Nuclear localization dictates hepatocarcinogenesis suppression by glycine N-methyltransferase.
GNMT (glycine N-methyltransferase) is a tumor suppressor gene, but the mechanisms mediating its suppressive activity are not entirely known.
We investigated the oncosuppressive mechanisms of GNMT in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). GNMT mRNA and protein levels were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. GNMT effect in HCC cell lines was modulated through GNMT cDNA induced overexpression or anti-GNMT siRNA transfection.
GNMT was expressed at low level in human HCCs with a better prognosis (HCCB) while it was almost absent in fast-growing tumors (HCCP). In HCCB, the nuclear localization of the GNMT protein was much more pronounced than in HCCP. In Huh7 and HepG2 cell lines, GNMT forced expression inhibited the proliferation and promoted apoptosis. At the molecular level, GNMT overexpression inhibited the expression of CYP1A (Cytochrome p450, aromatic compound-inducible), PREX2 (Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2), PARP1 [Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1], and NFKB (nuclear factor-kB) genes. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found GNMT binding to the promoters of CYP1A1, PREX2, PARP1, and NFKB genes resulting in their strong inhibition. These genes are implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis, and are involved in the GNMT oncosuppressive action.
Overall, the present data indicate that GNMT exerts a multifaceted suppressive action by interacting with various cancer-related genes and inhibiting their expression.
Publication Date: 2021-10-15
Journal: Translational oncology
Fish oil attenuated dystrophic muscle markers of inflammation via FFA1 and FFA4 in the mdx mouse model of DMD.
In the present study we investigated the involvement of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors in the anti-inflammatory role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in dystrophic muscles, by administering FFA blockers in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy. Mdx mice (3 months-old) were treated with fish oil capsules (FDC Vitamins; 0.4 g EPA and 0.2 g DHA; gavage) alone or concomitant to FFA1 and FFA4 blockers (GW1100 and AH7614; i.p.). C57BL/10 mice (3 months-old) and untreated-mdx mice received mineral oil and were used as controls. After 1 month of treatment, plasma markers of myonecrosis (total and cardiac creatine kinase; CK), the levels of FFA1 and FFA4 and of the markers of inflammation, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFkB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were analyzed in the diaphragm muscle and heart by western blot. Fish oil significantly reduced total CK, cardiac CK and the levels of NFkB (diaphragm), and of TNF-α and IL-1β (diaphragm and heart) in mdx. In the dystrophic diaphragm, FFA1 was increased compared to normal. Blockers of FFA1 and FFA4 significantly inhibited the effects of fish oil treatment in both dystrophic muscles. The anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil in dystrophic diaphragm muscle and heart were mediated through FFA1 and FFA4.
No presente estudo investigamos o envolvimento de receptores de ácidos graxos livres (FFA) no efeito anti-inflamatório dos ácidos eicosapentaenoico (EPA) e docosahexaenoico (DHA) em músculos distróficos, administrando bloqueadores de FFA no camundongo mdx, modelo de distrofia. Camundongos mdx (3 meses de idade) foram tratados com cápsulas de óleo de peixe (FDC Vitamins; 0.4 g EPA e 0.2 g DHA; gavagem) ou com cápsulas de óleo de peixe concomitante a bloqueadores de FFA1 e FFA4 (GW1100 e AH7614; i.p.). Camundongos C57BL/10 (3 meses de idade) e camundongos mdx não tratados receberam óleo mineral e serviram de controle. Após 1 mês de tratamento, marcadores plasmáticos de mionecrose (creatina quinase total e cardíaca; CK), os níveis de FFA1 e FFA4 e dos marcadores de inflamação fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NFkB, nuclear transcription factor kappa B), fator de necrose tumoral alpha (TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha) e interleucina 1β (IL-1β) foram analisados no músculo diafragma e no coração através de western blot. O óleo de peixe reduziu de forma significativa a CK total, CK cardíaca e os níveis de NFkB (diafragma), TNF-α e IL-1β (diafragma e coração) no mdx. No diafragma distrófico, FFA1 estava aumentado comparado ao normal. Os bloqueadores de FFA1 e FFA4 inibiram de forma significativa os efeitos do tratamento com óleo de peixe em ambos músculos distróficos. Os efeitos anti-inflamatórios do óleo de peixe nos músculos distróficos diafragma e cardíaco foram mediados por FFA1 e FFA4.
Publication Date: 2020-11-03
Journal: Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
TRIM59 regulates autophagy through modulating both the transcription and the ubiquitination of BECN1.
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a multistep cellular process that sequesters cytoplasmic components for lysosomal degradation. BECN1/Beclin1 is a central protein that assembles cofactors for the formation of a BECN1-PIK3C3-PIK3R4 complex to trigger the autophagy protein cascade. Discovering the regulators of BECN1 is important for understanding the mechanism of autophagy induction. Here, we demonstrate that TRIM59, a tripartite motif protein, plays an important role in autophagy regulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On the one hand, TRIM59 regulates the transcription of BECN1 through negatively modulating the NFKB pathway. On the other hand, TRIM59 regulates TRAF6 induced K63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1, thus affecting the formation of the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex. We further demonstrate that TRIM59 can mediate K48-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and promote the proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, our findings reveal novel dual roles for TRIM59 in autophagy regulation by affecting both the transcription and the ubiquitination of BECN1. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; BECN1: beclin 1; CHX: cycloheximide; CQ: chloroquine; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HA: haemagglutinin tag; His: polyhistidine tag; LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; NFKB: nuclear factor kappa B; NFKBIA: NFKB inhibitor alpha; NSCLC: non-small cell lung cancer; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; RELA: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; tGFP: Turbo green fluorescent protein; TRAF6: TNF receptor associated factor 6; TRIM59: tripartite motif containing 59; B: ubiquitin.
Publication Date: 2018-09-21
Inhibition of TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 leads to inhibition of NFKB activation and autophagy activation.
TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) plays a pivotal role in NFKB activation and macroautphagy/autophagy activation induced by TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) signaling. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) in NFKB activation and autophagy activation. PRDX1 interacted with the ring finger domain of TRAF6 and inhibited its ubiquitin-ligase activity. The inhibition on TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 induced the suppression of ubiquitination of an evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT) essential for NFKB activation and BECN1 (beclin 1) required for autophagy activation. An inhibitory effect of PRDX1 on TRAF6 was clearly evidenced in PRDX1-knockdown (PRDX1KD) THP-1, PRDX1KD MDA-MB-231, and PRDX1KD SK-HEP-1 cells. PRDX1KD THP-1 cells showed increases of NFKB activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, NFKB-dependent gene expression induced by TLR4 stimulation, and resistance against Salmonella typhimurium infection. Additionally, migration and invasion abilities of PRDX1KD MDA-MB-231 and PRDX1KD SK-HEP-1 cancer cells were significantly enhanced compared to those of control cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PRDX1 negatively regulates TLR4 signaling for NFKB activation and autophagy functions such as bactericidal activity, cancer cell migration, and cancer cell invasion by inhibiting TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity.
3-MA: 3-methyladenine; BECN1: beclin 1; CHUK/IKKA: conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase; ECSIT: ECSIT signalling integrator; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; NFKB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; IB: immunoblotting; IKBKB/IKKB: inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta; IL1B: interleukin 1 beta; IL6: interleukin 6; IP: immunoprecipitation; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtuble associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAP3K7/TAK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7; MAPK14/p38: mitogen-activated protein kinase 14; mROS: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; PRDX1: peroxiredoxin 1; PRDX6: peroxiredoxin 6; RELA/p65: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; TRAF6 TNF: receptor associated factor 6.
Publication Date: 2018-06-23
Multimodal Assessment of Estrogen Receptor mRNA Profiles to Quantify Estrogen Pathway Activity in Breast Tumors.
Molecular markers have transformed our understanding of the heterogeneity of breast cancer and have allowed the identification of genomic profiles of estrogen receptor (ER)-α signaling. However, our understanding of the transcriptional profiles of ER signaling remains inadequate. Therefore, we sought to identify the genomic indicators of ER pathway activity that could supplement traditional immunohistochemical (IHC) assessments of ER status to better understand ER signaling in the breast tumors of individual patients.
We reduced ESR1 (gene encoding the ER-α protein) mRNA levels using small interfering RNA in ER
Genes differentially expressed in both analyses were associated with ER-α IHC and ESR1 mRNA expression. They were also significantly enriched for estrogen-driven molecular pathways associated with ESR1, cyclin D1 (CCND1), MYC (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog), and NFKB (nuclear factor kappa B). Despite their differing constituent genes, the principal components generated from these new analyses and from previously published ER-associated gene lists were all associated with each other and with the survival of patients with breast cancer treated with endocrine therapies.
A biomarker of ER-α pathway activity, generated using ESR1-responsive mRNAs in MCF7 cells, when used alongside ER-α IHC and ESR1 mRNA expression, could provide a method for further stratification of patients and add insight into ER pathway activity in these patients.
Publication Date: 2016-10-21
Journal: Clinical breast cancer
Allelic mutations in noncoding genomic sequences construct novel transcription factor binding sites that promote gene overexpression.
The growth and survival factor hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is expressed at high levels in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We report here that elevated HGF transcription in MM was traced to DNA mutations in the promoter alleles of HGF. Sequence analysis revealed a previously undiscovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and crucial single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the promoters of myeloma cells that produce large amounts of HGF. The allele-specific mutations functionally reassembled wild-type sequences into the motifs that affiliate with endogenous transcription factors NFKB (nuclear factor kappa-B), MZF1 (myeloid zinc finger 1), and NRF-2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). In vitro, a mutant allele that gained novel NFKB-binding sites directly responded to transcriptional signaling induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) to promote high levels of luciferase reporter. Given the recent discovery by genome-wide sequencing (GWS) of numerous non-coding mutations in myeloma genomes, our data provide evidence that heterogeneous SNVs in the gene regulatory regions may frequently transform wild-type alleles into novel transcription factor binding properties to aberrantly interact with dysregulated transcriptional signals in MM and other cancer cells.
Publication Date: 2015-07-30
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer
TLR-4 signalling pathway: MyD88 independent pathway up-regulation in chicken breeds upon LPS treatment.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sense the microbial pathogens are important components of host immune system. TLRs play key roles in the innate defence mechanism against pathogens, in the development of adaptive immunity, and are possibly the major determinants of the susceptibility to infections. To study the resistance pattern in different breeds of chicken, a comprehensive understanding of TLR4 signalling pathways is required. We investigated the TLR-4 pathway regulated gene expressions in PBMCs of chicken breeds of Broiler (Cobb), Aseel, Dahlem Red and Ghagus upon LPS treatment using Quantitative RT-PCR approach. Several genes were found to be up regulated in both TLR-induced MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways. These genes include TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6), TRIF (TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta), the transcription factors NFkB (Nuclear factor kappa B), IRF7 (Interferon regulatory factor 7) and IFN β (Interferon beta). We have also studied inflammatory cytokines such as IL2, IL6, IL8, IL1 β and TNF α to further understand the downstream signalling of TLR4 pathway. These results showed that higher expression of TLR signalling activation via both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to chicken mononuclear cells mediated innate immunity. We observed TRIF dependent pathway in Aseel and Ghagus breeds. Our results are in concurrent with general observation that Aseel breed is comparatively more resistant, Ghagus and broilers are moderately resistant and Dahlem Red is comparatively more susceptible to bacterial infections.
Publication Date: 2014-11-25
Journal: Veterinary research communications
The innate immunity receptor TIR8/SIGIRR is expressed in the early developmental stages of chicken embryos.
The orphan receptor TIR8, also known as SIGIRR (Single Immunoglobulin IL-1R-Related molecule), belongs to the IL-1R/TLR (TIR) superfamily and plays an important role in the inflammatory responses. The signaling pathways of the receptors belonging to the TIR family are tightly regulated by both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms. TIR8 does not activate the transcription factors NFkB (nuclear factor kB) and IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3), although it negatively modulates the inflammatory responses. It acts as an antagonist for the IL-1 receptor family and triggers a negative pathway of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor system, crucial for dampening inflammation stimuli in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in other organs (e.g. lung and kidney). The recent findings of TLRs expression in ovary and embryos of different species (mammals and chickens) are very important for an understanding of reproductive physiology and transovarian pathogen transmission. TIR8 was well characterized in mouse, humans and in other mammalian species, but it is still poorly characterized in the chicken. When TIR8 expression was measured in selected organs of chicken embryos of both broiler and layer types at different time points a unique pattern of expression was observed. Interestingly, TIR8 was detected during the first stages of chicken development (day 1 of incubation), and reached a remarkable level of expression by day 10. We observed this receptor to be ubiquitously expressed in the kidney, GI tract, Bursa of Fabricius, with the highest expression levels in liver and kidney. This pattern was comparable to those observed in post-hatching chickens and in mammals examined to date. No expression differences were observed between the two different chicken breeds (layer- and broiler-type) in the first incubation period (8 days). Whereas in some organs starting from day 10, higher TIR8 expression was observed in broiler-type compared to layer-type. These are the first findings concerning TIR8 expression in developmental stages and therefore they are of comparative value.
Publication Date: 2014-04-23
Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
Artemisia dracunculus L. extract ameliorates insulin sensitivity by attenuating inflammatory signalling in human skeletal muscle culture.
Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI 5011) have been shown to improve insulin action by increasing insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. However, it was not known if PMI 5011's effects are retained during an inflammatory condition. We examined the attenuation of insulin action and whether PMI 5011 enhances insulin signalling in the inflammatory environment with elevated cytokines.
Muscle cell cultures derived from lean, overweight and diabetic-obese subjects were used. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inflammatory response of human myotubes were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Insulin signalling and activation of inflammatory pathways in human myotubes were evaluated by multiplex protein assays.
We found increased gene expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and TNFα (tumour necrosis factor alpha), and basal activity of the NFkB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) pathway in myotubes derived from diabetic-obese subjects as compared with myotubes derived from normal-lean subjects. In line with this, basal Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) was significantly higher, while insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) was lower in myotubes from normal-overweight and diabetic-obese subjects compared with normal-lean subjects. PMI 5011 treatment reduced basal phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in the presence of cytokines in human myotubes. PMI 5011 treatment led to an inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of inflammatory signalling pathways such as Erk1/2 and IkBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha)-NFkB and moreover, NFkB target gene expression, possibly by preventing further propagation of the inflammatory response within muscle tissue.
PMI 5011 improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic-obese myotubes to the level of normal-lean myotubes despite the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Publication Date: 2014-02-14
Journal: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism
Arsenic programmes cellular genomic-immunity through miR-2909 RNomics.
It is widely recognized that human cells are equipped with innate antiviral-RNA armour involving the production of type I interferons and APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G) gene-product. Although arsenic has been shown to have paradoxical effect on one arm of this armour involving APOBEC3G, the exact molecular mechanism of its action in this regard is far from clear. The present study, addressed to explore as to how arsenic programmes this innate antiviral-RNA cellular-sensing pathway, clearly revealed that arsenic programmes this innate cellular antiviral genomic response through its inherent capacity to initiate cellular miR-2909 RNomics pathway, involving not only the modulation of APOBEC3G gene but also KLF4 (Kruppel-like factor 4) dependent regulation of gene coding for IKBKε (Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit epsilon) which in turn modulates RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene 1) pathway responsible for the production of IFNβ (interferon beta) through restriction of CYLD (Cylindromatosis) deubiqutinating activity. This restricted inhibitory enzyme activity of CYLD upon NFkB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) also ensures sustained expression of miR-2909. Our results for the first time show that cellular miR-2909 RNomics may constitute an innate genomic armour to promote as well as restrict retroviral infection.
Publication Date: 2013-12-24
Autophagy facilitates TLR4- and TLR3-triggered migration and invasion of lung cancer cells through the promotion of TRAF6 ubiquitination.
Autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer, whereas toll-like receptors (TLRs) also play an important role in cancer development and immune escape. However, little is known about the potential interaction between TLR signaling and autophagy in cancer cells. Here we show that autophagy induced by TLR4 or TLR3 activation enhances various cytokine productions through promoting TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) ubiquitination and thus facilitates migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Stimulation of TLR4 and TLR3 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] respectively triggered autophagy in lung cancer cells. This was mediated by the adaptor protein, toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM1/TRIF), and was required for TLR4- and TLR3-induced increases in the production of IL6, CCL2/MCP-1 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2], CCL20/MIP-3α [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20], VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A), and MMP2 [matrix metallopeptidase 2 (gelatinase A, 72 kDa gelatinase, 72 kDa type IV collagenase)]. These cytokines appeared to be necessary for enhanced migration and invasion of lung cancer cells upon TLR activation. Remarkably, inhibition of autophagy by chemical or genetic approaches blocked TLR4- or TLR3-induced Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 that was essential for activation of MAPK and NFKB (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells) pathways, both of which were involved in the increased production of the cytokines. Collectively, these results identify induction of autophagy by TLR4 and TLR3 as an important mechanism that drives lung cancer progression, and indicate that inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy in the treatment of lung cancer.
Publication Date: 2013-12-11
Reduction of Fas/CD95 promoter methylation, upregulation of Fas protein, and enhancement of sensitivity to apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
To explore the relationships among (Fas) promoter methylation, Fas expression, and apoptotic sensitivity in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).
Dermatology research unit of a university medical center.
Five CTCL lines and Sézary syndrome blood.
Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine (aza), methotrexate, and interferon alfa-2b.
Fas promoter methylation, Fas expression, and sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
Fas promoter methylation correlates inversely with the level of Fas transcript, protein, and apoptotic sensitivity in CTCL. Increased DNA methylation also correlates with decreased NFkB (nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells) binding to the Fas promoter. All of these relationships were reversed by the DNA-demethylating agent, 5-aza. We found that methotrexate also functions as a DNA-demethylating agent by depleting methyl donors and, together with interferon alfa-2b, upregulates Fas and enhances sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
These findings help explain the previously reported impressive responses of patients with advanced CTCL to combination therapy with methotrexate and interferon alfa. They also provide a new rationale for the treatment of CTCL with methotrexate and its use in combination with other agents.
Publication Date: 2010-12-22
Journal: Archives of dermatology
Differential activation of heat-shock and oxidation-specific stress genes in chemically induced oxidative stress.
Post-ischaemic reperfusion increases the level of the major heat-shock (stress) protein hsp 70 and of its mRNA by transcriptional mechanisms, and activates the binding of the heat-shock factor HSF to the consensus sequence HSE. In common with CoCl2 treatment, post-ischaemic reperfusion increases the level of haem oxygenase mRNA, an indicator of oxidative stress, but CoCl2 does not seem to induce the expression of the hsp 70 gene [Tacchini, Schiaffonati, Pappalardo, Gatti and Bernelli-Zazzera (1993) Lab. Invest. 68, 465-471]. Starting from these observations, we have now studied the expression of two genes of the hsp 70 family and of other possibly related genes under conditions of oxidative stress. Three different chemicals, which cause oxidative stress by various mechanisms and induce haem oxygenase, enhance the expression of the cognate hsc 73 gene, but do not activate the inducible hsp 70 gene. Expression of the other genes that have been studied seems to vary in intensity and/or time course, in relation to the particular mechanism of action of any single agent. The pattern of induction of the early-immediate response genes c-fos and c-jun observed during oxidative stress differs from that found in post-ischaemic reperfused livers. Oxidative-stress-inducing agents do not promote the binding of HSF to its consensus sequence HSE, such as occurs in heat-shock and post-ischaemic reperfusion, and fail to activate AP-1 (activator protein 1). With the possible exception of Phorone, the oxidative stress chemically induced in rat liver activates NFkB (nuclear factor kB) and AP-2 (activator protein 2) transcription factors.
Publication Date: 1995-07-15
Journal: The Biochemical journal