Exercise alleviates symptoms of CNS lupus.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is a global health problem where 20-80% patients display cognitive problems and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Early diagnosis and treatment of lupus remains a clinical challenge. Exercise improves experimental lupus nephritis. However, the effects of exercise in CNS lupus remains unknown. This study investigates the effects of controlled exercise (CE) that consisted of treadmill walking (5 m/min for 10 min everyday) on experimental CNS lupus using the well-established mouse model, MRL/lpr mice. The MRL/lpr mice were subjected to CE from 8 weeks (preclinical) to 16 weeks (disease). Multiplex gene expression analysis revealed significant upregulation of genes involved in neurite growth, proliferation and synaptic plasticity, and a decrease in inflammatory genes including complement proteins, NFkB, chemokines and cytokines in exercised mice compared to the unmanipulated, age-matched controls. The loss of blood-brain barrier integrity, astrogliosis and edema seen in MRL/lpr mice were reduced with exercise. Exercised mice performed better in behavioral assessments such as open field, nesting, and tail suspension test. For the first time our results show that a supervised, well-regulated and controlled exercise regimen alleviates CNS lupus and could potentially serve as an intervention strategy to improve the quality of life. Exercise could also serve as an adjunct therapy for lupus and other neuroinflammatory diseases, thereby reducing the need for the current therapies with toxic side effects. The validity of the findings and a safe exercise regimen needs to be established by additional studies in patients.
Publication Date: 2021-04-15
Journal: Brain research
Early-Life Body Adiposity and the Breast Tumor Transcriptome.
Cumulative epidemiologic evidence has shown that early-life adiposity is strongly inversely associated with breast cancer risk throughout life, independent of adult obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood.
We assessed the association of early-life adiposity, defined as self-reported body size during ages 10-20 years from a validated 9-level pictogram, with the transcriptome of breast tumor (N = 835) and tumor-adjacent histologically normal tissue (N = 663) in the Nurses' Health Study. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in tumor and tumor-adjacent tissue, respectively. Molecular pathway analysis using Hallmark gene sets (N = 50) was further performed to gain biological insights. Analysis was stratified by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) protein expression status (n = 673 for ER+ and 162 for ER- tumors).
No gene was statistically significantly differentially expressed by early-life body size after multiple comparison adjustment. However, pathway analysis revealed several statistically significantly (false discovery rate < 0.05) upregulated or downregulated gene sets. In stratified analyses by tumor ER status, larger body size during ages 10-20 years was associated with decreased cellular proliferation pathways, including MYC target genes, in both ER+ and ER- tumors. In ER+ tumors, larger body size was also associated with upregulation in genes involved in TNFα/NFkB signaling. In ER- tumors, larger body size was additionally associated with downregulation in genes involved in interferon α and interferon γ immune response and Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling; the INFγ response pathway was also downregulated in ER- tumor-adjacent tissue, though at borderline statistical significance (false discovery rate = 0.1).
These findings provide new insights into the biological and pathological underpinnings of the early-life adiposity and breast cancer association.
Publication Date: 2020-11-03
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Transcriptional changes in muscle of hibernating arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii): implications for attenuation of disuse muscle atrophy.
Physical inactivity generates muscle atrophy in most mammalian species. In contrast, hibernating mammals demonstrate limited muscle loss over the prolonged intervals of immobility during winter, which suggests that they have adaptive mechanisms to reduce disuse muscle atrophy. To identify transcriptional programs that underlie molecular mechanisms attenuating muscle loss, we conducted a large-scale gene expression profiling in quadriceps muscle of arctic ground squirrels, comparing hibernating (late in a torpor and during torpor re-entry after arousal) and summer active animals using next generation sequencing of the transcriptome. Gene set enrichment analysis showed a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in all stages of protein biosynthesis and ribosome biogenesis during both stages of hibernation that suggests induction of translation during interbout arousals. Elevated proportion of down-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, NFKB signaling as well as significant under expression of atrogenes, upstream regulators (FOXO1, FOXO3, NFKB1A), key components of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (FBXO32, TRIM63, CBLB), and overexpression of PPARGC1B inhibiting proteolysis imply suppression of protein degradation in muscle during arousals. The induction of protein biosynthesis and decrease in protein catabolism likely contribute to the attenuation of disuse muscle atrophy through prolonged periods of immobility of hibernation.
Publication Date: 2020-06-04
Journal: Scientific reports
Genetic predictors of long-term response and trough levels of infliximab in crohn's disease.
Several factors, such as trough serum anti-TNF levels, have been associated with response to therapy in Crohn's disease. However, this association is observed after initiation of treatment. Identifying DNA variants may prove useful for predicting long-term response or failure to these drugs before initiation of treatment.
To identify genetic variants associated with long-term response to infliximab and trough levels in Crohn's disease.
An observational, longitudinal study was conducted. We analyzed blood samples from 132 infliximab-treated patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease from 2 hospitals. We genotyped 21 polymorphisms previously related to anti-TNF response in genes involved in the NFkB-mediated inflammatory response, TNFα-signaling and cytokines regulated by NFkB, using real-time PCR. Trough infliximab levels were measured using ELISA. The association between SNPs and time-to-failure (defined as the time from the initiation of induction therapy to the date of treatment withdrawal due to a primary or secondary failure) was analyzed using log-rank test. The association between SNPs and supra-(>7 μg/mL) or infratherapeutic (<3 μg/mL) infliximab trough levels was analyzed using a linear-by-linear association chi-squared test.
Two SNPs in TLR2, rs1816702 and rs3804099, and 1 SNP in TNFRSF1B, rs1061624, were associated with long-term response (up to ten years follow-up) to infliximab (HR, 0.13 [95%CI, 0.02-1.00], p < 0.05; HR, 0.39 [95%CI, 0.18-0.88], p < 0.05; and HR, 0.04 [95%CI, 0.18-0.92] p > 0.05, respectively). In addition, IL6 rs10499563 C and IL10 rs1800872 A were associated with supratherapeutic trough infliximab levels; IL10 rs3024505 T was associated with infratherapeutic levels (p < 0.05).
Genotyping of the variants identified in the genes encoding TLR2, TNFRSF1B, IL6 and IL10 reported herein represent a promising tool for the identification and selection of those patients who will benefit most from infliximab.
Publication Date: 2019-10-13
Journal: Pharmacological research
Genotyping circulating tumor DNA of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma.
We used hybrid capture-targeted next-generation sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (PHL) patients to determine pathogenic mechanisms and assess the clinical utility of this method. Hodgkin-Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cell-derived single nucleotide variants, insertions/deletions, translocations and VH-DH-JH rearrangements were detected in pretherapy ccfDNA of 72 of 96 patients. Number of variants per patient ranged from 1 to 21 with allele frequencies from 0.6 to 42%. Nine translocation breakpoints were detected. Genes involved in JAK/STAT, NFkB and PI3K signaling and antigen presentation were most frequently affected. SOCS1 variants, mainly deletions, were found in most circulating tumor (ct) DNAs, and seven of the nine translocation breakpoints involved SOCS1. Analysis of VH-DH-JH rearrangements revealed an origin of PHL HRS cells from partially selected germinal center B cells. Amounts of pretherapy ctDNA were correlated with metabolic tumor volumes. Furthermore, in all ccfDNA samples of 43 patients with early response assessment quantitative qPET < 3, indicative of a favorable clinical course, ctDNA was not detectable. In contrast, in five of six patients with qPET > 3, indicative of an unfavorable clinical course, ctDNA remained detectable. ccfDNA analysis of PHL is thus a suitable approach to determine pathogenic mechanisms and monitor therapy response.
Publication Date: 2019-08-23
Polymorphisms in the NFkB, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-18 pathways are associated with response to anti-TNF therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is used for the treatment of severe cases of IBD, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. We have previously investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in inflammation were associated with response to anti-TNF therapy among patients with CD or UC.
A new cohort of patients was established for replication of the previous findings and to identify new SNPs associated with anti-TNF response.
Fifty-three SNPs assessed previously in cohort 1 (482 CD and 256 UC patients) were genotyped in cohort 2 (587 CD and 458 UC patients). The results were analysed using logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender).
Ten SNPs were associated with anti-TNF response either among patients with CD (TNFRSF1A(rs4149570) (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.02-3.60, P = 0.04), IL18(rs187238) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00-1.82, P = 0.05), and JAK2(rs12343867) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.78, P = 0.03)), UC (TLR2(rs11938228) (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92, P = 0.02), TLR4(rs5030728) (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24-4.01, P = 0.01) and (rs1554973) (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.90, P = 0.02), NFKBIA(rs696) (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-2.00, P = 0.02), and NLRP3(rs4612666) (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, P = 0.01)) or in the combined cohort of patient with CD and UC (IBD) (TLR4(rs5030728) (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.11, P = 0.04) and (rs1554973)(OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.98, P = 0.03), NFKBIA(rs696) (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54, P = 0.04), NLRP3(rs4612666) (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.95, P = 0.02), IL1RN(rs4251961) (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-1.00, P = 0.05), IL18(rs1946518) (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.53, P = 0.04), and JAK2(rs12343867) (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.53, P = 0.04)).
The results support that polymorphisms in genes involved in the regulation of the NFκB pathway (TLR2, TLR4, and NFKBIA), the TNF-α signalling pathway (TNFRSF1A), and other cytokine pathways (NLRP3, IL1RN, IL18, and JAK2) were associated with response to anti-TNF therapy. Our multi-SNP model predicted response rate of more than 82% (in 9% of the CD patients) and 75% (in 15% of the UC patients), compared to 71% and 64% in all CD and UC patients, respectively. More studies are warranted to predict response for use in the clinic.
Publication Date: 2019-02-28
Journal: Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
Airway epithelial cells prime plasmacytoid dendritic cells to respond to pathogens via secretion of growth factors.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are critical for defense against respiratory viruses because of their propensity to secrete high levels of type I interferons (IFN). The functions of PDCs in the lung can be influenced by airway epithelial cells. We examined the effect of human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) on PDC functions by performing RNA-sequencing of PDCs after co-culture with air liquid interface differentiated PBECs. Functional analysis revealed that PDCs co-cultured with PBECs displayed upregulation of type I IFN production and response genes. Upregulated transcripts included those encoding cytosolic sensors of DNA, ZBP-1,IRF-3, and NFkB as well as genes involved in amplification of the IFN response, such as IFNAR1, JAK/STAT, ISG15. In keeping with the RNA-seq data, we observe increased secretion of type I IFN and other cytokines in response to influenza in PDCs co-cultured with PBECs. The PDCs also primed Th1 responses in T cells. The enhanced response of PDCs co-cultured with PBECs was due to the action of growth factors, GMCSF, GCSF, and VEGF, which were secreted by PBECs on differentiation. These data highlight possible mechanisms to enhance the production of type-I IFN in the airways, which is critical for host defense against respiratory infections.
Publication Date: 2018-10-04
Journal: Mucosal immunology
Expression of microRNAs and IRAK1 pathway genes are altered in gastric cancer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.
Gastric cancer (GC) is among the most common cancer types in the world and one of the most lethal gastrointestinal cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be of great importance in the early detection of GC. This study aimed to investigate some miRNAs and the genes involved in IRAK1 pathways in the serum of GC patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections compared to the control group. Total RNA was extracted from the serum of GC patients with H. pylori infection and healthy volunteers. The expression levels of miRNAs and the genes were assessed using Real time RT-PCR with specific primers. Our data showed that miR-146, miR-375, and Let-7 were down-regulated and miR-19 and miR-21 were up-regulated in GC patients with H. pylori infection. Other genes involved in the pathways such as RAS, MYC, NFKB, JUN, TRAF6, and IRAK4 were overexpressed; while the expression of PTEN gene was decreased compared to the control group. Expression of miRNAs and IRAK1 pathway genes are altered in patients with GC and H. pylori infection. This suggests a potential role for the above-mentioned miRNAs and genes in the diagnosis of GC.
Publication Date: 2018-05-26
Journal: Journal of cellular biochemistry
Sex-dependent aortic valve pathology in patients with rheumatic heart disease.
Rheumatic heart disease is an autoimmune disease caused by group A streptococci infection and frequently affects the aortic valve. Sex differences are common in the disease progression, treatment, and outcome. However, little is known about the sex differences in the pathology of aortic valves in rheumatic heart disease.
We studied the end-stage calcific aortic valves from male versus female patients to reveal the sex-dependent pathology differences and molecular changes associated with requiring valve replacement.
Aortic valves from 39 patients with rheumatic heart disease (19 males and 20 females) were collected at the time of aortic valve replacement for comparative pathology, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression analyses. Clinical characteristics were also analyzed and compared between the two groups.
Aortic valves from female patients exhibited increased expression of collagens, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and neovascularization. Aortic valves from female patients also had increased expression of inflammatory genes involved in the NFKB pathway (phosphorylated NFKB p65 subunit, IL8, and NOS3) and Th1 cytokine genes (IFNA and IL12B). The severe valve pathology in female patients was correlated with a higher serum level of anti-streptolysin O antibodies.
Inflammation is more prominent in aortic valves of female patients with rheumatic heart disease. This sex difference may contribute to the severe valve pathology and worse outcome of female patients.
Publication Date: 2017-07-01
Journal: PloS one
Macrophage-derived nitric oxide initiates T-cell diapedesis and tumor rejection.
In tumor biology, nitric oxide (NO) is generally regarded as an immunosuppressive molecule that impedes T-cell functions and activation of endothelial cells. Contrasting with this view, we here describe a critical role for NO derived from inducible nitric oxide (iNOS)-expressing tumor macrophages in T-cell infiltration and tumor rejection as shown by iNOS gene deletion, inhibition of iNOS, or NO donors. Specifically, macrophage-derived NO was found to induce on tumor vessels adhesion molecules that were required for T-cell extravasation. Experiments with human endothelial cells revealed a bimodal dose-dependent effect of NO. High doses of NO donors were indeed suppressive but lower, more physiological concentrations, induced adhesion molecules in an NFkB-dependent pathway and preferentially activated transcription of genes involved in lymphocyte diapedesis. iNOS
Publication Date: 2016-11-18
Effect of n-3 fatty acids on the expression of inflammatory genes in THP-1 macrophages.
Uncontrolled inflammation participates in the development of inflammatory diseases. Beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids belonging to the n-3 family such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on inflammation have been reported. The present study investigates the basal effects of EPA, DHA and a mixture EPA + DHA on the expression of 10 genes (AKT1, MAPK, NFKB, TNFA, IL1Β, MCP1, ALOX5, PTGS2, MGST1 and NOS2) related to inflammation in unstimulated cultured THP1 macrophages. Cells were incubated for 24 h with n-3 PUFAs (50 μM and 10 μM EPA, DHA, EPA + DHA). Expression levels of inflammatory genes were analyzed by real-time PCR.
50 μM, 10 μM EPA and 50 μM EPA + DHA decreased the expression of genes involved in the NF-κB pathway (MAPK, AKT1, and NFKB). Treatment with 50 μM, 10 μM EPA, 50 μM DHA and EPA + DHA decreased expression levels of cytokines genes IL1Β and MCP1. TNFA expression was decreased by 50 μM, 10 μM of EPA, DHA and with 50 μM EPA + DHA. Two genes involved in the fatty acid metabolism (PTGS2 and ALOX5) were also modulated by the n-3 FAs. 50 μM of DHA and EPA + DHA inhibited PTGS2 expression when the two concentrations of EPA, 50 μM DHA and EPA + DHA inhibited ALOX5 expression. Finally, the effects of n-3 FAs were studied among genes involved in the oxidative stress. 50 μM of each fatty acid increased MGST1 expression. Both concentration of EPA and 50 μM DHA decreased NOS2 expression.
EPA seems to be more effective than DHA and EPA + DHA in modulating expression levels of selected inflammatory genes. The concentration of 50 μM was globally more effective than 10 μM.
Publication Date: 2016-04-06
Journal: Lipids in health and disease
Differential gene network analysis for the identification of asthma-associated therapeutic targets in allergen-specific T-helper memory responses.
Asthma is strongly associated with allergic sensitization, but the mechanisms that determine why only a subset of atopics develop asthma are not well understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that variations in allergen-driven CD4 T cell responses are associated with susceptibility to expression of asthma symptoms.
The study population consisted of house dust mite (HDM) sensitized atopics with current asthma (n = 22), HDM-sensitized atopics without current asthma (n = 26), and HDM-nonsensitized controls (n = 24). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these groups were cultured in the presence or absence of HDM extract for 24 h. CD4 T cells were then isolated by immunomagnetic separation, and gene expression patterns were profiled on microarrays.
Differential network analysis of HDM-induced CD4 T cell responses in sensitized atopics with or without asthma unveiled a cohort of asthma-associated genes that escaped detection by more conventional data analysis techniques. These asthma-associated genes were enriched for targets of STAT6 signaling, and they were nested within a larger coexpression module comprising 406 genes. Upstream regulator analysis suggested that this module was driven primarily by IL-2, IL-4, and TNF signaling; reconstruction of the wiring diagram of the module revealed a series of hub genes involved in inflammation (IL-1B, NFkB, STAT1, STAT3), apoptosis (BCL2, MYC), and regulatory T cells (IL-2Ra, FoxP3). Finally, we identified several negative regulators of asthmatic CD4 T cell responses to allergens (e.g. IL-10, type I interferons, microRNAs, drugs, metabolites), and these represent logical candidates for therapeutic intervention.
Differential network analysis of allergen-induced CD4 T cell responses can unmask covert disease-associated genes and pin point novel therapeutic targets.
Publication Date: 2016-02-29
Journal: BMC medical genomics
BET bromodomain inhibitors synergize with ATR inhibitors to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, senescence-associated secretory pathway and ER stress in Myc-induced lymphoma cells.
Inhibiting the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) domain family of epigenetic reader proteins has been shown to have potent anti-tumoral activity, which is commonly attributed to suppression of transcription. In this study, we show that two structurally distinct BET inhibitors (BETi) interfere with replication and cell cycle progression of murine Myc-induced lymphoma cells at sub-lethal concentrations when the transcriptome remains largely unaltered. This inhibition of replication coincides with a DNA-damage response and enhanced sensitivity to inhibitors of the upstream replication stress sensor ATR in vitro and in mouse models of B-cell lymphoma. Mechanistically, ATR and BETi combination therapy cause robust transcriptional changes of genes involved in cell death, senescence-associated secretory pathway, NFkB signaling and ER stress. Our data reveal that BETi can potentiate the cell stress and death caused by ATR inhibitors. This suggests that ATRi can be used in combination therapies of lymphomas without the use of genotoxic drugs.
Publication Date: 2016-01-26
Pulmonary transcriptional response to ozone in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rat models.
The genetic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated metabolic impairments can influence the lung injury from inhaled pollutants. We hypothesized that comparative assessment of global pulmonary expression profile of healthy and CVD-prone rat models will provide mechanistic insights into susceptibility differences to ozone. The lung expression profiles of healthy Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and CVD-compromised spontaneously hypertensive (SH), stroke-prone SH (SHSP), obese SH heart failure (SHHF) and obese, atherosclerosis-prone JCR rats were analyzed using Affymetrix platform immediately after 4-h air or 1 ppm ozone exposure. At baseline, the JCR exhibited the largest difference in the number of genes among all strains when compared with WKY. Interestingly, the number of genes affected by ozone was inversely correlated with genes different at baseline relative to WKY. A cluster of NFkB target genes involved in cell-adhesion, antioxidant response, inflammation and apoptosis was induced in all strains, albeit at different levels (JCR < WKY < SHHF < SH < SHSP). The lung metabolic syndrome gene cluster indicated expressions in opposite directions for SHHF and JCR suggesting different mechanisms for common disease phenotype and perhaps obesity-independent contribution to exacerbated lung disease. The differences in expression of adrenergic receptors and ion-channel genes suggested distinct mechanisms by which ozone might induce protein leakage in CVD models, especially SHHF and JCR. Thus, the pulmonary response to ozone in CVD strains was likely linked to the defining gene expression profiles. Differential transcriptional patterns between healthy and CVD rat strains at baseline, and after ozone suggests that lung inflammation and injury might be influenced by multiple biological pathways affecting inflammation gene signatures.
Publication Date: 2015-12-17
Journal: Inhalation toxicology
Short-term diesel exhaust inhalation in a controlled human crossover study is associated with changes in DNA methylation of circulating mononuclear cells in asthmatics.
Changes in DNA methylation have been associated with traffic-related air pollution in observational studies, but the specific mechanisms and temporal dynamics therein have not been explored in a controlled study of asthmatics. In this study, we investigate short-term effects of diesel exhaust inhalation on DNA methylation levels at CpG sites across the genome in circulating blood in asthmatics.
A double-blind crossover study of filtered air and diesel exhaust exposures was performed on sixteen non-smoking asthmatic subjects. Blood samples were collected pre-exposure, and then 6 and 30 hours post-exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA methylation was interrogated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Array. Exposure-related changes in DNA methylation were identified. In addition, CpG sites overlapping with Alu or LINE1 repetitive elements and candidate microRNA loci were also analyzed.
DNA methylation at 2827 CpG sites were affected by exposure to diesel exhaust but not filtered air; these sites enriched for genes involved in protein kinase and NFkB pathways. CpG sites with significant changes in response to diesel exhaust exposure primarily became less methylated, with a site residing within GSTP1 being among the significant hits. Diesel exhaust-associated change was also found for CpG sites overlapping with Alu and LINE1 elements as well as for a site within miR-21.
Short-term exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in DNA methylation changes at CpG sites residing in genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress response, repetitive elements, and microRNA. This provides plausibility for the role of DNA methylation in pathways by which airborne particulate matter impacts gene expression and offers support for including DNA methylation analysis in future efforts to understand the interactions between environmental exposures and biological systems.
Publication Date: 2014-12-10
Journal: Particle and fibre toxicology
Viability and gene expression responses to polymeric nanoparticles in human and rat cells.
Applications of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) in medical fields are rapidly expanding. However, the influence of polymeric NP on cell growth and functions is widely underestimated. Therefore, we have studied cell and polymeric NP interactions by addressing two cell types with two endpoints (viability and gene expressions). Rat NR8383 and human THP-1 monocytic cell lines were exposed to 6 to 200 μg/mL of Eudragit(®) RL NP for 24 h, and cellular viability was estimated using MTT, WST-1, and trypan blue tests. A decrease of viability was observed with NR8383 cells (down to 70% for 200 μg/mL), and on the contrary, an increase with THP-1 cells (up to 140% for 200 μg/mL). Differential expression of genes involved in oxidative damage (NCF1), inflammation (NFKB, TNFA, IL6, IL1B), autophagy (ATG16L), and apoptotic balance (PDCD4, BCL2, CASP8) was analyzed. ATG16L, BCL2, and TNFA were up-regulated in NR8383 cells, which are consistent with an induction of autophagy and inflammation. On the other hand, NCF1, NFKB, and IL1B were down-regulated in THP-1 cells, which may contribute to explain the increase of cellular viability. Our results show that (1) the toxic potency of NP is dependent on the cellular model used and (2) mechanistic toxicology should be the corner stone for the evaluation of NP hazard.
Publication Date: 2014-04-22
Journal: Cell biology and toxicology
Cytokine polymorphisms are associated with fatigue in adults living with HIV/AIDS.
Fatigue has been associated with inflammation and cytokine activity among adults, but this relationship has not been evaluated among adults living with HIV. Diurnal patterns of fatigue have been previously identified in adults with HIV/AIDS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe these fatigue patterns in relation to cytokine plasma concentrations and gene polymorphisms. A convenience sample of 317 adults living with HIV/AIDS completed a measure of fatigue in the morning and evening for three consecutive days; participants reporting low levels of both morning and evening fatigue (n=110) or high levels of fatigue in the morning and evening (n=114) were included in the analysis, resulting in a final sample of 224 adults (151 men, 55 women, and 18 transgender). Plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB-1 and -2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. Controlling for genomic estimates of ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity and gender, the high fatigue pattern was associated with five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1B rs1071676 and rs1143627, IL4 rs2243274, and TNFA rs1800683 and rs1041981. The IL1B and TNFA polymorphisms were not associated with plasma levels of IL-1β or TNFα, respectively. This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and fatigue. In this chronic illness population, the cytokine polymorphisms associated with high levels of morning and evening fatigue provide direction for future personalized medicine intervention research.
Publication Date: 2014-03-19
Journal: Brain, behavior, and immunity
Inhibition of sepsis-induced inflammatory response by β1-adrenergic antagonists.
Although previous studies have described potential benefits of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist therapy in sepsis, there is a paucity of data on the use of β1-selective antagonists (B1AA). The purposes of this study were to describe the effects of B1AA on survival in septic animals and to explore for molecular mechanisms of potential treatment benefit.
C57BL/6 male mice received intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Continuous infusion of a B1AA (esmolol) or an equal volume of saline (control) was initiated at 4 hours after injection. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis at 120 hours was used to explore for mortality differences. A subgroup of animals was sacrificed for microarray expression analysis. Top candidate genes were validated in vitro and in silico. Expression of our candidate genes in a human microarray database (GSE28750) was explored.
B1AA infusion resulted in increased survival (p = 0.001) at 120 hours. Mean survival difference was 23.6 hours (p = 0.002). Hazard ratio for mortality with B1AA is 0.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.72). Immunologic disease (p = 0.0003-0.036) and cell death/survival (p = 0.0001-0.042) were significantly associated with improved survival in septic mice treated with B1AA. Further analysis of the gene structure revealed that eight genes shared common promoter activating sequence for NFKB and/or BRCA1 motifs. Analysis of a human sepsis database identified the up-regulation of CAMP (p = 0.032) and TNFSF10 (p = 0.001) genes in septic patients compared with healthy controls.
Continuous infusion of a B1AA initiated after septic insult improves survival at 5 days in a murine model. Benefits may be caused by modulation of gene expression in immunologic pathways leading to an increase in CAMP and TNFSF10 expression. This observed effect may be explained by the activation of NFKB and BRCA1 genes involved in immune response and cell repair pathways. Our findings support further investigation of the use of B1AA in the treatment of sepsis.
Publication Date: 2014-01-25
Journal: The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
Antioxidized LDL antibodies are associated with different metabolic pathways in patients with atherosclerotic plaque and type 2 diabetes.
Oxidized lipoproteins and antioxidized LDL antibodies (antioxLDL abs) have been detected in human plasma and atherosclerotic lesions. The principle aim of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between IgG and IgM antioxLDL abs and factors involved in different metabolic pathways (inflammation, lipid metabolism, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest profile) in the occluded popliteal artery (OPA) compared with the femoral vein (FV).
Fifteen patients with advanced atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes undergoing lower limb amputation participated in this study. Each patient had OPA and FV biopsy specimens and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. By real-time PCR, gene expression was analyzed from the OPA and FV specimens, and antioxLDL ab levels were measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The OPA and FV showed a positive correlation between only IgM antioxLDL ab levels and the expression of genes involved in different metabolic pathways, including inflammation (TFPI), apoptosis (BAX, caspase 3, AKT1), plaque disruption (MMP2 and MMP10), lipid metabolism (SCARB1, PPARg), and cell turnover (CDKN1A), and genes for transcription and growth factors (NFkB and VEGFA, respectively).
The results show that gene expression in the metabolic pathways (apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation) in the OPA and FV are directly related to the levels of IgM antioxLDL abs.
Publication Date: 2012-11-30
Journal: Diabetes care
Molecular characterization of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with a high number of losses in 13q14.
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 13q deletion as their only FISH abnormality could have a different outcome depending on the number of cells displaying this aberration. Thus, cases with a high number of 13q- cells (13q-H) had both shorter overall survival and time to first therapy. The goal of the study was to analyze the genetic profile of 13q-H patients.
A total of 102 samples were studied, 32 of which served as a validation cohort and five were healthy donors.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with higher percentages of 13q- cells (>80%) showed a different level of gene expression as compared to patients with lower percentages (<80%, 13q-L). This deregulation affected genes involved in apoptosis and proliferation (BCR and NFkB signaling), leading to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis in 13q-H patients. Deregulation of several microRNAs, such as miR-15a, miR-155, miR-29a and miR-223, was also observed in these patients. In addition, our study also suggests that the gene expression pattern of 13q-H cases could be similar to the patients with 11q- or 17p-.
This study provides new evidence regarding the heterogeneity of 13q deletion in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, showing that apoptosis, proliferation as well as miRNA regulation are involved in cases with higher percentages of 13q- cells.
Publication Date: 2012-11-16
Journal: PloS one