pubmed > TP53 > brca1 brca2

Clinical likelihood ratios and balanced accuracy for 44 in silico tools against multiple large-scale functional assays of cancer susceptibility genes.
Where multiple in silico tools are concordant, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) framework affords supporting evidence toward pathogenicity or benignity, equivalent to a likelihood ratio of ~2. However, limited availability of "clinical truth sets" and prior use in tool training limits their utility for evaluation of tool performance. We created a truth set of 9,436 missense variants classified as deleterious or tolerated in clinically validated high-throughput functional assays for BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, PTEN, and TP53 to evaluate predictive performance for 44 recommended/commonly used in silico tools. Over two-thirds of the tool-threshold combinations examined had specificity of <50%, thus substantially overcalling deleteriousness. REVEL scores of 0.8-1.0 had a Positive Likelihood Ratio (PLR) of 6.74 (5.24-8.82) compared to scores <0.7 and scores of 0-0.4 had a Negative Likelihood Ratio (NLR) of 34.3 (31.5-37.3) compared to scores of >0.7. For Meta-SNP, the equivalent PLR = 42.9 (14.4-406) and NLR = 19.4 (15.6-24.9). Against these clinically validated "functional truth sets," there was wide variation in the predictive performance of commonly used in silico tools. Overall, REVEL and Meta-SNP had best balanced accuracy and might potentially be used at stronger evidence weighting than current ACMG/AMP prescription, in particular for predictions of benignity.
Publication Date: 2021-07-08
Journal: Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics

Breast Cancer Adjuvant Radiotherapy in BRCA1/2, TP53, ATM Genes Mutations: Are There Solved Issues?
BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and ATM gene mutations are the most studied tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) influencing the loco-regional approach to breast cancer (BC). Due to altered radio sensitivity of mutated cancer cells, mastectomy has always been advised in most patients with BC linked to TSGs mutations in order to avoid or minimize the use of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART). Whether ART is safe or not in these carriers is still debated. As a result, this issue has been widely discussed in the recent ASTRO and ASCO papers, yielding important and useful recommendations on the use of ART according to the mutational status. In this review, we have highlighted the impact of these mutations on local control, toxicities, second tumors, and contralateral breast cancers (CBCs) after ART to solve remaining doubts and encourage the safe use of ART when indicated.
Publication Date: 2021-05-21
Journal: Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press)

Landscape of somatic mutations in breast cancer: new opportunities for targeted therapies in Saudi Arabian patients.
Breast cancer (BCa) ranks first in incidence rate among cancers in Arab females. The association between genetic polymorphisms in tumor suppressor genes and the risk of BCa has been studied in many ethnic populations with conflicting conclusions while Arab females and Saudi Arabian studies are still lacking. We screened a cohort of Saudi BCa patients by NGS using a bespoke gene panel to clarify the genetic landscape of this population, correlating and assessing genetic findings with clinical outcomes. We identified a total of 263 mutations spanning 51 genes, including several frequently mutated. Among the genes analyzed, the highest mutation rates were found in PIK3CA (12.9%), BRCA2 (11.7%), BRCA1 (10.2%), TP53 (6.0%), MSH2 (3.8%), PMS2 (3.8%), BARD1 (3.8%), MLH1 (3.4%), CDH1 (3.0%), RAD50 (3.0%), MSH6 (3.0%), NF1 (2.6%), in addition to others. We identified multiple common recurrent variants and previously reported mutations. We also identified 46 novel variants in 22 genes that were predicted to have a pathogenic effect. Survival analysis according to the four most common mutations (BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PIK3CA) showed reduced survival in BRCA1 and BRCA2-mutant patients compared to total patients. Moreover, BRCA2 was demonstrated as an independent predictor of reduced survival using independent Cox proportional hazard models. We reveal the landscape of the mutations associated with BCa in Saudi women, highlighting the importance of routine genetic sequencing in implementation of precision therapies in KSA.
Publication Date: 2021-04-20
Journal: Oncotarget

Targeted gene panels identify a high frequency of pathogenic germline variants in patients diagnosed with a hematological malignancy and at least one other independent cancer.
The majority of studies assessing the contribution of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) to cancer predisposition have focused on patients with single cancers. We analyzed 45 known cancer predisposition genes (CPGs) in germline samples of 202 patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) plus one or more other independent cancer managed at major tertiary medical centers on two different continents. This included 120 patients with therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs), where the HM occurred after cytotoxic treatment for a first malignancy, and 82 patients with multiple cancers in which the HM was not preceded by cytotoxic therapy (MC-HM). Using American College of Medical Genetics/Association for Molecular Pathology variant classification guidelines, 13% of patients had PGVs, most frequently identified in CHEK2 (17% of PGVs), BRCA1 (13%), DDX41 (13%), and TP53 (7%). The frequency of PGVs in MC-HM was higher than in t-MN, although not statistically significant (18 vs. 9%; p = 0.085). The frequency of PGVs in lymphoid and myeloid HM patients was similar (19 vs. 17.5%; p > 0.9). Critically, patients with PGVs in BRCA1, BRCA2 or TP53 did not satisfy current clinical phenotypic criteria for germline testing. Our data suggest that a personal history of multiple cancers, one being a HM, should trigger screening for PGVs.
Publication Date: 2021-04-15
Journal: Leukemia

Comprehensive analysis of germline mutations in northern Brazil: a panel of 16 genes for hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome investigation.
Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been a handy tool in clinical practice, mainly due to its efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It has been widely used in genetic diagnosis of several inherited diseases, and, in clinical oncology, it may enhance the discovery of new susceptibility genes and enable individualized care of cancer patients. In this context, we explored a pan-cancer panel in the investigation of germline variants in Brazilian patients presenting clinical criteria for hereditary cancer syndromes or familial history. Seventy-one individuals diagnosed or with familial history of hereditary cancer syndromes were submitted to custom pan-cancer panel including 16 high and moderate penetrance genes previously associated with hereditary cancer syndromes (APC, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CDKN2A, CHEK2, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, PTEN, RB1, RET, TP53, VHL, XPA and XPC). All pathogenic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We identified a total of eight pathogenic variants among 12 of 71 individuals (16.9%). Among the mutation-positive subjects, 50% were diagnosed with breast cancer and had mutations in BRCA1, CDH1 and MUTYH. Notably, 33.3% were individuals diagnosed with polyposis or who had family cases and harbored pathogenic mutations in APC and MUTYH. The remaining individuals (16.7%) were gastric cancer patients with pathogenic variants in CDH1 and MSH2. Overall, 54 (76.05%) individuals presented at least one variant uncertain significance (VUS), totalizing 81 VUS. Of these, seven were predicted to have disease-causing potential. Overall, analysis of all these genes in NGS-panel allowed the identification not only of pathogenic variants related to hereditary cancer syndromes but also of some VUS that need further clinical and molecular investigations. The results obtained in this study had a significant impact on patients and their relatives since it allowed genetic counselling and personalized management decisions.
Publication Date: 2021-04-09
Journal: BMC cancer

Multigene assessment of genetic risk for women for two or more breast cancers.
The prevalence, penetrance, and spectrum of pathogenic variants that predispose women to two or more breast cancers is largely unknown. We queried clinical and genetic data from women with one or more breast cancer diagnosis who received multigene panel testing between 2013 and 2018. Clinical data were obtained from provider-completed test request forms. For each gene on the panel, a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to test for association with risk of multiple breast cancer diagnoses. Models accounted for age of diagnosis, personal and family cancer history, and ancestry. Results are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This study included 98,979 patients: 88,759 (89.7%) with a single breast cancer and 10,220 (10.3%) with ≥ 2 breast cancers. Of women with two or more breast cancers, 13.2% had a pathogenic variant in a cancer predisposition gene compared to 9.4% with a single breast cancer. BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MSH6, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53 were significantly associated with two or more breast cancers, with ORs ranging from 1.35 for CHEK2 to 3.80 for PTEN. Overall, pathogenic variants in all breast cancer risk genes combined were associated with both metachronous (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.53-1.79, p = 7.2 × 10 This study demonstrated that several high and moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes are associated with ≥ 2 breast cancers, affirming the association of two or more breast cancers with diverse genetic etiologies.
Publication Date: 2021-04-08
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

Plasma tumor gene conversions after one cycle abiraterone acetate for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a biomarker analysis of a multicenter international trial.
Plasma tumor DNA fraction is prognostic in metastatic cancers. This could improve risk stratification before commencing a new treatment. We hypothesized that a second sample collected after one cycle of treatment could refine outcome prediction of patients identified as poor prognosis based on plasma DNA collected pre-treatment. Plasma DNA [128 pre-treatment, 134 cycle 2 day 1 (C2D1), and 49 progression] from 151 chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients in a phase II study of abiraterone acetate (NCT01867710) were subjected to custom targeted next-generation sequencing covering exons of these genes: TP53, AR, RB1, PTEN, PIK3CA, BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CDK12, CHEK2, FANCA HDAC2 and PALB2. We also captured 1500 pan-genome regions enriched for single nucleotide polymorphisms to allow detection of tumor DNA using the rolling B-allele method. We tested associations with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Plasma tumor DNA detection was associated with shorter OS [hazard ratio (HR): 2.89, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.77-4.73, P ≤ 0.0001] and PFS (HR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.36-3.11, P < 0.001). Using a multivariable model including plasma tumor DNA, patients who had a TP53, RB1 or PTEN gene alteration pre-treatment and at C2D1 had a significantly shorter OS than patients with no alteration at either time point (TP53: HR 7.13, 95% CI 2.37-21.47, P < 0.001; RB1: HR 6.24, 95% CI 1.97-19.73, P = 0.002; PTEN: HR 11.9, 95% CI 3.6-39.34, P < 0.001). Patients who were positive pre-treatment and converted to undetectable had no evidence of a difference in survival compared with those who were undetectable pre-treatment (P = 0.48, P = 0.43, P = 0.5, respectively). Progression samples harbored AR gain in all patients who had gain pre-treatment (9/49) and de novo AR somatic point mutations were detected in 8/49 patients. Plasma gene testing after one cycle treatment refines prognostication and could provide an early indication of treatment benefit.
Publication Date: 2021-04-02
Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology

New germline mutations in BRCA1, ATM, MUTYH, and RAD51D genes in Tuvans early-onset breast cancer patients.
In Russia, more than 50,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) every year. Russia is a multinational country - about 200 ethnic groups live on its territory. Khakass, Buryats, Tuvans and other ethnic groups show higher rate of increase in BC incidence and a younger age of first diagnosed BC compared to Caucasian ethnicities. We focused on Tuvan ethnic group to find specific genetic aberrations associated with BC. There are no BC prevention models as well as standards for the treatment of inherited BC in Tuvans. In this context, the search for genetic markers of early cancer detection and the development of criteria for therapy response are relevant. To identify hereditary mutations in BC-associated genes in Tuvan women. 24 patients with early-onset BC (range, 25 to 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA isolated from blood samples was used to prepare libraries using a capture-based target enrichment kit covering 27 genes (ATM, APC, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, EPCAM, FAM175A, MLH1, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PALB2, PIK3CA, PMS2, PMS2CL, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D, STK11, TP53 and XRCC2). Next-generation sequencing was performed using the Illumina NextSeq500 System. In our study, one pathogenic mutation was detected in BRCA1 (rs80357868) gene (prevalence of 4%, 1/24). We identified the truncating 3875_3878delGTCT mutation of BRCA1 gene in Tuvans BC patient aged 34 years. We also detected three mutations that were probably damaging by PolyPhen2 and/or deleterious by SIFT in ATM (rs781023264), MUTYH (rs199840380) and RAD51D (rs145309168) genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the highly pathogenic variant in the BRCA1 gene (rs80357868) and possibly damaging (PolyPhen2) germline variants in the ATM (rs781023264), MUTYH (rs199840380) and RAD51D (rs145309168) genes in young Tuvans BC patient.
Publication Date: 2021-04-01
Journal: Experimental oncology

Ovarian endometriosis, a precursor of ovarian cancer: Histological aspects, gene expression and microRNA alterations (Review).
Ovarian endometriosis is a frequent chronic gynecological disease with an uncertain evolution regarding its progression or association with ovarian malignant lesions. The present review summarized the histological aspects, gene expression and microRNA (miRNA/miR) alterations associated with ovarian endometriosis and cancer and their possible interaction. The endometriosis-ovarian cancer interaction has been proposed by certain researchers as a single entity. Histological results indicated that endometriosis has been in different circumstances coexisting with ovarian cancer, with reference to endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma. Endometriosis with moderate and severe atypia can influence cell proliferation and architecture, resulting in a possible malignant transformation. Gene expression analysis indicated that the pathologies of both endometriosis and ovarian cancer are characterized by genetic instability from a molecular point of view, as several important genetic mutations, including ARID1A, PI3KCA, PTEN, BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and KRAS genes, were identified. miRNA alterations have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression. Common dysregulated miRNAs, such as miR-331, miR-335, miR-891, miR-548, miR-124, miR-148, miR-215, miR-192, miR-337, miR-153, miR-155, miR-144, miR-221 and miR-3688 were extensively investigated in understanding endometriosis and ovarian cancer evolution. From a combined viewpoint including histological aspects, gene expression and miRNA alterations, it is reasonable to speculate that endometriosis is associated with ovarian cancer. Ovarian endometriosis lesions may present a risk for ovarian malignant lesions, which supports a model of endometriosis as a malignant precursor. However, the endometriosis-ovarian cancer association is not widely accepted in the literature and additional studies are required to validate this association.
Publication Date: 2021-02-20
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine

Inherited predisposition to breast cancer in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.
The Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) phases I-II was a case-control study of biological and social risk factors for invasive breast cancer that enrolled cases and controls between 1993 and 1999. Case selection was population-based and stratified by ancestry and age at diagnosis. Controls were matched to cases by age, self-identified race, and neighborhood of residence. Sequencing genomic DNA from 1370 cases and 1635 controls yielded odds ratios (with 95% confidence limits) for breast cancer of all subtypes of 26.7 (3.59, 189.1) for BRCA1, 8.8 (3.44, 22.48) for BRCA2, and 9.0 (2.06, 39.60) for PALB2; and for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) of 55.0 (7.01, 431.4) for BRCA1, 12.1 (4.18, 35.12) for BRCA2, and 10.8 (1.97, 59.11) for PALB2. Overall, 5.6% of patients carried a pathogenic variant in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, or TP53, the four most highly penetrant breast cancer genes. Analysis of cases by tumor subtype revealed the expected association of TNBC versus other tumor subtypes with BRCA1, and suggested a significant association between TNBC versus other tumor subtypes with BRCA2 or PALB2 among African-American (AA) patients [2.95 (1.18, 7.37)], but not among European-American (EA) patients [0.62 (0.18, 2.09)]. AA patients with pathogenic variants in BRCA2 or PALB2 were 11 times more likely to be diagnosed with TNBC versus another tumor subtype than were EA patients with pathogenic variants in either of these genes (P = 0.001). If this pattern is confirmed in other comparisons of similarly ascertained AA and EA breast cancer patients, it could in part explain the higher prevalence of TNBC among AA breast cancer patients.
Publication Date: 2021-01-23
Journal: NPJ breast cancer

