Clinical significance of TP53 mutations in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients have a poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the impact of TP53 gene mutations on prognosis of ATL treated in different ways. Among 177 patients, we identified 47 single nucleotide variants or insertion-deletions (SNVs/indels) of the TP53 gene in 37 individuals. TP53 copy number variations (CNVs) were observed in 38 patients. Altogether, 67 of 177 patients harboured TP53 SNVs/indels or TP53 CNVs, and were categorized as having TP53 mutations. In the entire cohort, median survival of patients with and without TP53 mutations was 1·0 and 6·7 years respectively (P < 0·001). After allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), median survival of patients with (n = 16) and without (n = 29) TP53 mutations was 0·4 years and not reached respectively (P = 0·001). For patients receiving mogamulizumab without allogeneic HSCT, the median survival from the first dose of antibody in patients with TP53 mutations (n = 27) was only 0·9 years, but 5·1 years in those without (n = 42; P < 0·001). Thus, TP53 mutations are associated with unfavourable prognosis of ATL, regardless of treatment strategy. The establishment of alternative modalities to overcome the adverse impact of TP53 mutations in patients with ATL is required.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: British journal of haematology
The Impact of Foundation Medicine Testing on Cancer Patients: A Single Academic Centre Experience.
The use of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has recently allowed significant improvements in cancer treatment. Foundation Medicine
A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with solid tumors who had FM testing between May 1, 2014 and May 1, 2018. Clinical factors and outcomes were measured using descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel
Out of 66 FM tests, eight patients (= 12%) had a direct change in therapy based on the FM tests. Identified were 285 oncogenic mutations (median 1, range 0-31); where TP53 (n = 31, 10.9%), CDKN2A (n = 19, 6.7%), KRAS (n = 16, 5.6%) and APC (n = 9, 3.2%) were the most common FM mutations identified.
A small proportion of FM reports identified actionable mutations and led to direct treatment change. FM testing is expensive and a few of the identified mutations are now part of routine on-site testing. NGS testing is likely to become more widespread, but this research suggests that its true clinical impact may be restricted to a minority of patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Development of TP53 mutations over the course of therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: American journal of hematology
EBV-positive HIV-associated diffuse large B cell lymphomas are characterized by JAK/STAT (STAT3) pathway mutations and unique clinicopathologic features.
Even in the era of highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients with HIV have a disproportionate risk of developing aggressive lymphomas that are frequently Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. Here, we investigate HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HIV-DLBCL) and compare EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. HIV-DLBCL were identified from two academic medical centres and characterised by immunohistochemistry, EBV status, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, cell of origin determination by gene expression profiling, and targeted deep sequencing using a custom mutation panel of 334 genes. We also applied the Lymphgen tool to determine the genetic subtype of each case. Thirty HIV-DLBCL were identified, with a median patient age of 46 years and male predominance (5:1). Thirteen cases (48%) were EBV-positive and 14 (52%) EBV-negative. Nine of the 16 tested cases (56%) had MYC rearrangement, three (19%) had BCL6 (two of which were double hit MYC/BCL6) and none had BCL2 rearrangements. Using the Lymphgen tool, half of the cases (15) were classified as other. All HIV-DLBCL showed mutational abnormalities, the most frequent being TP53 (37%), MYC (30%), STAT3 (27%), HIST1H1E (23%), EP300 (20%), TET2 (20%), SOCS1 (17%) and SGK1 (17%). EBV-negative cases were mostly of germinal centre B-cell (GCB) origin (62%), showed more frequent mutations per case (a median of 13·5/case) and significant enrichment of TP53 (57% vs. 15%; P = 0·046), SGK1 (36% vs. 0%; P = 0·04), EP300 (43% vs. 0%; P = 0·02) and histone-modifying gene (e.g. HIST1H1E, HIST1H1D, 79% vs. 31%; P = 0·02) mutations. EBV-positive cases were mostly of non-GCB origin (70%), with fewer mutations per case (median 8/case; P = 0·007), and these tumours were enriched for STAT3 mutations (P = 0·10). EBV-positive cases had a higher frequency of MYC mutations but the difference was not significant (36% vs. 15%; P = 0·38). EBV-association was more frequent in HIV-DLBCLs, arising in patients with lower CD4 counts at diagnosis (median 46·5 vs. 101, P = 0·018). In the era of cART, approximately half of HIV-DLBCL are EBV-related. HIV-DLBCL are enriched for MYC rearrangements, MYC mutations and generally lack BCL2 rearrangements, regardless of EBV status. Among HIV-DLBCL, tumours that are EBV-negative and EBV-positive appear to have important differences, the latter arising in context of lower CD4 count, showing frequent non-GCB origin, lower mutation burden and recurrent STAT3 mutations.
