pubmed > ABL1 > bcr-abl1 tyrosine kinase

The cure of leukemia through the optimist's prism.
Progress is occurring at a dizzying rate across all leukemias. Since the authors' review of the topic in Cancer in 2018, numerous discoveries have been made that have improved the therapy and outcomes of several leukemia subsets. Hairy cell leukemia is potentially curable with a single course of cladribine followed by rituximab (10-year survival, ≥90%). Acute promyelocytic leukemia is curable at a rate of 80% to 90% with a nonchemotherapy regimen of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide. The cure rate for core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is ≥75% with fludarabine, high-dose cytarabine, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Survival for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia is close to that for an age-matched normal population with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a previously incurable disease, may now be potentially curable with a finite duration of therapy with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and venetoclax. The estimated 5-year survival rate for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exceeds 70% with intensive chemotherapy and ponatinib, a third-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI, and more recent nonchemotherapy regimens using dasatinib or ponatinib with blinatumomab are producing outstanding results. Survival in both younger and older patients with ALL has improved with the addition of antibodies targeting CD20, CD19 (blinatumomab), and CD22 (inotuzumab) to chemotherapy. Several recent drug discoveries (venetoclax, FLT3 and IDH inhibitors, and oral hypomethylating agents) are also improving outcomes for younger and older patients with AML and for those with higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Publication Date: 2021-10-07
Journal: Cancer

Imatinib co-loaded targeted realgar nanocrystal for synergistic therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Discovery of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a malignant myeloproliferative disease characterized by abnormal activation of BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein with protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity. However, the long-term treatment outcomes with TKIs are strongly limited by multiple drug resistances, resulting in relapse albeit with initial high response rate. Here, we reported a realgar (As
Publication Date: 2021-08-25
Journal: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

Dasatinib dose optimisation based on therapeutic drug monitoring reduces pleural effusion rates in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.
Dasatinib is a second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Dasatinib 100 mg per day is associated with an increased risk of pleural effusion (PlEff). We randomly evaluated whether therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may reduce dasatinib-associated significant adverse events (AEs) by 12 months (primary endpoint). Eligible patients started dasatinib at 100 mg per day followed by dasatinib (C)min assessment. Patients considered overdosed [(C)min ≥ 3 nmol/l) were randomised between a dose-reduction strategy (TDM arm) and standard of care (control arm). Out of 287 evaluable patients, 80 patients were randomised. The primary endpoint was not met due to early haematological AEs occurring before effective dose reduction. However, a major reduction in the cumulative incidence of PlEff was observed in the TDM arm compared to the control arm (4% vs. 15%; 11% vs. 35% and 12% vs. 39% at one, two and three years, respectively (P = 0·0094)). Molecular responses were superimposable in all arms. Dasatinib TDM during treatment initiation was feasible and resulted in a significant reduction of the incidence of PlEff in the long run, without impairing molecular responses. (NCT01916785;
Publication Date: 2021-07-02
Journal: British journal of haematology

Optimizing the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in younger and older adults: new drugs and evolving paradigms.
In the past decade, the available treatments for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have rapidly expanded, in parallel with an increased understanding of the genomic features that impact the disease biology and clinical outcomes. With the development of the anti-CD22 antibody-drug conjugate inotuzumab ozogamicin, the CD3-CD19 bispecific T-cell engager antibody blinatumomab, CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and the potent BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib, the outlook of ALL in both younger and older adults has substantially improved. The availability of highly effective drugs raised important questions concerning the optimal combination and sequence of these agents, their incorporation into frontline regimens, and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this review, we discuss the rapidly evolving paradigms in the treatment of ALL, highlighting both established and effective regimens, as well as promising new therapies that are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. We specifically focus on novel combination regimens in both the frontline and salvage settings that are leading to new standards of care in the treatment of ALL.
Publication Date: 2021-06-27
Journal: Leukemia

Impact of frontline treatment approach on outcomes of myeloid blast phase CML.
The natural course of untreated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is progression to an aggressive blast phase. Even in the current era of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the outcomes of blast phase CML remain poor with no consensus frontline treatment approach. We retrospectively analyzed the response rates and survival outcomes of 104 consecutive patients with myeloid blast phase CML (CML-MBP) treated from 2000 to 2019 based on 4 different frontline treatment approaches: intensive chemotherapy (IC) + TKI (n = 20), hypomethylating agent (HMA) + TKI (n = 20), TKI alone (n = 56), or IC alone (n = 8). We also evaluated the impact of TKI selection and subsequent allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT) on patient outcomes. Response rates were similar between patients treated with IC + TKI and HMA + TKI. Compared to treatment with TKI alone, treatment with IC/HMA + TKI resulted in a higher rate of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) (57.5% vs 33.9%, p < 0.05), a higher complete cytogenetic response rate (45% vs 10.7%, p < 0.001), and more patients proceeding to ASCT (32.5% vs 10.7%, p < 0.01). With a median follow-up of 6.7 years, long-term outcomes were similar between the IC + TKI and HMA + TKI groups. Combination therapy with IC/HMA + TKI was superior to therapy with TKI alone, including when analysis was limited to those treated with a 2nd/3rd-generation TKI. When using a 2nd/3rd-generation TKI, IC/HMA + TKI led to lower 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR; 44% vs 86%, p < 0.05) and superior 5-year event-free survival (EFS; 28% vs 0%, p < 0.05) and overall survival (OS; 34% vs 8%, p = 0.23) compared to TKI alone. Among patients who received IC/HMA + TKI, EFS and OS was superior for patients who received a 2nd/3rd generation TKI compared to those who received imatinib-based therapy. In a landmark analysis, 5-year OS was higher for patients who proceeded to ASCT (58% vs 22%, p = 0.12). Compared to patients treated with TKI alone for CML-MBP, treatment with IC + TKI or HMA + TKI led to improved response rates, CIR, EFS, and OS, particularly for patients who received a 2nd/3rd-generation TKI. Combination therapy with IC + TKI or HMA + TKI, rather than a TKI alone, should be considered the optimal treatment strategy for patients with CML-MBP.
Publication Date: 2021-06-17
Journal: Journal of hematology & oncology

miRNome profiling of LSC-enriched CD34
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloid stem cell neoplasm characterized by an expansion of myeloid progenitor cells and the presence of BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein. Since the introduction of specific BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), overall survival has improved significantly. However, under long-term therapy patients may have residual disease that originates from TKI-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSC). In this work, we analyzed the miRNome of LSC-enriched CD34
Publication Date: 2021-02-12
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology

NT157, an IGF1R-IRS1/2 inhibitor, exhibits antineoplastic effects in pre-clinical models of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is successfully treated with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but a significant percentage of patients develop resistance. Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) has been shown to constitutively associate with BCR-ABL1, and IRS1-specific silencing leads to antineoplastic effects in CML cell lines. Here, we characterized the efficacy of NT157, a pharmacological inhibitor of IGF1R-IRS1/2, in CML cells and observed significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation, accompanied by induction of apoptosis. In human K562 cells and in murine Ba/F3 cells, engineered to express either wild-type BCR-ABL1 or the imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL1
Publication Date: 2021-01-07
Journal: Investigational new drugs

Handling challenging questions in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia: when is it safe to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitors?
The paradigm for managing patients with chronic myeloid leukemia is evolving. In the recent past, restoring a normal life expectancy while patients are receiving never-ending targeted therapy with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors through prevention of progression to blast phase and mitigation of iatrogenic risks was considered the best achievable outcome. Now, long-term treatment-free remission with continued response off tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is recognized as the most optimal benefit of treatment. Indeed, numerous independent clinical trials provided solid proof that tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation was feasible in patients with deep and sustained molecular responses. This article discusses when tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be safely stopped in clinical practice on the basis of the best and latest available evidence.
Publication Date: 2020-12-05
Journal: Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program

Handling challenging questions in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia: when is it safe to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitors?
The paradigm for managing patients with chronic myeloid leukemia is evolving. In the recent past, restoring a normal life expectancy while patients are receiving never-ending targeted therapy with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors through prevention of progression to blast phase and mitigation of iatrogenic risks was considered the best achievable outcome. Now, long-term treatment-free remission with continued response off tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is recognized as the most optimal benefit of treatment. Indeed, numerous independent clinical trials provided solid proof that tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation was feasible in patients with deep and sustained molecular responses. This article discusses when tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be safely stopped in clinical practice on the basis of the best and latest available evidence.
Publication Date: 2020-11-11
Journal: Blood advances

Cardiovascular Events throughout the Disease Course in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Patients Treated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors-A Single-Centre Retrospective Study.
Cardiovascular risk factors, pre-existing comorbidities, molecular factors, and the direct effects of second- and third-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the vascular endothelium contribute to the progression of cardiovascular (CV) events, especially atherothrombotic conditions. The study objective was to evaluate comorbidities, the cardiovascular risk profile, and events throughout the chronic myeloid leukaemia disease course. Retrospective data from adults who experienced haematology treatment at a single centre were continuously updated and followed throughout the disease course. A total of 43 subjects conforming with the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study protocol were finally recruited. The median disease course was 77.0 ± 17.5 months. Statistical analyses were performed. More than three CV risk factors were identified in 41.9% of cases. Almost half of the cases had relevant comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥ 4), and no statistically significant comorbidities were found when comparing the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment subgroups ( To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring cardiovascular risk factors in Romanian chronic myeloid leukaemia patients. This study reinforces the need for close long-term follow-up that should be performed by a multidisciplinary team. The target should be not only the disease and specific drug-related toxicities but, also, the identification of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors before the commencement of and throughout TKI therapy.
Publication Date: 2020-10-16
Journal: Journal of clinical medicine

New monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are characterized by an unfavorable outcome in the majority of adult cases. Several clinical trials have confirmed the usefulness of a pediatric-type therapy applied to adult patients. Adults present with higher risk features at diagnosis that predispose them to chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse after an initial achievement of complete remission. The recent introduction of novel immune-targeted therapies, including monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) targeting B cell-associated antigens such as CD19 (blinatumumab) and CD22 (inotuzumab), tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T- cell therapy (CAR-T), circumvent B-ALL cell chemo-refractoriness through novel mechanisms of action, potentially eradicating minimal residual disease (MRD) and enabling more patients to receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to achieve a better clinical outcome.
Publication Date: 2020-09-22
Journal: Minerva medica

Flumatinib versus Imatinib for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Phase III, Randomized, Open-label, Multi-center FESTnd Study.
Flumatinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of flumatinib versus imatinib, for first-line treatment of chronic phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP). In this study, 394 patients were randomized 1:1 to flumatinib 600 mg once daily ( The rate of major molecular response (MMR) at 6 months (primary endpoint) was significantly higher with flumatinib than with imatinib (33.7% vs. 18.3%; Patients receiving flumatinib achieved significantly higher rates of responses, and faster and deeper responses compared with those receiving imatinib, indicating that flumatinib can be an effective first-line treatment for CML-CP. This trial was registered at as NCT02204644.
Publication Date: 2020-09-16
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated thyroid dysfunction: A review of cases reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System and published in the literature.
Publication Date: 2020-09-13
Journal: American journal of hematology

Efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on a mouse chronic myeloid leukemia model and chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder caused by constitutively active BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase resulting from the t(9;22) Philadelphia translocation. Imatinib, a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is a revolutionary molecular target inhibitor for CML. However, leukemic stem cells (LSCs) eventually become resistant to imatinib and thereby cause relapse. The next-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI dasatinib is also unable to eliminate CML LSCs. On the other hand, the third-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI ponatinib is not well studied in terms of its efficacy on CML LSCs. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of ponatinib against CML LSC-containing lin
Publication Date: 2020-09-11
Journal: Experimental hematology

Surrogate Markers for Treatment-Free Remission in Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) improve long-term survival of patients with chronic-phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recently, the treatment goal for patients with CML-CP became safe discontinuation of TKIs. Several clinical trials have shown that approximately half of patients who experience a durable deep molecular response during TKI treatment maintain molecular remission after discontinuation of TKIs. However, the factors responsible for successful treatment-free remission (TFR) remain unclear. This study reviews very recent TKI discontinuation studies, focusing on factors responsible for TFR in patients with CML-CP. Longer TKI treatment duration, time of deep molecular response, presence of withdrawal syndrome, deeper molecular response, lower Sokal score, interferon α treatment before TKI administration, and favorable natural killer or T-cell profiles may be associated with TFR. However, different study designs have generated inconsistent data. Further investigations are needed to identify factors that consistently favor achievement of TFR.
Publication Date: 2020-08-10
Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia

Allelic polymorphisms of
The development of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) markedly improved the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Approximately 50% of patients who achieve deep molecular response (DMR) remain in treatment-free remission (TFR) even after discontinuation of TKIs. Although TKIs may achieve clinical "cure" after TKI treatment for specific periods, there are no reliable biomarkers for predicting the response to TKIs and the probability of TFR in CML. An increase in natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood of TKI-treated CML patients is correlated with better outcomes, suggesting that TKIs induce antitumor NK cell immunity against CML cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are highly polymorphic NK cell receptors that play important roles in the regulation of immune responses. The identification of allelic polymorphisms of
Publication Date: 2020-07-28
Journal: Immunological medicine

Cardiotoxicity of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Emphasis on ponatinib.
The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeted therapy revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, cardiotoxicity associated with these targeted therapies puts the cancer survivors at higher risk. Ponatinib is a third-generation TKI for the treatment of CML patients having gatekeeper mutation T315I, which is resistant to the first and second generation of TKIs, namely, imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib. Multiple unbiased screening from our lab and others have identified ponatinib as most cardiotoxic FDA approved TKI among the entire FDA approved TKI family (total 50+). Indeed, ponatinib is the only treatment option for CML patients with T315I mutation. This review focusses on the cardiovascular risks and mechanism/s associated with CML TKIs with a particular focus on ponatinib cardiotoxicity. We have summarized our recent findings with transgenic zebrafish line harboring BNP luciferase activity to demonstrate the cardiotoxic potential of ponatinib. Additionally, we will review the recent discoveries reported by our and other laboratories that ponatinib primarily exerts its cardiotoxicity via an off-target effect on cardiomyocyte prosurvival signaling pathways, AKT and ERK. Finally, we will shed light on future directions for minimizing the adverse sequelae associated with CML-TKIs.
Publication Date: 2020-05-30
Journal: International journal of cardiology

Optimizing patient selection for treatment-free remission.
The advent of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Life expectancy for patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia now nears that of the healthy population; however, optimal outcomes require continuous tyrosine kinase inhibitor administration, which can impact patient quality of life. Consequently, the concept of treatment-free remission has been explored in patients achieving and sustaining a deep molecular response. Heterogeneous data exist with multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors; however, nilotinib is currently the only therapy that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment-free remission. The decision to pursue treatment-free remission is one that relies heavily on both patient- and disease-related factors. Herein, we will discuss relevant considerations to be made when determining an optimal candidate for treatment-free remission.
Publication Date: 2020-05-22
Journal: Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners

Assessment of estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia following discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have dramatically improved survival outcomes in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP) and are associated with a manageable safety profile. However, long-term TKI administration can lead to cardiovascular or renal adverse events. One goal in discontinuation of TKIs was reduction of adverse events, but it is unclear whether chronic toxicities are ameliorated as a result. In this study, we evaluated changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with CML-CP before and after TKI discontinuation. Long-term TKI treatment appears to induce renal toxicity, as eGFR at the time of TKI discontinuation correlated with the duration of TKI treatment (r = - 0.478, p = 0.005). Patients who received imatinib as first-line treatment exhibited lower eGFR levels than those treated with dasatinib or nilotinib, which may be correlated with long-term treatment (p = 0.027). After TKI discontinuation, no significant increases in eGFR were seen either in patients with treatment-free remission (66.8-71.2 ml/min/1.73 m
Publication Date: 2020-04-20
Journal: International journal of hematology

Venetoclax and BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Combinations: Outcome in Patients with Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Advanced Myeloid Leukemias.
Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) advanced leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast phase (MBP), have poor outcomes. Venetoclax has shown synergism with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in preclinical studies. However, clinical activity of venetoclax and TKI-based regimens is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study on patients with Ph+ AML (n = 7) and CML-MBP (n = 9) who received venetoclax combined with TKI-based regimens at our institution. Median patient age was 42 years, and the median number of prior therapy cycles was 5 (range 2-8). Nine patients received decitabine-based, and 7 received intensive chemotherapy-based regimens. Ten patients (63%) received ponatinib. The overall response rate (ORR) in 15 evaluable patients was 60% (1 complete remission [CR], 6 CR with incomplete hematologic recovery [CRi], 1 morphologic leukemia-free state, and 1 partial response). The ORR was 43% in Ph+ AML and 75% in CML-MBP. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 3.6 months, for AML OS was 2.0 months, and for CML-MBP OS was 10.9 months. The median relapse-free survival for AML and CML-MBP was 3.6 and 3.9 months, respectively. Compared to nonresponders, patients achieving CR/CRi had higher baseline Ph+ metaphases and BCR-ABL1 PCR. Combination therapy of venetoclax with TKI-based regimens shows encouraging activity in very heavily pretreated, advanced Ph+ leukemias, particularly CML-MBP.
Publication Date: 2020-04-15
Journal: Acta haematologica

second-generation bcr-abl1 tyrosine kinase(7)

tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved(6)

oncogenic bcr-abl1 tyrosine kinase(5)

chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia(3)

potent bcr-abl1 tyrosine kinase(3)

tyrosine kinase activity(7)

myelogenous leukemia cml(6)

acute lymphoblastic leukemia(5)

kinase domain mutations(5)

tyrosine kinase domain(5)

major molecular response(4)

chronic myeloid leukaemia(4)

myeloid leukemia patients(4)

hematopoietic stem cell(4)

cell surface antigens(3)

acute lymphoblastic leukaemia(2)

bcr-abl1 transcript levels(2)

chronic phase cml(2)

best achievable outcome(2)

t- cell therapy(2)

inhibitors tki(7)

bcr-abl1 tkis(6)

phase cml-cp(5)

bcr-abl1 fusion(5)

imatinib nilotinib(4)

bcr-abl1 transcripts(4)

imatinib mesylate(4)

patients treated(4)

dasatinib bosutinib(3)

crisis bc(3)

response mmr(3)

bispecific antibodies(3)

independent mechanisms(3)

q34 q11(2)

tki imatinib(2)

cml patients(2)

reaction rq-pcr(2)

kinase tk(2)

cml receiving(2)

chromosome-positive ph(2)

domain tkd(2)

molecular monitoring(2)

imatinib resistance(2)

cml however(2)