Cateslytin abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocyte injury by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through toll like receptor 4 interaction.
Global public health is threatened by new pathogens, antimicrobial resistant microorganisms and a rapid decline of conventional antimicrobials efficacy. Thus, numerous medical procedures become life-threating. Sepsis can lead to tissue damage such as myocardium inflammation, associated with reduction of contractility and diastolic dysfunction, which may cause death. In this perspective, growing interest and attention are paid on host defence peptides considered as new potential antimicrobials. In the present study, we investigated the physiological and biochemical properties of Cateslytin (Ctl), an endogenous antimicrobial chromogranin A-derived peptide, in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infection. We showed that both Ctl (L and D) enantiomers, but not their scrambled counterparts, significantly increased cardiomyocytes viability following LPS, even if L-Ctl was effective at lower concentration (1 nM) compared to D-Ctl (10 nM). L-Ctl mitigated LPS-induced LDH release and oxidative stress, as visible by a reduction of MDA and protein carbonyl groups content, and by an increase of SOD activity. Molecular docking simulations strongly suggested that L-Ctl modulates TLR4 through a direct binding to the partner protein MD-2. Molecular analyses indicated that the protection mediated by L-Ctl against LPS-evoked sepsis targeted the TLR4/ERK/JNK/p38-MAPK pathway, regulating NFkB p65, NFkB p52 and COX2 expression and repressing the mRNA expression levels of the LPS-induced proinflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NOS2. These findings indicate that Ctl could be considered as a possible candidate for the development of new antimicrobials strategies in the treatment of myocarditis. Interestingly, L-enantiomeric Ctl showed remarkable properties in strengthening the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects on cardiomyocytes.
Publication Date: 2021-02-27
Journal: International immunopharmacology
Protective effect of metformin on rat diabetic retinopathy involves suppression of toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-k B expression and glutamate excitotoxicity.
Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus are progressively significant reasons for mortality. Metformin (MET) is considered as the first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes patients, and may be especially beneficial in cases of diabetic retinopathy although the precise mechanisms of MET action are not fully elucidated. The current study was designed to inspect the antioxidant and modulatory actions of MET on DRET in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of MET on the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B (TLR4/NFkB), inflammatory burden and glutamate excitotoxicity was assessed. Twenty-four male rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (1) Vehicle group, (2) Diabetic control: developed diabetes by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.). (3&4) Diabetic + MET group: diabetic rats were left for 9 weeks without treatment and then received oral MET 100 and 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Retinal samples were utilized in biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies. MET administration significantly decreased retinal level of insulin growth factor and significantly suppressed the diabetic induced increase of malondialdehyde, glutamate, tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Further, MET decreased the retinal mRNA expression of NFkB, tumor necrosis factor-α and TLR4 in diabetic rats. The current findings shed the light on MET's efficacy as an adjuvant therapy to hinder the development of diabetic retinopathy, at least partly, via inhibition of oxidative stress-induced NFkB/TLR4 pathway and suppression of glutamate excitotoxicity.
Publication Date: 2020-11-29
Journal: International immunopharmacology
The effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on hippocampal ischemia/reperfusion injuries in rats.
We focused on the, yet undescribed, therapy effect of the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in hippocampal ischemia/reperfusion injuries, after bilateral clamping of the common carotid arteries in rats. The background is the proven therapy effect of BPC 157 in ischemia/reperfusion injuries in different tissues. Furthermore, there is the subsequent oxidative stress counteraction, particularly when given during reperfusion. The recovering effect it has on occluded vessels, results with activation of the alternative pathways, bypassing the occlusion in deep vein thrombosis. Finally, the BPC 157 therapy benefits with its proposed role as a novel mediator of Roberts' cytoprotection and bidirectional effects in the gut-brain axis.
Male Wistar rats underwent bilateral clamping of the common carotid arteries for a 20-min period. At 30 s thereafter, we applied medication (BPC 157 10 µg/kg; or saline) as a 1 ml bath directly to the operated area, that is, trigonum caroticum. We documented, in reperfusion, the resolution of the neuronal damages sustained in the brain, resolution of the damages reflected in memory, locomotion, and coordination disturbances, with the presentation of the particular genes expression in hippocampal tissues.
In the operated rats, at 24 and 72 hr of the reperfusion, the therapy counteracted both early and delayed neural hippocampal damage, achieving full functional recovery (Morris water maze test, inclined beam-walking test, lateral push test). mRNA expression studies at 1 and 24 hr, provided strongly elevated (Egr1, Akt1, Kras, Src, Foxo, Srf, Vegfr2, Nos3, and Nos1) and decreased (Nos2, Nfkb) gene expression (Mapk1 not activated), as a way how BPC 157 may act.
Together, these findings suggest that these beneficial BPC 157 effects may provide a novel therapeutic solution for stroke.
Publication Date: 2020-06-20
Journal: Brain and behavior
Prophylactic antenatal N-Acetyl Cysteine administration combined with postnatal administration can decrease mortality and injury markers associated with necrotizing enterocolitis in a rat model.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of neonates, especially premature neonates. To date, there is no prophylactic treatment against NEC, except breast milk and slow increase in enteral feeding, and there is no antenatal prophylaxis.
To assess possible protective effects of antenatal N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) against the intestinal pathophysiological changes associated with NEC in a rat model of NEC and against its associated mortality.
Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: control (n = 33); NEC (n = 32)-subjected to hypoxia and formula feeding for 4 days to induce NEC; NEC-NAC (n = 34)-with induced NEC and concomitant postnatal NAC administration; NAC-NEC (n = 33)-born to dams treated with NAC for the last 3 days of pregnancy starting at gestational age of 18 days, and then subjected to induced NEC after birth; NAC-NEC-NAC (n = 36)-subjected to induced NEC with both prenatal and postnatal NAC treatment. At day of life 5, weight and survival of pups in the different groups were examined, and pups were euthanized. Ileal TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, NFkB p65, iNOS and cleaved caspase 3 protein levels (western blot) and mRNA expression (RT-PCR) were compared between groups.
Pup mortality was significantly reduced in the NAC-NEC-NAC group compared to NEC (11% vs. 34%, P<0.05). Ileal protein levels and mRNA expression of all injury markers tested except IL-10 were significantly increased in NEC compared to control. These markers were significantly reduced in all NAC treatment groups (NEC-NAC, NAC-NEC, and NAC-NEC-NAC) compared to NEC. The most pronounced decrease was observed in the NAC-NEC NAC group.
Antenatal NAC decreases injury markers and mortality associated with NEC in a rat model. Antenatal administration of NAC may present a novel approach for NEC prophylaxis in pregnancies with risk for preterm birth.
Publication Date: 2020-06-02
Journal: PloS one
Lovastatin inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in microglia by targeting its co-receptor myeloid differentiation protein 2 and attenuates neuropathic pain.
There is growing interest in drug repositioning to find new therapeutic indications for drugs already approved for use in people. Lovastatin is an FDA approved drug that has been used clinically for over a decade as a lipid-lowering medication. While lovastatin is classically considered to act as a hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor, the present series of studies reveal a novel lovastatin effect, that being as a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist. Lovastatin selectively inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4-NF-κB activation without affecting signaling by other homologous TLRs. In vitro biophysical binding and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) show that lovastatin is recognized by TLR4's coreceptor myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2). This finding is supported by molecular dynamics simulations that lovastatin targets the LPS binding pocket of MD-2 and lovastatin binding stabilizes the MD-2 conformation. In vitro studies of BV-2 microglial cells revealed that lovastatin inhibits multiple effects of LPS, including activation of NFkB; mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6 and cyclo-oxygenase 2; production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; as well as phagocytic activity. Furthermore, intrathecal delivery of lovastatin over lumbosacral spinal cord of rats attenuated both neuropathic pain from sciatic nerve injury and expression of the microglial activation marker CD11 in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. Given the well-established role of microglia and proinflammatory signaling in neuropathic pain, these data are supportive that lovastatin, as a TLR4 antagonist, may be productively repurposed for treating chronic pain.
Publication Date: 2019-09-23
Journal: Brain, behavior, and immunity
Proinflammatory NFkB signalling promotes mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle in response to cellular fuel overloading.
