Assessment of Outcomes After Stopping Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Among Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been associated with improved survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but are also associated with adverse effects, especially fatigue and diarrhea. Discontinuation of TKIs is safe and is associated with the successful achievement of treatment-free remission (TFR) for some patients.
To evaluate molecular recurrence (MRec) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after TKI discontinuation for US patients with CML.
The Life After Stopping TKIs (LAST) study was a prospective single-group nonrandomized clinical trial that enrolled 172 patients from 14 US academic medical centers from December 18, 2014, to December 12, 2016, with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Participants were adults with chronic-phase CML whose disease was well controlled with imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, or bosutinib. Statistical analysis was performed from August 13, 2019, to March 23, 2020.
Discontinuation of TKIs.
Molecular recurrence, defined as loss of major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 International Scale ratio >0.1%) by central laboratory testing, and PROs (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computerized adaptive tests) were monitored. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was performed on samples with undetectable BCR-ABL1 by standard real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR).
Of 172 patients, 89 were women (51.7%), and the median age was 60 years (range, 21-86 years). Of 171 patients evaluable for molecular analysis, 112 (65.5%) stayed in major molecular response, and 104 (60.8%) achieved TFR. Undetectable BCR-ABL1 by either ddPCR or RQ-PCR at the time of TKI discontinuation (hazard ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.99-6.50; P < .001) and at 3 months (hazard ratio, 5.86; 95% CI, 3.07-11.1; P < .001) was independently associated with MRec. Molecular recurrence for patients with detectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR was 50.0% (14 of 28), undetectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR but detectable by ddPCR was 64.3% (36 of 56), and undetectable BCR-ABL1 by both ddPCR and RQ-PCR was 10.3% (9 of 87) (P ≤ .001). Of the 112 patients in TFR at 12 months, 90 (80.4%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in fatigue, 39 (34.8%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in depression, 98 (87.5%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in diarrhea, 24 (21.4%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in sleep disturbance, and 5 (4.5%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in pain interference. Restarting a TKI resulted in worsening of PROs.
In this study, TKI discontinuation was safe, and 60.8% of patients remained in TFR. Discontinuation of TKIs was associated with improvements in PROs. These findings should assist patients and physicians in their decision-making regarding discontinuation of TKIs. Detectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR or ddPCR at the time of TKI discontinuation was associated with higher risk of MRec; clinical application of this finding should be confirmed in other studies.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02269267.
Publication Date: 2020-11-13
Journal: JAMA oncology
ABL Kinase Domain Mutations in Iranian Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are considered standard first-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Because ABL kinase domain mutations are the most common causes of treatment resistance, their prevalence and assessment during treatment may predict subsequent response to therapy.
The molecular response in Bcr-Abl1IS was tested via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We used the direct sequencing technique to discover the mutations in the ABL kinase domain. The IRIS trial established a standard baseline for measurement - (100% BCR-ABL1 on the 'international scale') and a major molecular response (good response to therapy) was defined as a 3-log reduction in the amount of BCR-ABL1 - 0.1% BCR-ABL1 on the international scale.
We observed 11 different mutations in 13 patients, including E255K, which had the highest mutation rate. A lack of hematologic response was found in 22 patients, who showed a significantly higher incidence of mutations.
Detection of kinase domain mutations is a reliable method for choosing the best treatment strategy based on patients' conditions, avoiding ineffective treatments, and running high-cost protocols in patients with acquired resistance to TKIs.
Publication Date: 2020-08-22
Journal: Laboratory medicine
Evaluation of Imatinib Concentrations in Samples Submitted for BCR-ABL1 or Imatinib Testing-Evidence to Support Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Dose Optimization?
Imatinib is one of the first-line therapies for chronic myeloid leukemia. Achieving a major molecular response early in treatment, as indicated by a BCR-ABL1 major international scale result of ≤0.1% within 6 months, is associated with better patient outcomes and is statistically associated with a trough imatinib concentration of approximately 1000 ng/mL. Adherence to therapy, drug resistance, drug-drug interactions, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic factors may hinder attaining this target. Therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib is not currently standard-of-care, but may help to evaluate adherence and optimize treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate imatinib concentrations in real-world patient plasma samples to identify the proportion of imatinib-treated patients who achieved the therapeutic target of 1000 ng/mL.
This was a retrospective, observational study that measured imatinib in residual plasma samples used for BCR-ABL1 tests (n = 1022) and analyzed clinician-ordered imatinib tests for therapeutic drug monitoring (n = 116). Imatinib was measured by competitive immunoassay. The frequency of imatinib concentrations achieving the therapeutic target was determined and correlated with BCR-ABL1 major international scale, age, and sex.
Seventy-two percent of patients tested for BCR-ABL1 may not have been prescribed or were not adherent to imatinib therapy. In the 29% of patients who did not achieve major molecular response, but had quantifiable imatinib concentrations, the therapeutic concentration was not met. For clinician-ordered imatinib tests, 45% of samples did not exceed the therapeutic target and 4% had potentially toxic plasma concentrations (>3000 ng/mL).
Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib may assist clinicians in the identification of patients who may not be adherent to therapy, display variable pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, or may be experiencing toxicity or treatment failure.
Publication Date: 2020-07-23
Journal: Therapeutic drug monitoring
Real-world tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment pathways, monitoring patterns and responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in the United Kingdom: the UK TARGET CML study.
Management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has recently undergone dramatic changes, prompting the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) to issue recommendations in 2013; however, it remains unclear whether real-world CML management is consistent with these goals. We report results of UK TARGET CML, a retrospective observational study of 257 patients with chronic-phase CML who had been prescribed a first-line TKI between 2013 and 2017, most of whom received first-line imatinib (n = 203). Although 44% of patients required ≥1 change of TKI, these real-world data revealed that molecular assessments were frequently missed, 23% of patients with ELN-defined treatment failure did not switch TKI, and kinase domain mutation analysis was performed in only 49% of patients who switched TKI for resistance. Major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1
Publication Date: 2020-05-26
Journal: British journal of haematology
Halving Time of BCR-ABL1 in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Is It Better Than Day-90 Value-A Multicenter Study From South India.
The 90-day BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region-Abelson 1) level has been one of the accepted milestones for predicting the molecular response in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The rate of decline in BCR-ABL1 has been considered a better predictor of the response but has not been uniformly accepted. A paucity of evidence is available to predict the accuracy of the rate of decline in the Indian context. Therefore, we tested the accuracy of the rate of decline of BCR-ABL1 in predicting the molecular response compared with the single 90-day values in a retrospective cohort study of selected cancer centers in south India.
Patients with chronic-phase CML diagnosed from January 2013 to December 2018, the serial BCR-ABL1 levels were estimated at 0, 45, and 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Data on patient demographics, risk stratification assessed using the Sokal and EUTOS (European Treatment and Outcome Study) scores were extracted using a mobile-based data capture tool from the medical records of the enrolled patients. The halving time, determined by log reduction, was compared with the 90-day BCR-ABL1 values using the receiver operating characteristic curve for the major and complete molecular response at 6 months and 1 year as standards. Accuracy was determined from the area under the curve. The cutoff for the halving time was chosen to balance the sensitivity and specificity.
The rate of decline had more predictive accuracy compared with the 90-day BCR-ABL1 values (area under the curve for rate of decline, 0.83; 90-day, 0.80). A halving time of < 20 days identified 95% of the patients who had achieved major molecular response at 12 months compared with 80% using the single 90-day BCR-ABL1 response.
The halving time of BCR-ABL1 appears promising as a predictor of the outcomes for patients with CML.
Publication Date: 2020-03-09
Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
Long-term results of frontline dasatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Dasatinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that, when used as frontline therapy, produces more and faster cytogenetic and molecular responses compared with imatinib. The authors report the long-term follow-up from the first study using dasatinib as initial therapy for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
Between November 2005 and August 2014, patients were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg daily or 50 mg twice daily. After June 2009, all patients started with 100 mg daily.