Publication Date: 2021-07-18
Journal: British journal of haematology
TP53 mutations in circulating tumor DNA in advanced epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib.
Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is a tumor suppressor gene and TP53 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the in-depth classification of TP53 and its relationship with treatment response and prognosis in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant tumors treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are unclear. Circulating tumor DNA was prospectively collected at baseline in advanced treatment-naïve EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib in an open-label, single-arm, prospective, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial (BENEFIT trial) and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 180 enrolled patients, 115 (63.9%) harbored TP53 mutations. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with TP53-wild type tumors were significantly longer than those of patients with TP53-mutant tumors. Mutations in exons 5-8 accounted for 80.9% of TP53 mutations. Mutations in TP53 exons 6 and 7 were significantly associated with inferior PFS and OS compared to wild-type TP53. TP53 mutation also influenced the prognosis of patients with different EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 and EGFR exon 19 mutations had significantly longer PFS and OS than patients with TP53 and EGFR L858R mutations, and both groups had worse survival than patients with only EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 mutations, especially in exons 6 and 7, had a lower response rate and shorter PFS and OS when treated with gefitinib. Moreover, TP53 exon 5 mutation divided TP53 mutations in disruptive and non-disruptive types.
Publication Date: 2021-07-01
Journal: Translational oncology
Circulating tumour DNA reveals genetic traits of patients with intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.
To investigate the genetic alterations of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with and without intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P).
We performed targeted sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA on 161 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) with IDC-P and 84 without IDC-P. Genomic alterations were compared between these two groups. The association between genetic alterations and patients' survival outcomes was also explored.
We identified that 29.8% (48/161) and 21.4% (18/84) of patients with and without IDC-P harboured genomic alterations in DNA repair pathways, respectively (P = 0.210). Pathogenic germline DNA repair alterations were frequently detected in IDC-P carriers compared to IDC-P non-carriers (11.8% [19/161] vs 2.4% [two of 84], P = 0.024). Germline BReast CAncer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2) and somatic cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) defects were specifically identified in IDC-P carriers relative to PAC (BRCA2: 8.7% [14/161] vs 0% and CDK12: 6.8% [11/161] vs 1.2% [one of 84]). Patients with IDC-P had a distinct androgen receptor (AR) pathway alteration, characterised by an enrichment of nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) mutations compared with patients with pure PAC (21.1% [34/161] vs 6.0% [five of 84], P = 0.004). Increased AR alterations were detected in patients harbouring tumours with an IDC-P proportion of ≥10% vs those with an IDC-P proportion of <10% (6.4% [five of 78] vs 18.1% [15/83], P = 0.045). For IDC-P carriers, tumour protein p53 (TP53) mutation was associated with shorter castration-resistant-free survival (median 10.9 vs 28.9 months, P = 0.026), and BRCA2 alteration was related to rapid prostate-specific antigen progression for those receiving abiraterone treatment (median 9.1 vs 11.9 months, P = 0.036).