Features of the Copy Number Variation of Certain Genes in Tumor Cells in Patients with Serous Ovarian Adenocarcinoma.
We analyzed the peculiarities of the copy number variation of genes that regulate apoptosis, DNA repair, cell proliferation, metabolism, and estrogen reception in tumor and normal cells of high-grade and low-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the ovaries. Using real-time qPCR method, the relative copy number of 34 genes (BAX, BCL2, TP53, MDM2, CASP9, CASP3, CASP7, CASP8, PRKCI, SOX2, OCT4, PIK3, PTEN, C-MYC, SOX18, AKT1, NOTCH1, BRCA1, BRCA2, EXO1, SCNN1A, KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP19A, ESR1, ESR2, GPER, STS, SULT1A, and SULT1E1) was determined in normal and tumor cells of the ovaries extracted by contactless capture laser microsection from FFPE-blocks of 200 patients. The most typical molecular markers of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cells were identified: copy number of PIK3CA, BCL2, BAX, CASP3, and CASP8 genes. Based on the differences in the gene copy number variation, two molecular subtypes of serous adenocarcinoma were identified, corresponding to two histological subtypes: high-grade (MDM2, SOX2, ESR1, CYP1B1, SULT1E1, TP53, BRCA2) and low-grade (PIK3CA, PTEN, BCL2, BAX, and CASP3). Each of these subtypes was also characterized by molecular heterogeneity and can be subdivided into several subgroups: 3 subgroups for high-grade and 4 subgroups for low-grade serous adenocarcinoma. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the ovarian tissue, confirm molecular difference between the two histological subtypes of serous adenocarcinoma probably underlying their different clinical course.
Publication Date: 2021-01-17
Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine

Prevalence and spectrum of pathogenic germline variants in intestinal and pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.
Ampullary cancer may occur as a component of hereditary cancer syndromes. Mutations in inherited cancer susceptibility genes play a therapeutic role and its knowledge in ampullary cancer is lacking. Thirty-seven cases of ampullary carcinoma were subjected to tumor-normal whole exome sequencing with mean coverage of 100X (blood) and 200X (tumor). Data were analyzed and correlated with intestinal and pancreatobiliary differentiation. There were 22 intestinal, 13 pancreatobiliary and 2 cases of mixed differentiation. One hundred and forty-three germline variations with at least >1 pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) across 83 genes were found in 36 of 37 patients. Twelve genes (14.5 %) showed >3, 20 genes (24.1 %) showed two and 51 genes (61.4 %) showed one PGVs. Intestinal differentiation showed higher PGVs (117 variants, 73 genes) than pancreatobiliary differentiation (85 variants, 62 genes). PGVs in ERCC5, MEN1, MSH3, CHEK1, TP53, APC, FANCA, ERBB2, BRCA1, BRCA2, RTEL1, HNF1A and PTCH1 were seen in >50 % of cases. Nine genes harbored somatic second hits in 14 cases. PGVs in DNA damage-repair, homologous recombination repair, TP53 transcriptional regulation, DNA double stranded breaks, cell cycle and nucleotide excision repair genes were seen in all cases of intestinal and pancreatobiliary differentiation, while DNA mismatch repair genes were found in 81.8 % of intestinal and 84.6 % of pancreatobiliary cancers. Functional pathway analysis showed that DNA damage-repair, double stranded break repair, mismatch repair, homologous recombination repair and TP53 transcriptional regulation genes were altered in both while nucleotide-excision repair was significantly mutated in intestinal type and cell-cycle genes in pancreatobiliary type (p < 0.05). This study reports spectrum of PGVs in intestinal and pancreatobiliary differentiation of ampullary carcinoma at higher frequency through whole exome sequencing. PGVs were most frequently found in DNA repair genes. Detecting PGVs through tumor-normal sequencing may identify therapeutically actionable and double-hit mutations that can guide towards appropriate management.
Publication Date: 2020-12-21
Journal: Pathology, research and practice

Genomic profiling reveals high frequency of DNA repair genetic aberrations in gallbladder cancer.
DNA repair gene aberrations (GAs) occur in several cancers, may be prognostic and are actionable. We investigated the frequency of DNA repair GAs in gallbladder cancer (GBC), association with tumor mutational burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1) expression. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of 760 GBC was performed. We investigated GAs in 19 DNA repair genes including direct DNA repair genes (ATM, ATR, BRCA1, BRCA2, FANCA, FANCD2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PALB2, POLD1, POLE, PRKDC, and RAD50) and caretaker genes (BAP1, CDK12, MLL3, TP53, and BLM) and classified patients into 3 groups based on TMB level: low (< 5.5 mutations/Mb), intermediate (5.5-19.5 mutations/Mb), and high (≥ 19.5 mutations/Mb). We assessed MSI status and PD-1 & PD-L1 expression. 658 (86.6%) had at least 1 actionable GA. Direct DNA repair gene GAs were identified in 109 patients (14.2%), while 476 (62.6%) had GAs in caretaker genes. Both direct and caretaker DNA repair GAs were significantly associated with high TMB (P = 0.0005 and 0.0001, respectively). Tumor PD-L1 expression was positive in 119 (15.6%), with 17 (2.2%) being moderate or high. DNA repair GAs are relatively frequent in GBC and associated with coexisting actionable mutations and a high TMB.
Publication Date: 2020-12-18
Journal: Scientific reports

Tumor phenotype and concordance in synchronous bilateral breast cancer in young women.
Synchronous bilateral breast cancer is uncommon, and its pattern and incidence among younger women is unknown. Here we report the incidence, phenotypes, and long-term oncologic outcomes of bilateral breast cancer in women enrolled in the Young Women's Breast Cancer Study (YWS). The YWS is a multi-center, prospective cohort study of women with breast cancer diagnosed at age ≤ 40 years. Those with synchronous bilateral breast cancer formed our study cohort. Tumor phenotypes were categorized as luminal A (hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2-/grade 1/2), luminal B (HR+ /HER2+ or HER2- and grade 3), HER2-enriched (HR-/HER2+), or basal-like (HR-/HER2-). Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate tumor phenotypes of bilateral cancers for concordance. Among 1302 patients enrolled in the YWS, 21 (1.6%) patients had synchronous bilateral disease. The median age of diagnosis was 38 years (range 18-40 years). Seventeen (81.0%) underwent genetic testing with 6 found to have pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, or TP53. The majority of patients (76.2%) underwent bilateral mastectomy. On pathology, 2 patients had bilateral in-situ disease, 6 had unilateral invasive and contralateral in-situ disease, and 13 had bilateral invasive disease. Of those with bilateral invasive disease, 10 (76.9%) had bilateral luminal tumors and, when fully characterized, 6 were of the same luminal subtype. Only 1 patient had bilateral basal-like breast cancer. At median follow-up of 8.2 years, 14 patients are alive with no recurrent disease. Bilateral breast cancer is uncommon among young women diagnosed with breast cancer at age ≤ 40. In our cohort, the majority of invasive tumors were of the luminal phenotype, though some differed by grade or HER2 status. These findings support the need for thorough pathologic workup of bilateral disease when it is found in young women with breast cancer to determine risk and tailor treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-11-27
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

ERCC3, a new ovarian cancer susceptibility gene?
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is an inherited disorder with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancers (OC). Mutations in BRCA1-BRCA2 explains less than a half of cases. In the last decade several genes with different penetrance have been associated with an increased risk of BC or OC. A recurrent heterozygous ERCC3 truncating mutation increases the risk for breast cancer in patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our study aimed to investigate the role of ERCC3 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with suspicion of HBOC. ERCC3 screening by multigene-panel analysis in 1311 unrelated patients after our regional consensus for genetic testing in hereditary cancer was done. In addition, 453 Spanish cancer-free individuals and 51,343 GnomAD non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as control populations. We identified 13 patients with heterozygous ERCC3 truncating variants (0.99%). Five of them also carried a mutation in a high- /moderate-penetrance HBOC gene (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53) being Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles syndrome (MINAS) patients. The frequency in 453 Spanish controls was of 0.22%; similar to that observed in 51,343 non-Finnish European GnomAD population (0.24%). We found an almost statistically significant association of truncating ERCC3 variants with BC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-5.93, P = 0.11), and we observed for the first time a significant association with OC (OR = 4.74, CI = 1-14.34, P = 0.028), that holds even after removing MINAS cases. To our knowledge, this is the largest HBOC series comprehensively analysed for ERCC3 mutations, and the first study identifying ERCC3 as a cancer risk for OC.
Publication Date: 2020-10-31
Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)