With a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 94 of 149 treated patients (63%) were still receiving dasatinib on study. The median patient age was 48 years (interquartile range, 37-55 years), and 9% of patients had a high risk Sokal risk score. The cumulative complete cytogenetic response rate at 11 years was 92.6%, the major molecular response (MR) rate was 88.2%, and the MR4.5 rate (indicating a ≥4.5-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 transcripts) was 79.5%. The median time to a major MR and MR4.5 was 6 and 23 months, respectively. A sustained MR4.5 (≥2 years) was achieved in 82 patients (55%). The 10-year overall survival, transformation-free survival, event-free survival, and failure-free survival rates were 89%, 95%, 86%, and 65%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the achievement of a complete MR was associated with improved overall survival. The most common reasons for treatment discontinuation were toxicity and elective discontinuation. The most common treatment-emergent grade 3 and 4 adverse events were fatigue, thrombocytopenia, and infections.
After this long-term follow-up, dasatinib continues to show an excellent safety profile and produces rapid cytogenetic responses and MRs, durable deep MRs, and excellent long-term survival outcomes in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
Publication Date: 2020-01-31
De-escalation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy before complete treatment discontinuation in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (DESTINY): a non-randomised, phase 2 trial.
All studies of treatment-free remission (TFR) in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia have discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment abruptly and have focussed on patients with stable MR4 (BCR-ABL to ABL ratio ≤0·01%). We aimed to examine the effects of gradual treatment withdrawal and whether TFR is feasible for patients with less deep but stable remission.
The De-Escalation and Stopping Treatment with Imatinib, Nilotinib, or sprYcel (DESTINY) study is a non-randomised, phase 2 trial undertaken at 20 UK hospitals. We recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase, who had received TKI therapy for 3 years or more, with three or more BCR-ABL quantitative PCR transcript measurements (BCR-ABL to ABL1 ratio) less than 0·1% (major molecular response [MMR]) in the 12 months before entry. Patients with all PCR measurements less than 0·01% were assigned to the MR4 group. Patients with results between 0·1% and 0·01% were allocated to the MMR group. TKI treatment was de-escalated to half the standard dose for 12 months, then stopped for a further 24 months, with frequent PCR monitoring. Recurrence was defined as the first of two consecutive samples with PCR measurement greater than 0·1%, which required treatment recommencement at full dose. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who could first de-escalate their treatment for 12 months, and then stop treatment completely for a further 2 years, without losing MMR. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804985.
Treatment at entry was imatinib (n=148), nilotinib (n=16), or dasatinib (n=10), for a median of 6·9 years (IQR 4·8-10·2). Between Dec 16, 2013, and May 6, 2015, we enrolled 49 patients into the MMR group and 125 into the MR4 group. In the MR4 group, 84 (67%) patients reached the 36-month trial completion point and recurrence-free survival was 72% (95% CI 64-80). In the MMR group, 16 (33%) entrants completed the study and recurrence-free survival was 36% (25-53). No disease progression was seen and two deaths occurred due to unrelated causes. All recurrences regained MMR within 5 months of treatment resumption.
Initial de-escalation before discontinuation might improve the success of TFR protocols, although the mechanism of its benefit is not yet clear. The findings also suggest that TFR merits further study in patients with stable MMR.
Newcastle University and Bloodwise.
Publication Date: 2019-06-16
Journal: The Lancet. Haematology
Ten-year outcome of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib in real life.
Imatinib, the first BCR/ABL kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), has changed the long-term outcome of patients affected by this disease. The aim of our analysis was to report, after a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 5.8-14.8), the long-term outcome, efficacy, and safety of imatinib treatment (frontline and after interferon failure) in a single institution cohort of 459 patients with CML in chronic phase treated outside of clinical trials. The 10-year overall survival of the whole cohort was 77.1%, while the 10-year probability of dying due to CML and other causes was 7.8% and 16%, respectively. The prognostic value of the BCR-ABL1 ratio at 3 months (⩽ 10%) and of complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response at 1 year was confirmed also in the real-life practice. The EUTOS long-term survival score better stratified the baseline risk of dying of CML compared with other risk scores. Two hundred thirty-six (51.4%) patients achieved a deep molecular response during imatinib treatment after a median time of 4.57 years, and 95 (20.6%) had a stable deep molecular response maintained for at least 2 consecutive years. Imatinib was associated with a low rate of serious cardiovascular events and second neoplasia. This 10-year real-life follow-up study shows that imatinib maintains efficacy over time and that long-term administration of imatinib is not associated with notable cumulative or late toxic effects.