Our findings provide genomic evidence explaining the aggressive phenotype of tumours with IDC-P, highlighting the potential therapeutic strategies for this patient population.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: BJU international
Genomic Sequencing and Insight into Clinical Heterogeneity and Prognostic Pathway Genes in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFβ, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.
Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFβ, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFβ, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years.
Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Comprehensive CRISPR-Cas9 screens identify genetic determinants of drug responsiveness in multiple myeloma.
The introduction of new drugs in the past years has substantially improved outcome in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the majority of patients eventually relapse and become resistant to one or multiple drugs. While the genetic landscape of relapsed/ resistant multiple myeloma has been elucidated, the causal relationship between relapse-specific gene mutations and the sensitivity to a given drug in MM has not systematically been evaluated. To determine the functional impact of gene mutations, we performed combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) of longitudinal patient samples with CRISPR-Cas9 drug resistance screens for lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone, and melphalan. WES of longitudinal samples from 16 MM patients identified a large number of mutations in each patient that were newly acquired or evolved from a small subclone (median 9, range 1-55), including recurrent mutations in TP53, DNAH5, and WSCD2. Focused CRISPR-Cas9 resistance screens against 170 relapse-specific mutations functionally linked 15 of them to drug resistance. These included cereblon E3 ligase complex members for lenalidomide, structural genes PCDHA5 and ANKMY2 for dexamethasone, RB1 and CDK2NC for bortezomib, and TP53 for melphalan. In contrast, inactivation of genes involved in the DNA damage repair pathway, including ATM, FANCA, RAD54B, and BRCC3, enhanced susceptibility to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Resistance patterns were highly drug specific with low overlap and highly correlated with the treatment-dependent clonal evolution in patients. The functional association of specific genetic alterations with drug sensitivity will help to personalize treatment of MM in the future.
Publication Date: 2021-05-06
Journal: Blood advances
Low-burden TP53 mutations in CLL: Clinical impact and clonal evolution within the context of different treatment options.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with TP53 mutations experience chemo-refractory disease and are therefore indicated for targeted therapy. However, the significance of low-burden TP53 mutations with <10% variant allele frequency (VAF) remains a matter of debate. Here we describe clonal evolution scenarios of low-burden TP53 mutations and analyzed their clinical impact in a "real-world" CLL cohort. TP53 status was assessed by targeted NGS in 511 patients entering first-line treatment with chemo/immunotherapy and 159 relapsed patients treated with targeted agents. Within the pre-therapy cohort, 16% of patients carried low-burden TP53 mutations (0.1-10% VAF). While their presence did not significantly shorten event-free survival after first-line therapy, it affected overall survival (OS). For a subgroup with TP53 mutations of 1-10% VAF, the impact on OS was only observed in patients with unmutated IGHV that had not received targeted therapy, as patients benefited from switching to targeted agents regardless of initial TP53 mutational status. Analysis of the clonal evolution of low-burden TP53 mutations showed that the highest expansion rates were associated with FCR in both first and second-line treatment (median VAF increase 14.8x and 11.8x, respectively) in contrast to treatment with less intense chemo/immunotherapy regimens (1.6x) and without treatment (0.8x). In the relapsed cohort, 33% of patients carried low-burden TP53 mutations, which did not expand significantly upon targeted treatment (median VAF change 1x). Sporadic cases of TP53-mut clonal shifts were connected with the development of resistance-associated mutations. Altogether, our data support the incorporation of low-burden TP53 variants in clinical decision-making.
Publication Date: 2021-05-05
CarcSeq Measurement of Rat Mammary Cancer Driver Mutations and Relation to Spontaneous Mammary Neoplasia.