Sustained nutrient (fuel) excess, as occurs during obesity and diabetes, has been linked to increased inflammation, impaired mitochondrial homeostasis, lipotoxicity, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Precisely how mitochondrial dysfunction is initiated and whether it contributes to insulin resistance in this tissue remains a poorly resolved issue. Herein, we examine the contribution that an increase in proinflammatory NFkB signalling makes towards regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics, morphology, and dynamics and its impact upon insulin action in skeletal muscle cells subject to chronic fuel (glucose and palmitate) overloading. We show sustained nutrient excess of L6 myotubes promotes activation of the IKKβ-NFkB pathway (as judged by a six-fold increase in IL-6 mRNA expression; an NFkB target gene) and that this was associated with a marked reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity (>50%), a three-fold increase in mitochondrial fragmentation and 2.5-fold increase in mitophagy. Under these circumstances, we also noted a reduction in the mRNA and protein abundance of PGC1α and that of key mitochondrial components (SDHA, ANT-1, UCP3, and MFN2) as well as an increase in cellular ROS and impaired insulin action in myotubes. Strikingly, pharmacological or genetic repression of NFkB activity ameliorated disturbances in mitochondrial respiratory function/morphology, attenuated loss of SDHA, ANT-1, UCP3, and MFN2 and mitigated the increase in ROS and the associated reduction in myotube insulin sensitivity. Our findings indicate that sustained oversupply of metabolic fuel to skeletal muscle cells induces heightened NFkB signalling and that this serves as a critical driver for disturbances in mitochondrial function and morphology, redox status, and insulin signalling.
Publication Date: 2019-05-19
Journal: Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Astaxanthin inhibits cytokines production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent nuclear factor κB activation in pre and postpartum Murrah buffaloes during different seasons.
We examined regulatory function of astaxanthin on mRNA expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pre and postpartum Murrah buffaloes during summer (temperature-humidity index [THI]=86; relative humidity [RH]=24) and winter (THI=58.74; RH=73) seasons.
A total of 32 Murrah buffaloes apparently healthy and in their one to four parity were selected from National Dairy Research Institute herd and equally distributed randomly into four groups (control and supplemented groups of buffaloes during summer and winter season, respectively). All groups were fed according to the nutrient requirement of buffaloes (ICAR, 2013). The treatment group was supplemented with astaxanthin at 0.25 mg/kg body weight/animal/day during the period 30 days before expected date of calving and up to 30 days postpartum.
There was downregulation of NF-κB p65 gene in all the groups. NF-κB p65 mRNA expression was lower (p<0.05) in treatment than control group from prepartum to postpartum during summer, while mRNA expression was low only on day 21 after calving during winter season. The mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was lower (p<0.05) in treatment than a control group of buffaloes during summer and winter seasons. The mRNA expression of NFkB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was higher (p<0.05) in summer than in winter seasons.
The xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin a reddish-colored C-40 compound is a powerful broad-ranging antioxidant that naturally occurs in a wide variety of living organisms, such as microalgae, fungi, crustaceans, and complex plants. Astaxanthin blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and IκBα degradation, which correlated with its inhibitory effect on IκB kinase (IKK) activity. These results suggest that astaxanthin, probably due to its antioxidant activity, inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators by blocking NF-κB activation and as a consequent suppression of IKK activity and IκB-degradation.
Publication Date: 2018-07-24
Journal: Veterinary world
Multi-cellular human bronchial models exposed to diesel exhaust particles: assessment of inflammation, oxidative stress and macrophage polarization.
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of outdoor air pollution. DEP mediated pulmonary effects are plausibly linked to inflammatory and oxidative stress response in which macrophages (MQ), epithelial cells and their cell-cell interaction plays a crucial role. Therefore, in this study we aimed at studying the cellular crosstalk between airway epithelial cells with MQ and MQ polarization following exposure to aerosolized DEP by assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, and MQ polarization response markers.
Lung mucosa models including primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) were co-cultured without (PBEC-ALI) and with MQ (PBEC-ALI/MQ). Cells were exposed to 12.7 μg/cm
In PBEC-ALI exposure to DEP significantly increased the secretion of CXCL8, mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (CXCL8, TNFα) and oxidative stress markers (NFKB, HMOX1, GPx). However, mRNA expressions of these markers (CXCL8, IL6, NFKB, and HMOX1) were reduced in PBEC-ALI/MQ models after DEP exposure. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression increased after DEP exposure in PBEC-ALI. The surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on PBEC was significantly reduced in sham-exposed PBEC-ALI/MQ compared to PBEC-ALI. After DEP exposure surface expression of TLR2 was increased on PBEC of PBEC-ALI/MQ, while TLR4 was decreased in both models. DEP exposure resulted in similar expression pattern of TLR2/TLR4 on MQ as in PBEC. In PBEC-ALI/MQ, DEP exposure increased the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage markers (IL10, IL4, IL13, MRC1, MRC2).
The cellular interaction of PBEC with MQ in response to DEP plays a pivotal role for MQ phenotypic alteration towards M2-subtypes, thereby promoting an efficient resolution of the inflammation. Furthermore, this study highlighted the fact that cell-cell interaction using multicellular ALI-models combined with an in vivo-like inhalation exposure system is critical in better mimicking the airway physiology compared with traditional cell culture systems.
Publication Date: 2018-05-03
Journal: Particle and fibre toxicology
Protective effects of sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) extract on testicular dysfunction induced by immune suppressant drugs in Wistar rats.
The current study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Holothurian atra (HA) extract; naturally occurring marine resource, against methotrexate (MTX) induced testicular dysfunction. Mature rats received either MTX (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline on the 7th day of experiment al design. Seven days prior and after MTX-injection, rats received HA at dose of 300 mg/kg intragastrically (HA + MTX group; HA group alone). Serum was extracted and testicular tissues were examined for the changes in serum biochemistry (liver & kidney biomarkers, testicular hormones and antioxidants), molecular and histopthological alterations using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MTX-injected rats induced alteration in all testicular parameters. Prior administration of HA ameliorated the MTX-induced oxidative stress. HA administration normalised MTX-induced decrease in serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) and antioxidants GST, SOD and catalase. MTX-injected rats down-regulated mRNA expression of GST, SOD, steroidogenesis associated genes, IFN-γ, Bcl2 and NFKB. MTX up-regulated BAX expression and caspase 9 immunoreactivity that were ameliorated in HA + MTX group. Collectively, HA ameliorated and restored all altered genes. In conclusion, HA is a promising supplement that is helpful in protection against testicular cytotoxicity and dysfunction induced by methotrexate.
Publication Date: 2018-04-25
Beneficial Effects of Metformin and/or Salicylate on Palmitate- or TNFα-Induced Neuroinflammatory Marker and Neuropeptide Gene Regulation in Immortalized NPY/AgRP Neurons.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects. Treatment with palmitate increased mRNA expression of feeding peptides Npy and Agrp, and inflammatory cytokines Tnfa and Il-6, whereas treatment with TNFα increased mRNA expression of Npy, Nfkb, Ikba, Tnfa, and Il-6. The effects of metformin and/or sodium salicylate on these genes were assessed. Metformin increased phosphorylation of AMPK and S6K, while sodium salicylate increased phospho-AMPK and decreased phospho-S6K, but neither had any effect on phospho-ERK, -JNK or -p38 in the mHypoE-46 NPY/AgRP neurons. Furthermore, we utilized a pre-treatment and/or co-treatment paradigm to model potential clinical regimens. We determined co-treatment with metformin or sodium salicylate alone was successful in alleviating changes observed in feeding peptide mRNA regulation, whereas a preventative pre-treatment with metformin and sodium salicylate together was able to alleviate palmitate- and TNFα-induced induction of NPY and/or AgRP mRNA levels. These results highlight important differences in reactive versus preventative treatments on palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in NPY/AgRP neurons.
Publication Date: 2016-11-29
Journal: PloS one
In Vivo toxicological assessment of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).
The present study examines the deleterious effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in adult zebrafish. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in the study were synthesized by treating AgNO3 with aqueous leaves extract of Malva crispa Linn., a medicinal herb as source of reductants. LC50 concentration of AgNPs at 96 h was observed as 142.2 μg/l. In order to explore the underlying toxicity mechanisms of AgNPs, half of the LC50 concentration (71.1 μg/l) was exposed to adult zebrafish for 14 days. Cytological changes and intrahepatic localization of AgNPs were observed in gills and liver tissues respectively, and the results concluded a possible sign for oxidative stress. In addition to oxidative stress the genotoxic effect was observed in peripheral blood cells like presence of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and also loss in cell contact with irregular shape was observed in liver parenchyma cells. Hence to confirm the oxidative stress and genotoxic effects the mRNA expression of stress related (MTF-1, HSP70) and immune response related (TLR4, NFKB, IL1B, CEBP, TRF, TLR22) genes were analyzed in liver tissues and the results clearly concluded that the plant extract mediated synthesis of AgNPs leads to oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in adult zebrafish.
Publication Date: 2015-09-29
Journal: Journal of hazardous materials
Physical training improves body weight and energy balance but does not protect against hepatic steatosis in obese mice.
