might account for CML pathogenesis in early childhood.
Publication Date: 2018-12-05
Journal: Pediatric blood & cancer
Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative, in a 5-Month Baby - ARare Presentation.
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) is a neoplasm with poor prognosis, characterized by myeloid hyperplasia, dysmyelopoiesis and absence of BCR-ABL1 gene. Clinically, the disease course may be similar to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1 positive. It presents in seventh to eighth decade of life with few cases of paediatric aCML being reported. Here, we report a case of aCMLin a 5-month baby who presented with massive splenomegaly. The diagnosis was in accordance with the WHO criteria established in 2008.
Publication Date: 2017-07-02
Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
Mutational analysis in BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia by deep sequencing based on nanopore MinION technology.
We report a third-generation sequencing assay on nanopore technology (MinION) for detecting BCR-ABL1 KD mutations and compare the results to a Sanger sequencing(SS)-based test in 24 Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemia cases. Our data indicates that MinION is markedly superior to SS in terms of sensitivity, costs and timesaving, and has the added advantage of determining the clonal configuration of multiple mutations. We demonstrate that MinION is suitable for employment in the hematology laboratory for detecting BCR-ABL1 KD mutation in Ph+ leukemias.
Publication Date: 2017-07-01
Journal: Experimental and molecular pathology
Interphase FISH for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement on neutrophils: A decisive tool to discriminate a lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia from a de novo BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Discrimination between lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and de novo BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents a diagnostic challenge because this distinction has a major incidence on the management of patients. Here, we report an uncommon pediatric case of ALL with cryptic ins(22;9)(q11;q34q34) and p190-type BCR-ABL1 transcript. We performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement on blood neutrophils, which was positive consistent with the diagnosis of lymphoid blast crisis of CML. This case illustrates the major interest of interphase FISH for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement on blood neutrophils as a decisive method to discriminate a lymphoid blast crisis of CML from a de novo BCR-ABL1 positive ALL.
Publication Date: 2017-04-27
Journal: Hematological oncology