Publication Date: 2019-05-13
Journal: Annals of hematology
Frontline nilotinib treatment in Turkish patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic Myeloid Leukemia in chronic phase: updated results with 2 years of follow-up.
This report presents final results (24 months of follow-up) from the first prospective, national study of frontline nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in Turkey.
Patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in chronic phase (CML-CP; N = 112) received nilotinib 300 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint, which was the cumulative rate of major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0.1% on the International Scale [BCR-ABL1
Treatment with nilotinib 300 mg twice daily for 2 years provided high MMR with a good safety/tolerability profile in newly diagnosed CML-CP patients in Turkey. Assessment of MMR across time points showed increasing rates through 18 months, after which as lower rate of increase was observed. The safety profile of nilotinib 300 mg twice daily with 24 months of follow-up was similar to that observed at 12 months, and no new safety concerns were identified. These efficacy and safety findings are consistent with the results from the 12-month analysis of this study and from previous nilotinib studies. These findings support nilotinib as an option for frontline treatment of CML-CP.
Frontline nilotinib treatment provided sustained efficacy, with good tolerability, over 24 months in newly diagnosed CML-CP patients.
Publication Date: 2018-07-13
Journal: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in chronic myeloid leukaemia (EURO-SKI): a prespecified interim analysis of a prospective, multicentre, non-randomised, trial.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Many patients have deep molecular responses, a prerequisite for TKI therapy discontinuation. We aimed to define precise conditions for stopping treatment.
In this prospective, non-randomised trial, we enrolled patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia at 61 European centres in 11 countries. Eligible patients had chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia, had received any TKI for at least 3 years (without treatment failure according to European LeukemiaNet [ELN] recommendations), and had a confirmed deep molecular response for at least 1 year. The primary endpoint was molecular relapse-free survival, defined by loss of major molecular response (MMR; >0·1% BCR-ABL1 on the International Scale) and assessed in all patients with at least one molecular result. Secondary endpoints were a prognostic analysis of factors affecting maintenance of MMR at 6 months in learning and validation samples and the cost impact of stopping TKI therapy. We considered loss of haematological response, progress to accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia, or blast crisis as serious adverse events. This study presents the results of the prespecified interim analysis, which was done after the 6-month molecular relapse-free survival status was known for 200 patients. The study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01596114.
Between May 30, 2012, and Dec 3, 2014, we assessed 868 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia for eligibility, of whom 758 were enrolled. Median follow-up of the 755 patients evaluable for molecular response was 27 months (IQR 21-34). Molecular relapse-free survival for these patients was 61% (95% CI 57-64) at 6 months and 50% (46-54) at 24 months. Of these 755 patients, 371 (49%) lost MMR after TKI discontinuation, four (1%) died while in MMR for reasons unrelated to chronic myeloid leukaemia (myocardial infarction, lung cancer, renal cancer, and heart failure), and 13 (2%) restarted TKI therapy while in MMR. A further six (1%) patients died in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia after loss of MMR and re-initiation of TKI therapy for reasons unrelated to chronic myeloid leukaemia, and two (<1%) patients lost MMR despite restarting TKI therapy. In the prognostic analysis in 405 patients who received imatinib as first-line treatment (learning sample), longer treatment duration (odds ratio [OR] per year 1·14 [95% CI 1·05-1·23]; p=0·0010) and longer deep molecular response durations (1·13 [1·04-1·23]; p=0·0032) were associated with increasing probability of MMR maintenance at 6 months. The OR for deep molecular response duration was replicated in the validation sample consisting of 171 patients treated with any TKI as first-line treatment, although the association was not significant (1·13 [0·98-1·29]; p=0·08). TKI discontinuation was associated with substantial cost savings (an estimated €22 million). No serious adverse events were reported.
Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who have achieved deep molecular responses have good molecular relapse-free survival. Such patients should be considered for TKI discontinuation, particularly those who have been in deep molecular response for a long time. Stopping treatment could spare patients from treatment-induced side-effects and reduce health expenditure.
ELN Foundation and France National Cancer Institute.