The ability to deduce carcinogenic potential from subchronic, repeat dose rodent studies would constitute a major advance in chemical safety assessment and drug development. This study investigated an error-corrected NGS method (CarcSeq) for quantifying cancer driver mutations (CDMs) and deriving a metric of clonal expansion predictive of future neoplastic potential. CarcSeq was designed to interrogate subsets of amplicons encompassing hotspot CDMs applicable to a variety of cancers. Previously, normal human breast DNA was analyzed by CarcSeq and metrics based on mammary-specific CDMs were correlated with tissue donor age, a surrogate of breast cancer risk. Here we report development of parallel methodologies for rat. The utility of the rat CarcSeq method for predicting neoplastic potential was investigated by analyzing mammary tissue of 16-week-old untreated rats with known differences in spontaneous mammary neoplasia (Fischer 344, Wistar Han, and Sprague Dawley). Hundreds of mutants with mutant fractions ≥ 10-4 were quantified in each strain, most were recurrent mutations, and 42.5% of the nonsynonymous mutations have human homologs. Mutants in the mammary-specific target of the most tumor-sensitive strain (Sprague Dawley) showed the greatest nonsynonymous/synonymous mutation ratio, indicative of positive selection consistent with clonal expansion. For the mammary-specific target (Hras, Pik3ca, and Tp53 amplicons), median absolute deviation correlated with percentages of rats that develop spontaneous mammary neoplasia at 104 weeks (Pearson r = 1.0000, 1-tailed p = .0010). Therefore, this study produced evidence CarcSeq analysis of spontaneously occurring CDMs can be used to derive an early metric of clonal expansion relatable to long-term neoplastic outcome.
Publication Date: 2021-04-07
Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Baseline and serial molecular profiling predicts outcomes with hypomethylating agents in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) are widely used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), yet identifying those patients unlikely to benefit remains challenging. We assessed response and overall survival (OS) in 247 patients molecularly profiled by next-generation sequencing (NGS) before first-line HMA therapy, and a subset of 108 patients were sequenced serially during treatment. The most common mutations included TP53 (33.1%), ASXL1 (19%), TET2 (16.5%), DNMT3A (14.1%), and SRSF2 (12.1%). The overall response rate was 42.1%, with the composite TET2-mutant/ASXL1 wild-type genotype representing the strongest predictor of response (overall response rate, 62.1%; complete remission rate, 34.5%). The median OS for the cohort was 15 months, and the number of mutations detected by NGS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; P = .02), as well as mutations in TP53 (HR, 2.33; P = .001) and EZH2 (HR, 2.41; P = .04) were identified as independent covariates associated with inferior OS in multivariable analysis. Serial molecular profiling revealed that clearance of TP53 mutations during HMA therapy was associated with superior OS (HR, 0.28; P = .001) and improved outcome in patients proceeding to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. These data support baseline molecular profiling by NGS in MDS patients treated with HMAs and provide novel observations of sequential profiling during therapy that provide particular value in TP53-mutated disease.
Publication Date: 2021-02-17
Journal: Blood advances
Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score in germline BRCA2- versus ATM-altered prostate cancer.
The homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score integrates three DNA-based measures of genomic instability, and has been understudied in prostate cancer. Given the recent FDA approval of two PARP inhibitors for prostate cancer, HRD score analysis could help to refine treatment selection. We assessed HRD score (defined as the sum of loss-of-heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions) in three cohorts of primary prostate cancer, including a Johns Hopkins University (JHU) cohort with germline mutations in BRCA2, ATM, or CHEK2 (n = 64), the TCGA cohort (n = 391), and the PROGENE cohort (n = 102). In the JHU cohort, tumors with germline BRCA2 mutations had higher HRD scores (median = 27) than those with germline ATM or CHEK2 mutations (median = 16.5 [p = 0.029] and 9 [p < 0.001], respectively). For TCGA tumors without underlying HR pathway mutations, the median HRD score was 11, significantly lower than ovarian carcinoma lacking BRCA1/2 mutations (median = 28). In the absence of HR gene mutations, the median HRD score was unexpectedly higher among prostate cancers with TP53 mutations versus those without (17 vs. 11; p = 0.015); this finding was confirmed in the PROGENE cohort (24 vs. 16; p = 0.001). Finally, among eight BRCA2-altered patients who received olaparib, progression-free survival trended longer in those with HRD scores above versus below the median (14.9 vs. 9.9 months). We conclude that HRD scores are low in primary prostate cancer and higher in cases with germline BRCA2 or somatic TP53 mutations. Germline BRCA2-altered cases have significantly higher HRD scores than germline ATM-altered or CHEK2-altered cases, consistent with the lower efficacy of PARP inhibitors among the latter.
Publication Date: 2021-01-20
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
The genomic and immunologic profiles of pure pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma in Chinese patients.
The distribution of genetic mutations differs between pure pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) and biphasic PSC; however, most of the enrolled cases in previous studies are biphasic PSC. The current study aimed to investigate the genomic and immunologic profiles of pure PSC in the Chinese population.
Next-generation sequencing analysis of a panel of 1021 genes was performed on surgical specimens of 58 pure PSCs. The tumor mutational burden (TMB) was calculated from 0.69 megabases (Mbs) of sequenced DNA. PD-L1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was evaluated by fluorescence-labeled microsatellite marker polymerase chain reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis fragment size analysis.
The top mutational genes of pure PSC were TP53 (74 %, 43/58), KRAS (24 %, 14/58), SMARCA4 (14 %, 8/58), MET (12 %, 7/58), EGFR (10 %, 6/58), MLL4 (10 %, 6/58), NF1 (10 %, 6/58), NOTCH4 (10 %, 6/58), and TERT (10 %, 6/58). The median TMB was 8.6 mutations/Mb; 37.9 % of cases (22/58) had a TMB > 10 mutations/Mb and 12.1 % of cases (7/58) had a TMB > 20 mutations/Mb. The median TMB was higher in TP53-mutant tumors than in wild-type tumors (10.1 versus 7.2 mutations/Mb, p = 0.019). Thirty-five patients had microsatellite-stable pure PSC, and four patients carried MSI-H tumors. The MSI status was independent of MET exon 14 status. Twenty-six patients (45 %) had PD-L1-positive tumors (≥1%) and 14 (24 %) had high PD-L1 expression (≥50 %).
In our cohort, 45 % of patients with pure PSC harbored at least one actionable alteration. More importantly, more than 60 % of patients (65.5 %, 38/58) had either MSI-H, PD-L1-positive, or high-TMB tumors, and these might derive survival benefits from immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Publication Date: 2021-01-18
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
RAS/TP53 co-Mutation is Associated with Worse Survival after Concurrent Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases and Extrahepatic Disease.
To determine if tumor genetics are associated with overall survival (OS) after concurrent resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and extrahepatic disease (EHD).
The prognosis for patients who undergo concurrent resection of CLM/EHD is unclear and the impact of somatic mutations has not been reported.
Patients undergoing concurrent resection of CLM and EHD from 2007-2017 were identified from two academic centers. From 1 center, patients were selected from a pre-existing database of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to construct survival curves, compared using the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox analysis for OS was performed.
One hundred nine patients were included. Most common EHD sites included lung (33 patients), peritoneum (32), and portal lymph nodes (14). TP53 mutation was the most common mutation, identified in 75 patients (69%), and RAS/TP53 co-mutation was identified in 31 patients (28%). The median OS was 49 months (IQR, 24-125), and 3- and 5-year OS rates were 66% and 44%, respectively. Compared to patients without RAS/TP53 co-mutation, patients with RAS/TP53 co-mutation had lower median OS: 39 vs. 51 months (P = .02). On multivariable analysis, lung EHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.4), peritoneal EHD (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2) and RAS/TP53 co-mutation (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.2) were independently associated with OS.
RAS/TP53 co-mutation is associated with worse OS after concurrent CLM/EHD resection. Mutational status and site of EHD should be included in the evaluation of patients considered for concurrent resection.
Publication Date: 2020-12-23
Journal: Annals of surgery
Predictive and Prognostic Potential of TP53 in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With EGFR-TKI: Analysis of a Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial (CTONG 0901).
Mutations in TP53 are commonly found in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we determined the predictive and prognostic potential of different subtypes of TP53 using data from a phase III randomized trial (CTONG 0901).
The trial enrolled 195 patients who had undergone next-generation sequencing of 168 genes before treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Mutations in TP53 (exon 4 or 7, other mutations, and wild-type) were analyzed based on the therapeutic response and survival. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the potential of the predictive and prognostic factors.
All 195 patients harbored activating EGFR mutations: the most common concomitant mutations were TP53 (134/195, 68.7%), CTNNB1 (20/195, 10.3%), and RB1 (16/195, 8.2%). The genetic profiles between patient subgroups administered first-line (132, 67.7%) or later-line (63, 32.3%) treatments did not significantly differ. The median progression-free survival in patients with mutations in exon 4 or 7 of TP53, other TP53 mutations, and wild-type TP53 were 9.4, 11.0, and 14.5 months (P = .009), respectively. Overall survival times were 15.8, 20.0, and 26.1 months (P = .004), respectively. Mutations in exon 4 or 7 of TP53 served as independent prognostic factors for progression-free (P = .001) and overall survival (P = .004) in patients.
Mutations in exon 4 and/or 7 in TP53 are promising predictive and prognostic indicators in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
Publication Date: 2020-12-16
Journal: Clinical lung cancer
The utility of TP53 and PIK3CA mutations as prognostic biomarkers in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Despite wide excision and post-operative irradiation, loco-regional and/or metastatic recurrence is a significant clinical problem in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Reliable biomarkers are required to tailor post-treatment surveillance to patients at highest risk of recurrence. We sought to determine the utility of TP53 and PIK3CA mutations as prognostic biomarkers in SACC.
DNA was extracted from archival tumour blocks of 145 SACC patients from 66 UK referral centres and sequenced for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations. Clinical, pathological and outcome data were analysed to determine the impact of the genomic alterations on disease recurrence and overall survival (OS).
TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were identified in 8% (10/121 successful analyses) and 2% (3/121) of cases, respectively. There were too few PIK3CA mutations in this cohort for informative further analysis. TP53-mutated SACC had significantly shorter median OS (5.3 vs. 16.3 years, p = 0.019) and lower 10-year survival (48% vs. 81%) compared with TP53 wild-type ACC. Solid-pattern histopathology was more frequent in TP53-mutated SACC (50% vs. 15%, p = 0.27).
TP53-mutated recurrent and metastatic SACC was associated with shorter OS, which was significant when combined with published genomic data sets. Stratifying by TP53 status, in addition to established clinical, pathological and genomic biomarkers, may usefully inform follow-up strategy.
Publication Date: 2020-12-09
Journal: Oral oncology
Phase 2 study of the safety and efficacy of umbralisib in patients with CLL who are intolerant to BTK or PI3Kδ inhibitor therapy.
Intolerance is the most common reason for kinase inhibitor (KI) discontinuation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Umbralisib, a novel highly selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ)/CK1ε inhibitor, is active and well tolerated in CLL patients. In this phase 2 trial (NCT02742090), umbralisib was initiated at 800 mg/d in CLL patients requiring therapy, who were intolerant to prior BTK inhibitor (BTKi) or PI3K inhibitor (PI3Ki) therapy, until progression or toxicity. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included time to treatment failure and safety. DNA was genotyped for CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Fifty-one patients were enrolled (44 BTKi intolerant and 7 PI3Kδi intolerant); median age was 70 years (range, 48-96), with a median of 2 prior lines of therapy (range, 1-7), 24% had del17p and/or TP53 mutation, and 65% had unmutated IGHV. Most common adverse events (AEs) leading to prior KI discontinuation were rash (27%), arthralgia (18%), and atrial fibrillation (16%). Median PFS was 23.5 months (95% CI, 13.1-not estimable), with 58% of patients on umbralisib for a longer duration than prior KI. Most common (≥5%) grade ≥3 AEs on umbralisib (all causality) were neutropenia (18%), leukocytosis (14%), thrombocytopenia (12%), pneumonia (12%), and diarrhea (8%). Six patients (12%) discontinued umbralisib because of an AE. Eight patients (16%) had dose reductions and were successfully rechallenged. These are the first prospective data to confirm that switching from a BTKi or alternate PI3Ki to umbralisib in this BTKi- and PI3Ki-intolerant CLL population can result in durable well-tolerated responses.
Publication Date: 2020-12-02
PDL1 high expression without TP53, KEAP1 and EPHA5 mutations could better predict survival for patients with NSCLC receiving atezolizumab.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high expression of PDL1 are more likely to benefit from atezolizumab. There are no relevant research focusing on the relationship between the PDL1 expression and clinical variables and gene mutation types among NSCLC patients.
NSCLC patients with confirmed PDL1 expression and gene mutation information from OAK study were included in our study. Logistic regression proportional model was applied to analyze the risk factors on PDL1 high expression. The biomarker evaluable population (BEP) was screened to analyze the gene mutation informaion among these patients. High frequency gene mutations were screened based on different PDL1 expressions. Moreover, the log rank test was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) difference based on different gene mutation types.
A total of 838 patients with NSCLC were included in our study. White patients are more likely to have PDL1 ≥ 1% (P = 0.004). ERBB4, EP300, PREX2, SLIT2, EPHB1 and IGF2R mutations were high frequency mutations in patients with high PDL1 expression, and the patients with EGFR, SMARCA4, EPHA5, FAT1, STK11, TET2 mutations were more likely to be seen in negative PDL1 expression group. Worse survival could be found in patients with KEAP1 (P < 0.001), TP53 (P = 0.004) and EPHA5 (P = 0.013) mutations who received atezolizumab compared with those who had none of these gene mutations. Importantly, for PDL1 high patients without KEAP1, EPHA5, TP53 mutations receiving atezolizumab, they all showed relatively longer median survival with 22.47, 22.18 and 23.33 months, respectively (all, P < 0.01).
Different high frequency gene mutations could be found between the patients with high and negative PDL1. PDL1 expression combined with specific gene mutation may better predict the survival for patients receiving atezolizumab.
Publication Date: 2020-11-29
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Prognostic and therapeutic impacts of mutant TP53 variant allelic frequency in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.
TP53 mutations are associated with poor outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The prognostic impact of mutant TP53 (TP53mut) variant allelic frequency (VAF) is not well established, nor is how this information might guide optimal frontline therapy. We retrospectively analyzed 202 patients with newly diagnosed TP53-mutated AML who underwent first-line therapy with either a cytarabine- or hypomethylating agent (HMA)-based regimen. By multivariate analysis, TP53mut VAF >40% was independently associated with a significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P = .003) and worse relapse-free survival (P = .001) and overall survival (OS; P = .003). The impact of TP53mut VAF on clinical outcomes was driven by patients treated with a cytarabine-based regimen (median OS, 4.7 vs 7.3 months for VAF >40% vs ≤40%; P = .006), whereas VAF did not significantly affect OS in patients treated with HMA. The addition of venetoclax to HMA did not significantly affect OS compared with HMA without venetoclax, both in the entire TP53-mutated population and in patients stratified by TP53mut VAF. Among patients with TP53mut VAF ≤40%, OS was superior in those treated with higher-dose cytarabine, whereas OS was similarly poor for patients with TP53mut VAF >40% regardless of therapy. The best long-term outcomes were observed in those with 1 TP53 mutation with VAF ≤40% who received a frontline cytarabine-based regimen (2-year OS, 38% vs 6% for all others; P < .001). In summary, TP53mut VAF provides important prognostic information that may be considered when selecting frontline therapy for patients with newly diagnosed TP53-mutated AML.
Publication Date: 2020-11-20
Journal: Blood advances