pubmed > NFKB > beta nfkb

Role of HMGB1 signaling in the inflammatory process in diabetic retinopathy.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key player in retinal inflammation. HMGB1 is a danger associated protein pattern receptor which can sense high glucose as a stressor. Increased HMGB1 levels have been found in patients with late stage diabetic retinopathy. HMGB1 can bind toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), leading to increased inflammation commonly through nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB). Because diabetic patients have been found to have increased HMGB1 and RAGE levels, as well as polymorphisms of TLR4, a number of investigations have focused on inhibition of these pathways in the diabetic retina. Work in diabetic animal models and cell culture have demonstrated a number of factors that can inhibit HMGB1/TLR4/RAGE signaling. This regulation offers potential new avenues for therapeutic development. This review is focused on HMGB1 signaling and downstream pathways leading to inflammation in the diabetic retina.
Publication Date: 2020-06-05
Journal: Cellular signalling

TRIM59 regulates autophagy through modulating both the transcription and the ubiquitination of BECN1.
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a multistep cellular process that sequesters cytoplasmic components for lysosomal degradation. BECN1/Beclin1 is a central protein that assembles cofactors for the formation of a BECN1-PIK3C3-PIK3R4 complex to trigger the autophagy protein cascade. Discovering the regulators of BECN1 is important for understanding the mechanism of autophagy induction. Here, we demonstrate that TRIM59, a tripartite motif protein, plays an important role in autophagy regulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On the one hand, TRIM59 regulates the transcription of BECN1 through negatively modulating the NFKB pathway. On the other hand, TRIM59 regulates TRAF6 induced K63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1, thus affecting the formation of the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex. We further demonstrate that TRIM59 can mediate K48-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and promote the proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, our findings reveal novel dual roles for TRIM59 in autophagy regulation by affecting both the transcription and the ubiquitination of BECN1. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; BECN1: beclin 1; CHX: cycloheximide; CQ: chloroquine; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HA: haemagglutinin tag; His: polyhistidine tag; LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; NFKB: nuclear factor kappa B; NFKBIA: NFKB inhibitor alpha; NSCLC: non-small cell lung cancer; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; RELA: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; tGFP: Turbo green fluorescent protein; TRAF6: TNF receptor associated factor 6; TRIM59: tripartite motif containing 59; B: ubiquitin.
Publication Date: 2018-09-21
Journal: Autophagy

Inflammatory pathway genes associated with inter-individual variability in the trajectories of morning and evening fatigue in patients receiving chemotherapy.
Fatigue, a highly prevalent and distressing symptom during chemotherapy (CTX), demonstrates diurnal and interindividual variability in severity. Little is known about the associations between variations in genes involved in inflammatory processes and morning and evening fatigue severity during CTX. The purposes of this study, in a sample of oncology patients (N=543) with breast, gastrointestinal (GI), gynecological (GYN), or lung cancer who received two cycles of CTX, were to determine whether variations in genes involved in inflammatory processes were associated with inter-individual variability in initial levels as well as in the trajectories of morning and evening fatigue. Patients completed the Lee Fatigue Scale to determine morning and evening fatigue severity a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Using a whole exome array, 309 single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs among the 64 candidate genes that passed all quality control filters were evaluated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Based on the results of the HLM analyses, the final SNPs were evaluated for their potential impact on protein function using two bioinformational tools. The following inflammatory pathways were represented: chemokines (3 genes); cytokines (12 genes); inflammasome (11 genes); Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT, 10 genes); mitogen-activated protein kinase/jun amino-terminal kinases (MAPK/JNK, 3 genes); nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFkB, 18 genes); and NFkB and MAP/JNK (7 genes). After controlling for self-reported and genomic estimates of race and ethnicity, polymorphisms in six genes from the cytokine (2 genes); inflammasome (2 genes); and NFkB (2 genes) pathways were associated with both morning and evening fatigue. Polymorphisms in six genes from the inflammasome (1 gene); JAK/STAT (1 gene); and NFkB (4 genes) pathways were associated with only morning fatigue. Polymorphisms in three genes from the inflammasome (2 genes) and the NFkB (1 gene) pathways were associated with only evening fatigue. Taken together, these findings add to the growing body of evidence that suggests that morning and evening fatigue are distinct symptoms.
Publication Date: 2017-01-23
Journal: Cytokine

