pubmed > ESR1 > esr1 esr2

Unravelling the role of 17β-estradiol on advancing uterine luteolytic cascade in cattle.
In cattle, 17β-estradiol (E2) stimulates prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthesis, which causes luteolysis. Except for the well-established upregulation of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), molecular mechanisms of E2-induced PGF2α release in vivo remain unknown. We hypothesized that E2-induced PGF2α release requires de novo transcription of components of the PGF2α synthesis machinery. Beef cows (n = 52) were assigned to remain untreated (Control; n = 10), to receive 50% ethanol infusion intravenously (Placebo; n = 21), or 3 mg E2 in 50% ethanol infusion intravenously (Estradiol; n = 21) on day 15 (D15) after estrus. We collected a single endometrial biopsy per animal at the time of the treatment (0h; Control B0h group), 4 hours (4h; Placebo B4h group and Estradiol B4h group), or 7 hours (7h; Placebo B7h group and Estradiol B7h group) post-treatment. Compared to the Placebo group, the Estradiol group presented significantly greater 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α concentrations between 4h and 7h and underwent earlier luteolysis. At 4h, the qPCR analysis showed a lower abundance of ESR1, ESR2 and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) genes in the Estradiol B4h group, and a greater abundance of OXTR compared to the Placebo B4h group. Similarly, the E2 treatment significantly reduced the abundance of AKR1B1, and AKR1C4 in the Estradiol B7h group, compared to the placebo group. Overall, E2-induced PGF2α release and luteolysis involved an unexpected and transient downregulation of components of the PGF2α-synthesis cascade, except for OXTR, which was upregulated. Collectively, our data suggest that E2 connects newly-synthesized OXTR to pre-existing cellular machinery to synthesize PGF2α and cause luteal regression.
Publication Date: 2021-08-30
Journal: Domestic animal endocrinology

A comprehensive strategy to clarify the pharmacodynamic constituents and mechanism of Wu-tou decoction based on the constituents migrating to blood and their in vivo process under pathological state.
As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Wu-tou decoction has been used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for more than a thousand years. Identifying pharmacodynamic constituents (PCs) of WTD and exploring their in vivo process are very meaningful for promoting the modernization of TCM. However, the pathological state might change this process. Hence, it is necessary and significant to compare the process in vivo of drugs both in normal and disease state and clarify their action mechanism. Taking Wu-tou decoction (WTD) as the research object, a comprehensive strategy based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to identify PCs, clarify and compare their absorption and distribution in normal and model rats, and then explore the potential mechanism of TCM. Firstly, the PCs in WTD were identified. Then, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tissue distribution of these ingredients were studied. Finally, the constituents with the difference between normal and model rats were selected for target network pharmacological analysis to clarify the mechanism. A total of 27 PCs of WTD were identified. The absorption and distribution of 20 PCs were successfully analyzed. In the disease state, the absorption and distribution of all these components were improved to have better treatment effects. The results of target network pharmacological analysis indicated that PTGS1, PTGS2, ABCB1, SLC6A4, CHRM2, ESR1, ESR2, CDK2, TNF and IL-6 are 10 key targets for WTD against RA. The regulatory effects of WTD on the expression of PTGS2 and TNF were further verified. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the key mechanism of WTD against RA is to reduce inflammation and regulate the immune response. These results indicated that this strategy could better understand the in vivo process and mechanism of WTD under the pathological state. Furthermore, this strategy is also appropriate for other TCM.
Publication Date: 2021-05-02
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

Features of the Copy Number Variation of Certain Genes in Tumor Cells in Patients with Serous Ovarian Adenocarcinoma.
We analyzed the peculiarities of the copy number variation of genes that regulate apoptosis, DNA repair, cell proliferation, metabolism, and estrogen reception in tumor and normal cells of high-grade and low-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the ovaries. Using real-time qPCR method, the relative copy number of 34 genes (BAX, BCL2, TP53, MDM2, CASP9, CASP3, CASP7, CASP8, PRKCI, SOX2, OCT4, PIK3, PTEN, C-MYC, SOX18, AKT1, NOTCH1, BRCA1, BRCA2, EXO1, SCNN1A, KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP19A, ESR1, ESR2, GPER, STS, SULT1A, and SULT1E1) was determined in normal and tumor cells of the ovaries extracted by contactless capture laser microsection from FFPE-blocks of 200 patients. The most typical molecular markers of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cells were identified: copy number of PIK3CA, BCL2, BAX, CASP3, and CASP8 genes. Based on the differences in the gene copy number variation, two molecular subtypes of serous adenocarcinoma were identified, corresponding to two histological subtypes: high-grade (MDM2, SOX2, ESR1, CYP1B1, SULT1E1, TP53, BRCA2) and low-grade (PIK3CA, PTEN, BCL2, BAX, and CASP3). Each of these subtypes was also characterized by molecular heterogeneity and can be subdivided into several subgroups: 3 subgroups for high-grade and 4 subgroups for low-grade serous adenocarcinoma. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the ovarian tissue, confirm molecular difference between the two histological subtypes of serous adenocarcinoma probably underlying their different clinical course.
Publication Date: 2021-01-17
Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine

Deleterious variants in genes regulating mammalian reproduction in Neanderthals, Denisovans and extant humans.
Were Neanderthals and Denisovans (referred here also as extinct hominidae) carrying deleterious variants in genes regulating reproduction? The majority of extinct hominidae analyzed here, presented a considerable number of deleterious variants per individual in proteins regulating different aspects of reproduction, including gonad and uterine function, and gametogenesis. Neanderthals, Denisovans and extant humans were interfertile and hybridized while occupying geographically overlapping areas in Europe and Asia. This is evidenced by the small archaic genome component (average ∼2%) present in non-African extant humans. The genome of eight extinct hominidae, together with five human genome databases, plus 44 mothers and 48 fathers (fertile controls), were screened to look for deleterious variants in 1734 protein-coding genes regulating reproduction. Ancient DNA from six Neanderthals and two Denisovans dated between ∼82 000 and 43 000 calibrated years was retrieved from the public European Nucleotide Archive. The hominins analyzed include Altai, Vindija 33.15, 33.19, 33.25 and 33.26, El Sidron 1253, Denisova 3 and 11. Their DNA was analyzed using the CLC Genomics Workbench 12, by mapping overlapping paired-end reads (Illumina, FASTQ files) to the human genome assembly GRCh37 (hg19) (Vindija 33.19, 33.25, 33.26, Denisova 3 and Denisova 11) or by analyzing BAM files (Altai, El Sidron 1253 and Vindija 33.15) (human genome reference, GRCh37 (hg19)). Non-synonymous reproductive variants were classified as deleterious or tolerated (PolyPhen-2 and SIFT analyses) and were compared to deleterious variants obtained from extant human genome databases (Genome Aggregation Database (GnomAD), 1000 Genomes, the Haplotype Map (HapMap), Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNPs)) across different populations. A genetic intersection between extant or extinct DNA variants and other genetic disorders was evaluated by annotating the obtained variants with the Clinical Variant (ClinVar) database. Among the eight extinct hominidae analyzed, a total of 9650 non-synonymous variants (only coverage ≥20 reads included; frameshift mutations were excluded) in 1734 reproductive protein-coding genes were found, 24% of which were classified as deleterious. The majority (73%) of the deleterious alleles present in extant humans that are shared between extant humans and extinct hominidae were found to be rare (<1%) in extant human populations. A set of 8044 variants were found uniquely in extinct hominidae. At the single-gene level, no extinct individual was found to be homozygous for deleterious variants in genes necessary for gamete recognition and fusion, and no higher chance of embryo-lethality (calculated by Mendelian Genetics) was found upon simulated mating between extant human and extinct hominidae compared to extant human-extant human. However, three of the eight extinct hominidae were found to be homozygous for 48-69 deleterious variants in 55 genes controlling ovarian and uterine functions, or oogenesis (AKAP1, BUB1B, CCDC141, CDC73, DUSP6, ESR1, ESR2, PATL2, PSMC3IP, SEMA3A, WT1 and WNT4). Moreover, we report the distribution of nine Neanderthal variants in genes associated with a human fertility phenotype found in extant human populations, one of which has been associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary congenital glaucoma. While analyzing archaic DNA, stringent filtering criteria were adopted to screen for deleterious variants in Neanderthals and Denisovans, which could result in missing a number of variants. Such restraints preserve the potential for detection of additional deleterious variants in reproductive proteins in extinct hominidae. This study provides a comprehensive overview of putatively deleterious variants in extant human populations and extinct individuals occurring in 1734 protein-coding genes controlling reproduction and provides the fundaments for future functional studies of extinct variants in human reproduction. This study was supported by the Department of Biological Science and by the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at the University of Tulsa (Faculty Research Grant and Faculty Research Summer Fellowship) to M.A. and the University of Tulsa, Tulsa Undergraduate Research Challenge (TURC) program to E.L.; no conflict of interest to declare. N/A.
Publication Date: 2021-01-09
Journal: Human reproduction (Oxford, England)

The effects of bisphenol A and bisphenol S on adipokine expression and glucose metabolism in human adipose tissue.
The environmental endocrine disruptors, bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. We aim to study the effects of BPA or BPS exposure on adipokine expression in human adipose tissue and on adipocyte glucose uptake. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue was treated for 24 or 72 h with environmentally-relevant and supraphysiological concentrations of BPA or BPS (1-10 Adipose tissue treated with BPA for 24 h had reduced expression of the proinflammatory genes (IL6, IL1B, TNFA) and adipokines (ADIPOQ, FABP4). BPA and BPS had no effect on the expression of other proinflammatory genes (IL33), adipokines (LEP), or receptors (ESR1, ESR2) after 72-h exposure. Adipose tissue treated with environmentally-relevant concentrations of BPA for 24 h had reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, without altered gene and protein levels of key insulin signalling pathway markers. We found that human adipose tissue treated with environmentally-relevant concentrations of BPA for 24 h, but not BPS, reduced expression of proinflammatory genes and adipokines. Furthermore, BPA reduced glucose uptake in adipocytes independently of insulin signalling. Such mechanisms can contribute to the development of insulin resistance associated with BPA exposure.
Publication Date: 2020-09-26
Journal: Toxicology

Alpha-lipoic acid improves the reproduction performance of breeder hens during the late egg-laying period.
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a multifunctional antioxidant, can promote fatty acid mobilization, energy expenditure and scavenge free radicals. The effects of dietary ALA on the reproductive performance of breeder hens were investigated in the current study. In the 5-week experiment, 180 54-week-old Qiling breeder hens were randomly divided into three treatments with five replicates and supplemented with three levels of ALA (0, 300 and 600 mg/kg) in the basic corn-soya bean meal diets. 600 mg/kg ALA treatment group (HLA) significantly improved the eggshell thickness and strength (p < .05). ALA-treated groups improved egg-laying rate compared with the CON group, but with no statistically significant difference (p > .05). The levels of HDL-C, ALB and estradiol (E2) of the serum in the HLA group were elevated compared with the CON group (p < .05). In addition, ALA (600 mg/kg) treatment exhibited a reduced level of serum AST and TG (p < .05). Dietary ALA increased the activity of hepatic lipase in liver (p < .05). Supplemental 600 mg/kg ALA also improved the SOD activity and total antioxidant capacity level, along with a decreased MDA in ovarian tissue (p < .05). Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of ESR1, ESR2, VTG2 and ApoB in the liver and FSHR in follicles were upregulated in the HLA group (p < .05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 600 mg/kg ALA during the late egg-laying period could improve lipid metabolism and reproductive performance of breeder hens.
Publication Date: 2020-09-04
Journal: Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition

Tumorigenic effects of TLX overexpression in HEK 293T cells.
The human orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1) is a key regulator of neurogenesis, adult stem cell maintenance, and tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the genetic and transcriptomic events that occur following TLX overexpression in human cell lines. Here, we used cytogenetics and RNA sequencing to investigate the effect of TLX overexpression with an inducible vector system in the HEK 293T cell line. Conventional spectral karyotyping was used to identify chromosomal abnormalities, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on chromosome spreads to assess TLX DNA copy number. Illumina paired-end whole transcriptome sequencing was then performed to characterize recurrent genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels), expressed gene fusions, and gene expression profiles. Lastly, flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution. Intriguingly, we show that upon transfection with a vector containing the human TLX gene (eGFP-hTLX), an isochromosome forms on the long arm of chromosome 6, thereby resulting in DNA gain of the TLX locus (6q21) and upregulation of TLX. Induction of the eGFP-hTLX vector further increased TLX expression levels, leading to G0-G1 cell cycle arrest, genetic aberrations, modulation of gene expression patterns, and crosstalk with other nuclear receptors (AR, ESR1, ESR2, NR1H4, and NR3C2). We identified a 49-gene signature associated with central nervous system (CNS) development and carcinogenesis, in addition to potentially cancer-driving gene fusions (LARP1-CNOT8 and NSL1-ZDBF2) and deleterious genetic variants (frameshift insertions in the CTSH, DBF4, POSTN, and WDR78 genes). Taken together, these findings illustrate that TLX may play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis via genomic instability and perturbation of cancer-related processes.
Publication Date: 2020-07-29
Journal: Cancer reports (Hoboken, N.J.)

The relationship between estrogen-induced phenotypic transformation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.
To explore the effect of estrogen on human cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to clarify the molecular mechanism of estrogen inhibition of VSMC proliferation, which could provide an important reference basis for the clinical treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Firstly, the effects of different concentrations of estradiol and estrogen receptor (ESR) blocker (tamoxifen) on the proliferation of human VSMCs and the expression of estrogen-related receptor gene (ESR: ESR1, ESR2, GPER), myocardin (MYOCD), serum reaction factor (SRF), and apoptosis gene caspase-3 were measured to discover the effect and mechanism of tamoxifen on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs. Secondly, the effects of estradiol on human VSMCs treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) were observed by measuring the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), SM22α, FLN, MCP-1, and TLR4. Estradiol inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs by upregulating the expression of ESR1, ESR2, and GPER and downregulating the expression of caspase-3, MYOCD, and SRF, thereby inhibiting the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle. At the same time, tamoxifen had opposite effects. Angiotensin II decreased the expression of α-SMA and SM22α and promoted the expression of FLN, MCP-1, and TLR4 protein, while estrogen had the opposite effects. Estrogen suppresses apoptosis by inhibiting the proliferation of human VSMCs and preventing it from changing from contractile to synthetic. Estrogen can further prevents vascular damage and regulate peripheral inflammatory reaction, thereby producing a protective effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular.
Publication Date: 2020-07-11
Journal: Annals of translational medicine

The influence of microsatellite polymorphisms in sex steroid receptor genes ESR1, ESR2 and AR on sex differences in brain structure.
The androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and oestrogen receptor beta (ESR2) play essential roles in mediating the effect of sex hormones on sex differences in the brain. Using Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and gene sizing in two independent samples (discovery n ​= ​173, replication ​= ​61), we determine the common and unique influences on brain sex differences in grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volume between repeat lengths (n) of microsatellite polymorphisms AR(CAG)n, ESR1(TA)n and ESR2(CA)n. In the hypothalamus, temporal lobes, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior insula and prefrontal cortex, we find increased GM volume with increasing AR(CAG)n across sexes, decreasing ESR1(TA)n across sexes and decreasing ESR2(CA)n in females. Uniquely, AR(CAG)n was positively associated with dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal GM volume and the anterior corona radiata, left superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, thalamus and internal capsule WM volume. ESR1(TA)n was negatively associated with the left superior corona radiata, left cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus WM volume uniquely. ESR2(CA)n was negatively associated with right fusiform and posterior cingulate cortex uniquely. We thus describe the neuroanatomical correlates of three microsatellite polymorphisms of steroid hormone receptors and their relationship to sex differences.
Publication Date: 2020-07-01
Journal: NeuroImage

G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1, oestrogen receptors and androgen receptor in the sand rat (Psammomys obesus) efferent ducts.
The efferent ducts are mainly involved in the reabsorption of the seminiferous tubular fluid. Testosterone and oestrogens regulate efferent ducts functions via their receptors. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the location of the P450 aromatase, the 17-b oestradiol (E2), the androgen receptor (AR), the oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), the oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) and the G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) in the efferent ducts using Psammomys obesus as an animal model to highlight the effect of the season on the histology and the distribution of these receptors. We observed a proliferation of the connective tissue, decreasing in the height of the epithelium during the resting season compared to the breeding season. Ciliated cells expressed P450 aromatase, AR, E2, ESR1, ESR2 and GPER1 during both seasons. Basal cells showed a positive staining for the ESR1 and the GPER1 during both season, the AR and E2 during the breeding season and ESR2 during the resting season. Our result shows that the expression of androgen receptor and oestrogen receptors in the efferent ducts vary by season witch suggest that they are largely involved in the regulation of the efferent ducts functions.
Publication Date: 2020-05-28
Journal: Folia morphologica

New insights in equine steroidogenesis: an in-depth look at steroid signaling in the placenta.
Steroid production varies widely among species, with these differences becoming more pronounced during pregnancy. As a result, each species has its own distinct pattern of steroids, steroidogenic enzymes, receptors, and transporters to support its individual physiological requirements. Although the circulating steroid profile is well characterized during equine pregnancy, there is much yet to be explored regarding the factors that support steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. To obtain a holistic view of steroid-related transcripts, we sequenced chorioallantois (45 days, 4 months, 6 months, 10 months, 11 months, and post-partum) and endometrium (4 months, 6 months, 10 months, 11 months, and diestrus) throughout gestation, then looked in-depth at transcripts related to steroid synthesis, conjugation, transportation, and signaling. Key findings include: 1) differential expression of HSD17B isoforms among tissues (HSD17B1 high in the chorioallantois, while HSD17B2 is the dominant form in the endometrium) 2) a novel isoform with homology to SULT1A1 is the predominant sulfotransferase transcript in the chorioallantois; and 3) nuclear estrogen (ESR1, ESR2) and progesterone (PGR) expression is minimal to nonexistant in the chorioallantois and pregnant endometrium. Additionally, several hypotheses have been formed, including the possibility that the 45-day chorioallantois is able to synthesize steroids de novo from acetate and that horses utilize glucuronidation to clear estrogens from the endometrium during estrous, but not during pregnancy. In summary, these findings represent an in-depth look at equine steroid-related transcripts through gestation, providing novel hypotheses and future directions for equine endocrine research.
Publication Date: 2020-05-15
Journal: Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

Acrylamide impairs ovarian function by promoting apoptosis and affecting reproductive hormone release, steroidogenesis and autophagy-related genes: An in vivo study.
Acrylamide (ACR) toxicity is quite common due to its widespread use in industry and due to the Maillard browning reaction that occurs in foods containing high concentrations of hydrocarbons subjected to high temperatures. This study aimed to elucidate the female reproductive toxicity of ACR in vivo. Fifty-day-old Wistar-Albino female rats were treated with different dosages of ACR (2.5, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and serum and ovary samples were collected for histological examination, hormone analysis, TUNEL analysis, and RT-PCR studies. We found that ACR acts by significantly reducing ovarian weight and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. In addition, ACR treatment led to pyknotic, heterochromatic characteristics and nuclear fragmentation, as evidenced by hematoxylin staining. The TUNEL assay revealed that granulosa cells were affected after the oral administration of ACR, leading to the apoptosis of follicles at different stages of growth. Compared with the control condition, high doses of ACR (50 mg/kg/day) significantly induced the overexpression of INSL3, CYP17a, IGF1, ESR1, ESR2, ATG5, ATG12 and LC3 in the ovary. Moreover, LC3 mRNA levels significantly increased with increasing doses of ACR (2.5, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day), suggesting that ACR treatment induced autophagy. In conclusion, ACR induced ovarian dysfunction by affecting steroid hormone release, increasing apoptosis and mRNA levels of autophagy-related genes. The eventual correlation between apoptotic granulosa cell death and autophagy needs to be further explored.
Publication Date: 2020-04-19
Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Role of gene polymorphisms related to progesterone elevation in women undergoing long GnRH agonist protocols.
Can single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of genes related to progesterone synthesis predict the risk of premature serum progesterone elevation in women undergoing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocols for ovarian stimulation? A total of 765 women were divided into high progesterone and normal progesterone groups according to progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration, with the 75th percentile as the threshold between the group. Associations were analysed of genetic information from whole exome sequencing and the clinical characteristics of the two groups to identify the relationship between SNP, haplotypes and serum progesterone elevation. Among 40 common SNP of eight genes (FSHR, LHCGR, ESR1, ESR2, PGR, HSD3B1, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1), no statistical significance between the high and normal progesterone groups was identified in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies after multiple test correction to adjust the false discovery rate (P Polymorphism in genes involved in enzymes or hormone receptors in the progesterone synthesis pathway may have a role in modifying risk of serum progesterone elevation.
Publication Date: 2020-03-25
Journal: Reproductive biomedicine online

Association between Estrogen, Vitamin D and Microrna17 Gene Polymorphisms and Periapical Lesions.
This study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in genes encoding estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and in microRNA17 (which binds to ESR1 and VDR) with persistent apical periodontitis (PAP) after the endodontic treatment. We included 162 patients who completed endodontic treatment at least one year ago and presented apical periodontitis at the beginning of the root canal therapy. Clinical and radiographic exams were performed to evaluate the presence of PAP or healthy periradicular tissues (healed). Saliva samples were collected as a genomic DNA. The genotyping of ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799), ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938), VDR (rs739837 and rs2228570) and miRNA17 (rs4284505) were performed by real-time PCR. Chi-square test was used to the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies. Haplotype analysis was also performed. Eighty-nine patients were included in the "healed" group and 73 in the "PAP" group. No association was found between the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms studied and PAP (p>0.05). Haplotype analysis also did not demonstrated an association (p>0.05). In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, VDR and miRNA17 are not associated with PAP.
Publication Date: 2020-03-12
Journal: Brazilian dental journal

A Possible Link of Genetic Variations in ER/IGF1R Pathway and Risk of Melanoma.
The mechanism of gender disparity in cutaneous melanoma incidence remains unclear. Steroid hormones including estrogens have long been implicated in the course of melanoma, but the conclusion is controversial. Estrogen receptors (ERs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) show extensive crosstalk in cancer development, but how the ER/IGF1R network impacts melanoma is currently unclear. Here we studied the melanoma associations of selected SNPs from the ER/IGF1R network. Part of the International Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) cohort was used as a discovery set, and the Gene Environment Association Studies Initiative (GENEVA) dataset served as a validation set. Based on the associations with other malignant disease conditions, thirteen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants in ESR1, ESR2, IGF1, and IGF1R were selected for candidate gene association analyses. The rs1520220 in IGF1 and rs2229765 in IGF1R variants were significantly associated with melanoma risk in the GEM dataset after Benjamini-Hochberg multiple comparison correction, although they were not validated in the GENEVA set. The discrepancy may be caused by the multiple melanoma characteristics in the GEM patients. Further analysis of gender disparity was carried out for IGF1 and IGF1R SNPs in the GEM dataset. The GG phenotype in IGF1 rs1520220 (recessive model) presented an increased risk of melanoma (OR = 8.11, 95% CI: 2.20, 52.5,
Publication Date: 2020-03-11
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences

Discovery of potential asthma targets based on the clinical efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine formulas.
Standard therapy for asthma, a highly heterogeneous disease, is primarily based on bronchodilators and immunosuppressive drugs, which confer short-term symptomatic relief but not a cure. It is difficult to discover novel bronchodilators, although potential new targets are emerging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulas have been used to treat asthma for more than 2000 years, forming the basis for representative asthma treatments. Based on the efficacy of TCM formulas, anti-asthmatic herbal compounds bind proteins are potential targets for asthma therapy. This analysis will provide new drug targets and discovery strategies for asthma therapy. A list of candidate herbs for asthma was selected from the classical formulas (CFs) of TCM for the treatment of wheezing or dyspnea recorded in Treatise on Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases (TCDMD) and from modern herbal formulas identified in the SAPHRON TCM Database using the keywords "wheezing" or "dyspnea". Compounds in the selected herbs and compounds that directly bind target proteins were acquired by searching the Herbal Ingredients' Targets Database (HITD), TCM Data Bank (TCMDB) and TCM Integrated Database (TCMID). Therapeutic targets of conventional medicine (CM) for asthma were collected by searching Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and PubMed as supplements. Finally, the enriched gene ontology (GO) terms of the targets were obtained using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and protein-protein interactions (PPI) networks were constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING). The effects of two selected TCM compounds, kaempferol and ginkgolide A, on cellular resistance in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and pulmonary resistance in a mouse model were investigated. The list of 32 candidate herbs for asthma was selected from 10 CFs for the treatment of wheezing or dyspnea recorded in TCDMD and 1037 modern herbal formulas obtained from the SAPHRON TCM Database. A total of 130 compounds from the 32 selected herbs and 68 herbal compounds directly bind target proteins were acquired from HITD and TCMDB. Eighty-eight therapeutic targets of CM for asthma were collected by searching TTD and PubMed as supplements. DAVID and STRING analyses showed targets of TCM formulas are primarily related to cytochrome P450 (CYP) family, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ribosomal protein. Both TCM formulas and CM act on the same types of targets or signaling pathways, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The proteins directly targeted by herbal compounds, TRPM8, TRPA1, TRPV3, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP1A1, PPARA, PPARD, NR1I2, MMP1, MMP2, ESR1, ESR2, RPLP0, RPLP1 and RPLP2, are potential targets for asthma therapy. In vitro results showed kaempferol (1 × 10 Potential target discovery for asthma treatment based on the clinical effectiveness of TCM is a feasible strategy.
Publication Date: 2020-02-01
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

Missing Information from the Estrogen Receptor Puzzle: Where Are They Localized in Bull Reproductive Tissues and Spermatozoa?
Estrogens are steroid hormones that affect a wide range of physiological functions. The effect of estrogens on male reproductive tissues and sperm cells through specific receptors is essential for sperm development, maturation, and function. Although estrogen receptors (ERs) have been studied in several mammalian species, including humans, they have not yet been described in bull spermatozoa and reproductive tissues. In this study, we analyzed the presence of all types of ERs (ESR1, ESR2, and GPER1) in bull testicular and epididymal tissues and epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa, and we characterize them here for the first time. We observed different localizations of each type of ER in the sperm head by immunofluorescent microscopy. Additionally, using a selected polyclonal antibody, we found that each type of ER in bull sperm extracts had two isoforms with different molecular masses. The detailed detection of ERs is a prerequisite not only for understanding the effect of estrogen on all reproductive events but also for further studying the negative effect of environmental estrogens (endocrine disruptors) on processes that lead to fertilization.
Publication Date: 2020-01-16
Journal: Cells

Association between ESR1, ESR2, HER2, UGT1A4, and UGT2B7 polymorphisms and breast Cancer in Jordan: a case-control study.
Breast cancer risk, development, and treatment are influenced by genetic variation in certain genes, namely those involved in cell proliferation, tumor suppression, and drug metabolism. In turn, the relevance of the aforementioned genetic variation to cancer depends on the ethnic group in question, highlighting the need for population-specific association studies. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the association between certain ESR1, ESR2, HER2, UGT1A4, and UGT2B7 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breast cancer. Blood samples were collected from 437 Jordanian-Arab breast cancer patients and healthy volunteers and subject to genotyping using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system (iPLEX GOLD). Our findings show a significant association between breast cancer and the allelic (P = 0.02486879) and genotypic (P = 0.04793066) frequencies of the ESR1 polymorphism rs3798577, a result which was confirmed in different genetic models. No other investigated polymorphism showed a significant association with breast cancer itself in Jordanian Arabs, but the Rare Hz (GG) vs Het (AG) genetic model revealed an association of the disease with the ESR1 polymorphism rs3798577. However, several associations were found between certain polymorphisms and breast cancer's prognostic factors. This study suggests that certain polymorphisms may increase the risk of breast cancer in the Jordanian-Arab population. Future research and clinical translation could incorporate the current results in preventative breast cancer approaches tailored for Jordanian-Arab patients.
Publication Date: 2020-01-01
Journal: BMC cancer

Medial preoptic estrogen receptor-beta blunts the estrogen receptor-alpha mediated increases in wheel-running behavior of female rats.
Estrogens are believed to enhance rodent voluntary wheel-running through medial preoptic (mPOA) estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling, with little role attributed to estrogen receptor β (ERβ). Systemic ERβ activation has been shown to mitigate ERα driven increases in wheel-running. Therefore, the present goal was to determine whether ERβ signaling in the mPOA plays a similar modulatory role over ERα. We utilized outbred wild-type (WT) and rats selectively bred for low voluntary running (LVR) behavior to address whether mPOA ERβ signaling blunts ERα driven wheel-running behavior and immediate-early gene (Fos, Zif268, and Homer1) mRNA induction. Further, we addressed baseline mPOA mRNA expressions and circulating 17β-estradiol levels between female WT and LVR rats. Following ovariectomy, WT rats reduced running behavior ∼40 %, with no effect in LVR rats. Intra-medial preoptic injection of the ERα-agonist propylpyrazoletriol (PPT) increased wheel-running ∼3.5-fold in WT rats, while injections of the ERβ-agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) or a combination of the two agonists had no effect. Similarly, ERα-agonism (PPT) increased Fos and Homer1 induction ∼3-fold in WT and LVR isolated mPOA neurons, with no effect of the ERβ-agonist DPN alone or in combination with PPT, suggesting medial-preoptic ERβ activity may blunt ERα signaling. LVR rats exhibited higher mPOA mRNA expressions of Esr1, Esr2 and Cyp19a1, lower normalized uterine wet weights and lower 17β-estradiol plasma levels compared to WT, suggesting their low running may be due to low circulating estrogen levels. Collectively, these findings highlight mPOA ERβ as a potential neuro-molecular modulator of the estrogenic control of wheel-running behavior.
Publication Date: 2019-11-13
Journal: Behavioural brain research

Sexually dimorphic gene expression and neurite sensitivity to estradiol in fetal arcuate Kiss1 cells.
Kiss1 neurons of the arcuate (ARC) nucleus form an interconnected network of cells that communicate via neurokinin B (encoded by Tac2) and its receptor (encoded by Tacr3) and play key roles in the control of the reproductive axis through sex hormone-regulated synthesis and release of kisspeptin peptides (Kp, encoded by Kiss1). The aim of this study was to determine whether the Kiss1 cell population of the ARC already displays sexually dimorphic features at embryonic age E16.5 in mice. At this time of development, Kiss1-GFP- and Kp-immunoreactive cell bodies were restricted to the ARC and not found in the pre-optic area (POA). The Kiss1-GFP cell population was identical in size between sexes but had significantly lower Kiss1, Tac2, and Tacr3 mRNA levels and lower Kp-ir fiber density in the POA in male compared to female fetuses. Receptors for androgen (Ar) and estrogen (Esr1, Esr2, Gpr30) and the Cyp19a1 gene (encoding the estradiol-producing enzyme aromatase) transcripts were also detected in fetal ARC Kiss1-GFP cells with significant sex differences for Ar (higher in males) and Esr1 (higher in females). Functional studies on primary cultures of sorted fetal Kiss1-GFP cells revealed a significant negative effect of estradiol treatment on neurite outgrowth on the fourth day of culture in the female group specifically. We conclude that the ARC Kiss1 cell population is already sexually differentiated at E16.5 and that its morphogenetic development may be particularly vulnerable to estradiol exposure at this early developmental time.
Publication Date: 2019-11-02
Journal: The Journal of endocrinology