Dynamics of circulating tumor DNA during postoperative radiotherapy in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective observational study.
This study was performed to evaluate circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) kinetics during postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) at surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
Stage II/III patients with post-NAC residual TNBC who required PORT were prospectively included in this study between March 2019 and July 2020. For 11 TNBC patients, next-generation sequencing targeting 38 genes was conducted in 55 samples, including tumor tissue, three plasma samples, and leukocytes from each patient. The plasma samples were collected at three-time points; pre-PORT (T0), after 3 weeks of PORT (T1), and 1 month after PORT (T2). Serial changes in ctDNA variant allele frequency (VAF) were analyzed.
Somatic variants were found in the tumor specimens in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. Mutated genes included TP53 (n = 7); PIK3CA (n = 2); and AKT1, APC, CSMD3, MYC, PTEN, and RB1 (n = 1). These tumor mutations were not found in plasma samples. Plasma ctDNA variants were detected in three (27.3%) patients at T0. Mutations in EGFR (n = 1), CTNNB1 (n = 1), and MAP2K (n = 1) was identified with ctDNA analysis. In two (18.2%) patients, the ctDNA VAF decreased through T1 and T2 while increasing at T2 in one (9.1%) patient. After a median follow-up of 22 months, no patient showed cancer recurrence.
Among patients with post-NAC residual TNBC, more than a quarter exhibited a detectable amount of ctDNA after curative surgery. The ctDNA VAF changed variably during the course of PORT. Therefore, ctDNA kinetics can serve as a biomarker for optimizing adjuvant treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-06-22
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment
Clinical Contribution of Next-Generation Sequencing Multigene Panel Testing for BRCA Negative High-Risk Patients With Breast Cancer.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and thought to be hereditary in 10% of patients. Recent next-generation sequencing studies have increased the detection of pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in genes other than BRCA1/2 in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated pathogenic variants, likely pathogenic variants, and variants of unknown significance in 18 hereditary cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer.
This retrospective study included 188 high-risk BRCA1/2-negative patients with breast cancer tested with a multigene cancer panel using next-generation sequencing.
Among 188 proband cases, 18 variants in 21 patients (11.1%) were classified as P/LP in PALB2 (n = 6), CHEK2 (n = 5), MUTYH (n = 4), ATM (n = 3), TP53 (n = 2), BRIP1 (n = 1), and MSH2 (n = 1). Three novel P/LP variants were identified. An additional 28 variants were classified as variants of unknown significance and detected in 30 different patients (15.9%).
This is one of the largest study from Turkey to investigate the mutation spectrum in non-BRCA hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes. A multigene panel test increased the likelihood of identifying a molecular diagnosis in patients with BRCA 1/2-negative breast cancer at risk for a hereditary breast cancer syndrome. More studies are needed to enable the clinical interpretation of these P/LP variants in hereditary patients with breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-05-14
Journal: Clinical breast cancer
Genomic characterization of small cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix.
Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix is a rare and aggressive form of neuroendocrine carcinoma, which resembles small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in its histology and poor survival rate. Here, we sought to define the genetic underpinning of SCCs of the uterine cervix and compare their mutational profiles with those of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, HPV-positive cervical carcinomas, and SCLCs using publicly available data. Using a combination of whole-exome and targeted massively parallel sequencing, we found that the nine uterine cervix SCCs, which were HPV18-positive (n = 8) or HPV16-positive (n = 1), harbored a low mutation burden, few copy number alterations, and other than TP53 in two cases no recurrently mutated genes. The majority of mutations were likely passenger missense mutations, and only few affected previously described cancer-related genes. Using RNA-sequencing, we identified putative viral integration sites on 18q12.3 and on 8p22 in two SCCs of the uterine cervix. The overall nonsilent mutation rate of uterine cervix SCCs was significantly lower than that of SCLCs, HPV-driven cervical adeno- and squamous cell carcinomas, or HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Unlike SCLCs, which are reported to harbor almost universal TP53 and RB1 mutations and a dominant tobacco smoke-related signature 4, uterine cervix SCCs rarely harbored mutations affecting these genes (2/9, 22% TP53; 0% RB1) and displayed a dominant aging (67%) or APOBEC mutational signature (17%), akin to HPV-driven cancers, including cervical adeno- and squamous cell carcinomas and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, in contrast to SCLCs, which are characterized by highly recurrent TP53 and RB1 alterations, uterine cervix SCCs were positive for HPV leading to inactivation of the suppressors p53 and RB, suggesting that these SCCs are convergent phenotypes.
Publication Date: 2021-04-09
Journal: Molecular oncology
Targeted Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Male Germ Cell Tumors.
Ten to fifteen percent of patients with metastatic testis cancer (mGCT) will develop chemorefractory disease of which about 50% will die. We report on the integration of next generation sequencing in daily clinical practice to identify druggable mutations in metastatic lesions of 3 patients with mGCT. Mutational analysis revealed KIT D820G, TP53, and NPM1 mutations as well as mismatch repair deficiency with loss of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins so that targeted therapy with sunitinib (n = 2) or pembrolizumab (n = 1) was initiated resulting in remarkable partial remissions for 9, 12+, and 15 months.
Publication Date: 2021-03-18
Journal: Urologia internationalis
High-resolution melting effectively pre-screens for TP53 mutations before direct sequencing in patients with diffuse glioma.
TP53 mutations are important molecular markers in diffuse astrocytic tumors and medulloblastomas. We examined the efficacy of a pre-screening method for high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of TP53 mutation before direct sequencing using samples from patients with diffuse glioma. Surgical samples from 64 diffuse gliomas were classified based on the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) histopathological grading system and the cIMPACT-NOW (consortium to inform molecular and practical approaches to CNS tumor taxonomy-not official WHO) update. TP53 mutations from exon 5 to exon 8 were assessed by direct sequencing. The results of HRM and p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis were compared by recording the sensitivity, specificity, and false negative and false positive rates. Direct sequencing detected TP53 mutations in 18 of 64 samples (28.1%): diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (n = 3); diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-wild type (n = 1); anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (n = 3); anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wild type (n = 4); and glioblastoma, IDH-wild type (n = 7). A total of 22 mutations was detected in the 18 samples; 4 samples exhibited duplicate missense mutations. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 and 0.96, respectively, for HRM analysis; they were 0.89 and 0.52, respectively, for p53 IHC. Overall accuracy was 0.98 for HRM and 0.63 for IHC. HRM analysis is a good pre-screening method for the detection of TP53 mutation before direct sequencing.
Publication Date: 2021-01-18
Journal: Human cell
Characterization of TP53-wildtype tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas: rare exceptions to the binary classification of ovarian serous carcinoma.
While TP53 mutation is widely considered to be a defining feature of tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), rare TP53-mutation-negative cases have been reported. To gain further insight into this rare subset, a retrospective review was conducted on 25 TP53-wildtype tubo-ovarian HGSCs, constituting 2.5% of 987 HGSCs profiled by the MSK-IMPACT sequencing platform. Consistent with serous differentiation, positive staining for Pax8 and WT1 was present in virtually all TP53-wildtype HGSCs. Other characteristic features of HGSC, such as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, or genetic alterations of CCNE1 and BRCA1/2 were identified in these tumors, furthering supporting their classification as bona fide HGSC, despite lacking TP53 mutations. Overall, the level of chromosomal instability of TP53-wildtype HGSCs was intermediate between low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and TP53-mutated HGSC. Morphologic assessment by observers blinded to mutation status revealed a significant subset of tumors with Grade 2 nuclear atypia (which exceeds the degree of atypia allowed for LGSC, but less than typically encountered for HGSC) combined with micropapillary features (6/19, 32%, chemotherapy-naive TP53-wildtype HGSCs compared to 0/21, 0%, TP53-mutated HGSCs; p = 0.007). Some TP53-wildtype HGSCs harbored driver mutations in KRAS (n = 3), BRAF (n = 1) or NRAS (n = 2). Overall, 10 (40%) cases had "LGSC-like" morphology (i.e., Grade 2 nuclear atypia and micropapillary features) and/or RAS/RAF mutation, and most of these showed a wildtype p53 pattern of expression by immunohistochemistry (7/9, 78%). The remaining TP53-wildtype HGSCs (n = 15, 60%) exhibited severe nuclear atypia (Grade 3) and were morphologically indistinguishable from conventional TP53-mutated HGSC. Despite lacking genetic alterations of TP53, these "usual HGSC-like" tumors often showed evidence of p53 dysfunction, including downregulation of expression ('null' or equivocal p53 staining in 9/14, 64%) or MDM2 amplification (n = 2). Our results support the existence of TP53-wildtype HGSCs, which comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors which may arise via distinct pathogenic mechanisms.
Publication Date: 2020-08-18
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Molecular characterization of invasive and in situ squamous neoplasia of the vulva and implications for morphologic diagnosis and outcome.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-independent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is an aggressive clinical entity. Current diagnostic guidelines for premalignant lesions are ambiguous, and their molecular profile and progression events are still unclear. We selected 75 samples, from 40 patients, including 33 VSCC, 8 verrucous carcinomas (VC), 13 differentiated-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), 11 suspicious for dVIN (?dVIN), 6 differentiated exophytic vulvar intraepithelial lesions (DE-VIL), 2 vulvar acanthosis with altered differentiation (VAAD), and 2 usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN/HSIL). Invasive and precursor lesions were matched in 29 cases. Clinical information, p16 immunohistochemistry, and mutation analysis were performed on all lesions. All dVIN, ?dVIN, DE-VIL, and VAAD were p16 negative, all uVIN/HSIL were p16 positive. In the HPV-independent group, mutations were identified in 6 genes: TP53 (n = 40), PIK3CA (n = 20), HRAS (n = 12), MET (n = 5), PTEN (n = 4), and BRAF (n = 1). TP53 mutations occurred in 73% (22/30) VSCC, 85% (11/13) dVIN, 70% (7/10) ?dVIN and no VC (0/8), DE-VIL (0/6) nor VAAD (0/2). Basal atypia was the only reliable feature of TP53 mutations. ?dVIN lesions that were non-acanthotic and atypical but obscured by inflammation, all harbored TP53 mutations. In lesions without TP53 mutations, PIK3CA (50% VC, 33% DE-VIL, 100% VAAD, 40% VSCC) and HRAS (63% VC, 33% DE-VIL, 0% VAAD, 20% VSCC) mutations were found. Mutational progression from in situ to invasive was seen (7/26, 27%) and usually involved TP53 (4/26, 15%). Cases with TP53 and PIK3CA co-mutations had the worse clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). We recommend testing for p53 in all HPV-independent lesions suspicious for dVIN, even in the presence of marked inflammation or non-acanthotic skin, particularly when close to a margin. VC, VAAD, and DE-VIL, were almost never mutated for TP53, but instead often harbored PIK3CA and HRAS mutations. In VSCC, combined TP53 and PIK3CA mutations may inform prognosis.
Publication Date: 2020-08-15
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Clinical significance of TP53 variants as possible secondary findings in tumor-only next-generation sequencing.
In tumor-only next-generation sequencing (NGS), identified variants have the potential to be secondary findings (SFs), but they require verification through additional germline testing. In the present study, 194 patients with advanced cancer who underwent tumor-only NGS between April 2015 and March 2018 were enrolled, and the incidences of possible and true SFs were evaluated. Among them, 120 patients (61.9%) harbored at least one possible SF. TP53 was the most frequent gene in which 97 variants were found in 91 patients (49.5%). Nine patients provided informed consent to undergo additional germline testing, and a total of 14 variants (BRCA1, n = 1; BRCA2, n = 2; PTEN, n = 2; RB1, n = 1; SMAD4, n = 1; STK11, n = 1; TP53, n = 6) were analyzed. Three variants (BRCA1, n = 1; BRCA2, n = 2) were confirmed to be SFs, whereas TP53 variants were confirmed to be somatic variants. To confirm the low prevalence of SFs in TP53, we analyzed 24 patients with TP53 variants who underwent a paired tumor-normal NGS assay. As expected, all TP53 variants were confirmed to be somatic variants. A total of 30 patients were tested for germline variants in TP53, but none of them resulted in true SFs, suggesting the low prevalence of SFs in this gene. Therefore, the significance of additional germline testing for TP53 variants appears to be relatively low in daily clinical practice using a tumor-only NGS assay, unless patients have any relevant medical or family history.
Publication Date: 2019-10-20
Journal: Journal of human genetics