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NFKB) in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in early childhood. In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the activity of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) has been associated with changes in the transcriptional activity and expression of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) in the mononuclear cells of bone marrow. The aim of the study was to determine the possible role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) as prognostic variables in pediatric patients with ALL. This was a descriptive, transversal, and observational study. Bone marrow and blood samples were obtained from 30 children with newly-diagnosed ALL, who were seen at the Hematology-Oncology Service, Hospital para el Niño (HPN), Toluca, Mexico, from 2014‒2015. Anthropometric variables, clinical lab results, immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities were registered. GSK-3β was evaluated through immunohistochemistry, and NFKB messenger RNA (mRNA) with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cases of ALL were classified into two groups of risk: high and habitual. Thirty patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 7.1 years (range 2‒13 years). Twenty-one were male and 9 female. Employing the morphological classification, 26 patients had type L1 ALL and the remaining 4 patients had type L2 ALL. Abnormal genes were found in 7 (23.33%) patients, ETV-RUNX1 in 3, followed by TCF3-PBX1 (two), STL1-TAL1 (one), and BCR-ABL1 (one). NFKB relative expression levels, in comparison to the GSK-3β immunohistochemistry results of the bone marrow samples, showed significant differences between positive and negative cases (p = 0.001) and between weak-positive and negative cases (p = 0.002). These results suggest that GSK-3β may be a prognostic biomarker in childhood ALL.
Publication Date: 2016-12-29
Journal: Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University

The contribution of hypothalamic neuroendocrine, neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory processes to lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in female and male rats: Involvement of glucocorticoid receptor and C/EBP-β.
Peripheral inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes behavioural changes indicative for depression. The possible mechanisms involve the interference with neuroinflammatory, neuroendocrine, and neurotrophic processes. Apart from heterogeneity in the molecular background, sexual context may be another factor relevant to the manifestation of mood disturbances upon an immune challenge. We investigated sex-dependent effects of a 7-day LPS treatment of adult Wistar rats on depressive-like behaviour and their relation with hypothalamic neuroendocrine factor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), proplastic brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB). Also, their regulators, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β were followed. LPS induced depressive-like behaviour in females was associated with the increased hypothalamic CRH and decreased BDNF, but not with COX-2. These changes were paralleled by an increase in nuclear GR, NFkB and 20 kDa C/EBPβ. LPS also altered behaviour in males and increased CRH expression, but in contrast to females, this was accompanied with the elevated COX-2, accumulation of cytosolic GR and elevated nuclear 38 kDa C/EBPβ and NFkB. In conclusion, depressive-like phenotype induced by LPS in both sexes emerges from similar HPA axis activation and sex-specific alterations of hypothalamic molecular signalling: in males it is related to compromised control of neuroinflamation connected with cytoplasmic GR retention, while in females it is related to diminished proplastic capacity of BDNF. Sex-dependent mechanisms by which inflammation alters hypothalamic processes and cause pathological behaviour in animals, could be operative in the treatment of depression-related brain inflammation.
Publication Date: 2015-05-31
Journal: Behavioural brain research

Tinospora cordifolia Induces Differentiation and Senescence Pathways in Neuroblastoma Cells.
Children diagnosed with neuroblastomas often suffer from severe side as well as late effects of conventional treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent advances in understanding of molecular pathways involved in cellular differentiation and apoptosis have helped in the development of new therapeutic approach based on differentiation-based therapy of malignant tumours. Natural medicines with their holistic therapeutic approach are known to selectively eliminate cancer cells thus provide a better substitute for the conventional treatment modes. The current study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) using IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line as a model system. TCE is highly recommended in Ayurveda for its general body and metal health-promoting properties. TCE treatment was seen to arrest the majority of cells in G0/G1 phase and modulated the expression of DNA clamp sliding protein (PCNA) and cyclin D1. Further, TCE-treated cells showed differentiation as revealed by their morphology and the expression of neuronal cell specific differentiation markers NF200, MAP-2 and NeuN in neuroblastoma cells. The differentiated phenotype was associated with induction of senescence and pro-apoptosis pathways by enhancing expression of senescence marker mortalin and Rel A subunit of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) along with decreased expression of anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl-xl. TCE exhibited anti-metastatic activity and significantly reduced cell migration in the scratched area along with downregulation of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) polysialylation and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our data suggest that crude extract or active phytochemicals from this plant may be a potential candidate for differentiation-based therapy of malignant neuroblastoma cells.
Publication Date: 2014-10-05
Journal: Molecular neurobiology

Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.
Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs.
Publication Date: 2014-08-15
Journal: Endocrine-related cancer

Research on and clinical importance of duplications in various chromosomal regions in addition to Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myeloid leukemia.
To investigate the chromosomal aberrations in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), particularly in chromosomal regions which carried 67 genes pertaining to oncogenes, transcription factors, signal transduction, tumor suppressors, apoptosis etc, in addition to Philadelphia (Ph+) chromosome by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method and to compare them with clinical parameters. The aberrations were investigated in 48 CML patients receiving imatinib therapy and a group of 15 healthy controls, by using the MLPA method between 2000 and 2009. The obtained results were compared both between patient and control groups and with clinical parameters. Duplication was detected in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene of 2 patients, inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 (IMPDH1) gene of 4, postmeiotic segregation increased S. Cerevisiae 2 (PMS2) gene of 1, nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) of 5 and T-cell translocation 2 (LMO2) gene of 1 patient. Univariate analysis showed that splenomegaly, advanced age, Sokal risk score (SRS) and the duplications in IMPDH1 and FGFR1 genes significantly shortened 7-year event-free survival (EFS); multivariate analysis showed that only the duplications in IMPDH1 and FGFR1 genes were the factors that significantly affected EFS. No statistically significant correlations were detected between duplications and other clinical parameters. Duplications in 4 genes (FGFR1, IMPDH1, PMS2, LMO2) in addition to Ph+ chromosome in CML patients were detected for the first time. This study indicates that chromosomes 7 and 8 should be particularly investigated in more detail in addition to the Ph+ chromosome for better determination of disease prognosis and selection of alternative treatments.
Publication Date: 2012-10-04
Journal: Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology

Aging in the glomerulus.
Kidney function declines with age in the majority of the population. Although very few older people progress to end stage, the consequences of doing so are burdensome for the patient and very expensive for the society. Although some of the observed decline is likely due to changes in the vasculature, much is associated with the development of age-associated glomerulosclerosis. This article will review the well-established structural and functional changes in the glomerulus with age. The role of calorie restriction in modifying age-related pathology will be discussed. The importance of the podocyte as a critical cell in the aging process is considered using animal models and human biopsy material. Newer data on changes in gene expression driven by nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) and possible changes in biology in the glomerulus are discussed. The relationship between pathways involved in aging and the decline in kidney function is reviewed. There is speculation on the significance of these changes in relation to normal and pathological aging.
Publication Date: 2012-07-31
Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences

The effect of omega-3 FAs on tumour angiogenesis and their therapeutic potential.
Omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3 FA) consumption has long been associated with a lower incidence of colon, breast and prostate cancers in many human populations. Human trials have demonstrated omega-3 FA to have profound anti-inflammatory effects in those with cancer. In vitro and small animal studies have yielded a strong body of evidence establishing omega-3 FA as having anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects. This review explores the evidence and the mechanisms by which omega-3 FA may act as angiogenesis inhibitors and identifies opportunities for original research trialling omega-3 FAs as anti-cancer agents in humans. The conclusions drawn from this review suggest that omega-3 FAs in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found principally in oily fish have potent anti-angiogenic effects inhibiting production of many important angiogenic mediators namely; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Platelet-Derived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor (PDECGF), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide, Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta (NFKB), matrix metalloproteinases and beta-catenin.
Publication Date: 2009-06-06
Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)

The ubiquitin-proteasome system contributes to the inflammatory injury in ischemic diabetic myocardium: the role of glycemic control.
Because the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPS) is required for activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB), a transcription factor that regulates inflammatory genes, we evaluated the UPS activity, NFkB activation, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, in ischemic specimens of diabetic myocardium and relate them to the glycemic control (HbA(1c)), oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine, a modified amino acid produced by reactive O(2)), and cardiac outcome (echocardiographic parameters). Moreover, the role of UPS, NFkB, and TNF-alpha in the cardiac tissue injury of acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-hyperglycemic rats. Finally, this study aimed to elucidate whether an intervention on UPS with bortezomib, an inhibitor of UPS, may counteract the extensive myocardial infarction and increased inflammatory reaction into the hyperglycemic myocardium. Ventricular biopsy specimens from 16 nondiabetic and 18 type 2 diabetic patients presenting with unstable angina who underwent coronary artery bypass were collected during coronary bypass surgery. Ejection fraction (EF); myocardial performance index (MPI), which measures both systolic and diastolic function, immunostaining, and cardiac levels of nitrotyrosine; UPS activity; NFkB; and TNF-alpha were investigated in both ischemic human myocardium and heart tissue from STZ-hyperglycemic rats subject to a myocardial ischemia/reperfusion procedure. We found that diabetic patients had higher MPI (P<.041) and reduced EF (P<.008) compared with nondiabetic patients. Diabetic specimens had higher nitrotyrosine, UPS activity, NFkB, and TNF-alpha levels compared with nondiabetic patients (P<.001). This was mirrored by consistently high levels of UPS and inflammatory markers in STZ-infarcted hearts, associated with high myocardial damage. In contrast, lesions from normoglycemic animals as well as from hyperglycemic rats treated with bortezomib showed low levels of ubiquitin-proteasome activity, inflammation, and myocardial damage (P<.01). By contributing to the increased inflammation, the UPS overactivity may enhance the risk of complication during myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients.
Publication Date: 2009-01-16
Journal: Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology

Respiratory burst: role in signal transduction in alveolar macrophages.
Alveolar macrophages play an important role in defense against airborne pathogens and particles. These macrophages respond through both the adaptive and acquired immune responses, and through the activation of a multitude of signaling pathways. One major macrophage defense mechanism is respiratory burst, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the ROS produced may act directly in pathogen killing, they may also be involved as secondary signaling messengers. This review focuses on the activation of four main signaling pathways following the production of reactive oxygen species. These pathways include the nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB), activating protein-1 (AP-1), mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphotidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathways. This review also briefly examines the role of ROS in DNA damage, in particular looking at the base excision repair pathway (BER), the main pathway involved in repair of oxidative DNA damage. This review highlights many of the studies in the field of ROS, signal transduction, and DNA damage; however, work still remains to further elucidate the role of ROS in disease.
Publication Date: 2006-01-06
Journal: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews