TP53 isoform junction reads based analysis in malignant and normal contexts.
TP53 is one of the most frequently altered genes in cancer; it can be inactivated by a number of different mechanisms. NM_000546.6 (ENST00000269305.9) is by far the predominant TP53 isoform, however a few other alternative isoforms have been described to be expressed at much lower levels. To better understand patterns of TP53 alternative isoforms expression in cancer and normal samples we performed exon-exon junction reads based analysis of TP53 isoforms using RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms have abolished or severely decreased tumor suppressor activity, and therefore, an increase in fraction of TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms may be expected in tumors with wild type TP53. Despite our expectation that there would be increase of fraction of TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms, we observed no substantial increase in fraction of TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms in TCGA tumors and CCLE cancer cell lines with wild type TP53, likely indicating that TP53 C-terminal alternative isoforms expression cannot be reliably selected for during tumor progression.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: Scientific reports
Complete disease remission in a
Lung cancer is the most common primary malignancy and tends to metastasize to the brain. A multimodal approach, including systematic therapy (targeted therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy) and local consolidative therapy (surgical intervention, radiation therapy, ablation therapy), is essential for treatment of oligometastatic lung cancer. The systemic immunotherapy has been shown to increase response rate and survival, which then has the potential benefit of making localized treatment more feasible for some cases of oligometastatic cancer. We present a 62-year-old male with stage IVB lung adenocarcinoma with five metastases in the brain. Molecular testing exhibited KRAS and TP53 co-mutation, with negative PD-L1 expression. The patient received six cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy plus pembrolizumab and minimally invasive lobectomy, followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and pembrolizumab. The patient achieved complete disease remission, with no sign of recurrence for 22 months post-treatment. Moreover, we investigated PD-L1 expression and infiltration of immunological cells in biopsy tissue and surgical specimen prior to and after immuno-chemotherapy using multiple immunohistochemistry stains. The different infiltration levels of immune cells for TP53 and KRAS co-mutation were also explored using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and Cell type Identification By Estimating Relative Subsets Of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which a brain oligometastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patient has achieved a complete response after immuno-chemotherapy plus local surgical resection.
Publication Date: 2021-06-25
Journal: Translational lung cancer research
TP53 Mutational Status-Based Genomic Signature for Prognosis and Predicting Therapeutic Response in Pancreatic Cancer.
TP53 mutation is a critical driver mutation that affects the carcinogenesis and prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Currently, there is no driver mutation-derived signature based on TP53 mutational status for prognosis and predicting therapeutic response in PC. In the present study, we characterized the TP53 mutational phenotypes in multiple patient cohorts and developed a prognostic TP53-associated signature based on differentially expressed genes between PC samples with mutated TP53 and wild-type TP53. Comprehensive investigations were carried out in prognostic stratification, genetic variation, immune cell infiltration, and efficacy prediction of chemotherapy and targeted therapy. We found that TP53 mutation commonly occurred as a survival-related driver mutation in PC. In total, 1,154 differentially expressed genes were found between two distinct TP53 mutational phenotypes. A five-gene TP53-associated signature was constructed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-Cox analysis and proven to be a robust prognostic predictor, which performed well in three independent Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) validating cohorts. Remarkably, patients in the low-risk group were characterized with decreased tumor mutation burden and activity of immunity, with favorable prognosis. Higher fractions of macrophages M0 and impaired CD8 + T cells were observed in patients in the high-risk group, suggesting immunosuppression with poor survival. Patients in the high-risk group also demonstrated enhanced response to specific chemotherapeutic agents, including gemcitabine and paclitaxel. Several targeted inhibitors, like histamine receptor inhibitor, were screened out as promising drugs for PC treatment. Collectively, the TP53-associated signature is a novel prognostic biomarker and predictive indicator of PC. The signature could contribute to optimizing prognostic stratification and guide effective PC treatments.
Publication Date: 2021-06-15
Journal: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Targeted DNA profiling and the prevalence of NTRK aberrations in Chinese patients with head and neck cancer.
Head and neck cancers are aggressive epithelial tumours that are recognised as being particularly challenging to treat. Here, we report the targeted DNA profiling and the prevalence of neurotrophic-tropomyosin receptor tyrosine kinase gene (NTRK) aberrations in Chinese patients with head and neck cancers.
Samples of 127 patients with head and neck cancer were retrospectively analysed. Profiling was performed by next-generation sequencing of the 1021-gene panel with tumour tissue and matched peripheral blood control samples.
This study was inspired by the outcome benefit of a parotid cancer patient harbouring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, who received crizotinib treatment and achieved a 2-year progression-free survival. Genomic profiling of 127 patients with head and neck cancers indicated that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene both in our cohort and in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A higher prevalence of NTRK genetic aberrations (7.9%, 10/127), including NTRK fusion (3.1%) and mutation, was observed in our population than in TCGA. The most common fusion was the ETV6-NTRK3. Compared to the NTRK-wt group, the NTRK aberration group had more APC and PTPRD aberrations (p < 0.05). NTRK fusion was also associated with lower tumour mutation burden (TMB) (p < 0.05). TP53 and LRP1B mutations were significantly associated with higher TMB (both p < 0.01), which may be potential markers of immunotherapy.
This is the first study to report targeted DNA profiling of Chinese patients with head and neck cancers. As NTRK genetic aberrations are more common in this Chinese population, the efficacy of NTRK inhibitors should be studied further.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Oral oncology
Eleven immune-gene pairs signature associated with TP53 predicting the overall survival of gastric cancer: a retrospective analysis of large sample and multicenter from public database.
Growing attention have been paid to the relationship between TP53 and tumor immunophenotype, but there are still lacking enough search on the field of gastric cancer (GC).
We identified differential expressed immune-related genes (DEIRGs) between the TP53-altered GC samples (n = 183) and without TP53-altered GC samples (n = 192) in The Cancer Genome Atlas and paired them. In the TCGA cohort (n = 350), a risk score was determined through univariate and multivariate cox regression and Lasso regression analysis. Patients were divided into two groups, high-risk and low-risk, based on the median risk score. Four independent cohorts (GSE84437,n = 431; GSE62254, n = 300; GSE15459, n = 191; GSE26901, n = 100) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to validate the reliability and universal applicability of the model.
The signature contained 11 gene pairs showed good performance in predicting progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), disease special survival (DSS), and the overall survival (OS) for GC patients in the TCGA cohort. The subgroup analysis showed that the signature was suitable for GC patients with different characteristics. The signature could capable of distinguish GC patients with good prognosis and poor prognosis in all four independent external validation cohorts. The high- and low-risk groups differed significantly in the proportion of several immune cell infiltration, especially for the T cells memory resting, T cells memory activated and follicular helper, and Macrophage M0, which was also related to the prognosis of GC patients.
The present work proposed an innovative system for evaluating the prognosis of gastric cancer. Considering its stability and general applicability, which may become a widely used tool in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2021-05-01
Journal: Journal of translational medicine
Cytoplasmic Pattern p53 Immunoexpression in Pelvic and Endometrial Carcinomas With TP53 Mutation Involving Nuclear Localization Domains: An Uncommon But Potential Diagnostic Pitfall With Clinical Implications.
A cytoplasmic pattern of p53 immunohistochemical expression has recently been reported in a rare subset of pelvic and endometrial cancers with a TP53 mutation involving domains affecting nuclear localization. This study reports the clinicopathologic features of 31 cases with a TP53 mutation involving nuclear localization, the largest study to date, emphasizing practical strategies for recognizing this uncommon variant and distinguishing it from the p53 wild-type pattern. The study also evaluates the prognostic significance of TP53 mutation involving nuclear localization in the ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Most of the 31 tumors were advanced stage pelvic or endometrial HGSC. All TP53 mutations were predicted to result in loss of function. The p53 overexpression pattern was present in 6 tumors; the p53 null pattern in 3 and the p53 cytoplasmic pattern in 22 tumors. The p53 cytoplasmic pattern predominantly consisted of weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining in >95% of tumor cells as well as variable intensity nuclear staining involving a range of just a few cells to just under 80% of tumor cells. The p53 cytoplasmic pattern was observed in 100% of tumors with TP53 mutation in the nuclear localization domain and in 33% to 44% of tumors with a mutation in the adjacent tetramerization domain or nuclear exclusion sequence (P<0.01). p16 immunoexpression was present in 74% of tumors. In The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian HGSC cohort, 9% of 471 nonredundant TP53-mutant cases had a nuclear localization domain, tetramerization domain, or nuclear exclusion sequence mutation but there was no significant difference in survival when compared to cases with TP53 mutation outside those domains (P>0.05). p53 cytoplasmic staining merits classification as an aberrant result despite coexisting nuclear staining that in some cases may resemble the p53 wild-type pattern. While positive p16 immunostaining may be of value to confirm diagnostically challenging cases of p53 cytoplasmic staining, a negative result is noninformative and molecular testing for TP53 mutation should be considered, if available.
Publication Date: 2021-04-27
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
Mucin 4 mutation is associated with tumor mutation burden and promotes antitumor immunity in colon cancer patients.
At present, immunotherapy is widely used for different mismatch repair (dMMR) or highly microsatellite instability (MSI-H) colorectal cancer patients, and tumor mutation burden (TMB) is a valuable independent predictor of response to immunotherapy. However, specific gene mutations and their relationship with TMB and tumor-infiltrating immune cells in colon cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we analyzed somatic mutation data of colon cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) datasets, and found that 17 frequently mutated genes were occurred in both cohorts, including APC, TP53, TNN, KRAS, MUC16, MUC4 (mucin 4), SYNE1, FLG, FAT4, OBSCN, FAT3, RYR2, PIK3CA, FBXW7, DNAH11, MUC5B and ZFHX4. Interestingly, only MUC4 mutation was associated with higher TMB and patient clinical prognosis among the 17 mutated genes. Moreover, according to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and the CIBERSORT algorithm, we revealed that MUC4 mutation activated signaling pathways involved in the immune system and enhanced the antitumor immune response. In conclusion, MUC4 may have important clinical implications for immune therapy of colon cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-03-15
Development of a poor-prognostic-mutations derived immune prognostic model for acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia cell-intrinsic somatic mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities have been used to define risk categories in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In addition, since the immune microenvironment might influence prognosis and somatic mutations have been demonstrated to modulate the immune microenvironment in AML, there is need for developing and evaluating an immune prognostic model (IPM) derived from mutations associated with poor prognosis. Based on AML cases with intermediate and adverse-cytogenetic risk in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, 64 immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among patients with RUNX1, TP53, or ASXL1 mutations and patients without these mutations were identified. After Cox proportional hazards analysis, an IPM composed of PYCARD and PEAR1 genes was constructed. IPM defined high-risk (IPM-HR) independently predicted lower 2-year overall survival (OS) rates in both patients with intermediate and adverse-cytogenetic risks and non-M3 patients in the TCGA AML cohort. The poor prognostic impact of IPM-HR on OS was further validated by GSE71014, 37642, and 10358 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Furthermore, IPM-HR was remarkably associated with higher proportions of CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), lower proportions of eosinophils, and higher expression of the checkpoint molecules CTLA-4, PD-1, and LAG3 in the TCGA non-M3 AML cohort. In summary, we developed and validated an IPM derived from mutations related with poor prognosis in AML, which would provide new biomarkers for patient stratification and personalized immunotherapy.
Publication Date: 2021-03-03
Journal: Scientific reports
Mutation profile of non-small cell lung cancer revealed by next generation sequencing.
Precision therapy for lung cancer requires comprehensive genomic analyses. Specific effects of targeted therapies have been reported in Asia populations, including Taiwanese, but genomic studies have rarely been performed in these populations.
We enrolled 72 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, of whom 61 had adenocarcinoma, 10 had squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 had combined adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Whole-exome or targeted gene sequencing was performed. To identify trunk mutations, we performed whole-exome sequencing in two tumor regions in four patients.
Nineteen known driver mutations in EGFR, PIK3CA, KRAS, CTNNB1, and MET were identified in 34 of the 72 tumors evaluated (47.22%). A comparison with the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that EGFR was mutated at a much higher frequency in our cohort than in Caucasians, whereas KRAS and TP53 mutations were found in only 5.56% and 25% of our Taiwanese patients, respectively. We also identified new mutations in ARID1A, ARID2, CDK12, CHEK2, GNAS, H3F3A, KDM6A, KMT2C, NOTCH1, RB1, RBM10, RUNX1, SETD2, SF3B1, SMARCA4, THRAP3, TP53, and ZMYM2. Moreover, all ClinVar pathogenic variants were trunk mutations present in two regions of a tumor. RNA sequencing revealed that the trunk or branch genes were expressed at similar levels among different tumor regions.
We identified novel variants potentially associated with lung cancer tumorigenesis. The specific mutation pattern in Taiwanese patients with non-small cell lung cancer may influence targeted therapies.
Publication Date: 2021-01-08
Journal: Respiratory research
A TP53-Associated Immune Prognostic Signature for the Prediction of Overall Survival and Therapeutic Responses in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.
TP53 gene mutation is one of the most common mutations in human bladder cancer (BC) and has been implicated in the progression and prognosis of BC.
RNA sequencing data and TP53 mutation data in different populations and platforms were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to determine and validate a TP53-associated immune prognostic signature (TIPS) based on differentially expressed immune-related genes (DEIGs) between muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients with and without TP53 mutations.
A total of 99 DEIGs were identified based on TP53 mutation status. TIPS including ORM1, PTHLH, and CTSE were developed and validated to identify high-risk prognostic group who had a poorer prognosis than low-risk prognostic group in TCGA and GEO database. The high-risk prognostic group were characterized by a higher abundance of regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages than the low-risk prognostic group. Moreover, they exhibited a lower abundance of CD56bright NK cells, higher expression of CTLA4, LAG3, PDCD1, TIGIT, and HAVCR2, as well as being more likely to respond to anti-PD-1, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy than the low-risk prognostic group. Based on TIPS and other clinical characteristics, a nomogram was constructed for clinical use.
TIPS derived from TP53 mutation status is a potential prognostic signature or therapeutic target but additional prospective studies are necessary to confirm this potential.
Publication Date: 2021-01-05
Journal: Frontiers in immunology
Alterations in TP53 Are a Potential Biomarker of Bladder Cancer Patients Who Benefit From Immune Checkpoint Inhibition.
In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting CTLA-4 or PD1/PDL1 have achieved remarkable success in the treatment of bladder cancer (BLCA), but only a few patients have shown durable clinical benefits. The prognostic role of a mutant form of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 (TP53-MT) in predicting the efficacy of ICIs is highly controversial; therefore, in this study, we obtained data for 210 patients from an immunotherapy cohort, 412 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-BLCA cohort and 18 BLCA cell lines from Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC), and we performed integrated bioinformatic analysis to explore the relationships between TP53-MT and clinical benefits derived from ICI treatment and the underlying mechanisms. We conclude that TP53-MT is a potential indicator of a relatively good response to ICIs and associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) (log-rank test, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-0.99], p = 0.041). Through integrated analysis with several platforms, we found that TP53-MT patients were more likely to benefit from ICIs than wild-type P53 (TP53-WT) patients, which may be the result of 2 major mechanisms. First, the patients with TP53-MT showed stronger tumor antigenicity and tumor antigen presentation, as indicated by a higher tumor mutational load, a higher neoantigen load and increased expression of MHC; second, the antitumor immunity preexisting in tumors was stronger in samples with TP53-MT than in those with TP53-WT, including enrichment of interferon-gamma, positive regulation of TNF secretion pathways and increased expression of some immunostimulatory molecules, such as CXCL9 and CXCL10. This study provided some clues for identifying patients who would potentially benefit from ICIs at the somatic genomic level, developing new indications for targeted second-generation sequencing and promoting the development of precision medicine.
Publication Date: 2020-12-29
Journal: Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Prognostic Biomarker TP53 Mutations for Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy and Its Association With Tumor Microenvironment of Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), is characterized by durable responses and improved survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is a lack of predictive biomarkers to optimize the use of ICIs in cancers. The clinical benefit of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) harboring TP53 mutations undergoing conventional treatments need to be optimized. Recently, studies indicated that TP53 mutations may be associated with improved survival in patients treated with ICIs. The immunotherapy cohort was used to estimate the association of TP53 mutations with the immune prognosis of LUAD. Genomic data were used to estimate the difference in immunogenicity and mutations in DNA damage repair (DDR). Clinical and genomic data were collected from patients with LUAD treated with ICIs and profiled using panel. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-LUAD cohort was used to distinguish the tumor microenvironment, mutational profiles, immunogenicity and DDR mutations between TP53-mutated and TP53-wild-type. In the MSKCC-LUAD cohort, TP53-mutated LUAD showed significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) (
Publication Date: 2020-12-18
Journal: Frontiers in molecular biosciences
Comprehensive assessment of TP53 loss of function using multiple combinatorial mutagenesis libraries.
The diagnosis of somatic and germline TP53 mutations in human tumors or in individuals prone to various types of cancer has now reached the clinic. To increase the accuracy of the prediction of TP53 variant pathogenicity, we gathered functional data from three independent large-scale saturation mutagenesis screening studies with experimental data for more than 10,000 TP53 variants performed in different settings (yeast or mammalian) and with different readouts (transcription, growth arrest or apoptosis). Correlation analysis and multidimensional scaling showed excellent agreement between all these variables. Furthermore, we found that some missense mutations localized in TP53 exons led to impaired TP53 splicing as shown by an analysis of the TP53 expression data from the cancer genome atlas. With the increasing availability of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data, it is essential to employ both protein and RNA prediction to accurately define variant pathogenicity.
Publication Date: 2020-11-25
Journal: Scientific reports
Genomic Landscape of Early-stage Colorectal Neoplasia Developing From the Ulcerative Colitis Mucosa in the Japanese Population.
Colorectal neoplasias (CRN)s developing from the ulcerative colitis (UC) mucosa include both colitic and sporadic neoplasias. Although several genomic analyses of advanced colitis-associated cancer are available, such studies do not distinguish between colitic and sporadic cases, and the early-stage genomic alterations involved in the onset of colitic cancer remain unclear. To address this, we performed a genomic analysis of early-stage CRN developing from the UC mucosa (CRNUC).
We extracted DNA from 36 early-stage CRNUCs (T1 cancer, 10; dysplasia, 26) from 32 UC patients and performed targeted sequencing of 43 genes commonly associated with colitis-associated cancer and compared the results with sequencing data from the Japanese invasive colitis-associated cancer.
The most frequently mutated gene in the CRNUC cohort was APC (mutated in 47.2% of the cases), followed by TP53 (44.4%), KRAS (27.8%), and PRKDC (27.8%). None of the TP53 mutations occurred at any of the hotspot codons. Although the TP53 mutations in The Cancer Genome Atlas of Colorectal Cancer were dispersed throughout the gene, those detected here in CRNUC cases were concentrated in the amino terminal part of the DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, the mutations in KRAS and TP53 were mutually exclusive in CRNUC, and CRNUCs with KRAS mutations had histologically serrated lesions in the gland duct. Mayo endoscopic subscore was higher in TP53-mutated CRNUCs and lower in KRAS-mutated CRNUCs.
Our findings suggest that early-stage CRNUC can be classified into 2 groups: those developing through the carcinogenic pathway via TP53 mutations and those developing through the carcinogenic pathway via KRAS mutations.
Publication Date: 2020-10-23
Journal: Inflammatory bowel diseases
Comprehensive Review of Numerical Chromosomal Aberrations in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Including Its Variant Morphologies.
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) accounts for 5% to 7% of all renal cell carcinomas. It was thought for many years that ChRCC exhibits a hypodiploid genome. Recent studies using advanced molecular genetics techniques have shown more complex and heterogenous pattern with frequent chromosomal gains. Historically, multiple losses of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 have been considered a genetic hallmark of ChRCC, both for classic and eosinophilic ChRCC variants. In the last 2 decades, multiple chromosomal gains in ChRCCs have also been documented, depicting a considerably broader genetic spectrum than previously thought. Studies of rare morphologic variants including ChRCC with pigmented microcystic adenomatoid/multicystic growth, ChRCC with neuroendocrine differentiation, ChRCC with papillary architecture, and renal oncocytoma-like variants also showed variable chromosomal numerical aberrations, including multiple losses (common), gains (less common), or chromosomal changes overlapping with renal oncocytoma. Although not the focus of the review, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data in ChRCC show TP53, PTEN, and CDKN2A to be the most mutated genes. Given the complexity of molecular genetic alterations in ChRCC, this review analyzed the existing published data, aiming to present a comprehensive up-to-date survey of the chromosomal abnormalities in classic ChRCC and its variants. The potential role of chromosomal numerical aberrations in the differential diagnostic evaluation may be limited, potentially owing to its high variability.
Publication Date: 2020-10-07
Journal: Advances in anatomic pathology
Immunogenic characteristics of microsatellite instability-low esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma based on clinicopathological, molecular, immunological and survival analyses.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is categorized by mutation frequency: high MSI (MSI-H), low MSI (MSI-L) and microsatellite stable (MSS). MSI-H tumors have a distinct immunogenic phenotype, with immunotherapies using checkpoint inhibitors already approved for the treatment of MSI-H gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA); this is not observed for MSI-L or MSS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that MSI-L tumors are also a distinct phenotype and potentially immunogenic. MSI-PCR assays (BAT25, BAT26, BAT40, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250) were performed on 363 Epstein-Barr virus-negative, surgically resected esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma samples. Tumors were characterized as MSI-H (≥2 markers), MSI-L (1 marker) or MSS (0 markers). CD8+ cell counts, PD-L1 and HER2 expression levels, TP53 mutations, epigenetic alterations and prognostic significance were also examined. All pathological and molecular experiments were conducted using serial, whole-tumor sections of chemo-naïve surgical specimens. MSI-H and MSI-L were assigned to 28 (7.7%) and 24 (6.6%) cases, respectively. Compared to MSS cases, MSI-L cases had significantly higher intratumoral CD8+ cell infiltration (P = .048) and favorable EGJ cancer-specific survival (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.12-0.82; P = .012). MSI-L tumors were also significantly associated with TP53-truncating mutations as compared to MSI-H (P = .009) and MSS (P = .012) cases, and this trend was also observed in GEA data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Indel mutational burden among TCGA MSI-L tumors was significantly higher than that of MSS tumors (P = .016). These results suggest that MSI-L tumors may have a distinct tumor phenotype and be potentially immunogenic in EGJ adenocarcinoma.
Publication Date: 2020-10-01
Journal: International journal of cancer
Identification of genomic alterations and associated transcriptomic profiling reveal the prognostic significance of MMP14 and PKM2 in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by multiple genomic alterations, including KRAS mutations, TP53 mutations and CDKN2A deletion. However, the prognostic relevance of those genomic alterations and associated transcriptomic profiling in pancreatic cancer are unclear. Integrated analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets revealed that KRAS mutation, TP53 mutation and CDKN2A deletion were all bad prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer. And KRAS mutation, TP53 mutation and CDKN2A deletion were coordinated and co-occurred in pancreatic cancer. Transcriptomic analysis showed that MMP14 and PKM2 were both up-regulated by KRAS mutation, TP53 mutation or CDKN2A deletion. Also, MMP14 and PKM2 were both associated with unfavorable outcomes in pancreatic cancer. Compared with normal tissues, MMP14 and PKM2 were up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues. Moreover, MMP14 and PKM2 were highly expressed in high grade of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, MMP14 and PKM2 were correlated with each other, and the combination of MMP14 and PKM2 could be used as better prognostic markers than MMP14 or PKM2 alone. At last, the high expression and bad prognostic effects of MMP14 and PKM2 in pancreatic cancer were validated using tissue microarray. Overall, the genomic alterations and associated transcriptomic profiling analysis suggested new prognostic makers of MMP14 and PKM2 in pancreatic cancer.
Publication Date: 2020-09-21
Development and Validation of a Novel TP53 Mutation Signature That Predicts Risk of Metastasis in Primary Prostate Cancer.
Prostate tumors with TP53 gene mutations are molecularly heterogenous, and the presence of TP53 gene mutations has been linked to inferior outcomes. We developed an RNA-based gene signature that detects underlying TP53 gene mutations and identifies wild-type prostate tumors that are analogous to TP53-mutant tumors.
Using genomic expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we developed a mutation signature score to predict prostatic tumors with a molecular fingerprint similar to tumors with TP53 mutations. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve assessed model accuracy in predicting TP53 mutations, and Cox regression models measured association between the signature and progression-free survival and metastasis-free survival (MFS).
The TP53 signature score achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.84 in the training and 0.82 in the validation cohorts for predicting an underlying mutation. In three retrospective cohorts, a high score was prognostic for poor 5-year MFS: 46% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 3.05; P < .0001; Johns Hopkins University cohort), 64% versus 83% (HR, 2.77; P < .0001; Mayo Clinic cohort), and 71% versus 97% (HR, 6.8; P = .0001; Brigham and Women's Hospital cohort). The signature also identified TP53 wild-type tumors molecularly analogous to TP53 mutant tumors, wherein high signature score correlated with worse 5-year MFS (50% vs. 82%; HR, 3.05; P < .0001).
This novel mutational signature predicted tumors with TP53 mutations, identified TP53 wild-type tumors analogous to mutant tumors, and was independently associated with poor MFS. This signature can therefore be used to strengthen existing clinical risk-stratification tools.
Publication Date: 2020-09-09
Journal: Clinical genitourinary cancer
Functionally impactful TP53 mutations are associated with increased risk of extranodal extension in clinically advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma.
The treatment of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a clinical challenge because it is unclear which therapeutic approaches are the best for this highly heterogeneous group of patients. Because TP53 mutations are the most common genetic event in these tumors, the authors investigated whether they could represent an ancillary biomarker in the management of advanced OSCC.
The TP53 gene was sequenced in 78 samples from patients with advanced OSCC who received treatment at 2 institutions located in the United States and Brazil. TP53 mutations were classified according to an in-silico impact score (the evolutionary action score of p53 [EAp53]), which identifies mutations that have greater alterations of p53 protein function (high-risk). Associations between TP53 mutation status/characteristics and clinicopathologic characteristics were investigated. The relevant findings were validated in silico by analyzing 197 samples from patients with advanced OSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas.
No differences in clinical outcomes were detected between patients with TP53-mutant and wild-type TP53 disease. However, patients who had tumors carrying high-risk TP53 mutations had a significantly increased risk of developing extranodal extension (ENE) compared with those who had wild-type TP53-bearing tumors. The increased chances of detecting ENE among patients who had high-risk TP53 mutations was validated among patients with advanced OSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort.
High-risk TP53 mutations are associated with an increased chance of detecting ENE in patients with advanced OSCC. Because ENE is 1 of the major factors considered for OSCC patient management, TP53 mutation status may represent a potential ancillary biomarker for treatment decisions regarding postoperative adjuvant therapy.
Publication Date: 2020-08-17
Biology of the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Immunohistochemical, RNA, and DNA Features.
The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes a heterogeneous disease with an aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. A better understanding of its biology is required to identify new biomarkers and improve clinical outcomes.
To date, the definition and classification of TNBC depends on a multiomic approach including immunohistochemistry (IHC), genomic, and transcriptomic features, and the tumor immune landscape. The development of new technologies has allowed us to sequence the whole cancer genome. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and next-generation sequencing have led to a greater knowledge of DNA alterations such as TP53 or BRCA mutations, copy number variations, and DNA methylations. In addition, gene expression profiling has allowed to define a molecular intrinsic classification of TNBC based on mRNA. IHC and genomic profiling are also necessary to identify new immune biomarkers such as the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the expression of immune checkpoint molecules.
This review aimed to provide recent knowledge of TNBC biology and classification focused on IHC, transcriptomics, genomic features, and the new immune biomarkers.
Publication Date: 2020-08-11
Journal: Breast care (Basel, Switzerland)