Aberrant PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 expression in human scalp and face angiosarcoma.
Angiosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor originating from endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels. The molecular mechanisms of scalp and face angiosarcoma still need to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-like protein (pMAPK), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in scalp and face angiosarcoma and to assess tumor tissue apoptosis.The expression and intracellular distribution of PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 proteins in 21 specimens of human scalp and face angiosarcoma and 16 specimens of human benign hemangioma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.Significantly lower PTEN but higher PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 immunostaining were detected in the angiosarcoma specimens than in the benign hemangioma specimens(P < .01). The angiosarcoma tissues exhibited significantly higher apoptosis indices than the benign hemangioma tissues (P < .01). The positive expression rates of PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 were correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation in the human scalp and face angiosarcoma.The PI3K, MAPK, and TP53 pathways might be involved in angiosarcoma tumorigenesis in humans and may serve as therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of this malignancy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
[Genome research project detected TP53mutation in a girl with rhabdomyosarcoma].
In this case report, a germ line genome project identified a pathogenic variant in TP53 in a three-year-old girl diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma. The variant causes the cancer predisposition syndrome Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). The girl's family was genetically counselled, and the same variant was identified in her mother and sister. The family was afterwards offered surveillance according to national guidelines. With this report, we want to focus on cancer predisposition syndromes and to discuss the benefits regarding surveillance of children with LFS.
Publication Date: 2021-08-12
Journal: Ugeskrift for laeger
TP53 Mutation and Extraneural Metastasis of Glioblastoma: Insights From an Institutional Experience and Comprehensive Literature Review.
Extraneural metastases of glioblastoma (GBM), although rare, are becoming an increasingly recognized occurrence. Currently, the biological mechanism underlying this rare occurrence is not understood. To explore the potential genomic drivers of extraneural metastasis in GBM, we present the molecular features of 4 extraneural metastatic GBMs, along with a comprehensive review and analysis of previously reported cases that had available molecular characterization. In addition to our 4 cases, 42 patients from 35 publications are reviewed. To compare the molecular profiles between GBM cases with extraneural metastasis and the general GBM population, genomic data from GBM samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were also analyzed. We found that 64.5% (20/31) of the cases with extraneural metastasis that were tested for TP53 changes had at least 1 TP53 pathogenic variant detected in either 1 or both primary and metastatic tumors. In contrast, TP53 mutation was significantly less frequent in the unselected GBM from TCGA (22.6%, 56/248) (P=0.000). In addition, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation was more common in unselected TCGA GBM cases (48.6%, 170/350) than in cases with extraneural metastasis (31.8%, 7/22), although not statistically significant. Although isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is a rare occurrence in high-grade astrocytomas, IDH-mutant grade 4 astrocytomas are at least as likely to metastasize as IDH wild-type GBMs; 3 metastatic cases definitively harbored an IDH1 (p.R132H) mutation in our analysis. Our findings not only provide potential biomarkers for earlier screening of extraneural metastasis, but could also suggest clues to understanding biological mechanisms underlying GBM metastasis, and for the development of therapeutic modalities.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
Retrospective analysis of eleven gene mutations, PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
To investigate the associations among expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), eleven mutated genes, and clinicopathological characteristics in 273 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We retrospectively examined tumor PD-L1 expression in 247 surgically resected primary and 26 advanced NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry using SP263 antibody assay. Gene mutations of EGFR, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB2, MET, RET, ALK, BRAF, ROS1, and APC were examined by NGS sequence. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 22.0. The associations among PD-L1 expression, eleven mutated genes and clinicopathological characteristics were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis.
Among the total 273 patients, 68 (24.9%) patients were positive for PD-L1 expression. Data showed that mutated rate of EGFR gene was the highest with 63.0% (172/273), followed by TP53 (11.7%, 32/273) and KRAS (5.5%, 15/273). The female, non-smoker, and patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC) were more likely to have EGFR mutations. Multivariate logistic regression showed that PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with Non-ADC, lymphatic invasion, EGFR wild type and TP53 mutation (p = 0.041, <0.001, 0.004 and 0.014, respectively). Moreover, PD-L1 expression in adenocarcinoma was associated with lymphatic invasion, mutation of TP53 and KRAS gene (p = 0.012, <0.025 and 0.041, respectively).
Mutations of EGFR, KRAS and TP53 should be routinely detected in clinical practice to better guide the immunotherapy for NSCLC patients. Future investigations are warranted to illustrate the potential mechanisms between driver mutations and PD-L1 expression for guiding immunotherapy in patients with NSCLC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Asian journal of surgery
Mutations in TP53 or DNA damage repair genes define poor prognostic subgroups in primary prostate cancer.
Mutations in DNA damage repair genes, in particular genes involved in homology-directed repair, define a subgroup of men with prostate cancer with a more unfavorable prognosis but a therapeutic vulnerability to PARP inhibition. In current practice, mutational testing of prostate cancer patients is commonly done late i.e., when the tumor is castration resistant. In addition, most sequencing panels do not include TP53, one of the most crucial tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. In this proof-of-concept study, we sought to extend the clinical use of these molecular markers by exploring the early prognostic impact of mutations in TP53 and DNA damage repair genes in men with primary, nonmetastatic prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RPX).
Tumor specimens from a cohort of 68 RPX patients with intermediate (n = 11, 16.2%) or high-risk (n = 57, 83.8%) disease were analyzed by targeted next generation sequencing using a 37 DNA damage repair and checkpoint gene panel including TP53. Sequencing results were correlated to clinicopathologic variables as well as PSA persistence or time to PSA failure. In addition, the distribution of TP53 and DNA damage repair gene mutations was analyzed in three large publicly available datasets (TCGA, MSKCC and SU2C).
Of 68 primary prostate cancers analyzed, 23 (33.8%) were found to harbor a mutation in either TP53 (n = 12, 17.6%) or a DNA damage repair gene (n = 11, 16.2%). The vast majority of these mutations (22 of 23, 95.7%) were detected in primary tumors from patients with high-risk features. These mutations were mutually exclusive in our cohort and additional data mining suggests an enrichment of DNA damage repair gene mutations in TP53 wild-type tumors. Mutations in either TP53 or a DNA damage repair gene were associated with a significantly worse prognosis after RPX. Importantly, the presence of TP53/DNA damage repair gene mutations was an independent risk factor for PSA failure or PSA persistence in multivariate Cox regression models.
TP53 or DNA damage repair gene mutations are frequently detected in primary prostate cancer with high-risk features and define a subgroup of patients with an increased risk for PSA failure or persistence after RPX. The significant adverse impact of these alterations on patient prognosis may be exploited to identify men with prostate cancer who may benefit from a more intensified treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Journal: Urologic oncology
Functional and mutational analysis after radiation and cetuximab treatment on prostate carcinoma cell line DU145.
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor is often overexpressed in advanced prostate carcinoma. In-vitro-studies in prostate carcinoma cell line DU145 have demonstrated increased sensibility to radiation after cetuximab treatment, but clinical data are not sufficient to date.
We analyzed effects of radiation and cetuximab in DU145 and A431 using proliferation, colony-forming-unit- and annexin-V-apoptosis-assays. Changes in protein expression of pEGFR and pERK1/2 after radiation and cetuximab treatment were analyzed. Using NGS we also investigated the impact of cetuximab long-term treatment.
Cell counts in DU145 were reduced by 44% after 4 Gy (p = 0.006) and 55% after 4 Gy and cetuximab (p < 0.001). The surviving fraction (SF) was 0.69 after 2 Gy, 0.41 after 4 Gy and 0.15 after 6 Gy (each p < 0.001). Cetuximab treatment did not alter significantly growth reduction in 4 Gy radiated DU145 cells, p > 0.05 or SF, p > 0.05, but minor effects on apoptotic cell fraction in DU145 were detected. Using western blot, there were no detectable pEGFR and pERK1/2 protein signals after cetuximab treatment. No RAS mutation or HER2 amplification was detected, however a TP53 gen-mutation c.820G > T was found.
Radiation inhibits cell-proliferation and colony-growth and induces apoptosis in DU145. Despite blocking MAP-Kinase-pathway using cetuximab, no significant radiation-sensitizing-effect was detected. Cetuximab treatment did not induce resistance-mutations. Further research must clarify which combination of anti-EGFR treatment strategies can increase radiation-sensitizing-effects.
Publication Date: 2021-07-30
Journal: Radiation oncology (London, England)
Genomic alterations and possible druggable mutations in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).
Carcinoma of Unknown Primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous and metastatic disease where the primary site of origin is undetectable. Currently, chemotherapy is the only state-of-art treatment option for CUP patients. The molecular profiling of the tumour, particularly mutation detection, offers a new treatment approach for CUP in a personalized fashion using targeted agents. We analyzed the mutation and copy number alterations profile of 1709 CUP samples deposited in the AACR Project Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE) cohort and explored potentially druggable mutations. We identified 52 significant mutated genes (SMGs) among CUP samples, in which 13 (25%) of SMGs were potentially targetable with either drugs are approved for the know primary tumour or undergoing clinical trials. The most variants detected were TP53 (43%), KRAS (19.90%), KMT2D (12.60%), and CDKN2A (10.30%). Additionally, using pan-cancer analysis, we found similar variants of TERT promoter in CUP and NSCLC samples, suggesting that these mutations may serve as a diagnostic marker for identifying the primary tumour in CUP. Taken together, the mutation profiling analysis of the CUP tumours may open a new way of identifying druggable targets and consequently administrating appropriate treatment in a personalized manner.
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: Scientific reports
Somatic Mutations in Circulating Cell-Free DNA and Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hispanics.
Hispanics are disproportionally affected by liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Advanced liver fibrosis is a major risk factor for HCC development. We aimed at identifying somatic mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of Hispanics with HCC and Hispanics with advanced liver fibrosis but no HCC. Targeted sequencing of over 262 cancer-associated genes identified nonsynonymous mutations in 22 of the 27 HCC patients. Mutations were detected in known HCC-associated genes (e.g., CTNNB1, TP53, NFE2L2, and ARID1A). No difference in cfDNA concentrations was observed between patients with mutations and those without detectable mutations. HCC patients with higher cfDNA concentrations or higher number of mutations had a shorter overall survival (
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
Detection of circulating tumor DNA without a tumor-informed search using next-generation sequencing is a prognostic biomarker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
The confounding effects of next-generation sequencing (NGS) noise on detection of low frequency circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) without a priori knowledge of solid tumor mutations has limited the applications of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in clinical oncology. Here, we use a 118 gene panel and leverage ccfDNA technical replicates to eliminate NGS-associated errors while also enhancing detection of ctDNA from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Pre-operative ccfDNA and tumor DNA were acquired from 14 patients with PDAC (78.6% stage II-III). Post-operative ccfDNA was also collected from 11 of the patients within 100 days of surgery. ctDNA detection was restricted to variants corresponding to pathogenic mutations in PDAC present in both replicates. PDAC-associated pathogenic mutations were detected in pre-operative ccfDNA in four genes (KRAS, TP53, SMAD4, ALK) from five patients. Of the nine ctDNA variants detected (variant allele frequency: 0.08%-1.59%), five had a corresponding mutation in tumor DNA. Pre-operative detection of ctDNA was associated with shorter survival (312 vs. 826 days; χ
Publication Date: 2021-07-24
Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
Dose-Adjusted Epoch and Rituximab for the treatment of double expressor and double hit diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: impact of TP53 mutations on clinical outcome.
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease, including one-third of cases overexpressing MYC and BCL2 proteins (Double Expressor Lymphoma, DEL) and 5-10% of patients with chromosomal rearrangements of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL-6 (Double/Triple-Hit Lymphomas, DH/TH). TP53 mutations are detected in 20-25% of DEL. We report the efficacy of dose-adjusted EPOCH and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) in a series of 122 consecutive patients, including DEL (n=81, 66%), DEL-MYC (n=9, 7%), DEL-BCL2 (n=13, 11%), or High-Grade Lymphomas (DH/TH) (n=19, 16%). Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis included intravenous methotrexate (n=66), intrathecal chemotherapy (IT) (n=40) or no prophylaxis (n=16). Sixty-seven pts (55%) had high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index (IPI) and 30 (25%) had high CNS-IPI. The 2-year progressionfree survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire study population were 74% and 84%, respectively. There was a trend for inferior OS for DH/TH (2-year OS: 66%, p=0.058) as compared to all the others. The outcome was significantly better for the IPI 0-2 versus IPI 3-5 (OS: 98% vs. 72%, p=0.002). DA-EPOCH-R did not overcome the negative prognostic value of TP53 mutations: 2-year OS of 62% versus 88% (p=0.036) were observed for mutated as compared to wild-type cases, respectively. Systemic CNS prophylaxis conferred a better 2-year OS (94%) as compared to IT or no prophylaxis (76% and 65%, respectively; p= 0.008). DA-EPOCH-R treatment resulted in a favorable outcome in patients with DEL and DEL with single rearrangement, whereas those with multiple genetic alterations such as DEL-DH/TH and TP53 mutated cases still have an inferior outcome.
Publication Date: 2021-07-23
Mutational profile of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer - Establishing genetic testing guidelines in a developing country.
Because many countries lack the capacity to follow the international guidelines for genetic testing, we suggest the specific approach for establishing local genetic testing guidelines that could be applied in developing countries. We focus on hereditary breast (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) in Serbia.
From the cohort of 550 persons who were referred for genetic counseling at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, 392 were selected. Personal and family histories were collected and germline DNA was sequenced with NGS in a panel of 20 genes.
Pathogenic (PV) and likely-pathogenic variants (LPV) were detected in 8 genes with the frequency of 23.7%. The most frequent were in BRCA1(7.6%), BRCA2(4.8%), PALB2(4.1%) and CHEK2(3.8%). They were also detected in ATM(1.8%), NBN(0.8%), TP53(0.5%) and RAD51C(0.3%). Whereas high carrier probability (CP), bilateral BC, BC and OC in the same patient and family history (FH) of BC/OC, were the strongest predictors for BRCA1/2 PV/LPV, lower CP values and early age of BC onset without FH were associated with higher frequency of PALB2 and CHEK2 PV/LPV.
Population specific studies to identify specific mutational patterns and predictors of PV/LPV should be conducted in order to make scientifically sound and cost-effective guidelines for genetic testing in developing countries.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Current problems in cancer
Total thyroidectomy can still remain the method of choice in some Bethesda III cases.
The latest WHO classification of tumours of endocrine organs defines new units of borderline thyroid tumours (BTT). The aim of our study was to evaluate ultrasonographic and cytological features, mutation profile and surgery treatment in rare thyroid tumours.
An analysis of 8 BTT out of 487 patients, who underwent thyroid surgery between June 2016 and June 2020. The definitive diagnosis was made postoperatively by extensive histopathological examination. Molecular genetic analysis of genes associated with thyroid oncology (BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, TERT, TP53, fused genes) were performed from one FNAB, and 7 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples.
BTT were found in a total of 8 patients (1.6%), with a predominance of men with respect to other operated patients. FNAB samples were classified in the Bethesda system as Bethesda I, Bethesda II and Bethesda III in one, four and three cases, respectively. Hemithyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed equally in four patients. The histopathological diagnosis revealed non-invasive encapsulated follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in three patients, follicular tumour of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) in three patients, well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) in one patient, and hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) in one case. In NIFTP cases mutation in HRAS gene in one patient together with probable pathogenic variant in TP53 gene and in NRAS gene in two patients were detected. In HTT patient PAX8/GLIS3 fusion gene was detected.
The surgical treatment of BTT is necessarily individual influenced by preoperative clinical, ultrasonographic, cytological and molecular genetic findings, and the presence of other comorbidities.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Incidental findings from cancer next generation sequencing panels.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have facilitated multi-gene panel (MGP) testing to detect germline DNA variants in hereditary cancer patients. This sensitive technique can uncover unexpected, non-germline incidental findings indicative of mosaicism, clonal hematopoiesis (CH), or hematologic malignancies. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify cases of incidental findings from NGS-MGP testing. Inclusion criteria included: 1) multiple pathogenic variants in the same patient; 2) pathogenic variants at a low allele fraction; and/or 3) the presence of pathogenic variants not consistent with family history. Secondary tissue analysis, complete blood count (CBC) and medical record review were conducted to further delineate the etiology of the pathogenic variants. Of 6060 NGS-MGP tests, 24 cases fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified. Pathogenic variants were detected in TP53, ATM, CHEK2, BRCA1 and APC. 18/24 (75.0%) patients were classified as CH, 3/24 (12.5%) as mosaic, 2/24 (8.3%) related to a hematologic malignancy, and 1/24 (4.2%) as true germline. We describe a case-specific workflow to identify and interpret the nature of incidental findings on NGS-MGP. This workflow will provide oncology and genetic clinics a practical guide for the management and counselling of patients with unexpected NGS-MGP findings.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: NPJ genomic medicine
Genomic Analysis Revealed Mutational Traits Associated with Clinical Outcomes in Osteosarcoma.
The limited understanding of correlation between genomic features and biological behaviors has impeded the therapeutic breakthrough in osteosarcoma (OS). This study aimed to reveal the correlation of mutational and evolutionary traits with clinical outcomes.
We applied a case-based targeted and whole exome sequencing of eleven matched primary, recurrent and metastatic samples from three OS patients characterized by different clinical behaviors in local recurrence or systematic progression pattern.
Extensive OS-associated driver genes were detected including TP53, RB1, NF1, PTEN, SPEN, CDKN2A. Oncogenic signaling pathways including cell cycle, TP53, MYC, Notch, WNT, RTK-RAS and PI3K were determined. MYC amplification was observed in the patient with shortest disease-free interval. Linear, branched or mixed evolutionary models were constructed in the three OS cases. A branched evolution with limited root mutation was detected in patient with shorter survival interval. ADAM17 mutation and HEY1 amplification were identified in OS happening dedifferentiation. Signatures 21 associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) was identified in OS patient with extra-pulmonary metastases.
OS was characterized by complex genomic alterations. MYC aberration, limited root mutations, and a branched evolutionary model were observed in OS patient with relatively aggressive course. Extra-pulmonary metastases of OS might attribute to distinct mutational process pertaining to MSI. Further research in a larger number of people is needed to confirm these findings.
Publication Date: 2021-07-09
Journal: Cancer management and research
Transdifferentiation of mantle cell lymphoma into sarcoma with limited neuromuscular differentiation after conventional chemotherapy.
We report an exceptionally rare case of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) that transdifferentiated into sarcoma with limited neuromuscular differentiation. An 81-year-old man with t(11;14)-positive MCL was treated with rituximab and bendamustine and achieved complete remission; however, just 2 months later, the patient developed multiple systemic tumors. Pathologic studies revealed round cell sarcoma expressing synaptophysin, CD56, and myogenin without any B-cell markers. The CCND1 translocation and an identical IGL gene rearrangement were shared by both the MCL and sarcoma. Whole-exome sequencing detected 189 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the MCL and 205 SNVs in the sarcoma; 160 SNVs including NSD2, ATM, RB1, and TP53 mutations were shared between MCL and sarcoma cells. An additional PTPN11 mutation was specifically found in the sarcoma. These findings confirmed the shared clonal origin of MCL and sarcoma in this patient and indicated that MCL can transdifferentiate into sarcoma in rare cases.
Publication Date: 2021-07-07
Journal: Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
In vitro toxicological assessment of flumethrin's effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Pyrethroid pesticides are frequently used for household insect control of insects and in agriculture and livestock. Flumethrin is a pyrethroid that is used against ectoparasites in many animals. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, apoptotic, genotoxic, and estrogenic effects of flumethrin on the mammalian breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Compared with control groups, a dose-dependent decrease was observed in cell viability at concentrations of 100 µM and higher. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects detected by LDH assay and AO/EtBr staining increased significantly at a concentration of 1000 µM. The expression of BCL2, which is an anti-apoptotic gene, significantly decreased, whereas BAX, TP53, and P21 expression significantly increased. The results of a comet assay indicated that flumethrin significantly changed tail length, tail % DNA, tail moment, and Olive tail moment in concentrations above 1 and 10 µM. In addition, a 0.1 µM concentration of flumethrin affected ERα receptor mediated cell proliferation and increased transcription of estrogen-responsive pS2 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) genes. As a result, flumethrin-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity at a high concentration, while induced genotoxicity even at lower concentrations. Flumethrin is an endocrine disrupting insecticide with estrogenic effects at very low concentrations.
Publication Date: 2021-06-19
Journal: Human & experimental toxicology
A High-Throughput Approach to Identify Effective Systemic Agents for the Treatment of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.
Despite the use of aggressive multimodality treatment, most anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) patients die within a year of diagnosis. Although the combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors has recently been approved for use in BRAF-mutated ATC, they remain effective in a minority of patients who are likely to develop drug resistance. There remains a critical clinical need for effective systemic agents for ATC with a reasonable toxicity profile to allow for rapid translational development.
Twelve human thyroid cancer cell lines with comprehensive genomic characterization were used in a high-throughput screening (HTS) of 257 compounds to select agents with maximal growth inhibition. Cell proliferation, colony formation, orthotopic thyroid models, and patient-derived xenograft models (PDX) were used to validate the selected agents.
Seventeen compounds were effective and docetaxel, LBH-589, and pralatrexate were selected for additional in vitro and in vivo analysis as they have been previously approved by the FDA for other cancers. Significant tumor growth inhibition (TGI) was detected in all tested models treated with LBH-589; pralatrexate demonstrated significant TGI in the orthotopic papillary thyroid carcinoma model and two PDX models; docetaxel demonstrated significant TGI only in the context of mutant TP53.
HTS identified classes of systemic agents which demonstrate preferential effectiveness against aggressive thyroid cancers, particularly those with mutant TP53. Preclinical validation in both orthotopic and PDX models, which are accurate in vivo models mimicking tumor microenvironment, may support initiation of early phase clinical trials in non-BRAF mutated or refractory to BRAF/MEK inhibition ATC.
Publication Date: 2021-06-14
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
SWI/SNF-deficient undifferentiated/rhabdoid carcinoma of the gallbladder carrying a POLE mutation in a 30-year-old woman: a case report.
Undifferentiated carcinoma of the biliary tract are highly aggressive malignancies. In other organs, a subgroup of undifferentiated carcinoma related to SWI/SNF complex-deficiency have been described.
A 30-year-old woman presented with rising inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Ultrasound examination revealed a large tumor of the liver. A computed tomography scan was performed and was primarily interpreted as a tumor-forming liver abscess, possibly caused by gallbladder perforation. Subsequent liver segment resection was performed. Microscopic examination showed an undifferentiated carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology and prominent inflammatory infiltrate in the gallbladder base. With SWI/SNF immunohistochemistry, intact expression of SMARCB1, SMARCA4, ARID1A, but loss of SMARCA2 and PBRM1 was detected. Next-generation-sequencing detected KRAS, PBRM1 and ARID1B mutations, a deleterious splice-site mutation in the POLE-gene and a mutation in the TP53-gene.
We were able to demonstrate loss of SMARCA2 expression and mutations characteristic of an SWI/SNF-deficient carcinoma in a tumor derived from the gallbladder. This is the first reported case of an undifferentiated carcinoma with rhabdoid features in the gallbladder carrying a POLE mutation and SWI/SNF-deficiency of PBRM1 and SMARCA2.
Publication Date: 2021-06-14
Journal: Diagnostic pathology
[Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Elderly Patients with Medium and High risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome].
To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with medium and high risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
97 MDS patients above the age of 60 treated in Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from February 2011 to August 2020 were enrolled. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of the MDS patients with medium risk, high risk or very high risk based on IPSS-R category were retrospectively analyzed. According to the difference of treatment regimes, the patients were divided into the transplantation group, chemotherapy group and other treatment group, and the efficacy among the patients in the 3 groups were analyzed.
MDS with excess blast (MDS-EB) in the elderly patients with medium and high risk MDS were the most common, 47.4% of the patients with abnormal chromosome karyotypes, and 23.7% with complex karyotypes (≥3). 97.3% of the patients showed at least one gene mutation, and TP53 mutations were detected in nearly 20% of the patients with medium and high risk. Multivariate analysis showed that IPSS-R category and treatment regimes were the factors affecting the prognosis of elderly patients with medium and high risk MDS. The median overall survival (OS) time of the patients in the 3 groups showed significant difference (P=0.012), and the median OS of the patients in the transplantation group was significantly longer than that in the chemotherapy group and other group (P=0.003,P=0.014,respectively), while there was no significant difference in median OS between chemotherapy group and other treatment group (P=0.685).
Elderly MDS patients with medium and high risk can benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which will prolong their OS.
Publication Date: 2021-06-10
Journal: Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
Comparison of two targeted ultra-deep sequencing technologies for analysis of plasma circulating tumour DNA in endocrine-therapy-resistant breast cancer patients.
There is growing interest in the application of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a sensitive tool for monitoring tumour evolution and guiding targeted therapy in patients with cancer. However, robust comparisons of different platform technologies are still required. Here we compared the InVisionSeq™ ctDNA Assay with the Oncomine™ Breast cfDNA Assay to assess their concordance and feasibility for the detection of mutations in plasma at low (< 0.5%) variant allele fraction (VAF).
Ninety-six plasma samples from 50 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive metastatic breast cancer (mBC) were profiled using the InVision Assay. Results were compared to the Oncomine assay in 30 samples from 26 patients, where there was sufficient material and variants were covered by both assays. Longitudinal samples were analysed for 8 patients with endocrine resistance.
We detected alterations in 59/96 samples from 34/50 patients analysed with the InVision assay, most frequently affecting ESR1, PIK3CA and TP53. Complete or partial concordance was found in 28/30 samples analysed by both assays, and VAF values were highly correlated. Excellent concordance was found for most genes, and most discordant calls occurred at VAF < 1%. In longitudinal samples from progressing patients with endocrine resistance, we detected consistent alterations in sequential samples, most commonly in ESR1 and PIK3CA.
This study shows that both ultra-deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can detect genomic alternations even at low VAFs in plasma samples of mBC patients. The strong agreement of the technologies indicates sufficient reproducibility for clinical use as prognosic and predictive biomarker.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment