pubmed > TP53 > kmt2d

Two progressed malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast harbor alterations in genes frequently involved in other advanced cancers.
The genomic landscape of phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast is not well defined, especially in patients with advanced disease. To shed light on this topic, paired primary and progressed tumor samples from two patients with malignant PTs were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by functional analysis of genetic alterations using two prediction tools. The DNA of both the primary tumor and distant metastases of Patient 1 and the primary and recurrent tumor of Patient 2 were subjected to molecular profiling. NGS with the FoundationOne® assay was performed in a commercial molecular pathology laboratory. Two in silico prediction tools were used to estimate the pathogenicity of indicated genetic alterations. In total, 38 genomic alterations were detected, of which 11 were predicted to be probably benign. In Patient 1, 14 aberrations were identified in the primary tumor and 17 in pulmonary metastases, 12 of which were identical. In the primary and recurrent tumor of Patient 2, 17 and 15 sequence variants, respectively, were found, with 13 overlapping findings. Affected genes included seven (TP53, TERT, APC, ARID1A, EGFR, KMT2D, and RB1) of the top 10 most frequently altered genes in other advanced cancer entities, as well as four actionable therapeutic targets (EGFR, KIT, PDGFRA, and BRIP1). Of note, seven genes coding for receptor tyrosine kinases were affected: three in Patient 1 and four in Patient 2. Several genes (e.g. EPHA3, EPHA7, and EPHB1) were shown to be altered for the first time in PTs. The two progressed malignant PTs investigated here share some of the major genetic events occurring in other advanced cancers.
Publication Date: 2021-08-18
Journal: Orphanet journal of rare diseases

Genomic alterations and possible druggable mutations in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).
Carcinoma of Unknown Primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous and metastatic disease where the primary site of origin is undetectable. Currently, chemotherapy is the only state-of-art treatment option for CUP patients. The molecular profiling of the tumour, particularly mutation detection, offers a new treatment approach for CUP in a personalized fashion using targeted agents. We analyzed the mutation and copy number alterations profile of 1709 CUP samples deposited in the AACR Project Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE) cohort and explored potentially druggable mutations. We identified 52 significant mutated genes (SMGs) among CUP samples, in which 13 (25%) of SMGs were potentially targetable with either drugs are approved for the know primary tumour or undergoing clinical trials. The most variants detected were TP53 (43%), KRAS (19.90%), KMT2D (12.60%), and CDKN2A (10.30%). Additionally, using pan-cancer analysis, we found similar variants of TERT promoter in CUP and NSCLC samples, suggesting that these mutations may serve as a diagnostic marker for identifying the primary tumour in CUP. Taken together, the mutation profiling analysis of the CUP tumours may open a new way of identifying druggable targets and consequently administrating appropriate treatment in a personalized manner.
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: Scientific reports

Progress in molecular feature of smoldering mantle cell lymphoma.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most aggressive lymphoid tumors. However, it sometimes displays indolent behavior in patients and might not necessitate treatment at diagnosis; this has been described as "smoldering MCL" (SMCL). There are significant differences in the diagnosis, prognosis, molecular mechanisms and treatments of indolent MCL and classical MCL. In this review, we discuss the progress in understanding the molecular mechanism of indolent MCL to provide insights into the genomic nature of this entity. Reported findings of molecular features of indolent MCL include a low Ki-67 index, CD200 positivity, a low frequency of mutations in TP53, a lack of SOX11, normal arrangement and expression of MYC, IGHV mutations, differences from classical MCL by L-MCL16 assays and MCL35 assays, an unmutated P16 status, few defects in ATM, no NOTCH1/2 mutation, Amp 11q gene mutation, no chr9 deletion, microRNA upregulation/downregulation, and low expression of several genes that have been valued in recent years (SPEN, SMARCA4, RANBP2, KMT2C, NSD2, CARD11, FBXW7, BIRC3, KMT2D, CELSR3, TRAF2, MAP3K14, HNRNPH1, Del 9p and/or Del 9q, SP140 and PCDH10). Based on the above molecular characteristics, we may distinguish indolent MCL from classical MCL. If so, indolent MCL will not be overtreated, whereas the treatment of classical MCL will not be delayed.
Publication Date: 2021-07-15
Journal: Experimental hematology & oncology

Whole-exome sequencing in eccrine porocarcinoma indicates promising therapeutic strategies.
Malignant sweat gland tumours are rare, with the most common form being Eccrine porocarcinoma (EP). To investigate the mutational landscape of EP, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 14 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of matched primary EP and healthy surrounding tissue. Mutational profiling revealed a high overall median mutation rate. This was attributed to signatures of mutational processes related to ultraviolet (UV) exposure, APOBEC enzyme dysregulation, and defective homologous double-strand break repair. All of these processes cause genomic instability and are implicated in carcinogenesis. Recurrent driving somatic alterations were detected in the EP candidate drivers TP53, FAT2, CACNA1S, and KMT2D. The analyses also identified copy number alterations and recurrent gains and losses in several chromosomal regions including that containing BRCA2, as well as deleterious alterations in multiple HRR components. In accordance with this reduced or even a complete loss of BRCA2 protein expression was detected in 50% of the investigated EP tumours. Our results implicate crucial oncogenic driver pathways and suggest that defective homologous double-strand break repair and the p53 pathway are involved in EP aetiology. Targeting of the p53 axis and PARP inhibition, and/or immunotherapy may represent promising treatment strategies.
Publication Date: 2021-05-29
Journal: Cancer gene therapy

Whole exome sequencing and deep sequencing of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in Japanese patients using the Japanese version of the Genome Atlas, JCGA.
Recent comprehensive mutation analyses have revealed a relatively small number of driver mutations in esophageal cancer, implicating a limited number of molecular targets, most of which are also implicated in squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we investigated genetic alterations in 44 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and 8 adenocarcinomas (EAC) from Japanese patients as potential molecular targets, based on data from the Japanese version of The Genome Atlas (JCGA). Esophageal cancer was characterized by TP53 somatic mutations in ESCC (39/44, 88.6%) and EAC (5/8, 62.5%). In addition to TP53 mutations, somatic mutations in NFE2L2 (16/44, 36.4%), CDKN2A (7/44, 15.9%), and KMT2D (7/44, 15.9%) were more frequently detected in ESCC than in EAC. WRN-truncated type mutations that lead to genomic instability correlate with EAC, but not ESCC. ESCC samples were enriched in ALDH2-associated mutational signature 16 as well as the APOBEC signature. Patients with FAT2 mutations had significantly poorer overall survival compared with those with wild-type status at FAT2 (p < 0.05). Patients with EP300 or PTPRD mutations also had poor progression-free survival compared with respective wild-types (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001). These findings may facilitate future precision medicine approaches based on genomic profiling in ESCC and EAC.
Publication Date: 2021-04-08
Journal: Esophagus : official journal of the Japan Esophageal Society

KMT2D promotes proliferation of gastric cancer cells: evidence from ctDNA sequencing.
ctDNA sequencing could be used for early cancer screening, prognosis prediction, and medication guidance. However, data of its application in gastric cancer are still lacking. In this study, using ctDNA sequencing, we aimed to screen the mutant genes closely associated with gastric cancer and to explore the impact of these genes on gastric cancer development. ctDNA for high-throughput sequencing was obtained from gastric cancer patients, and the high-frequency mutant gene KMT2D was identified. Immunohistochemical examination was conducted to assess the expression of KMT2D in gastric cancer tissues. KMT2D knockdown was performed to establish the stably transfected gastric cancer cells. Then, CCK8, plate clone formation assay, and Transwell assay were conducted, and a subcutaneous tumor-bearing model was induced in nude mice to investigate the changes in cell proliferation and invasion capability. Transcriptome sequencing was also performed to investigate the differences in cellular gene expression. Detection of ctDNA found 113 gastric cancer-related mutations, 11 of which are the top 20 high-frequency mutations of gastric cancer recorded by COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer, COSMIC). They are TP53, ARID1A, CDH1, PIK3CA, KMT2C, KMT2D, APC, SPEN, CTNNB1, SETBP1, and KMT2A. The gene closely related to the clinical characteristics of the patient is KMT2D. The high-frequency mutant gene KMT2D was identified in gastric cancer tissues. The positive rate of KMT2D expression in cancer tissues was 74.3%, which was higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues (56.8%). The knockdown of KMT2D inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and tumor formation capacity of the gastric cancer cells, causing differences in the gene expression profiles, and the expression of different functional gene clusters was up- or downregulated. The findings of this study revealed that KMT2D could be an oncogene capable of promoting gastric cancer proliferation.
Publication Date: 2021-04-02
Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis

Genomic profiling of Chinese patients with urothelial carcinoma.
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common genitourinary malignancy in China. In this study, we surveyed the genomic features in Chinese UC patients and investigated the concordance of genetic alterations between circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma and matched tumor tissue. A total of 112 UC patients were enrolled, of which 31 were upper tract UC (UTUC) and 81 were UC of bladder (UCB). Genomic alterations in 92 selected genes were analyzed by targeted next-generation sequencing. In the study cohort, 94.64, 86.61 and 62.50% of patients were identified as having valid somatic, oncogenic and actionable somatic alterations, respectively. The most frequently altered genes included TP53, KMT2D, KDM6A, FAT4, FAT1, CREBBP and ARID1A. The higher prevalence of HRAS (22.0% vs 3.7%) and KMT2D (59.26% vs 34.57%) was identified in UTUC than in UCB. Comparisons of somatic alterations of UCB and UTUC between the study cohort and western cohorts revealed significant differences in mutant prevalence. Notably, 28.57, 17.86 and 47.32% of the cases harbored alterations in FGFRs, ERBBs and DNA damage repair genes, respectively. Furthermore, 75% of the patients carried non-benign germline variants, but only two (1.79%) were pathogenic. The overall concordance for genomic alterations in ctDNA and matched tumor tissue was 42.97% (0-100%). Notably, 47.25% of alterations detected in ctDNA were not detected in the matched tissue, and 54.14% of which were oncogenic mutations. We found a unique genomic feature of Chinese UC patients. A reasonably good concordance of genomic features between ctDNA and tissue samples were identified.
Publication Date: 2021-02-17
Journal: BMC cancer

Deep Targeted Sequencing and Its Potential Implication for Cancer Therapy in Chinese Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
Gastric cancer (GC) has a high incidence and mortality rate, especially in East Asians, and about 90% of GCs are adenocarcinomas. Histological and etiological heterogeneity and ethnic diversity make molecular subtyping of GC complicated, thus making it difficult to determine molecular division systems and standard treatment modalities. Limited cohorts from South Korea, Singapore, Australia, and Japan have been studied; however, the mutational landscape of gastric adenocarcinomas in Chinese patients is still unknown. We performed a targeted sequencing panel focusing on cancer-related genes and tumor-associated microorganisms of 529 gastric adenocarcinoma samples with matched blood controls. We identified 449 clinically relevant gene mutations. Approximately 47.1% of Chinese patients with GC harbored at least one actionable mutation. The top somatic mutations were TP53, ARID1A, LRP1B, PIK3CA, ERBB2, CDH1, KRAS, FAT4, CCNE1, and KMT2D. Truncation mutations of ARID1A, KMT2D, RNF43, TGFBR2, and CIC occurred in patients with high tumor mutational burden. Gene amplifications of ERBB2, CCNE1, CDK12, and CCND1 were detected in patients with low tumor mutational burden. Pathway analysis revealed common gene alterations in the Wnt and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The ratio of patients with high microsatellite instability was significantly lower than other cohorts, and high microsatellite instability and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive features seemed mutually inclusive in Chinese patients with GC. In 44 (8.3%) patients, 45 germline mutations were identified, among which SPINK1 mutations, all SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C, were present in 15.9% (7/44) of patients. Microorganisms found in Chinese patients with GC included Helicobacter pylori, EBV, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus types 16 and 18. Identification of varied molecular features by targeted next-generation sequencing provides more insight into patient stratification and offers more possibilities for both targeted therapies and immunotherapies of Chinese patients with GC. This study investigated the genomic alteration profile of 529 Chinese patients with gastric adenocarcinoma by deep targeting sequencing, which might be the largest Chinese cohort on the genomic research of gastric adenocarcinoma up to now.
Publication Date: 2021-01-30
Journal: The oncologist

Genomic Sequencing of Cancer-related Genes in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Inverted Papilloma.
The genetic basis of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP)-derived squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not yet been well characterized. To characterize the genetic abnormalities of SNIP and SNIP-derived SCC and to uncover their differences. Mutations of 409 genes were analyzed using amplicon targeted sequencing in a total of six papilloma/carcinoma samples from four patients with SNIP-derived SCC. The genes that were mutated in multiple cases were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (3/6), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (3/6), lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) (3/6), tumor protein p53 (TP53) (3/6), neurofibromin 1 (NF1) (3/6), phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein (PDE4DIP) (3/6), cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6 (CYP2D6) (2/6), fms-related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) (2/6) and myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) (2/6). Of the two cases analyzed in the papilloma-oncology carcinoma pair, one did not have any common mutations; the other showed a staged functional deletion of TP53 during the process of malignant transformation from SNIP to SCC. CDKN2A, KMT2D, NF1, PDE4DIP, CYP2D6, FLT4, and MYH9 were identified as candidate novel SNIP-derived SCC-related genes.
Publication Date: 2021-01-10
Journal: Anticancer research

Olaparib is effective for recurrent urothelial carcinoma with BRCA2 pathogenic germline mutation: first report on olaparib response in recurrent UC.
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a common malignancy of the lower and upper urinary tract. Recurrent UC has poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis and a lack of clinical management guidance, especially for upper urinary tract UC. Patients with germline or somatic BRCA1/2 mutations are a special population in UC. No evidence is available so far on the effectiveness of poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) in this population. Here, we report a 60-year-old female patient diagnosed with left ureter high-grade UC. Recurrent lesions were found 20 months after radical surgery. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed a slightly high-density soft tissue mass (3.2 × 3.1 cm) on the left posterior wall of the abdomen (waist), soft tissue mass adjacent to the left inner wall of the pelvis (3.2 × 4.2 cm), and multiple enlarged lymph nodes to the left of abdominal aorta. A next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based 605-gene panel detected a novel BRCA2 pathogenic germline mutation c.1670T>A (p.L557*), and a series of somatic insertion and deletion (INDEL) mutations of BRCA1, RB1, and JAK2, and single nucleotide variation (SNV) mutations of TP53, KMT2D, MET, ROS1, and IL7R. The above lesions were reduced significantly or disappeared (partial response, PR) after a 3-month Olaparib treatment, and the patient's general condition remained well. In conclusion, this study proved for the first time that PARPi was effective for UC treatment in patients carrying germline BRCA2 pathogenic mutations, providing new treatment options for such patients. In addition, the circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) test can be used for drug selection and response monitoring in UC treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-11-27
Journal: Therapeutic advances in medical oncology

Comprehensive genomic profile of Chinese lung cancer patients and mutation characteristics of individuals resistant to icotinib/gefitinib.
Lung cancer is the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Precise treatment based on next-generation sequencing technology has shown advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. This cohort study included 371 lung cancer patients. The lung cancer subtype was related to the smoking status and sex of the patients. The most common mutated genes were TP53 (62%), EGFR (55%), and KRAS (11%). The mutation frequencies of EGFR, TP53, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, KMT2D, FGFR1, CCND1, and CDKN2A were significantly different between lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma. We identified the age-associated mutations in ALK, ERBB2, KMT2D, RBM10, NRAS, NF1, PIK3CA, MET, PBRM1, LRP2, and CDKN2B; smoking-associated mutations in CDKN2A, FAT1, FGFR1, NFE2L2, CCNE1, CCND1, SMARCA4, KEAP1, KMT2C, and STK11; tumor stage-associated mutations in ARFRP1, AURKA, and CBFB; and sex-associated mutations in EGFR. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is associated with tumor subtype, age, sex, and smoking status. TMB-associated mutations included CDKN2A, LRP1B, LRP2, TP53, and EGFR. EGFR amplification was commonly detected in patients with acquired lcotinib/gefitinib resistance. DNMT3A and NOTCH4 mutations may be associated with the benefit of icotinib/gefitinib treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-11-22
Journal: Scientific reports

Activity of ibrutinib plus R-CHOP in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Response, pharmacodynamic, and biomarker analyses of a phase Ib study.
This unplanned post-hoc analysis was based on data from the phase Ib DBL1002 study (NCT01569750) and evaluated the association between molecular biomarkers and clinical response to combined treatment with ibrutinib plus rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtypes. DLBCL subtyping was conducted using immunohistochemistry. Next-generation sequencing using immunoglobulin H primers assessed minimal residual disease (MRD). A quantitative assay evaluated Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) occupancy by ibrutinib in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Targeted DNA sequencing examined genetic variants by DLBCL subtype. Secreted protein expression was evaluated with a SomaLogic analyte panel. Among 21 patients with DLBCL (median age 53.5 years), 17 achieved a complete response (CR) and 4 a partial response (PR). Of the 11 subtyped patients, 9 had a CR (5/7 germinal center B-cell-like [GCB] and 4/4 non-GCB) and 2 had a PR (both GCB). Nine of 12 patients tested for MRD achieved early (cycle 2 day 1) MRD negativity; most had a CR. There was near-complete BTK occupancy at 4 h postdose. Mutation analysis (n = 19) revealed variants including CREBBP, KMT2D, LRP1B, BCL2, and TNFRSF14; only 1 CD79B and TP53 each; no CARD11 or MYD88. In this study, first-line ibrutinib plus R-CHOP benefited patients with DLBCL, with good overall response rate and early MRD negativity. With a caveat of small sample size, our results showed that a favorable genetic profile and younger patient age may be important to beneficial clinical outcome with ibrutinib plus R-CHOP in DLBCL.
Publication Date: 2020-11-15
Journal: Cancer treatment and research communications

Mutations in circulating tumor DNA predict primary resistance to systemic therapies in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Little is known about the mutational landscape of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and predictive biomarkers of response to systemic therapies are lacking. We aimed to describe the mutational landscape of advanced HCC and to identify predictors of primary resistance to systemic therapies using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). We prospectively enrolled 121 patients between October 2015 and January 2019. We performed targeted ultra-deep sequencing of 25 genes and Digital Droplet PCR of TERT promoter, including sequential samples throughout treatment. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) stratified by mutation profiles in ctDNA. Secondary endpoints were overall survival and objective response rate. The most frequent mutations in ctDNA of advanced HCC were TERT promoter (51%), TP53 (32%), CTNNB1 (17%), PTEN (8%), AXIN1, ARID2, KMT2D, and TSC2 (each 6%). TP53 and CTNNB1 mutations were mutually exclusive. Patients with mutations in the PI3K/MTOR pathway had significantly shorter PFS than those without these mutations after tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2.1 vs 3.7 months, p < 0.001), but not after immune checkpoint inhibition (CPI). WNT pathway mutations were not associated with PFS, overall survival, or objective response after CPI. Serial profiling of ctDNA in a subset correlated with treatment response. Mutation profiling of ctDNA in advanced HCC shows similar mutation frequencies for known HCC drivers compared to early stages and identifies predictive biomarkers of response to systemic therapies.
Publication Date: 2020-10-25
Journal: Oncogene

The clinicopathological and molecular features of sinusoidal large B-cell lymphoma.
We report 17 cases of sinusoidal large B-cell lymphoma (SLBCL). Clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features were detected and analyzed. All cases showed an obvious sinusoidal growth pattern, usually associated with residual atrophic lymphoid tissue. All tumors contained large pleomorphic lymphoid cells and one or more prominent nucleoli, with abundant amphophilic cytoplasms; 15/17 cases showed anaplastic morphologic features. The patient age ranged from 43 to 80 years (median 57 years), and 7 males and 10 females were included. Eleven of 15 (73.3%) patients had Ann Arbor stage III or IV disease, and 10/15 (66.6%) patients had an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ≥3. Immunophenotypically, 16/17 (94.1%) cases displayed a nongerminal center B-cell (non-GCB) immunophenotype. Furthermore, 16/17 (94.1%) cases were positive for CD30, and p53 was expressed in 10/16 (62.5%) cases. In total, 12/14 (85.7%) cases expressed BCL2 and MYC simultaneously (double expression), and 11/14 (78.6%) cases showed PD-L1 positivity (6/11 had a PD-L1 tumor proportion score ≥50%). Cytogenetically, concurrent MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 abnormalities (break-apart or extra copy) were detected in 10/15 cases, and 7/13 (53.8%) cases harbored a PD-L1/L2 amplification. TP53 mutation was found in 7/13 (53.8%) cases by Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome and large-panel sequencing results revealed high mutation frequencies of TP53 (4/7), MYD88 (3/7), KMT2D (3/7), CREBBP (3/7), and PIM1 (3/7). Among the 13 patients with SLBCL treated with aggressive chemotherapy regimens, the median overall survival (OS) was 18 months, and the 2-year OS rate was 34.6%. The OS of patients with SLBCL was markedly worse than that of 35 control group patients with common diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) without sinusoidal features (P < 0.001). SLBCL may represent a specific type of DLBCL that has characteristic pathologic features. The cancer is aggressive in most clinical cases, and outcomes are poor. SLBCL and anaplastic DLBCL (A-DLBCL) have many overlapping clinicopathological and molecular features.
Publication Date: 2020-09-26
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Aggressive variant of splenic marginal zone lymphoma characterized using a cancer panel test and treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy: A case report.
Aggressive variant of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (AV-SMZL) is a very rare disease that is often associated with TP53 mutations and has a poor prognosis. On the other hand, recent advances in genome sequencing techniques enable us to understand the molecular characteristics of rare cancers such as AV-SMZL. Here we present a case of AV-SMZL analyzed using a genetic test. A 66-year-old woman was admitted with splenomegaly and lymphocytosis. Computed tomography revealed marked splenomegaly without lymphadenopathy in any other areas. The serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level was significantly elevated. Peripheral and bone marrow blood tests showed an increase in abnormal lymphocytes. A splenectomy revealed an SMZL pattern with increased numbers of large cells and mitotic cells and a high Ki-67 positivity rate, which led to a diagnosis of AV-SMZL. Although TP53 mutation was not detected, mutations in NOTCH2, NCOA4, PTEN, EPHA3, and KMT2D were identified. Among these, the mutations in NCOA4, PTEN, and EPHA3 were novel pathogenic mutations in SMZL, which suggests they may be related to the aggressiveness and persistence of the disease. The patient was administered a rituximab-containing regimen and rituximab-maintenance therapy. The patient continues to exhibit a complete response. This is a case of AV-SMZL in which a cancer panel test successfully detected genetic alterations that are potentially associated with its pathogenesis. These findings suggest that genetic analysis is useful for making diagnoses as well as for determining treatment strategies in AV-SMZL.
Publication Date: 2020-09-03
Journal: Medicine

Genetic heterogeneity and prognostic impact of recurrent ANK2 and TP53 mutations in mantle cell lymphoma: a multi-centre cohort study.
The molecular features of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), including its increased incidence, and complex therapies have not been investigated in detail, particularly in East Asian populations. In this study, we performed targeted panel sequencing (TPS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the genetic alterations in Korean MCL patients. We obtained a total of 53 samples from MCL patients from five Korean university hospitals between 2009 and 2016. We identified the recurrently mutated genes such as SYNE1, ATM, KMT2D, CARD11, ANK2, KMT2C, and TP53, which included some known drivers of MCL. The mutational profiles of our cohort indicated genetic heterogeneity. The significantly enriched pathways were mainly involved in gene expression, cell cycle, and programmed cell death. Multivariate analysis revealed that ANK2 mutations impacted the unfavourable overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 3.126; P = 0.032). Furthermore, TP53 mutations were related to worse progression-free survival (HR 7.813; P = 0.043). Among the recurrently mutated genes with more than 15.0% frequency, discrepancies were found in only 5 genes from 4 patients, suggesting comparability of the TPS to WES in practical laboratory settings. We provide the unbiased genetic landscape that might contribute to MCL pathogenesis and recurrent genes conferring unfavourable outcomes.
Publication Date: 2020-08-10
Journal: Scientific reports

Genetic characteristics of gastric-type mucinous carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
Gastric-type mucinous carcinoma (GAS) is a recently established variant of endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma that is characterized as being unrelated to HPV and having aggressive behavior and chemoresistance. GAS has a distinct morphology resembling nonneoplastic gastric glands or pancreaticobiliary adenocarcinoma, and their possible genetic similarity has been posed. In this study, next-generation sequencing was performed in 21 GAS cases using a customized panel including 94 cancer-associated genes. A total of 54 nonsynonymous somatic mutations were detected with an average mutation rate of 2.6 per lesion (range: 0-9). The most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (11/21, 52.4%), followed by STK11, HLA-B, PTPRS (4/21, 19.0%), FGFR4 (3/21, 14.3%), GNAS, BRCA2, ELF3, ERBB3, KMT2D, SLX4 (2/21, 9.5%), CDH1, EPCAM, KRAS, MLH1, RNF43, SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZEB2, and so on (1/21, 4.8%). The mutated genes were mostly involved in signal transduction, DNA damage repair, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Correlation of TP53 mutation and p53 protein expression demonstrated that 31.3% with abnormal p53 expression harbored wild-type TP53. Compared to genetic features of gastric and pancreaticobiliary adenocarcinoma, TP53 mutations were frequent in both GAS and gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. While KMT2D, ERBB3, and RNF43 mutations were shared between GAS and gastric adenocarcinoma, highly mutated genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma such as KRAS, SMAD4, and CDKN2A were rarely mutated in GAS. Of frequently mutated genes in cholangiocarcinoma, BAP1 and HLA-B were identified in GAS. Frequent EMT-related gene mutations suggested a possible role of EMT-related pathways in tumor dissemination and chemoresistance of GAS. In addition, GAS shared some genetic features with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. These findings provide a clue in understanding the biological basis of GAS.
Publication Date: 2020-07-10
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Genetic and evolutionary patterns of treatment resistance in relapsed B-cell lymphoma.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients are typically treated with immunochemotherapy containing rituximab (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin-vincristine (Oncovin), and prednisone [R-CHOP]); however, prognosis is extremely poor if R-CHOP fails. To identify genetic mechanisms contributing to primary or acquired R-CHOP resistance, we performed target-panel sequencing of 135 relapsed/refractory DLBCLs (rrDLBCLs), primarily comprising circulating tumor DNA from patients on clinical trials. Comparison with a metacohort of 1670 diagnostic DLBCLs identified 6 genes significantly enriched for mutations upon relapse. TP53 and KMT2D were mutated in the majority of rrDLBCLs, and these mutations remained clonally persistent throughout treatment in paired diagnostic-relapse samples, suggesting a role in primary treatment resistance. Nonsense and missense mutations affecting MS4A1, which encodes CD20, are exceedingly rare in diagnostic samples but show recurrent patterns of clonal expansion following rituximab-based therapy. MS4A1 missense mutations within the transmembrane domains lead to loss of CD20 in vitro, and patient tumors harboring these mutations lacked CD20 protein expression. In a time series from a patient treated with multiple rounds of therapy, tumor heterogeneity and minor MS4A1-harboring subclones contributed to rapid disease recurrence, with MS4A1 mutations as founding events for these subclones. TP53 and KMT2D mutation status, in combination with other prognostic factors, may be used to identify high-risk patients prior to R-CHOP for posttreatment monitoring. Using liquid biopsies, we show the potential to identify tumors with loss of CD20 surface expression stemming from MS4A1 mutations. Implementation of noninvasive assays to detect such features of acquired treatment resistance may allow timely transition to more effective treatment regimens.
Publication Date: 2020-06-27
Journal: Blood advances

Molecular profiling of Chinese R-CHOP treated DLBCL patients: Identifying a high-risk subgroup.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically aggressive and heterogenous disease. Although most patients can be cured by immunochemotherapy, 30% to 40% patient will ultimately develop relapsed or refractory disease. Here, we investigated the molecular landscapes of patients with diverse responses to R-CHOP. We performed capture-based targeted sequencing on baseline samples of 105 DLBCL patients using a panel consisting of 112 lymphoma-related genes. Subsequently, 81 treatment-naïve patients with measurable disease and followed for over 1 year were included for survival analysis. Collectively, the most commonly seen mutations included IGH fusion (69%), PIM1(33%), MYD88 (29%), BCL2 (29%), TP53 (29%), CD79B (25%) and KMT2D (24%). Patients with TP53 mutations were more likely to have primary refractory disease (87.0% vs 50.0%, P = .009). For those with TP53 disruptive mutations, 91.7% patients were in the primary refractory group. Interestingly, BCL-2 somatic hypermutation was only seen in patients without primary refractory disease (P = .014). In multivariate analysis, BCL-2 amplification (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.94, P = .022), B2M mutation (HR = 2.99, P = .017) and TP53 mutation (HR = 3.19, P < .001) were independently associated with shorter time to progression (TTP). Furthermore, TP53 mutations was correlated with worse overall survival (P = .049). Next, we investigated mutation landscape in patients with wild-type (WT) TP53 (n = 58) and found that patients harboring MYD88 L265P had significantly inferior TTP than those with WT or non-265P (P = .046). Our study reveals the mutation spectrum of treatment-naive Chinese DLBCL patients. It also confirms the clinical significance of TP53 mutations and indicates the prognostic value of MYD88 L265P in TP53 WT patients.
Publication Date: 2020-05-14
Journal: International journal of cancer

Genomic variation as a marker of response to neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
There is variation in the responsiveness of locally advanced rectal cancer to neoadjuvant chemoradiation, from complete response to total resistance. This study compared genetic variation in rectal cancer patients who had a complete response to chemoradiation versus poor response, using tumor tissue samples sequenced with genomics analysis software. Rectal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation and proctectomy June 2006-March 2017 were grouped based on response to chemoradiation: those with no residual tumor after surgery (CR, complete responders, AJCC-CPR tumor grade 0, n = 8), and those with poor response (PR, AJCC-CPR tumor grade two or three on surgical resection, n = 8). We identified 195 variants in 83 genes in tissue specimens implicated in colorectal cancer biopathways. PR patients showed mutations in four genes not mutated in complete responders: KDM6A, ABL1, DAXX-ZBTB22, and KRAS. Ten genes were mutated only in the CR group, including ARID1A, PMS2, JAK1, CREBBP, MTOR, RB1, PRKAR1A, FBXW7, ATM C11orf65, and KMT2D, with specific discriminating variants noted in DMNT3A, KDM6A, MTOR, APC, and TP53. Although conclusions may be limited by small sample size in this pilot study, we identified multiple genetic variations in tumor DNA from rectal cancer patients who are poor responders to neoadjuvant chemoradiation, compared to complete responders.
Publication Date: 2020-05-12
Journal: Molecular & cellular oncology