Nickel toxicity in P. lividus embryos: Dose dependent effects and gene expression analysis.
Many industrial activities release Nickel (Ni) in the environment with harmful effects for terrestrial and marine organisms. Despite many studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity are available, the understanding about its toxic effects on marine organisms is more limited. We used Paracentrotus lividus as a model to analyze the effects on the stress pathways in embryos continuously exposed to different Ni doses, ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mM. We deeply examined the altered embryonic morphologies at 24 and 48 h after Ni exposure. Some different phenotypes have been classified, showing alterations at the expenses of the dorso-ventral axis as well as the skeleton and/or the pigment cells. At the lowest dose used, Ni mainly induced a multi-spicule phenotype observed at 24 h after treatment. On the contrary, at the highest dose of Ni (0.5 mM), 90% of embryos showed no skeleton and no pigment cells. Therefore, we focused on this dose to study protein and gene expression patterns at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Among the proteins analyzed, i.e. p38MAPK, Grp78 and Mn-SOD, only p38MAPK was induced by Ni treatment. Moreover, we analyzed the mRNA profiles of a pool of genes that are involved in stress response and in development mechanisms, i.e. the transcription factors Pl-NFkB and Pl-FOXO; a marker of DNA repair, Pl-XPB/ERCC3; a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Pl-p38; an ER stress gene, Pl-grp78; an adapter protein, Pl-14-3-3ε; two markers of pigment cells, Pl-PKS1 and Pl-gcm. The spatial expression of mesenchymal marker genes has been evaluated in Ni-treated embryos at both 24 and 48 h after exposure. Our results indicated that Ni acts at several levels in P. lividus sea urchin, by affecting embryo development, influencing the embryonic immune response and activating stress response pathways to counteract the suffered injury and to promote embryos surviving.
Publication Date: 2018-05-19
Journal: Marine environmental research
Lipopolysaccharide induced Interleukin-6 production is mediated through activation of ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK, MEK, and NFκB in chicken thrombocytes.
Thrombocytes express Toll-like receptor 4 and apparently use both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) pathways for nuclear signaling. However, it is not well known if the same enzyme systems found in mammalian cells are fully functional in chickens. Therefore, kinase inhibitors were used with thrombocytes to block kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells to determine if interleukin (IL)-6 expression and production would be diminished. Results demonstrated that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways influence gene expression of IL-6 through treatment with either ERK or p38 MAPK inhibitor. In addition, thrombocyte lysates from cells treated with ERK, p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase (IKK) inhibitor showed different levels of the phosphorylated form of ERK1/2, p38 and NFκB. Furthermore, IL-6 gene expression and production were significantly upregulated in LPS stimulated thrombocytes relative to all inhibitor-treated cells.
Publication Date: 2017-03-28
Journal: Developmental and comparative immunology
Role of edaravone in managemant of septic peritonitis.
Sepsis is a complex rapidly progressive infectious disease that remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims. Edaravone a novel free radical scavenger was approved in 2001 in Japan for treatment of acute cerebral and myocardial infarction. Hence, in this work we attempt to evaluate its role in cases of septic peritonitis (SP).
This is a prospective randomized observer-blinded study carried out in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) after approval by Hospital Ethical Committee. After admission to ICU patients were randomly divided into two groups of thirty patients each-Group (C): Control group managed according to the routine protocol of sepsis and Group (E): Edaravone treated SP managed according to the routine protocol of sepsis + edaravone at dose of 30 mg/12 h intravenous infusion for 2 weeks. All patients were monitored for invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, heart rate, temperature, urine output, total fluid balance, and routine investigation. Blood sample was taken weekly for 2 weeks to measure the following parameters: Nuclear transcription factor kappa B activity (NFKB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).
There was significant decrease (
SP treatment with edaravone could significantly improve the inflammatory and oxidative states with better patient outcomes.
Publication Date: 2017-01-18
Journal: Journal of anaesthesiology, clinical pharmacology
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erdosteine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.
Erdosteine is widely used as a mucolytic agent and also has free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine. We investigated the effect of erdosteine on the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB/inhibitor of NFkB (IkB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with erdosteine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Western blotting, pretreatment with erdosteine inhibited the IkBα degradation induced in RAW 264.7 cells by LPS. LPS-induced IkB kinase (IKK) activity and NF-kB transcription were inhibited by pretreatment with erdosteine. Production of IL-6 and IL-1β was also inhibited by erdosteine pretreatment. However, erdosteine did not inhibit LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine in mouse macrophages is mediated through inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kB activation.
Publication Date: 2016-06-19
Thyroid active agents T3 and PTU differentially affect immune gene transcripts in the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss).
In mammals, numerous reports describe an immunomodulating effect of thyroid-active compounds. In contrast, only few reports have been published on this subject in fish. We previously demonstrated that immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) and that exposure of trout to the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) or the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) alters immune cell transcript levels of THR and several immune genes. The present study aims to further characterize the immunomodulating action of thyroid-active compounds in trout immune cells. We report here the use of a custom-designed 60-mer oligo immune-targeted microarray for rainbow trout to analyze the gene expression profiles induced in the head kidney by T3 and PTU. Morphometric analyses of the thyroid showed that PTU exposure increased the size of the epithelial cells, whereas T3 induced no significant effects. Both T3 and PTU had diverse and partly contrasting effects on immune transcript profiles. The strongest differential effects of T3 and PTU on gene expressions were those targeting the Mitogen Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK), NFkB, Natural Killer (NK) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways, a number of multipath genes (MPG) such as those encoding pleiotropic transcription factors (atf1, junb, myc), as well as important pro-inflammatory genes (tnfa, tnf6, il1b) and interferon-related genes (ifng, irf10). With these results we show for the first time in a fish species that the in vivo thyroidal status modulates a diversity of immune genes and pathways. This knowledge provides the basis to investigate both mechanisms and consequences of thyroid hormone- and thyroid disruptor-mediated immunomodulation for the immunocompetence of fish.
Publication Date: 2016-03-11
Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
CYLD-mediated signaling and diseases.
The conserved cylindromatosis (CYLD) codes for a deubiquitinating enzyme and is a crucial regulator of diverse cellular processes such as immune responses, inflammation, death, and proliferation. It directly regulates multiple key signaling cascades, such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B [NFkB] and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways, by its catalytic activity on polyubiquitinated key intermediates. Several lines of emerging evidence have linked CYLD to the pathogenesis of various maladies, including cancer, poor infection control, lung fibrosis, neural development, and now cardiovascular dysfunction. While CYLD-mediated signaling is cell type and stimuli specific, the activity of CYLD is tightly controlled by phosphorylation and other regulators such as Snail. This review explores a broad selection of current and past literature regarding CYLD's expression, function and regulation with emerging reports on its role in cardiovascular disease.
Publication Date: 2014-10-25
Journal: Current drug targets
The oxytocin-bone axis.
We recently demonstrated a direct action of oxytocin (OT) on skeletal homeostasis, mainly mediated through stimulation of osteoblasts (OBs) formation and through the reciprocal modulation of osteoclast (OCs) formation and function. Thus, mice lacking the hormone or its receptor develop a low turnover osteoporosis that worsens with age in both sexes. The skeletons of OT (Ot) and OT receptor (Oxtr) null mice display a pronounced decrease in vertebral and femoral trabecular volume. At the cellular level, OBs from Ot KO and Oxtr KO mice exhibit lower mineralization activity and, at the mRNA level, all master genes for osteoblast differentiation are down-regulated. Moreover, OT has dual effects on OCs: it increases osteoclast formation both directly, by activating nuclear factor kB (NFkB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and, indirectly, through the up-regulation of receptor activator nuclear factor-kappaB ligand synthesis by OBs. On the other hand, it inhibits bone resorption by triggering cytosolic Ca(2+) release and nitric oxide synthesis in mature OCs. OT is locally produced by osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulators of bone formation modulated by oestrogens. The oestrogen signal involved in this feedforward circuit is nongenomic because it requires an intact MAPK kinase signal transduction pathway, instead of the classical nuclear translocation of oestrogen receptor. The ability of oestrogen to increase bone mass in vivo is to some extent OXTR-dependent. Thus, Oxtr KO mice injected 17β-oestradiol did not show any effects on bone formation parameters, whereas the same treatment increases trabecular and cortical bone in wild-type mice. An intact OT autocrine-paracrine circuit appears to be essential for optimal skeletal remodelling.
Publication Date: 2013-11-14
Journal: Journal of neuroendocrinology
SAMe prevents the up regulation of toll-like receptor signaling in Mallory-Denk body forming hepatocytes.
Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation is a component of alcoholic and non alcoholic hepatitis. In the present study, the role of the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was investigated in the mechanism of MDB formation in the DDC-fed mouse model. Microarray analysis data mining, performed on the livers of drug-primed mice refed DDC, showed that TLR2/4 gene expression was significantly up regulated by DDC refeeding. SAMe supplementation prevented this up regulation and prevented the formation of MDBs. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed these results. TLR2/4 activates the adapter protein MyD88. The levels of MyD88 were increased by DDC refeeding. The increase of MyD88 was also prevented by SAMe supplementation. Results showed that MyD88-independent TLR3/4-TRIF-IRF3 pathway was not up regulated in the liver of DDC refed mice. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is the downstream protein recruited by the MyD88/IRAK protein complex, and is involved in the regulation of innate immune responses. Results showed a significant increase in the levels of TRAF-6. TRAF-6 activation leads to activation of NFkB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The TRAF-6 increase was ameliorated by SAMe supplementation. These results suggest that DDC induces MDB formation through the TLR2/4 and MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, SAMe blocked the over-expression of TLR2/4, and their downstream signaling components MyD88 and TRAF-6. SAMe prevented the DDC-induced up regulation of the TLR signaling pathways, probably by preventing the up regulation of INF-gamma receptors by DDC feeding. INFgamma stimulates the up regulation of TLR2. The ability of SAMe feeding to prevent TLR signaling up regulation has not been previously described.
Publication Date: 2010-03-09
Journal: Experimental and molecular pathology
Effects of hyaluronan oligosaccharide on the expression of MMP-1 in periodontal ligament cells.
It is well known that low-molecular weight hyaluronan (HA) is detected in human periodontal tissue under inflammatory conditions. HA oligosaccharide (HAoligo) has been demonstrated to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in dendritic cells and chondrocytes, however, the bioactivities of HAoligo in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HAoligo on MMP-1 expression in human PDL (HPDL) cells and the mechanisms in terms of the signal transmission. HAoligo was generated and purified from commercial human umbilical cord HA. HPDL cells were isolated from healthy ligaments, and cultured with HAoligo for 0-24h. The expression of MMP-1, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 was analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Effects of specific inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, MAPK kinase activity and NFkB activity on HAoligo-induced MMP-1 expression in HPDL cells were also investigated by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. HAoligo remarkably enhanced MMP-1 expression in both mRNA and protein levels, but no effect was shown on the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNAs. Inhibition of p38MAPK activity decreased the MMP-1 expression. Neither inhibition of NFkB nor MAPKK activity affected the MMP-1 expression. It was suggested that HAoligo induces MMP-1 expression in HPDL cells, and p38MAPK plays a crucial role in signal transduction for MMP-1 inducted by HAoligo.
Publication Date: 2009-06-16
Journal: Archives of oral biology
Effects of all-trans retinoic acid on Th1- and Th2-related chemokines production in monocytes.
Low vitamin C and reduced alpha-carotene intake are associated with increased asthma risk in children. In addition, mean serum vitamin A concentrations are significantly lower in asthmatic children than in controls. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a derivative of vitamin A. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is a T helper cell-type 2 (Th2)-related chemokine involved in the recruitment of Th2 cells toward inflammatory sites. On the other hand, Th1-related chemokine, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 is also important in allergic inflammation. Both Th1- and Th2-related chemokines play an important role in allergic asthma. To survey whether ATRA and ascorbic acid effect Th1- and Th2-related chemokine expression in monocytes. To test this, THP-1 cells were pre-treated with ATRA or ascorbic acid and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or poly I:C. Supernatants were measured for Th2-related (MDC) and Th1-related (IP-10) chemokine concentrations by ELISA. The effects of ATRA on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NFkb were evaluated with Western blotting. After stimulation, ATRA significantly down-regulated MDC and IP-10 in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, ascorbic acid reduced the LPS-induced changes in MDC but only with a high dose. However, asorbic acid had no effect on IP-10 changes either induced by LPS or poly I:C. RT-PCR showed ATRA inhibited IP-10 expression through decreasing the level of transcription. Furthermore, ATRA suppressed the expression of LPS-stimulated c-Raf, MKK1/2 and ERK expression of THP-1 cells. In conclusion, ATRA suppressed Th2- and Th1-related chemokines expression in THP-1 cells, at least in part via the c-Raf-MKK1/2-ERK/MAPK pathway.
Publication Date: 2008-11-08
Respiratory burst: role in signal transduction in alveolar macrophages.
Alveolar macrophages play an important role in defense against airborne pathogens and particles. These macrophages respond through both the adaptive and acquired immune responses, and through the activation of a multitude of signaling pathways. One major macrophage defense mechanism is respiratory burst, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the ROS produced may act directly in pathogen killing, they may also be involved as secondary signaling messengers. This review focuses on the activation of four main signaling pathways following the production of reactive oxygen species. These pathways include the nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB), activating protein-1 (AP-1), mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphotidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathways. This review also briefly examines the role of ROS in DNA damage, in particular looking at the base excision repair pathway (BER), the main pathway involved in repair of oxidative DNA damage. This review highlights many of the studies in the field of ROS, signal transduction, and DNA damage; however, work still remains to further elucidate the role of ROS in disease.
Publication Date: 2006-01-06
Journal: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews
Candidate genes for nicotine dependence via linkage, epistasis, and bioinformatics.
Many smoking-related phenotypes are substantially heritable. One genome scan of nicotine dependence (ND) has been published and several others are in progress and should be completed in the next 5 years. The goal of this hypothesis-generating study was two-fold. First, we present further analyses of our genome scan data for ND published by Straub et al. [1999: Mol Psychiatry 4:129-144] (PMID: 10208445). Second, we used the method described by Cox et al. [1999: Nat Genet 21:213-215] (PMID: 9988276) to search for epistatic loci across the markers used in the genome scan. The overall results of the genome scan nearly reached the rigorous Lander and Kruglyak [1995: Nat Genet 11:241-247] criteria for "significant" linkage with the best findings on chromosomes 10 and 2. We then looked for correspondence between genes located in the 10 regions implicated in affected sibling pair (ASP) and epistatic linkage analyses with a list of genes suggested by microarray studies of experimental nicotine exposure and candidate genes from the literature. We found correspondence between linkage and microarray/candidate gene studies for genes involved with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system, nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) complex, neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurotransmission, a nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRNA2), the vesicular monoamine transporter (SLC18A2), genes in pathways implicated in human anxiety (HTR7, TDO2, and the endozepine-related protein precursor, DKFZP434A2417), and the micro 1-opioid receptor (OPRM1). Although the hypotheses resulting from these linkage and bioinformatic analyses are plausible and intriguing, their ultimate worth depends on replication in additional linkage samples and in future experimental studies.
Publication Date: 2004-03-30
Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics