pubmed > ESR1 > esr1 mrna

Reduced menin expression leads to decreased ERα expression and is correlated with the occurrence of human luminal B-like and ER-negative breast cancer subtypes.
Menin, encoded by the MEN1 gene, was recently reported to be involved in breast cancers, though the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the current study, we sought to further determine its role in mammary cells. Menin expression in mammary lesions from mammary-specific Men1 mutant mice was detected using immunofluorescence staining. RT-qPCR and western blot were performed to determine the role of menin in ERα expression in human breast cancer cell lines. ChIP-qPCR and reporter gene assays were carried out to dissect the action of menin on the proximal ESR1 promoter. Menin expression in female patients with breast cancer was analyzed and its correlation with breast cancer subtypes was investigated. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that early mammary neoplasia in Men1 mutant mice displayed weak ERα expression. Furthermore, MEN1 silencing led to both reduced ESR1 mRNA and ERα protein expression in MCF7 and T47D cells. To further dissect the regulation of ESR1 transcription by menin, we examined whether and in which way menin could regulate the proximal ESR1 promoter, which has not been fully explored. Using ChIP analysis and reporter gene assays covering - 2500 bp to + 2000 bp of the TSS position, we showed that the activity of the proximal ESR1 promoter was markedly reduced upon menin downregulation independently of H3K4me3 status. Importantly, by analyzing the expression of menin in 354 human breast cancers, we found that a lower expression was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.041). Moreover, among the 294 ER-positive breast cancer samples, reduced menin expression was not only associated with larger tumors (P = 0.01) and higher SBR grades (P = 0.005) but also with the luminal B-like breast cancer subtype (P = 0.006). Consistent with our clinical data, we demonstrated that GATA3 and FOXA1, co-factors in ESR1 regulation, interact physically with menin in MCF7 cells, and MEN1 knockdown led to altered protein expression of GATA3, the latter being a known marker of the luminal A subtype, in MCF7 cells. Taken together, our data provide clues to the important role of menin in ERα regulation and the formation of breast cancer subtypes.
Publication Date: 2021-09-26
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment

A combination of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, estrogen receptor alpha and human papillomavirus status predicts outcomes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma following chemoradiotherapy.
Previous work indicates that mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) status provide prognostic utility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We sought to assess whether the combination of these three objective biomarkers could provide better prognostication for patients who receive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). 156 patients (75 oral cavity, 44 oropharyngeal and 37 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cancer patients) who received CRT as primary therapy or adjuvant to surgery were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MATH values were calculated from TCGA whole exome sequencing data, HPV status was determined by mapping RNA-seq reads, and ERα expression was determined from ESR1 mRNA expression data. Relationships among clinical characteristics were assessed by Fisher exact tests. Relationships of clinical characteristics and MATH, ERα and HPV to overall survival were evaluated with Cox proportional hazard analysis. The combination of poor-prognosis values for all 3 biomarkers (high MATH, low ERα and HPV-negative status) has a predicted hazard ratio of 28.2 (95% CI: 5.4-148, p = 0.0001) versus the combination of their good-prognosis values (low MATH, high ERα and HPV-positive status). Addition of N classification to the combination of these three biomarkers added further prognostic value. A combination of these three biomarkers, readily determined on pretreatment biopsy specimens, can stratify patients into prognostic groups. Their application potentially offers numerous opportunities to optimize treatment or explore de-intensification strategies in the clinical trial setting.
Publication Date: 2021-07-02
Journal: Oral oncology

miR-375 acts as a novel factor modulating pituitary prolactin synthesis through Rasd1 and Esr1.
Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone that regulates multiple physiological processes. However, the mechanisms of PRL synthesis have not been fully elucidated. The aims of the present study were to study the functions and the related mechanisms of miR-375 regulating PRL synthesis. We initially found that miR-375 mainly expressed in the lactotrophs of mouse pituitary gland. To identify the function of miR-375 in the pituitary gland, the miR-375 knockout mice were generated by using Crispr/Cas9 technique. The results showed that miR-375 knockout resulted in the decline of pituitary PRL mRNA and protein levels by 75.7 and 60.4%, respectively, and the serum PRL level reduced about 46.1%, but had no significant effect on FSH, LH and TSH. Further, we identified that Estrogen receptor 1 (alpha) (Esr1) was a downstream molecule of miR-375. The real-time PCR and Western blot results showed that ESR1 mRNA and protein levels markedly decreased by 40.9 and 42.9% in the miR-375 knockout mouse pituitary, and these were subsequently confirmed by the in vitro study using transfections of miR-375 mimics and inhibitors in pituitary lactotroph GH4 cells. Further, Rasd1 was predicted by bioinformatic tools and proved to be the direct target of miR-375 in lactotrophs using the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Rasd1-siRNA transfection results revealed the negative effect of Rasd1 in regulating ESR1. Collectively, the results presented here demonstrate that miR-375 positively modulates PRL synthesis through Rasd1 and Esr1, which are crucial for understanding the regulating mechanisms of pituitary hormone synthesis.
Publication Date: 2021-05-21
Journal: The Journal of endocrinology

HLA-J, a Non-Pseudogene as a New Prognostic Marker for Therapy Response and Survival in Breast Cancer.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are cell-surface proteins, essential for immune cell interaction. HLA-G is known for their high immunosuppressive effect and its potential as predictive marker in breast cancer. However, nothing is known about the HLA-J and its immunosuppressive, prognostic and predictive features, as it is assumed to be a "pseudogene" by in silico sequence interpretation. HLA-J, ESR1, ERBB2, KRT5 and KRT20 mRNA expression were analysed in 29 fresh frozen breast cancer biopsies and their corresponding resectates obtained from patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). mRNA was analysed with gene specific TaqMan-based Primer/Probe sets and normalized to Calmodulin 2. All breast cancer samples did express HLA-J and frequently increased HLA-J mRNA levels after NACT. HLA-J mRNA was significantly associated with overexpression of the ESR1 mRNA status (Spearman ρ 0,5679; p = 0.0090) and KRT5 mRNA (Spearman ρ 0,6121; p = 0.0041) in breast cancer core biopsies and dominated in luminal B subtype. Kaplan Meier analysis revealed that an increase of HLA-J mRNA expression after NACT had worse progression free survival (p = 0,0096), indicating a counterreaction of tumor tissues presumably to prevent elimination by enhanced immune infiltration induced by NACT. This counterreaction is associated with worse prognosis. To our knowledge this is the first study identifying HLA-J as a new predictive marker in breast cancer being involved in immune evasion mechanisms. Humane Leukozyten-Antigene (HLA) sind Proteine auf der Zelloberfläche, die essenziell für die Immunzellinteraktion sind. HLA-G ist für seine hohe immunosuppressive Wirkung sowie als potenzieller prädikativer Marker für Brustkrebs bekannt. Dagegen ist kaum etwas über HLA-J und seine immunosuppressiven, prognostischen und prädiktiven Eigenschaften bekannt, da es basierend auf In-silico-Sequenzanalysen als „Pseudogen“ interpretiert wurde. Die Expression von HLA-J, ESR1, ERBB2, KRT5 und KRT20 mRNA wurde in 29 frisch gefrorenen Brustkrebsbiopsien analysiert und mit den klinisch-pathologischen Daten von Patientinnen, welche mit neoadjuvanter Chemotherapie behandelt wurden, verglichen. Die mRNA-Expression wurde mit genspezifischen TaqMan-basierten Primer/Probe-Sets analysiert und auf Calmodulin 2 normalisiert. Alle Gewebeproben von Patientinnen mit Brustkrebs exprimierten HLA-J, und der HLA-J-mRNA-Spiegel war nach NACT oft erhöht. In den Brustkrebsstanzbiopsien war die HLA-J-mRNA-Expression signifikant mit der Überexpression von ESR1-mRNA (Spearmans ρ 0,5679; p = 0,0090) und KRT5-mRNA (Spearmans ρ 0,6121; p = 0,0041) assoziiert und dominierte im Luminal-B-Subtyp. Die Kaplan-Meier-Analyse zeigte, dass ein Anstieg der HLA-J-mRNA-Expression nach NACT mit einem schlechteren progressionsfreien Überleben einhergeht (p = 0,0096), womöglich als Gegenreaktion des Tumorgewebes, um eine Eliminierung durch tumorinfiltrierende Lymphozyten, welche durch eine NACT induziert wurden, zu verhindern. Diese Gegenreaktion ist mit einer schlechteren Prognose assoziiert. Soweit uns bekannt, handelt es sich hierbei um die erste Studie, die HLA-J als neuen prädiktiven Marker im Brustkrebs identifiziert hat und möglicherweise zur Immunevasion beiträgt.
Publication Date: 2020-11-12
Journal: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde

miR-9-5p facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting ESR1.
The study aimed to explore the relationship between miR-9-5p and ESR1, and clarify the underlying functional mechanism in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Expression data including miRNAs and mRNAs of HCC downloaded from TCGA database were processed for differential analysis, and corresponding clinical data were collected for survival analysis to identify the target miRNA miR-9-5p. Bioinformatics databases were applied for predicting downstream target mRNAs of miR-9-5p. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate expression of miR-9-5p. Western blot was used to detect protein expression of ESR1. MTT, wound healing assay and Transwell assay were used to detect HCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to identify the targeting relationship between miR-9-5p and ESR1. Research suggested that miR-9-5p was highly expressed in HCC cells but ESR1 was poorly expressed. Overexpression of miR-9-5p could improve the proliferation, invasion and migration of cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that ESR1 was the downstream target of miR-9-5p in HCC. Overexpression of miR-9-5p markedly reduced ESR1 mRNA and protein levels in HCC cells, whereas inhibition of miR-9-5p expression produced the contrary results. Silencing ESR1 could noticeably reverse the effect of miR-9-5p knockdown on the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. As an oncogene, miR-9-5p fostered the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells by targeting and inhibiting ESR1 expression.
Publication Date: 2020-10-28
Journal: Molecular and cellular biochemistry

A Randomized Placebo Controlled Phase II Trial Evaluating Exemestane with or without Enzalutamide in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.
To determine whether the androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor, enzalutamide, improves effectiveness of endocrine therapy (ET) in hormone receptor-positive (HR In this phase II trial, patients with HR Overall, 247 patients were randomized (cohort 1, Enzalutamide with exemestane was well tolerated. While PFS was not improved by the addition of enzalutamide to exemestane in an unselected population, ET-naïve patients with high AR mRNA levels, particularly in combination with low ESR1 mRNA levels, may benefit from enzalutamide with exemestane.
Publication Date: 2020-09-30
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

Differential Regulation and Targeting of Estrogen Receptor α Turnover in Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma.
Invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers diagnosed annually. Evidence suggests that some aspects of endocrine treatment response might differ between invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and ILC, and that patients with ILC have worse long-term survival. We analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and observed lower levels of ESR1 mRNA (P = 0.002) and ERα protein (P = 0.038) in ER+ ILC (n = 137) compared to IDC (n = 554), and further confirmed the mRNA difference in a local UPMC cohort (ILC, n = 143; IDC, n = 877; P < 0.005). In both datasets, the correlation between ESR1 mRNA and ERα protein was weaker in ILC, suggesting differential post-transcriptional regulation of ERα. In vitro, 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased the rate of degradation and increased the half-life of ERα in ILC cell lines, whereas the opposite was observed in IDC cell lines. Further, E2 failed to induce robust ubiquitination of ERα in ILC cells. To determine the potential clinical relevance of these findings, we evaluated the effect of 2 selective estrogen receptor downregulators (SERDs), ICI 182,780 and AZD9496, on ERα turnover and cell growth. While ICI 182,780 and AZD9496 showed similar effects in IDC cells, in ILC cell lines, AZD9496 was not as effective as ICI 182,780 in decreasing ERα stability and E2-induced proliferation. Furthermore, AZD9496 exhibited partial agonist activity in growth assays in ILC cell lines. Our study provides evidence for a distinct ERα regulation by SERDs in ILC cell lines, and therefore it is important to include ILC models into preclinical and clinical testing of novel SERDs.
Publication Date: 2020-07-02
Journal: Endocrinology

Cyclical cervical function in the mare involves remodelling of collagen content, which is correlated with modification of oestrogen receptor 1 abundance.
This study was conducted to elucidate mare cervical dilation mechanisms by testing two hypotheses: (i) the proportion of collagen staining in histological samples of mare cervices and (ii) the abundance of hormone receptors in the equine cervix differ with stage of the oestrous cycle and site within the cervix. Tissues and jugular vein blood samples were collected from 15 mares. Collagen content was assessed using Masson's Trichome staining. Receptor abundance was assessed using RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In sub-epithelial stroma, there was less collagen during the follicular than luteal phase, in the caudal- (P =  0.029), mid- (P =  0.0000) and cranial (P =  0.001) cervical tissue. In the deep stroma, there was less collagen staining during the follicular stage in the mid- (P =  0.004) and cranial- (P =  0.041) cervical regions. There were PTGER2, PTGER3, PGR and ESR1 mRNA transcripts in the cervix. A greater proportion of cells were positive for ESR1 protein during the follicular phase in sub-epithelial (P =  0.019) and deep (P =  0.013) stroma. The abundance of ESR1 in the epithelium was negatively correlated with collagen staining in sub-epithelial (P =  0.007) and deep (P =  0.005) stroma. The results of the study provide new information about the cervical biology of mares by increasing the knowledge about collagen content and the relationship between collagen content and ESR1 protein abundance during the oestrous cycle which indicates the ESR1 receptor is a candidate for involvement in control of cervical dilation.
Publication Date: 2019-10-23
Journal: Animal reproduction science

Impact of estrogen receptor α on the tamoxifen response and prognosis in luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer.
The luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer groups have distinct biological features that lead to differences in the treatment response and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the value of the distribution pattern of ERα expression, ESR1 SNPs as well as ESR1 mRNA expression in predicting tamoxifen response and survival in patients with luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer. A total of 135 patients with both subtypes were stratified into two groups depending on the tamoxifen response: tamoxifen-resistant patients (TR) and tamoxifen-sensitive patients (TS). ESR1 mRNA expression was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Three polymorphisms of ESR1 (rs2077647, rs2228480 and rs1801132) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. The distribution pattern of ERα expression was analyzed immunohistochemically using the visual assessment of staining. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). There was a significant decrease in ESR1 mRNA expression level in the TR group when compared to the TS group among patients with luminal-B-like subtype (P = 0.038). ESR1 2014AA mutant genotype of rs2228480 was more prevalent in the TR patients with luminal-B-like subtype than the TS group (P = 0.045). In the luminal-A-like group, tamoxifen-resistant tumors were more frequently heterogeneous for ERα expression than tamoxifen-sensitive tumors (P = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed a strong association of lymph node status and the distribution pattern of ERα expression with tamoxifen responsiveness in this cohort of patients. In addition, a luminal-A-like patients with the heterogeneous ERα expression had a significantly shorter PFS time than those with the homogeneous ERα (P = 0.013). These results indicate that the heterogeneous expression of ERα is an accurate predictor of tamoxifen response and survival in luminal-A-like breast cancer patients. ESR1 rs2228480 may act as a marker with a high prognostic potential in luminal-B-like tumors.
Publication Date: 2019-09-29
Journal: Clinical and experimental medicine

Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Transcriptionally Repress ESR1 but Cannot Overcome Constitutive ESR1 Mutant Activity.
Estrogen receptor α (ER) is the target of endocrine therapies in ER-positive breast cancer (BC), but their therapeutic effectiveness diminishes with disease progression. Most metastatic BCs retain an ER-positive status, but ER expression levels are reduced. We asked how the bone tumor microenvironment (TME) regulates ER expression. We observed ESR1 mRNA and ER protein downregulation in BC cells treated with conditioned media (CM) from patient-derived, cancer-activated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and the BMSC cell line HS5. Decreases in ESR1 mRNA were attributed to decreases in nascent transcripts as well as decreased RNA polymerase II occupancy and H3K27Ac levels on the ESR1 promoter and/or distal enhancer (ENH1). Repression extended to neighboring genes of ESR1, including ARMT1 and SYNE1. Although ERK/MAPK signaling pathway can repress ER expression by other TME cell types, MAPK inhibition did not reverse decreases in ER expression by BMSC-CM. ESR1 mRNA and ER protein half-lives in MCF7 cells were unchanged by BMSC-CM treatment. Whereas ER phosphorylation was induced, ER activity was repressed by BMSC-CM as neither ER occupancy at known binding sites nor estrogen response element-luciferase activity was detected. BMSC-CM also repressed expression of ER target genes. In cells expressing the Y537S and D538G ESR1 mutations, BMSC-CM reduced ESR1, but expression of target genes PGR and TFF1 remained significantly elevated compared with that of control wild-type cells. These studies demonstrate that BMSCs can transcriptionally corepress ESR1 with neighboring genes and inhibit receptor activity, but the functional consequences of the BMSC TME can be limited by metastasis-associated ESR1 mutations.
Publication Date: 2019-09-11
Journal: Endocrinology

Estrogen withdrawal and replacement differentially target liver and adipose tissues in female mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet: impact of a chronic exposure to a low-dose pollutant mixture
Postmenopausal women may be at particular risk when exposed to chemicals especially endocrine disruptors because of hormonal deficit. To get more insight, ovariectomized C57Bl6/J mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet were chronically exposed from 5 to 20 weeks of age to a low-dose mixture of chemicals with one dioxin, one polychlorobiphenyl, one phthalate and bisphenol A. Part of the mice received as well E2 implants to explore the potential estrogenic dependency of the metabolic alterations. With this model, estrogen loss resulted in glucose but not lipid metabolism impairment, and E2 replacement normalized the enhanced body and fat pad weight, and the glucose intolerance and insulin resistance linked to ovariectomy. It also altered cholesterol metabolism in the liver concurrently with enhanced estrogen receptor Esr1 mRNA level. In addition, fat depots responded differently to estrogen withdrawal (e.g., selective mRNA enhancement of adipogenesis markers in subcutaneous and of inflammation in visceral fat pads) and replacement challenges. Importantly, the pollutant mixture impacted lipid deposition and mRNA expression of several genes related to lipid metabolism but not Esr1 in the liver. Adiponectin levels were altered as well. In addition, the mRNA abundance of the various estrogen receptors was regionally impacted in fat tissues. Besides, xenobiotic processing genes did not change in response to the pollutant mixture in the liver. The present findings bring new light on estrogen-dependent metabolic alterations with regards to situations of loss of estrogens as observed after menopause.
Publication Date: 2019-09-02
Journal: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry

Sesterterpene MHO7 suppresses breast cancer cells as a novel estrogen receptor degrader.
Breast cancer, the most prevalent cancer in women, remains the second in the list of cancer mortality, the majority of these fatalities resulted from estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive disease. ERα is well known for its function on breast cancer initiation and development and has become the most successful biomarker in breast cancers. Ophiobolins are sesterterpene compounds with a distinct tricyclic 5-8-5 ring and have presented anti-cancer activities. MHO7(6-epi-ophiobolin G)was isolated from products of a mangrove fungus in our previous research and demonstrated robust activity against breast cancer cells (BCCs). The investigation on the precise mechanism of MHO7 shows that MHO7 acts as a novel ERα down regulator different from the known molecules in ER + breast cancer cells. A whole-genome transcriptomic analysis on MCF-7 cells treated with MHO7 revealed the estrogen signaling pathway was the most affected pathway, and further evidence showed the de novo synthesis of ESR1 mRNA was inhibited. In addition, MHO7 down-regulated ERα at the protein level through multiple approaches. It not only bound to ERα, pushing helix 11 away in the agonist conformation but also increased the ERα degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These effects consequently caused decreasing of the transcriptional activity of ER modulation which was confirmed by the decreasing of estrogen receptor element (ERE) activity as well as downstream genes expressions like GREB1, BRCA1, MUC1 and CCND1. Combination of tamoxifen and MHO7 yield a synergistic effect on the inhibition of MCF-7 cells when treated around the IC
Publication Date: 2019-06-09
Journal: Pharmacological research

A novel somatic mutation of SIN3A detected in breast cancer by whole-exome sequencing enhances cell proliferation through ERα expression.
Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor in women, and in nearly two-thirds of cases, the tumors express estrogen receptor α (ERα, encoded by ESR1). Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 16 breast cancer tissues classified according to ESR1 expression and 12 samples of whole blood, and detected 310 somatic mutations in cancer tissues with high levels of ESR1 expression. Of the somatic mutations validated by a different deep sequencer, a novel nonsense somatic mutation, c.2830 C>T; p.Gln944*, in transcriptional regulator switch-independent 3 family member A (SIN3A) was detected in breast cancer of a patient. Part of the mutant protein localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to the nuclear localization of ERα, and induced a significant increase in ESR1 mRNA. The SIN3A mutation obviously enhanced MCF7 cell proliferation. In tissue sections from the breast cancer patient with the SIN3A c.2830 C>T mutation, cytoplasmic SIN3A localization was detected within the tumor regions where nuclear enlargement was observed. The reduction in SIN3A mRNA correlates with the recurrence of ER-positive breast cancers on Kaplan-Meier plots. These observations reveal that the SIN3A mutation has lost its transcriptional repression function due to its cytoplasmic localization, and that this repression may contribute to the progression of breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2018-10-31
Journal: Scientific reports

Endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer model cells are inhibited by soybean glyceollin I through Eleanor non-coding RNA.
Long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) of an estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive breast cancer cell line recapitulates cancer cells that have acquired estrogen-independent cell proliferation and endocrine therapy resistance. Previously, we have shown that a cluster of non-coding RNAs, Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating non-coding RNAs) formed RNA cloud and upregulated the ESR1 gene in the nuclei of LTED cells. Eleanors were inhibited by resveratrol through ER. Here we prepared another polyphenol, glyceollin I from stressed soybeans, and identified it as a major inhibitor of the Eleanor RNA cloud and ESR1 mRNA transcription. The inhibition was independent of ER, unlike one by resveratrol. This was consistent with a distinct tertiary structure of glyceollin I for ER binding. Glyceollin I preferentially inhibited the growth of LTED cells and induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that glyceollin I has a novel role in LTED cell inhibition through Eleanors. In other words, LTED cells or endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer cells may be ready for apoptosis, which can be triggered with polyphenols both in ER-dependent and ER-independent manners.
Publication Date: 2018-10-14
Journal: Scientific reports

MiR-301a-3p Suppresses Estrogen Signaling by Directly Inhibiting ESR1 in ERα Positive Breast Cancer.
MiRNA-301a-3p is an oncogenic miRNA whose expression is associated with tumor development, metastases and overall poor prognosis. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is one of the estrogen hormone-activated transcription factors, which regulates a large number of genes and is involved in the mammary gland development. Expression of ERα is considered to be a good indicator for endocrine therapy and breast cancer survival. Loss of ERα in breast cancer patients indicates invasiveness and poor prognosis. In this study, we focus on the regulation of ERα by miR-301a and its role in transition from estrogen-dependent to estrogen-independent breast cancer. Expression of miR-301a-3p was measured by qRT-PCR in tumor tissue samples from 111 patients with primary breast carcinoma and in mammospheres representing in vitro model of cancer stem-like cells. Dual reporter luciferase assay and complementary experiments were performed to validate ESR1 as a direct target of miR-301a-3p. The effect of miR-301a-3p on estrogen signaling was evaluated on the level of gene and protein expression and growth response to estrogens. Finally, the effect of miR-301a-3p expression on tumor growth was studied in nude mice. We identified ESR1 as a direct target of miR-301a-3p. Ectopic miR-301a-3p causes a decrease in ESR1 mRNA and protein level and modulates the expression of ERα target genes in ERα positive breast cancer cells. Consistently, miR-301a-3p causes a decrease in sensitivity of MCF7 cells to 17β-estradiol and inhibits the growth of estrogen dependent tumor in nude mice. Yet, the mice tumors have significantly increased expression of genes related to cancer stem-like cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition suggesting enrichment of the population of cells with more invasive properties, in line with our observation that miR-301a-3p expression is highly increased in mammospheres which show a decrease in estrogenic signaling. Importantly, miR-301a-3P level is also increased in primary breast cancer samples exhibiting an ER/PR negative phenotype. Our results confirm ESR1 as a direct target of miR-301a-3p and suggest that miR-301a-3p likely contributes to development of estrogen independence, which leads to a more invasive phenotype of breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2018-05-16
Journal: Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology

Updated results from MONALEESA-2, a phase III trial of first-line ribociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer.
The phase III MONALEESA-2 study demonstrated significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and a manageable toxicity profile for first-line ribociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole in patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. Here, we report updated efficacy and safety data, together with exploratory biomarker analyses, from the MONALEESA-2 study. A total of 668 postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- recurrent/metastatic breast cancer were randomized (1 : 1; stratified by presence/absence of liver and/or lung metastases) to ribociclib (600 mg/day; 3-weeks-on/1-week-off; 28-day treatment cycles) plus letrozole (2.5 mg/day; continuous) or placebo plus letrozole. The primary end point was locally assessed PFS. The key secondary end point was overall survival (OS). Other secondary end points included overall response rate (ORR) and safety. Biomarker analysis was an exploratory end point. At the time of the second interim analysis, the median duration of follow-up was 26.4 months. Median PFS was 25.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.0-30.3] for ribociclib plus letrozole and 16.0 months (95% CI 13.4-18.2) for placebo plus letrozole (hazard ratio 0.568; 95% CI 0.457-0.704; log-rank P = 9.63 × 10-8). Ribociclib treatment benefit was maintained irrespective of PIK3CA or TP53 mutation status, total Rb, Ki67, or p16 protein expression, and CDKN2A, CCND1, or ESR1 mRNA levels. Ribociclib benefit was more pronounced in patients with wild-type versus altered receptor tyrosine kinase genes. OS data remain immature, with 116 deaths observed; 50 in the ribociclib arm and 66 in the placebo arm (hazard ratio 0.746; 95% CI 0.517-1.078). The ORR was 42.5% versus 28.7% for all patients treated with ribociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole, respectively, and 54.5% versus 38.8%, respectively, for patients with measurable disease. Safety results, after a further 11.1 months of follow-up, were comparable with those reported at the first analysis, with no new or unexpected toxicities observed, and no evidence of cumulative toxicity. The improved efficacy outcomes and manageable tolerability observed with first-line ribociclib plus letrozole are maintained with longer follow-up, relative to letrozole monotherapy. NCT01958021.
Publication Date: 2018-05-03
Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology

DNA Methylation Status of the Estrogen Receptor α Gene in Canine Mammary Tumors.
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, prognosis, and treatment. In human and canine mammary cancer, the most aggressive tumors show loss of ERα expression, which in human breast cancer has been attributed to methylation of the cytosine followed by guanine (CpG) island within the estrogen receptor α gene ( ESR1) promoter. This study aimed to investigate the role of ESR1 CpG island (CGI) methylation in ERα expression in canine mammary tumors. Twenty-one canine mammary samples were sorted into three groups: malignant tumor (n = 9), benign tumor (n = 8), and normal gland (n = 4). Immunohistochemical analysis and reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR were performed to assess ERα expression and ESR1 mRNA levels. The methylation status was determined using sodium-bisulfite-treated DNA sequencing. All normal mammary glands and benign tumors showed high ERα expression (score range, 5-8). Six of the nine malignant tumors did not show ERα expression (score 0), two had score 2, and one had score 4. Lower ERα ( P < .005) and ESR1 mRNA levels ( P < .005) were found in malignant mammary tumors than in the other two groups. Canine ESR1 has an intragenic and non-promoter-associated CGI, different from humans. No significant variation in methylation percentage was observed among the groups, suggesting that ESR1 is not regulated by DNA methylation, unlike that in humans. This difference should be considered in further research using ERα as a biomarker for mammary tumors in canine studies on ERα-targeting therapy.
Publication Date: 2018-03-24
Journal: Veterinary pathology

The ESR1 and GPX1 gene expression level in human malignant and non-malignant breast tissues.
The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor. We used the quantitative real-time PCR technique to analyze differences in the expression levels of the ESR1 and GPX1 genes in paired malignant and non-malignant tissues from breast cancer patients. ESR1 and GPX1 expression levels were found to be significantly down-regulated by 14.7% and 7.4% (respectively) in the tumorous breast tissue when compared to the non-malignant one. Down-regulation of these genes was independent of the tumor histopathology classification and clinicopathological factors, while the ESR1 mRNA level was reduced with increasing tumor grade (G1: 103% vs. G2: 85.8% vs. G3: 84.5%; p<0.05). In the non-malignant and malignant breast tissues, the expression levels of ESR1 and GPX1 were significantly correlated with each other (Rs=0.450 and Rs=0.360; respectively). Our data suggest that down-regulation of ESR1 and GPX1 was independent of clinicopathological factors. Down-regulation of ESR1 gene expression was enhanced by the development of the disease. Moreover, GPX1 and ESR1 gene expression was interdependent in the malignant breast tissue and further work is needed to determine the mechanism underlying this relationship.
Publication Date: 2018-03-16
Journal: Acta biochimica Polonica

Effects of MCLR exposure on sex hormone synthesis and reproduction-related genes expression of testis in male Rana nigromaculata.
Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the most popular and toxic variant among microcystins, which can cause severe reproductive toxicity to animals. However, the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity induced by MCLR in amphibians are still not entirely clear. In the current study, toxicity mechanisms of MCLR on the reproductive system of male Rana nigromaculata followed by low concentration (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/L) and short-term (0, 7, and 14 days) MCLR exposure were shown. It was observed that MCLR could be bioaccumulated in the testes of male frogs, and the theoretical bioaccumulation factor values were 0.24 and 0.19 exposed to 1 μg/L and 10 μg/L MCLR for 14 days, respectively. MCLR exposure significantly decreased testosterone (T) concentrations and increased estradiol (E2) concentrations exposed to 1 and 10 μg/L MCLR for 14 days. The mRNA levels of HSD17B3 were downregulated, and HSD17B1 and CYP19A1 mRNA expression levels were upregulated, respectively. Only 10 μg/L MCLR group showed significant induction of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content. Moreover, AR and ESR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated exposed to 1 and 10 μg/L MCLR for 14 days, respectively. Our results suggested that low-concentration MCLR induced transcription changes of CYP19A1, HSD17B3, and HSD17B1 led to endocrine disorders, and caused interference of spermatogenesis by the decrease of T and abnormal gene expressions of AR and ESR1 in the testes of R. nigromaculata.
Publication Date: 2018-02-08
Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)

Elevated Aromatase (CYP19A1) Expression Is Associated with a Poor Survival of Patients with Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer.
Genetic variants in CYP19A1, the gene encoding aromatase, have been reported to be associated with circulating estrogen concentrations, a key risk factor for breast cancer. The mechanism underlying this association is still unclear; it has been suggested that some of these variants may alter the expression and/or activity of aromatase. Here we analyzed the expression of intra-tumoral CYP19A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the genotypes of rs10046, a well-characterized single nucleotide polymorphism in CYP19A1, in 138 breast cancer patients and 15 breast cancer cell lines. The genotype TT was detected in 36 patients and six cell lines, genotype CT in 55 patients and five cell lines, and genotype CC in 28 patients and four cell lines. We found no evidence for a significant association of CYP19A1 levels with rs10046 genotypes, although expression tended to be higher in tumors and cell lines with the homozygous risk genotype TT. We also found no evidence for a significant association of rs10046 genotypes with breast cancer prognosis. In contrast, high CYP19A1 expression was highly significantly associated with a poor overall, disease-free, and metastasis-free survival in estrogen receptor-positive but not negative breast cancer patients. Moreover, CYP19A1 mRNA was significantly elevated in postmenopausal patients and in patients older than 50 years, and a trend towards a positive correlation with ER status and ESR1 mRNA expression was observed. These findings highlight the key role of aromatase in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer biology.
Publication Date: 2018-01-25
Journal: Hormones & cancer

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esr1 rs2077647(2)

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receptor-alpha esr1(2)

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