Under-ascertainment of breast cancer susceptibility gene carriers in a cohort of New Zealand female breast cancer patients.
Diagnostic screening for pathogenic variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, PTEN and TP53, may be offered to New Zealanders from suspected high-risk breast (and ovarian) cancer families. However, it is unknown how many high-risk pathogenic variant carriers in New Zealand are not offered genetic screening using existing triage tools and guidelines for breast (and ovarian) cancer patients. Panel-gene sequencing of the coding and non-coding regions of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and the coding regions and splice sites of CDH1, PALB2, PTEN and TP53, was undertaken for an unselected cohort of 367 female breast cancer patients. A total of 1685 variants were evaluated using the ENIGMA and the ACMG/AMP variant classification guidelines. Our study identified that 13 (3.5%) breast cancer patients carried a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, or PTEN. A significantly higher number of pathogenic variant carriers had grade 3 tumours (10/13) when compared to non-carriers; however, no other clinicopathological characteristics were found to be significantly different between (likely) pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers, nor between variant of unknown significance carriers and non-carriers. Notably, 46% of the identified (likely) pathogenic variant carriers had not been referred for a genetic assessment and consideration of genetic testing. Our study shows a potential under-ascertainment of women carrying a (likely) pathogenic variant in a high-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene. These results suggest that further research into testing pathways for New Zealand breast cancer patients may be required to reduce the impact of hereditary cancer syndromes for these individuals and their families.
Publication Date: 2020-10-29
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

Tumor sequencing is useful to refine the analysis of germline variants in unexplained high-risk breast cancer families.
Multigene panels are routinely used to assess for predisposing germline mutations in families at high breast cancer risk. The number of variants of unknown significance thereby identified increases with the number of sequenced genes. We aimed to determine whether tumor sequencing can help refine the analysis of germline variants based on second somatic genetic events in the same gene. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on whole blood DNA from 70 unrelated breast cancer patients referred for genetic testing and without a BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, or CHEK2 mutation. Rare variants were retained in a list of 735 genes. WES was performed on matched tumor DNA to identify somatic second hits (copy number alterations (CNAs) or mutations) in the same genes. Distinct methods (among which immunohistochemistry, mutational signatures, homologous recombination deficiency, and tumor mutation burden analyses) were used to further study the role of the variants in tumor development, as appropriate. Sixty-eight patients (97%) carried at least one germline variant (4.7 ± 2.0 variants per patient). Of the 329 variants, 55 (17%) presented a second hit in paired tumor tissue. Of these, 53 were CNAs, resulting in tumor enrichment (28 variants) or depletion (25 variants) of the germline variant. Eleven patients received variant disclosure, with clinical measures for five of them. Seven variants in breast cancer-predisposing genes were considered not implicated in oncogenesis. One patient presented significant tumor enrichment of a germline variant in the oncogene ERBB2, in vitro expression of which caused downstream signaling pathway activation. Tumor sequencing is a powerful approach to refine variant interpretation in cancer-predisposing genes in high-risk breast cancer patients. In this series, the strategy provided clinically relevant information for 11 out of 70 patients (16%), adapted to the considered gene and the familial clinical phenotype.
Publication Date: 2020-04-17
Journal: Breast cancer research : BCR

The Contribution of Germline Predisposition Gene Mutations to Clinical Subtypes of Invasive Breast Cancer From a Clinical Genetic Testing Cohort.
The germline cancer predisposition genes associated with increased risk of each clinical subtype of breast cancer, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2, are not well defined. A total of 54 555 invasive breast cancer patients with 56 480 breast tumors were subjected to clinical hereditary cancer multigene panel testing. Heterogeneity for predisposition genes across clinical breast cancer subtypes was assessed by comparing mutation frequencies by gene among tumor subtypes and by association studies between each tumor subtype and reference controls. Mutations in 15 cancer predisposition genes were detected in 8.6% of patients with ER+/HER2-; 8.9% with ER+/HER2+; 7.7% with ER-/HER2+; and 14.4% of ER-/PR-/HER2- tumors. BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, and PALB2 mutations were enriched in ER- and HER2- tumors; RAD51C and RAD51D mutations were enriched in ER- tumors only; TP53 mutations were enriched in HER2+ tumors, and ATM and CHEK2 mutations were enriched in both ER+ and/or HER2+ tumors. All genes were associated with moderate (odds ratio > 2.00) or strong (odds ratio > 5.00) risks of at least one subtype of breast cancer in case-control analyses. Mutations in ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53 had predicted lifetime absolute risks of at least 20.0% for breast cancer. Germline mutations in hereditary cancer panel genes confer subtype-specific risks of breast cancer. Combined tumor subtype, age at breast cancer diagnosis, and family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer information provides refined categorical estimates of mutation prevalence for women considering genetic testing.
Publication Date: 2020-02-25
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Germline Mutation in 1338 BRCA-Negative Chinese Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Patients: Clinical Testing with a Multigene Test Panel.
Differences in the mutation spectrum across ethnicities suggest the importance of identifying genes in addition to common high penetrant genes to estimate the associated breast cancer risk in China. A total of 1338 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PTEN mutations between 2007 and 2017 were selected from the Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry. Patient samples were subjected to next-generation DNA sequencing using a multigene panel (Color Genomics). All detected pathogenic variants were validated by bidirectional DNA sequencing. The sequencing data were coanalyzed by a bioinformatics pipeline developed in-house. Sixty-one pathogenic variants (4.6%) were identified in this cohort in 11 cancer predisposition genes. Most carriers (77.1%) had early onset of breast cancer (age <45 years), 32.8% had family members with breast cancer, and 11.5% had triple-negative breast cancer. The most common mutated genes were PALB2 (1.4%), RAD51D (0.8%), and ATM (0.8%). A total of 612 variants of unknown significance were identified in 494 patients, and 87.4% of the variants of unknown significance were missense mutations. Pathogenic variants in cancer predisposition genes beyond BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PTEN were detected in an additional 4.6% of patients using the multigene panel. PALB2 (1.4%) and RAD51D (0.8%) were the most commonly mutated genes in patients who tested mutation negative by a four-gene panel.
Publication Date: 2020-02-19
Journal: The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD

An Emerging Paradigm for Germline Testing in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and Immediate Implications for Clinical Practice: A Review.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a malignant neoplasm with a rising incidence and is a leading public health challenge. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has been well characterized genomically, with findings of therapeutic actionability that have substantive implications for clinical practice based on recent high-level evidence. Pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) are relatively common in individuals with PDAC, as evidenced in multiple recent data sets, with a frequency of approximately 10%. The most common PGAs are in BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM and more rarely in PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, CDKN2A, and TP53, among others, with an aggregate frequency of 3.8% to 9.7%. These PGAs are of key interest owing to therapeutic actionability and the downstream identification of at-risk family members and possible hereditary cancer syndromes. Approximately 3% to 7% of individuals with PDAC harbor a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, which are among the most frequently mutated genes in PDAC. Recent updates to the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend risk assessment for all individuals with PDAC irrespective of personal or family history or ethnicity. Treatment implications include the use of checkpoint inhibitor therapy for mismatch repair-deficient PDAC and the validation of poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) therapy as a maintenance strategy in platinum-sensitive PDAC. With increasing evidence and slow improvement of outcomes, PDAC has entered the era of precision medicine. Germline mutations have been identified in key genes with an aggregate frequency of 3.8% to 9.7%, several of which are therapeutically actionable with platinum, PARPi, and checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Potential therapeutic targets need to be actively sought and identified.
Publication Date: 2020-02-14
Journal: JAMA oncology