This study sought to determine the role of physical training (PT) on body weight (BW), energy balance, histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic gene expression in the liver of ob/ob mice. Adult male ob/ob mice were assigned into groups sedentary (S; n = 8) and trained (T; n = 9). PT consisted in running sessions of 60 min at 60% of maximal speed conducted five days per week for eight weeks. BW of S group was higher from the 4(th) to 8(th) week of PT compared to their own BW at the beginning of the experiment. PT decreased daily food intake and increased resting oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in T group. No difference was observed in respiratory exchange ratio, but the rates of carbohydrate and lipids oxidation, and maximal running capacity were greater in T than S group. Both groups showed liver steatosis but not inflammation. PT increased CPT1a and SREBP1c mRNA expression in T group, but did not change MTP, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and NFKB mRNA expression. In conclusion, PT prevented body weight gain in ob/ob mice by inducing negative energy balance and increased physical exercise tolerance. However, PT did not change inflammatory gene expression and failed to prevent liver steatosis possible due to an upregulation in the expression of SREBP1c transcription factor. These findings reveal that PT has positive effect on body weight control but not in the liver steatosis in a leptin deficiency condition.
Publication Date: 2015-09-18
Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
Renoprotective effect of aliskiren on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: electron microscopy and molecular study.
To determine the protective effect of aliskiren on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat renal (I/R) model.
Rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham control group; sham control with aliskiren pretreatment; I/R group and I/R with two doses of aliskiren pretreatment. Rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion. Aliskiren (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally by gavage 24 and 1 h prior to ischemia. After 24 h reperfusion, kidney samples were taken for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity and histological evaluation. The level of serum creatinine (SCR) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renin and angiotensin II (AT-2) was measured in serum samples.
Kidneys from I/R groups showed significant increase in MDA level and significant decrease in GSH, and SOD activity. IL-1β, iNOS and NFkB gene expression significantly increased in the I/R groups in the rat kidney tissue. Aliskiren treatment showed a significant down-regulatory effect on IL-1β, iNOS and NFkB mRNA expression. Compared with the sham group, SCR and BUN, renin and AT-2 were significantly increased in the I/R rats, accompanied by histopathological damage to the kidney.
Pretreatment with aliskiren ameliorated I/R-induced renal injury through decreasing nitric oxide and AT-2 levels and by the reduction of injury induced by I/R injury and ameliorated renal histopathological molecular and biochemical changes.
Publication Date: 2014-12-20
Journal: Renal failure
Insulin acutely triggers transcription of Slc2a4 gene: participation of the AT-rich, E-box and NFKB-binding sites.
The insulin-sensitive glucose transporter protein GLUT4 (solute carrier family 2 member 4 (Slc2a4) gene) plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Decreased GLUT4 expression is a current feature in insulin resistant conditions such as diabetes, and the restoration of GLUT4 content improves glycemic control. This study investigated the effect of insulin upon Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression, focusing on the AT-rich element, E-box and nuclear factor NF-kappa-B (NFKB) site.
Rat soleus muscles were incubated during 180 min with insulin, added or not with wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform (PI3K)-inhibitor), ML9 (serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) inhibitor) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, GLUT4 repressor), and processed for analysis of GLUT4 protein (Western blotting); Slc2a4, myocyte enhancer factor 2a/d (Mef2a/d), hypoxia inducible factor 1a (Hif1a), myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (Nfkb1) messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)); and AT-rich- (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-binding site), E-box- (hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A)- and myoblast determination protein 1 (MYOD1)-binding site), and NFKB-binding activity (electrophoretic mobility assay).
Insulin increased Slc2a4 mRNA expression (140%) and nuclear proteins binding to AT-rich and E-box elements (~90%), all effects were prevented by wortmannin and ML9. Insulin also increased Mef2a/d and Myod1 mRNA expression, suggesting the participation of these transcriptional factors in the Slc2a4 enhancing effect. Conversely, insulin decreased Nfkb1 mRNA expression and protein binding to the NFKB-site (~50%). Furthermore, TNF-induced inhibition of GLUT4 expression (~40%) was prevented by insulin in an NFKB-binding repressing mechanism. GLUT4 protein paralleled the Slc2a4 mRNA regulations.
Insulin enhances the Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression in the skeletal muscle by activating AT-rich and E-box elements, in a PI3K/AKT-dependent mechanism, and repressing NFKB-site activity as well. These results unravel how post-prandial increase of insulin may guarantee GLUT4 expression, and how the insulin signaling impairment can participate in insulin resistance-induced repression of GLUT4.
Publication Date: 2014-08-16
Journal: Life sciences
Hippocampal gene expression dysregulation of Klotho, nuclear factor kappa B and tumor necrosis factor in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.
Previous research in animal seizure models indicates that the pleiotropic cytokine TNF is an important effector/mediator of neuroinflammation and cell death. Recently, it has been demonstrated that TNF downregulates Klotho (KL) through the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) system in animal models of chronic kidney disease and colitis. KL function in the brain is unclear, although Klotho knockout (Kl-/-) mice exhibit neural degeneration and a reduction of hippocampal synapses. Our aim was to verify if the triad KL-NFKB1-TNF is also dysregulated in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE(HS)) patients.
We evaluated TNF, NFKB1 and KL relative mRNA expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in resected hippocampal tissue samples from 14 TLE(HS) patients and compared them to five post mortem controls. Four reference genes were used: GAPDH, HPRT1, ENO2 and TBP. We found that TNF expression was dramatically upregulated in TLE(HS) patients (P <0.005). NFKB1 expression was also increased (P <0.03) while KL was significantly downregulated (P <0.03) in TLE(HS) patients. Hippocampal KL expression had an inverse correlation with NFKB1 and TNF.
Our data suggest that, similar to other inflammatory diseases, TNF downregulates KL through NFkB in TLE(HS) patients. The remarkable TNF upregulation in patients is a strong indication of hippocampal chronic inflammation. Our finding of hippocampal KL downregulation has wide implications not only for TLE(HS) but also for other neuronal disorders related to neurodegeneration associated with inflammation.
Publication Date: 2013-05-03
Journal: Journal of neuroinflammation
Expression profile of apoptosis-related genes in childhood adrenocortical tumors: low level of expression of BCL2 and TNF genes suggests a poor prognosis.
Impaired apoptosis has been implicated in the development of childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT), although the expression of apoptosis-related gene expression in such tumors has not been reported.
The mRNA expression levels of the genes CASP3, CASP8, CASP9, FAS, TNF, NFKB, and BCL2 were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in consecutive tumor samples obtained at diagnosis from 60 children with a diagnosis of ACT and in 11 non-neoplastic adrenal samples. BCL2 and TNF protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
A significant association was observed between tumor size ≥100 g and lower expression levels of the BCL2 (P=0.03) and TNF (P=0.05) genes; between stage IV and lower expression levels of CASP3 (P=0.008), CASP9 (P=0.02), BCL2 (P=0.002), TNF (P=0.05), and NFKB (P=0.03); Weiss score ≥3 and lower expression of TNF (P=0.01); unfavorable event and higher expression values of CASP9 (P=0.01) and lower values of TNF (P=0.02); and death and lower expression of BCL2 (P=0.04). Underexpression of TNF was associated with lower event-free survival in uni- and multivariate analyses (P<0.01). Similar results were observed when patients with Weiss score <3 were excluded.
This study supports the participation of apoptosis-related genes in the biology and prognosis of childhood ACT and suggests the complex role of these genes in the pathogenesis of this tumor.
Publication Date: 2012-05-24
Journal: European journal of endocrinology
Beta defensin-2 is reduced in central but not in distal airways of smoker COPD patients.
Altered pulmonary defenses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may promote distal airways bacterial colonization. The expression/activation of Toll Like receptors (TLR) and beta 2 defensin (HBD2) release by epithelial cells crucially affect pulmonary defence mechanisms.
The epithelial expression of TLR4 and of HBD2 was assessed in surgical specimens from current smokers COPD (s-COPD; n = 17), ex-smokers COPD (ex-s-COPD; n = 8), smokers without COPD (S; n = 12), and from non-smoker non-COPD subjects (C; n = 13).
In distal airways, s-COPD highly expressed TLR4 and HBD2. In central airways, S and s-COPD showed increased TLR4 expression. Lower HBD2 expression was observed in central airways of s-COPD when compared to S and to ex-s-COPD. s-COPD had a reduced HBD2 gene expression as demonstrated by real-time PCR on micro-dissected bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, HBD2 expression positively correlated with FEV1/FVC ratio and inversely correlated with the cigarette smoke exposure. In a bronchial epithelial cell line (16 HBE) IL-1β significantly induced the HBD2 mRNA expression and cigarette smoke extracts significantly counteracted this IL-1 mediated effect reducing both the activation of NFkB pathway and the interaction between NFkB and HBD2 promoter.
This study provides new insights on the possible mechanisms involved in the alteration of innate immunity mechanisms in COPD.
Publication Date: 2012-03-23
Journal: PloS one
Testicular lumicrine factors regulate ERK, STAT, and NFKB pathways in the initial segment of the rat epididymis to prevent apoptosis.
The initial segment of the epididymis is vital for male fertility; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that regulate this important region. Deprival of testicular luminal fluid factors/lumicrine factors from the epididymis results in a wave of apoptosis in the initial segment. In this study, a combination of protein array and microarray analyses was used to examine the early changes in downstream signal transduction pathways following loss of lumicrine factors. We discovered the following cascade of events leading to the loss of protection and eventual apoptosis: in the first 6 h after loss of lumicrine factors, down-regulation of the ERK pathway components was observed at the mRNA expression and protein activity levels. Microarray analysis revealed that mRNA levels of several key components of the ERK pathway, Dusp6, Dusp5, and Etv5, decreased sharply, while the analysis from the protein array revealed a decline in the activities of MAP2K1/2 and MAPK1. Immunostaining of phospho-MAPK3/1 indicated that down-regulation of the ERK pathway was specific to the epithelial cells of the initial segment. Subsequently, after 12 h of loss of lumicrine factors, levels of mRNA expression of STAT and NFKB pathway components increased, mRNA levels of several genes encoding cell cycle inhibitors increased, and levels of protein expression of several proapoptotic phosphatases increased. Finally, after 18 h of loss of protection from lumicrine factors, apoptosis was observed. In conclusion, testicular lumicrine factors protect the cells of the initial segment by activating the ERK pathway, repressing STAT and NFKB pathways, and thereby preventing apoptosis.
Publication Date: 2011-02-12
Journal: Biology of reproduction
Chrysin abrogates early hepatocarcinogenesis and induces apoptosis in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced preneoplastic nodules in rats.
Flavonoids possess strong anti-oxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) occurs naturally in many plants, honey, and propolis. In vitro, chrysin acts as a general anti-oxidant, causes cell cycle arrest and promotes cell death. However, the mechanism by which chrysin inhibits cancer cell growth and the subcellular pathways activated remains poorly understood. Effect of dietary supplementation with chrysin on proliferation and apoptosis during diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced early hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given DEN injections (i.p., 200 mg/kg) three times at a 15 day interval. An oral dose of chrysin (250 mg/kg bodyweight) was given three times weekly for 3 weeks, commencing 1 week after the last dose of DEN. Changes in the mRNA expression of COX-2, NFkB p65, p53, Bcl-xL and β-arrestin-2 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Changes in the protein levels were measured by western blotting. Chrysin administration significantly (P<0.001) reduced the number and size of nodules formed. Also, a significant (P<0.01) reduction in serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and γGT was noticed. Expression of COX-2 and NFkB p65 was significantly reduced whereas that of p53, Bax and caspase 3 increased at the mRNA and protein levels. Likewise, a decrease in levels of β-arrestin and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL was also noted. These findings suggest that chrysin exerts global hepato-protective effect and its chemopreventive activity is associated with p53-mediated apoptosis during early hepatocarcinogenesis.
Publication Date: 2010-12-21
Journal: Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Neuromedin B and its receptor induce labor onset and are associated with the RELA (NFKB P65)/IL6 pathway in pregnant mice.
Although the neuromedin B receptor (NMBR), a bombesin receptor family member, has been implicated in thermoregulation and in stimulation of both urogenital and gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction, its underlying role in labor onset and its associated molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We examined the relationship between temporal and spatial NMBR expression in the myometrium of pregnant mice and potential mechanistic pathways leading to labor onset. Resultant data indicate that NMBR expression peaked at term and before parturition. Maternal exposure to the NMBR agonist neuromedin B (NMB) shortened the gestational age of pups, an effect that was also observed after oxytocin administration. Both RELA (NFKB P65) DNA-binding activity and interleukin 6 (Il6) mRNA expression were greatest during parturition and after maternal exposure to the highest NMB concentration administered (150 μg/kg). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed among NMBR mRNA expression, RELA DNA-binding activity, and Il6 mRNA expression. These data demonstrate that NMB and its receptor can induce the onset of labor via a RELA/IL6-mediated pathway.
Publication Date: 2010-09-10
Journal: Biology of reproduction