Somatostatin receptor 2 is highly sensitive and specific for Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Viruses are known drivers of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Both EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (EBVNPC) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC (OPSCC) can have overlapping histomorphology and molecular signatures, including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) pathway mutations. A recent study showed that NFKB activation in EBVNPC drives somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression that is detectable by immunohistochemistry and by imaging with 68-Gadolinium-DOTA-peptide radioconjugate. However, whether a similar NFKB-SSTR2 signaling mechanism exists for other virus-positive HNSCC, namely HPV-positive sinonasal carcinomas and OPSCC, remains unclear. Here we examined SSTR2 expression in a cohort of EBV-positive, HPV-positive, and virus-negative HNSCC with immunohistochemistry. SSTR2 immunohistochemistry was performed on our cohort of primary and/or metastatic EBVNPC, HPV-positive sinonasal SCC, OPSCC, HPV-negative sinonasal and oral cavity SCC, and benign tonsil and adenoid tissue. For SSTR2 staining, the extent was categorized as focal, multifocal, or diffuse, and the intensity was categorized as weak, moderate, or strong. Multifocal/diffuse SSTR2 staining of any intensity was considered positive. Among primary, recurrent, and/or undifferentiated NPC, 90% showed multifocal to diffuse strong SSTR2 expression. One HPV-positive sinonasal carcinoma showed patchy SSTR2 staining. None of the remaining HPV-positive sinonasal carcinomas, OPSCC, or oral cavity HNSCC showed significant SSTR2 staining. Overall, SSTR2 is highly sensitive and specific for EBVNPC and could represent a surrogate biomarker. Among HNSCC assessed here, we recommend testing primary NPC for SSTR2 because of its relevance for diagnosis, associated imaging modalities, and its therapeutic implications for patient care.
Publication Date: 2021-08-21
Journal: Human pathology
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Modulates Postoperative Pain by Regulating Biochemical and Molecular Pathways.
Treating postoperative (PO) pain is a clinical challenge. Inadequate PO pain management can lead to worse outcomes, for example chronic post-surgical pain. Therefore, acquiring new information on the PO pain mechanism would increase the therapeutic options available. In this paper, we evaluated the role of a natural substance, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on pain and neuroinflammation induced by a surgical procedure in an animal model of PO pain. We performed an incision of the hind paw and EGCG was administered for five days. Mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and motor dysfunction were assessed 24 h, and three and five days after surgery. At the same time points, animals were sacrificed, and sera and lumbar spinal cord tissues were harvested for molecular analysis. EGCG administration significantly alleviated hyperalgesia and allodynia, and reduced motor disfunction. From the molecular point of view, EGCG reduced the activation of the WNT pathway, reducing WNT3a, cysteine-rich domain frizzled (FZ)1 and FZ8 expressions, and both cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin expression, and the noncanonical β-catenin-independent signaling pathways, reducing the activation of the NMDA receptor subtype NR2B (pNR2B), pPKC and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) expressions at all time points. Additionally, EGCG reduced spinal astrocytes and microglia activation, cytokines overexpression and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) pathway, downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Thus, EGCG administration managing the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathways modulates PO pain related neurochemical and inflammatory alterations.
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
Mechanisms Mediating Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Delta-Tocotrienol and Tart Cherry Anthocyanins in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
Chronic low-grade inflammation is a primary characteristic of obesity and can lead to other metabolic complications including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several anti-inflammatory dietary bioactives decrease inflammation that accompanies metabolic diseases. We are specifically interested in delta-tocotrienol, (DT3) an isomer of vitamin E, and tart cherry anthocyanins (TCA), both of which possess individual anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously demonstrated that DT3 and TCA, individually, reduced systemic and adipose tissue inflammation in rodent models of obesity. However, whether these compounds have combinatorial effects has not been determined yet. Hence, we hypothesize that a combined treatment of DT3 and TCA will have great effects in reducing inflammation in adipocytes, and that these effects are mediated via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), a major inflammatory transcription factor. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and treated them with 1-5 µM doses of DT3 along with tart cherry containing 18-36 µg anthocyanin/mL, to assess effects on inflammation. Neither DT3 nor TCA, nor their combinations had toxic effects on adipocytes. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and p-65 (subunit of NFkB) were reduced at the protein level in media collected from adipocytes with both individual and combined treatments. Additionally, other downstream targets of NFkB including macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (
Publication Date: 2020-11-05
Effects of restraint stress on the regulation of hippocampal glutamate receptor and inflammation genes in female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.
The two strains of inbred mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6, are widely used in pre-clinical psychiatry research due to their differences in stress susceptibility. Gene profiling studies in these strains have implicated the inflammation pathway as the main contributor to these differences. We focused our attention on female mice and tested their response to 5- or 10-day exposure to restraint stress. We examined the stress induced changes in the regulation of 11 inflammatory cytokine genes and 12 glutamate receptor genes in the hippocampus of female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated proinflammatory cytokine genes include Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFa), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB), Interleukin 1 alpha (IL1a), Interleukin 1 receptor (IL1R), Interleukin 10 receptor alpha subunit (IL10Ra), Interleukin 10 receptor beta subunit (IL10Rb), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members. Our results show that BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice differ in the genes induced in response to stress exposure and the level of gene regulation change. Our results show that the gene regulation in female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice differs between strains in the genes regulated and the magnitude of the changes.
Publication Date: 2019-06-14
Journal: Neurobiology of stress
The Effect of Race Training on the Basal Gene Expression of Alveolar Macrophages Derived From Standardbred Racehorses.
Mild-to-moderate equine asthma is prevalent in young racehorses, particularly early in their training period. Although the precise etiopathogenesis remains undetermined, it is possible that the susceptibility of this population might partly reflect an exercise-associated immune derangement at the level of the airway. We performed a genome-wide basal gene expression scan on alveolar macrophages (AMs) isolated from Standardbred racehorses before and after commencement of competition race training with a view to identifying any exercise-associated gene expression modulation consistent with functional alterations, which might reflect training-associated immunological derangement. Microarray technology was used to analyze the basal gene expression profiles of bronchoalveolar fluid-derived AMs, harvested from six systemically healthy Standardbred racehorses before (T0) and after (T1) entry into training. In addition, AM lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α and IL-10 release at T0 and T1 was assessed. Although the data revealed significant interhorse heterogeneity in relation to the magnitude of individual gene expression at each timepoint, within each horse, several inflammatory-related genes [e.g., chemokine ligands, interferons, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB)] declined in expression from T0 to T1. Entry into training did not significantly alter AM LPS-induced TNF-α or IL-10 release. The data support a direct effect of training on AM basal gene expression, particularly with respect to immune-related genes. The pattern of training-associated differential gene expression may indicate relative downregulation of inflammatory-related genes, consistent with an immunosuppressive effect of training and an increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens.
Publication Date: 2019-04-20
Journal: Journal of equine veterinary science
Sulfasalazine reduces placental secretion of antiangiogenic factors, up-regulates the secretion of placental growth factor and rescues endothelial dysfunction.
Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy with no medical treatment. It is associated with placental oxidative stress, hypoxia and inflammation leading to soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sENG) secretion and reduced placental growth factor (PlGF). This results in widespread endothelial dysfunction causing hypertension and multisystem organ injury. Sulfasalazine is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medication used to treat autoimmune disease. Importantly, it is safe in pregnancy. We examined the potential of sulfasalazine to quench antiangiogenic factors and endothelial dysfunction and increase angiogenic factor secretion.
We performed functional experiments using primary human pregnancy tissues to examine the effects of sulfasalazine on sFlt-1, sENG and PlGF secretion. Sulfasalazine is known to inhibit nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and upregulate heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) thus we explored the effect of these transcription factors on sFlt-1 secretion from human cytotrophoblasts. We examined the ability of sulfasalazine to reduce key markers of endothelial dysfunction and dilate whole blood vessels.
We demonstrate sulfasalazine administration reduces sFlt-1 and sENG and upregulates PlGF secretion from human placental tissues. Furthermore sulfasalazine mitigates endothelial dysfunction in several in vitro/ex vivo assays. It enhanced endothelial cell migration and proliferation, promoted blood vessel dilation (vessels obtained from women at caesarean section) and angiogenic sprouting from whole blood vessel rings. The effect of sulfasalazine on the secretion of sFlt-1 was not mediated through either the NFkB or HO-1 pathways.
We conclude that sulfasalazine reduces sFlt-1 and sENG secretion and endothelial dysfunction and upregulates PlGF. Sulfasalazine has potential to treat or prevent preeclampsia and warrants investigation in clinical trials.
This work was funded by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC; #1048707, #1046484. #1101871, #1064845), an Arthur Wilson RANZCOG scholarship and a Norman Beischer Medical Research Foundation grant. FB was supported by a NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (NHMRC #1142636). NJH was supported by a CR Roper Research Fellowship. The NHMRC provided salary support (#1136418 to ST #1062418 to TKL, #1064845 to SS). The funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish or the preparation of the manuscript.
Publication Date: 2019-03-03
Effect-based assessment of recipient waters impacted by on-site, small scale, and large scale waste water treatment facilities - combining passive sampling with in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis.
Waste water treatment facilities are a major sources of organic micropollutants (MPs) in surface water. In this study, surface water samples were collected from seven sites along a river system in Uppsala, Sweden, during four seasons and evaluated based on the occurrence of MPs in the samples and bioactivity using in vitro bioassays. The sampling sites were differentially impacted by on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), small scale, and large scale waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). The bioassays used included activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and androgen receptor (AR). Occurrence of 80 MPs, were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Most water samples induced AhR activity, and all sampling sites showed a similar profile regarding this activity. With the exception of one water sample, we did not detect any NFkB, Nrf2 or AR activity of the water samples. The exception was a sample impacted by OSSFs, which showed an activity in multiple bioassays, but the activity could not be explained by the occurrence of target MPs. The occurrence of MPs showed a spatial trend, with the highest number and amount of MPs detected in the samples collected downstream of the WWTPs, where up to 47 MPs were detected in one single sample. A seasonal variation was observed with highest levels of MPs and highest AhR activities in samples collected in June and September 2015. However, neither the seasonal activity nor the on-site activity could be explained by the measured MPs, suggesting unknown contributory agents in the water.
Publication Date: 2018-11-23
Journal: Scientific reports
MTOR Suppresses Environmental Particle-Induced Inflammatory Response in Macrophages.
Increasing toxicological and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) could cause adverse health effects including inflammation in the lung. Alveolar macrophages represent a major type of innate immune responses to foreign substances. However, the detailed mechanisms of inflammatory responses induced by PM exposure in macrophages are still unclear. We observed that coarse PM treatment rapidly activated mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) in mouse alveolar macrophages in vivo, and in cultured mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and RAW264.7 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockdown of MTOR in bone marrow-derived macrophages leads to an amplified cytokine production upon PM exposure, and mice with specific knockdown of MTOR or ras homolog enriched in brain in myeloid cells exhibit significantly aggregated airway inflammation. Mechanistically, PM activated MTOR through modulation of ERK, AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, and tuberous sclerosis complex signals, whereas MTOR deficiency further enhanced the PM-induced necroptosis and activation of subsequent NF κ light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) signaling. Inhibition of necroptosis or NFKB pathways significantly ameliorated PM-induced inflammatory response in MTOR-deficient macrophages. The present study thus demonstrates that MTOR serves as an early adaptive signal that suppresses the PM-induced necroptosis, NFKB activation, and inflammatory response in lung macrophages, and suggests that activation of MTOR or inhibition of necroptosis in macrophages may represent novel therapeutic strategies for PM-related airway disorders.
Publication Date: 2018-03-23
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Cellular and behavioral effects of lipopolysaccharide treatment are dependent upon neurokinin-1 receptor activation.
Several psychiatric conditions are affected by neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) plays a major role in inflammation and innate immunity. The neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is the primary endogenous target of the neuroactive peptide substance P, and some data suggests that NK1R stimulation may influence NFkB activity. Both NK1R and NFkB have been shown to play a functional role in complex behaviors including stress responsivity, depression, and addiction. In this study, we test whether NFkB activity in the brain (stimulated by lipopolysaccharide administration) is dependent upon the NK1R.
Adult male Wistar rats were treated systemically with the NK1R antagonist L822429 followed by administration of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a strong activator of NFkB). Hippocampal extracts were used to assess expression of proinflammatory cytokines and NFkB-DNA-binding potential. For behavioral studies, rats were trained to consume 1% (w/v) sucrose solution in a continuous access two-bottle choice model. After establishment of baseline, animals were treated with L822429 and LPS and sucrose preference was measured 12 h post-treatment.
Systemic LPS treatment causes a significant increase in proinflammatory cytokine expression and NFkB-DNA-binding activity within the hippocampus. These increases are attenuated by systemic pretreatment with the NK1R antagonist L822429. Systemic LPS treatment also led to the development of anhedonic-like behavior, evidenced by decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test. This behavior was significantly attenuated by systemic pretreatment with the NK1R antagonist L822429.
Systemic LPS treatment induced significant increases in NFkB activity, evidenced by increased NFkB-DNA binding and by increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus. LPS also induced anhedonic-like behavior. Both the molecular and behavioral effects of LPS treatment were significantly attenuated by systemic NK1R antagonism, suggesting that NK1R stimulation lies upstream of NFkB activation following systemic LPS administration and is at least in part responsible for NFkB activation.
Publication Date: 2018-03-01
Journal: Journal of neuroinflammation
Evidence for a Pan-Neurodegenerative Disease Response in Huntington's and Parkinson's Disease Expression Profiles.
Huntington's and Parkinson's Diseases (HD and PD) are neurodegenerative disorders that share some pathological features but are disparate in others. For example, while both diseases are marked by aberrant protein aggregation in the brain, the specific proteins that aggregate and types of neurons affected differ. A better understanding of the molecular similarities and differences between these two diseases may lead to a more complete mechanistic picture of both the individual diseases and the neurodegenerative process in general. We sought to characterize the common transcriptional signature of HD and PD as well as genes uniquely implicated in each of these diseases using mRNA-Seq data from post mortem human brains in comparison to neuropathologically normal controls. The enriched biological pathways implicated by HD differentially expressed genes show remarkable consistency with those for PD differentially expressed genes and implicate the common biological processes of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuron-associated functions. Comparison of the differentially expressed (DE) genes highlights a set of consistently altered genes that span both diseases. In particular, processes involving nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are the most prominent among the genes common to HD and PD. When the combined HD and PD data are compared to controls, relatively few additional biological processes emerge as significantly enriched, suggesting that most pathways are independently seen within each disorder. Despite showing comparable numbers of DE genes, DE genes unique to HD are enriched in far more coherent biological processes than the DE genes unique to PD, suggesting that PD may represent a more heterogeneous disorder. The complexity of the biological processes implicated by this analysis provides impetus for the development of better experimental models to validate the results.
Publication Date: 2018-01-30
Journal: Frontiers in molecular neuroscience
Bioinformatic analysis of pivotal genes associated with septic shock.
We aimed to identify important genes associated with septic shock and then explore the possibly significant mechanisms of this disease. We downloaded GSE26440 expression data of samples from 98 children with septic shock and 32 normal controls from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in samples from patients with septic shock were analyzed in comparison with those in samples from normal controls using a limma package. Functional enrichment analysis for DEGs was performed using DAVID, and a proteinprotein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Upstream transcription factors for DEGs were predicted using the CHIPBase database, and a transcriptional regulation network was constructed. A total of 383 significantly DEGs, including 141 downregulated and 242 upregulated genes, were obtained in the sepsis shock group compared with the normal group. The top five nodes in the PPI network were lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B), histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), V-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), heat-shock protein 90 kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1 (HSP90AB1), and poly (A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1). Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) was the transcription factor targeted by most genes, and it regulated the expression of KDM6B, HDAC2, MYC, HSP90AB1, and PABPC1. In conclusion, KDM6B, HDAC2, MYC, HSP90AB1, and PABPC1 may play important roles in the development of septic shock. Furthermore, NFκB may be involved in septic shock by regulating the expression of KDM6B, HDAC2, MYC, HSP90AB1, and PABPC1.
Publication Date: 2017-12-20
Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
Lipopolysaccharide induced Interleukin-6 production is mediated through activation of ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK, MEK, and NFκB in chicken thrombocytes.
Thrombocytes express Toll-like receptor 4 and apparently use both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) pathways for nuclear signaling. However, it is not well known if the same enzyme systems found in mammalian cells are fully functional in chickens. Therefore, kinase inhibitors were used with thrombocytes to block kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells to determine if interleukin (IL)-6 expression and production would be diminished. Results demonstrated that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways influence gene expression of IL-6 through treatment with either ERK or p38 MAPK inhibitor. In addition, thrombocyte lysates from cells treated with ERK, p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase (IKK) inhibitor showed different levels of the phosphorylated form of ERK1/2, p38 and NFκB. Furthermore, IL-6 gene expression and production were significantly upregulated in LPS stimulated thrombocytes relative to all inhibitor-treated cells.
Publication Date: 2017-03-28
Journal: Developmental and comparative immunology
Effects of very-low-calorie diet on body composition, metabolic state, and genes expression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Very low-calorie diets (VLCDs, < 800 kcal day-1) and Ketogenic diet (KD) are generally used as part of integrated intervention, medical monitoring and a program of lifestyle modification, to improve a multitude of clinical states. The effect of three different very low calories KD (VLCKD), with (VLCKD1) or without (VLCKD2,3) synthetic amino acid replacement of the 50% protein intake, were analyzed after weight loss.
The clinical study used a cross-over randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Obese subjects, who were eligible for the study, were randomly (R) divided into three groups: one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1 and CG2). We comprehensively analyzed body composition, serum metabolites, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NfKB), Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) gene expression.
After VLDKDs a significant decreased in BMI was observed. TBF (kg) significantly decrease after VLCKD1 and VLCKD3. After VLCKD2, a reduction of waist circumference (p = 0.02), FM L2-L5 (p < 0.05) was observed. After VLCKD1 reduction of IMAT (p = 0.00), LDL-C (p = 0.00) and HDL-C (p = 0.00) were observed. No significant changes of GH, ESR, and fibrinogen were highlighted. CRP (p = 0.02) reduced significantly after VLCKD3. Significant modulation of SOD1 expression (p = 0.009), CRP and decrease of glucose levels (p = 0.03) were obtained after VLCKD3.
This is the first study that analyzes comprehensively body composition, metabolic profile, and inflammation and oxidative stress genes expression after VLCKD. Our results show the efficacy of VLCKD with synthetic aminoacidic protein replacement, for the reduction of cardiovascular risk, without the development of sarcopenia and activation of inflammatory and oxidative processes.
Publication Date: 2017-02-07
Journal: European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
Blockage of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and upregulation of let 7b are critically involved in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma cell.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPN), which is caused by asbestos exposure, is one of aggressive lung tumors. In the present study, we elucidated the anti-tumor mechanism of ursolic acid in malignant mesotheliomas. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity in a time and dose dependent manner in H28, H2452 and MSTO-211H mesothelioma cells and inhibited cell proliferation by colony formation assay in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, ursolic acid treatment accumulated the sub-G1 population, attenuated the expression of procapase 9, cyclin D1, pAKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha/beta (pGSK3α/β), β-catenin and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and also cleaved caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mesothelioma cells. Furthermore, ursolic acid treatment blocked epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules by activating E-cadherin as an epithelial marker and attenuating Vimentin, and Twist as mesenchymal molecules. Interestingly, miRNA array revealed that 23 miRNAs (>2 folds) including let-7b and miRNA3613-5p, miRNA134 and miRNA196b were significantly upregulated while 33 miRNAs were downregulated in ursolic acid treated H2452 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of let 7b using let-7b mimics enhanced the antitumor effect of ursolic acid to attenuate the expression of procaspases 3, pro-PARP, pAKT, β-catenin and Twist and increase sub-G1 accumulation in H2452 mesothelioma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via inhibition of EMT and activation of let7b in mesothelioma cells as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of malignant mesotheliomas.
Publication Date: 2017-01-17
Journal: International journal of biological sciences
The Role of NFkB in Drug Addiction: Beyond Inflammation.
Nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor well known for its role in the innate immune response. As such, NFkB is a transcriptional activator of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. It has recently been demonstrated that alcohol and other drugs of abuse can induce NFkB activity and cytokine expression in the brain. A number of reviews have been published highlighting this effect of alcohol, and have linked increased NFkB function to neuroimmune-stimulated toxicity. However, in this review we focus on the potentially non-immune functions of NFkB as possible links between NFkB and addiction.
An extensive review of the literature via Pubmed searches was used to assess the current state of the field.
NFkB can induce the expression of a diverse set of gene targets besides inflammatory mediators, some of which are involved in addictive processes, such as opioid receptors and neuropeptides. NFkB mediates complex behaviors including learning and memory, stress responses, anhedonia and drug reward, processes that may lie outside the role of NFkB in the classic neuroimmune response.
Future studies should focus on these non-immune functions of NFkB signaling and their association with addiction-related processes.
Publication Date: 2017-01-04
Journal: Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire)
A functional variant of TLR10 modifies the activity of NFkB and may help predict a worse prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members are key players in inflammation. TLR10 has been poorly studied in chronic inflammatory disorders, and its clinical relevance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is as yet unknown. We aimed at identifying TLR10 variants within all coding regions of the gene in patients with RA as well as studying their functional and clinical significance.
TLR10 gene variants were studied by performing sequencing of 66 patients with RA and 30 control subjects. A selected variant, I473T, was then analyzed in 1654 patients and 1702 healthy control subjects. The capacity of this TLR10 variant to modify the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) was determined by using a luciferase reporter assay and analyzing the expression of NFkB target genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Differences between groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney U test and the unpaired two-tailed Student's t test.
We detected ten missense variants in the TLR10 gene and focused on the I473T substitution based on allele frequencies and the predicted functional impact. I473T variant is not associated with susceptibility to RA, but it significantly correlates with erosive disease in patients seropositive for antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (p = 0.017 in the total cohort and p = 0.0049 in female patients) and with a lower response to infliximab treatment as measured by the change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (p = 0.012) and by the European League Against Rheumatism criteria (p = 0.049). Functional studies showed that TLR10 reduced activation of the NFkB inflammatory pathway in hematopoietic cells, whereas the I473T variant lacked this inhibitory capacity. Consistently, after exposure to infliximab, cells expressing the I437T variant showed higher NFkB activity than cells carrying wild-type TLR10.
A TLR10 allelic variant, I473T, has impaired NFkB inhibitory activity and is highly associated with disease severity and low response to infliximab in patients with RA.
Publication Date: 2016-10-08
Journal: Arthritis research & therapy
A Novel Mutation in the DNA Binding Domain of NFKB is Associated with Speckled Leukoplakia.
Activation and inactivation of nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB) is tightly regulated to ensure effective onset and cessation of defensive inflammatory signaling. However, mutations within NFKB, or change in activation and inactivation molecules have been reported in a few cancers. Although oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in India, with a development associated with malignant transformation of precancerous lesions, the genetic status of NFKB and relative rates of change in oral precancerous lesions remain unknown. Hence in the present study we investigated all twenty four exons of NFKB gene in two precancerous lesions, namely oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral leukoplakia (OL) to understand its occurrence, incidence and assess its possible contribution to malignant transformation.
Chromosomal DNA isolated from twenty five each of OSMF and OL tissue biopsy samples were subjected to PCR amplification with intronic primers flanking twenty four exons of the NFKB gene. The PCR amplicons were subsequently subjected to direct sequencing to elucidate the mutation status.
Sequence analysis identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.419T>A causing substitution of leucine with glutamine at codon 140 (L140Q) in an OL sample.
The identification of a substitution mutation L140Q within the DNA binding domain of NFKB in OL suggests that NFKB mutation may be relatively an early event during transformation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to have identified a missense mutation in NFKB in OL.
Publication Date: 2016-08-12
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
Central role for protein kinase C in oxytocin and epidermal growth factor stimulated cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human myometrial cells.
Prostaglandins are important mediators of uterine contractility and cervical ripening during labour. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, is a rate limiting enzyme involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins at parturition. In this paper, the pathways underlying agonist-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human myometrial cells were studied.
Myometrial cells were stimulated with different agonists: oxytocin (OXT), epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin-1β (IL1β), and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) alone and in the presence of specific signalling pathway inhibitors. The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) pathway was inhibited by means of the IKK-2 inhibitor TPCA-1. Signalling through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) was inhibited using the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD-184352. Bisindolylmaleimide-I was used to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) signalling. COX-2 expression and ERK phosphorylation were measured using immunoblotting.OXT induced COX-2 expression by activating PKC and ERK. EGF increased COX-2 expression via stimulation of PKC, ERK and NFKB. As expected, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1β induced COX-2 expression by activating PKC- and NFKB-dependent pathways. Stimulation of PKC directly with PMA provoked strong COX-2 expression.
PKC plays a central role in OXT and EGF induced COX-2 expression in human myometrial cells. However, other pathways, notably ERK and NFKB are also involved to an extent which depends on the type of agonist used.
Publication Date: 2014-06-12
Journal: BMC research notes
Differences in irradiated lung gene transcription between fibrosis-prone C57BL/6NHsd and fibrosis-resistant C3H/HeNHsd mice.
We compared pulmonary irradiation-induced whole-lung, gene transcripts over 200 days after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation in female fibrosis-prone C57BL/6NHsd mice with fibrosis-resistant C3H/HeNHsd mice.
Lung specimens were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) and changes over time in representative gene transcript levels were correlated with protein levels using western blot.
C3H/HeNHsd mice showed a significantly longer duration of elevation of gene transcripts for stress-response genes nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nfkb), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), transcription factor SP1 (SP1), activator protein 1 (AP1), radioprotection gene manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2), and endothelial cell-associated genes von Willebrand factor (Vwf) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf). C57BL/6NHsd mice showed acute elevation then down-regulation and a second elevation in gene transcripts for Nfkb, connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (Igfbp7), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) Ctgf, Igfbp7, Tnfa, collagen 1a, and toll like receptor 4 (Tlr4). There were reciprocal patterns of elevation and decrease in levels of transcripts for epigenetic reader proteins bromodomain coding protein 1 (Brd1)Brd2,-3, and -4 between mouse strains.
Regulatory pathways linked to radiation pulmonary fibrosis may identify new targets for mitigators of radiation-induced fibrosis.
Publication Date: 2014-03-19
Journal: In vivo (Athens, Greece)
A comprehensive metabolic modeling of thyroid pathway in relation to thyroid pathophysiology and therapeutics.
The thyroid pathway represents a complex interaction of different glands for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrotropin releasing hormone is synthesized in the hypothalamus and regulates thyrotropin stimulating hormone gene expression in the pituitary gland. In order to understand the complexity of the thyroid pathways, and using experimental data retrieved from the biomedical literature (e.g., NCBI, HuGE Navigator, Protein Data Bank, and KEGG), we constructed a metabolic map of the thyroid hormone pathway at a molecular level and analyzed it topologically. A total of five hub nodes were predicted in regards to the transcription thyroid receptor (TR), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), and activator protein 1 (AP-1) as being potentially important in study of thyroid disorders and as novel putative therapeutic drug targets. Notably, the thyroid receptor is a highly connected hub node and currently used as a therapeutic target in hypothyroidism. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive description of the thyroid pathway, which pertains to understanding the function of the protein and gene interaction networks. The findings from this study are therefore informative for pathophysiology and rational therapeutics of thyroid disorders.
Publication Date: 2013-09-21
Journal: Omics : a journal of integrative biology