Publication Date: 2018-05-08
Journal: The Lancet. Oncology
Determination of a radotinib dosage regimen based on dose-response relationships for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Radotinib is a second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CP-CML). Here, using the data from a Phase 3 study conducted in patients with newly diagnosed CP-CML, the dose-efficacy as well as dose-safety relationship analyses were performed to determine a safe and effective initial dosage regimen of radotinib. A significant positive association was detected between the starting dose of radotinib adjusted for body weight (Dose/BW) and the probability of dose-limiting toxicity (≥grade 3 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity) (P = 0.003). In contrast, a significant inverse association was discovered between Dose/BW and the probability of major molecular response (BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ≤ 0.1%) when controlled for sex (P = 0.033). Moreover, frequent dose interruptions and reductions secondary to radotinib toxicities occurred in the Phase 3 study, resulting in nearly half (44%) of patients receiving a reduced dose at a 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for initial radotinib dose attenuation to improve the long-term efficacy and safety of radotinib. Hence, the authors suggest a new upfront radotinib dose of 400 mg once daily be tested in patients with newly diagnosed CP-CML.
Publication Date: 2018-03-27
Journal: Cancer medicine
Outcomes with frontline nilotinib treatment in Turkish patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
Nilotinib is a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). This study was the first prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of nilotinib in Turkish patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0.1% on the International Scale [BCR-ABL1
Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were treated with nilotinib 300 mg twice daily. This analysis was based on the first 12 months of follow-up in a 24-month study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01274351).
Of 112 patients enrolled, 66.1% (80% CI, 59.7-72.0%) achieved MMR and 22.3% achieved a deep molecular response of MR
These results support the use of nilotinib 300 mg twice daily as a standard-of-care treatment option for patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP with low and intermediate risk.
Publication Date: 2018-03-01
Journal: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Treatment-Free Remission After Second-Line Nilotinib Treatment in Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase: Results From a Single-Group, Phase 2, Open-Label Study.
Treatment-free remission (TFR)-that is, stopping tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy without loss of response-is an emerging treatment goal in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
To evaluate TFR after discontinuation of second-line nilotinib therapy.
Single-group, phase 2, open-label study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01698905).
63 centers in 18 countries.
Adults with CML in chronic phase who received TKI therapy for at least 3 years (>4 weeks with imatinib, then ≥2 years with nilotinib) and achieved MR4.5 (BCR-ABL1 ≤0.0032% on the International Scale [BCR-ABL1IS]) while receiving nilotinib entered a 1-year consolidation phase. Those with sustained MR4.5 during consolidation were eligible to enter TFR.
Patients received nilotinib during consolidation; those who entered TFR stopped treatment. Patients with loss of major molecular response (MMR) (BCR-ABL1IS ≤0.1%) or confirmed loss of MR4 (BCR-ABL1IS ≤0.01%) during TFR reinitiated nilotinib treatment.
Proportion of patients without loss of MMR, confirmed loss of MR4, or treatment reinitiation within 48 weeks of stopping treatment (primary end point).
163 patients who had switched from imatinib to nilotinib (for reasons including resistance, intolerance, and physician preference) enrolled in the study and entered the consolidation phase. Of these patients, 126 met the criteria for entering the TFR phase, and 73 (58% [95% CI, 49% to 67%]) and 67 (53% [CI, 44% to 62%]) maintained TFR at 48 weeks (primary end point) and 96 weeks, respectively. Of the 56 patients who reinitiated nilotinib therapy, 55 regained MMR or better and 52 regained MR4.5. None had CML progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis. Musculoskeletal pain was more frequent during the first 48 weeks after nilotinib discontinuation.
The study included a heterogeneous patient population and was not designed to compare outcomes between patients continuing and those stopping treatment.
TFR seems achievable in patients with sustained MR4.5 after switching to nilotinib.
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
Publication Date: 2018-02-21
Journal: Annals of internal medicine
Nilotinib vs. imatinib in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: long-term follow-up of the Japanese subgroup of the randomized ENESTnd trial.
In the ongoing, international, phase 3 study Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials-Newly Diagnosed Patients (ENESTnd), nilotinib 300 and nilotinib 400 mg, both twice daily, are compared with imatinib 400 mg once daily for the treatment of newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). Results for the overall population in ENESTnd (n = 846) showed that nilotinib resulted in higher response rates vs. imatinib and was well tolerated. Outcomes among Japanese patients in ENESTnd were specifically analyzed after 1 year of follow-up, and showed similar trends to the overall population; we present updated analysis of the Japanese subgroup based on 5 years of follow-up. Among Japanese patients in the nilotinib 300-mg (n = 29), nilotinib 400-mg (n = 23), and imatinib (n = 25) arms, 86.2, 78.3, and 60.0%, respectively, achieved major molecular response [BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0.1% on the International Scale (BCR-ABL1
Publication Date: 2017-10-28
Journal: International journal of hematology
The Efficacy of Reduced-dose Dasatinib as a Subsequent Therapy in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in the Chronic Phase: The LD-CML Study of the Kanto CML Study Group.
Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety profiles of low-dose dasatinib therapy (50 mg once daily). Methods Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) who were being treated with low-dose imatinib (≤200 mg/day), but were resistant to this agent were enrolled in the current study (referred to as the LD-CML study). Results There subjects included 9 patients (4 men and 5 women); all were treated with dasatinib at a dose of 50 mg once daily. Among 8 patients who had not experienced major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1 transcript ≤0.1% according to International Scale [IS]) at study enrollment, 5 attained MMR by 12 months. In particular, 3 of 9 patients demonstrated a deep molecular response (DMR; IS ≤0.0069%) by 18 months. Five patients developed lymphocytosis accompanied by cytotoxic lymphocyte predominance. There was no mortality or disease progression, and all continue to receive dasatinib therapy at 18 months with only 2 patients requiring dose reduction. Toxicities were mild-to-moderate, and pleural effusion was observed in 1 patient (grade 1). Conclusion Low-dose dasatinib can attain MMR and DMR without severe toxicity in patients with CML-CP who are unable to achieve MMR with low-dose imatinib. Switching to low-dose dasatinib should therefore be considered for patients in this setting, especially if they are otherwise considering a cessation of treatment.
Publication Date: 2017-10-17
Journal: Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
Nilotinib dose-optimization in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase: final results from ENESTxtnd.
The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials-Extending Molecular Responses (ENESTxtnd) study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of molecular response to nilotinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase and the impact of novel dose-optimization strategies on patient outcomes. The ENESTxtnd protocol allowed nilotinib dose escalation (from 300 to 400 mg twice daily) in the case of suboptimal response or treatment failure as well as dose re-escalation for patients with nilotinib dose reductions due to adverse events. Among 421 patients enrolled in ENESTxtnd, 70·8% (95% confidence interval, 66·2-75·1%) achieved major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0·1% on the International Scale) by 12 months (primary endpoint). By 24 months, 81·0% of patients achieved major molecular response, including 63·6% (56 of 88) of those with dose escalations for lack of efficacy and 74·3% (55 of 74) of those with dose reductions due to adverse events (including 43 of 54 patients with successful re-escalation). The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with prior studies. The most common non-haematological adverse events were headache, rash, and nausea; cardiovascular events were reported in 4·5% of patients (grade 3/4, 3·1%). The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01254188).
Publication Date: 2017-07-13
Journal: British journal of haematology
Dasatinib rapidly induces deep molecular response in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients who achieved major molecular response with detectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts by imatinib therapy.
With the introduction of imatinib, a first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to inhibit BCR-ABL1 kinase, the outcome of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) has improved dramatically. However, only a small proportion of CP-CML patients subsequently achieve a deep molecular response (DMR) with imatinib. Dasatinib, a second-generation TKI, is more potent than imatinib in the inhibition of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase in vitro and more effective in CP-CML patients who do not achieve an optimal response with imatinib treatment.
In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether switching the treatment from imatinib to dasatinib can induce DMR in 16 CP-CML patients treated with imatinib for at least two years who achieved a major molecular response (MMR) with detectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts.
The rates of achievement of DMR at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after switching to dasatinib treatment in the 16 patients were 44% (7/16), 56% (9/16), 63% (10/16) and 75% (12/16), respectively. The cumulative rate of achieving DMR at 12 months from initiation of dasatinib therapy was 93.8% (15/16). The proportion of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells in peripheral lymphocytes increased after switching to dasatinib. In contrast, the proportion of regulatory T cells decreased during treatment. The safety profile of dasatinib was consistent with previous studies.
Switching to dasatinib would be a therapeutic option for CP-CML patients who achieved MMR but not DMR by imatinib, especially for patients who wish to discontinue TKI therapy.
Publication Date: 2017-05-28
Journal: International journal of clinical oncology
Genotypes of SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 regulatory loci are predictive of the response of chronic myeloid leukemia patients to imatinib treatment.
Through high-throughput next-generation sequencing of promoters of solute carrier and ATP-binding cassette genes, which encode drug transporters, we aimed to identify SNPs associated with the response to imatinib administered for first-line treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
In silico analysis using publicly available databases was done to select the SLC and ABC genes and their promoters for the next-generation sequencing. SNPs associated with the imatinib response were identified using Fisher's exact probability tests and subjected to the linkage disequilibrium analyses with regulatory loci of concerned genes. We analyzed cumulative achievement of major molecular response and probability of event free survival in relation to identified SNP genotypes in 129 CML patients and performed multivariate analysis for determination of genotypes as independent predictors of outcome. Gene expression analysis of eight cell lines naturally carrying different genotypes was performed to outline an impact of genotypes on the gene expression.
We observed significant differences in the frequencies of the rs460089-GC and rs460089-GG (SLC22A4) genotypes among rs2631365-TC (SLC22A5) genotype carriers that were associated with optimal and non-optimal responses, respectively. Loci rs460089 and rs2631365 were in highly significant linkage disequilibrium with 12 regulatory loci in introns of SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 encoding imatinib transporters. Genotype association analysis with the response to imatinib indicated that rs460089-GC carriers had a significantly higher probability of achieving a stable major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 transcript level below or equal to 0.1% in the international scale). In contrast, the rs460089-GG represented a risk factor for imatinib failure, which was significantly higher in rs460089-GG_rs2631365-TC carriers.
This exploratory study depicted potentially important genetic markers predicting outcome of imatinib treatment, which may be helpful for tailoring therapy in clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2017-04-20
Journal: Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
Does the frequency of molecular monitoring after tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation affect outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia?
To the authors' knowledge, the optimal frequency of monitoring after tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) discontinuation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has not been established. Data regarding the discontinuation of second-generation TKIs used in first-line treatment or after the failure of first-line treatment with TKIs are limited. Herein, the authors report real-world experience with "reduced frequency" molecular monitoring in patients with CML in all phases who discontinued treatment with imatinib, dasatinib, or bosutinib.
The records of patients who discontinued TKIs were reviewed. Patients who discontinued TKIs were monitored prospectively on an intended schedule of monthly blood quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for BCR-ABL1 for 3 months, quarterly for 12 months, and every 6 months thereafter until loss of major molecular response (MMR). After loss of MMR, the TKI that previously was discontinued was reinitiated.
Between January 2010 and September 2015, a total of 24 patients in chronic (21 patients), accelerated (2 patients), and lymphoid blast (1 patient) phase discontinued imatinib (16 patients), dasatinib (5 patients), or bosutinib (3 patients) used in the front-line treatment or beyond. Blood quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for BCR-ABL1 was performed 1.3 ± 0.7 times within the first 3 months (24 patients) and 2.7 ± 1.4 times in the following 12 months (18 patients). With a median follow-up of 36.5 months (range, 3.2-67.4 months), the probabilities of treatment-free remission at 1 year and 2 years were 65.7% (95% confidence interval, 55.8%-75.6%) and 59.7% (95% confidence interval, 49.1%-70.3%), respectively. Loss of MMR was observed in 9 patients at a median of 2.8 months (range, 1.8-14.2 months) after discontinuation of TKIs.
With the limitations of a small sample size, the results of the current study demonstrate that less frequent monitoring of BCR-ABL1 does not appear to affect outcomes, and that discontinuation of TKIs used as first-line treatment or beyond after resistance or intolerance to first-line treatment appears feasible. Cancer 2017;123:2482-88. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Publication Date: 2017-02-28