The complex karyotype landscape in chronic lymphocytic leukemia allows to refine the risk of Richter syndrome transformation.
Complex karyotype (CK) at chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) diagnosis is a negative biomarker of adverse outcome. Since the impact of CK and its subtypes, namely type-2 CK (CK with major structural abnormalities) or high-CK (CK with C5 chromosome abnormalities), on the risk of developing Richter syndrome (RS) is unknown, we carried out a multicenter reallife retrospective study to test its prognostic impact. Among 540 CLL patients, 107 harbored a CK at CLL diagnosis, 78 were classified as CK2 and 52 as high-CK. Twenty-eight patients developed RS during a median follow-up of 6.7 years. At the time of CLL diagnosis, CK2 and high-CK were more common and predicted the highest risk of RS transformation, together with advanced Binet stage, unmutated (U)-IGHV, 11q-, TP53 abnormalities. We integrated these variables into a hierarchical model: high-CK and/or CK2 patients showed a 10-year time to RS (TTRS) of 31%; U-IGHV/11q-/TP53 abnormalities/Binet stage B-C patients had a 10-year TTRS of 12%; while mutated (M)-IGHV without CK and TP53 disruption a 10-year TTRS of 3% (p<0.0001). We herein demonstrated that CK landscape at CLL diagnosis allows to refine the risk of RS transformation and we recapitulated clinico-biological variables into a prognostic model.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
TP53 mutations increase radioresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.
p53 plays a key role in the DNA repair process and response to ionising radiation. We sought to determine the clinical phenotype of TP53 mutations and p53 pathway alterations in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with radiation.
Of patients with available genomic sequencing, we identified 109 patients with RMS and ES treated to a total of 286 radiation sites. We compared irradiated tumour control among tumours with TP53 mutations (n = 40) to those that were TP53 wild-type (n = 246). We additionally compared irradiated tumour control among tumours with any p53 pathway alteration (defined as tumours with TP53 mutations or TP53 wild-type tumours identified to have MDM2/4 amplification and/or CDKN2A/B deletion, n = 78) to those without such alterations (n = 208).
The median follow-up was 26 months from radiation. TP53 mutations were associated with worse irradiated tumour control among the entire cohort (hazard ratio, HR = 2.8, P < 0.0001). Tumours with any p53 pathway alteration also had inferior irradiated tumour control (HR = 2.0, P = 0.003). On multivariable analysis, after controlling for tumour histology, intent of radiation, presence of gross disease, and biologically effective dose, TP53 mutations continued to be associated with a radioresistant phenotype (HR = 7.1, P < 0.0001).
Our results show that TP53 mutations are associated with increased radioresistance in RMS and ES. Novel strategies to overcome this radioresistance are important for improved outcomes in p53 disruptive RMS and ES.
Publication Date: 2021-05-22
Journal: British journal of cancer
Multi gene mutation signatures in colorectal cancer patients: predict for the diagnosis, pathological classification, staging and prognosis.
Identifying gene mutation signatures will enable a better understanding for the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and provide some potential biomarkers for clinical practice. Currently, however, there is still few effective biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognostic judgment in CRC patients. The purpose was to identify novel mutation signatures for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.
Clinical information of 531 CRC patients and their sequencing data were downloaded from TCGA database (training group), and 53 clinical patients were collected and sequenced with targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology (validation group). The relationship between the mutation genes and the diagnosis, pathological type, stage and prognosis of CRC were compared to construct signatures for CRC, and then analyzed their relationship with RNA expression, immunocyte infiltration and tumor microenvironment (TME).
Mutations of TP53, APC, KRAS, BRAF and ATM covered 97.55% of TCGA population and 83.02% validation patients. Moreover, 57.14% validation samples and 22.06% TCGA samples indicated that patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma tended to have BRAF mutation, but no TP53 mutation. Mutations of TP53, PIK3CA, FAT4, FMN2 and TRRAP had a remarkable difference between I-II and III-IV stage patients (P < 0.0001). Besides, the combination of PIK3CA, LRP1B, FAT4 and ROS1 formed signatures for the prognosis and survival of CRC patients. The mutations of TP53, APC, KRAS, BRAF, ATM, PIK3CA, FAT4, FMN2, TRRAP, LRP1B, and ROS1 formed the signatures for predicting diagnosis and prognosis of CRC. Among them, mutation of TP53, APC, KRAS, BRAF, ATM, PIK3CA, FAT4 and TRRAP significantly reduced their RNA expression level. Stromal score, immune score and ESTIMATE score were lower in patients with TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA mutation compared non-mutation patients. All the 11 gene mutations affected the distributions of immune cells.
This study constructed gene mutation signatures for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in CRC, and proved that their mutations affected RNA expression levels, TME and immunocyte infiltration. Our results put forward further insights into the genotype of CRC.
Publication Date: 2021-04-11
Journal: BMC cancer
Genetic Determinants of Outcome in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.
Genetic alterations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) are increasingly well-characterized, but their impact on outcome and prognosis remain unknown.
This bi-institutional study of patients with confirmed iCCA (n=412) used targeted next-generation sequencing of primary tumors to define associations among genetic alterations, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. The most common oncogenic alterations were IDH1 (20%), ARID1A (20%), TP53 (17%), CDKN2A (15%), BAP1 (15%), FGFR2 (15%), PBRM1 (12%), and KRAS (10%). IDH1/2 mutations (mut) were mutually exclusive with FGFR2 fusions (fus), but neither was associated with outcome. For all patients, TP53 (p<0.0001), KRAS (p=0.0001), and CDKN2A (p<0.0001) alterations predicted worse overall survival (OS). These high-risk alterations were enriched in advanced disease but adversely impacted survival across all stages, even when controlling for known correlates of outcome (multifocal disease, lymph node involvement, bile duct type, periductal infiltration). In resected patients (n=209), TP53mut (HR=1.82, 95%CI=1.08-3.06, p=0.03) and CDKN2A deletions (del) (HR=3.40, 95%CI=1.95-5.94, p<0.001) independently predicted shorter OS, as did high-risk clinical variables (multifocal liver disease [p<0.001]; regional lymph node metastases [p<0.001]), whereas KRASmut (HR=1.69, 95%CI=0.97-2.93, p=0.06) trended toward statistical significance. The presence of both or neither high-risk clinical or genetic factors represented outcome extremes (median OS=18.3 vs. 74.2 months, p<0.001), with high-risk genetic alterations alone (median OS=38.6 months, 95%CI=28.8-73.5) or high-risk clinical variables alone (median OS=37.0 months, 95%CI=27.6-NA) associated with intermediate outcome. TP53mut, KRASmut, and CDKN2Adel similarly predicted worse outcome in patients with unresectable iCCA. CDKN2Adel tumors with high-risk clinical features were notable for limited survival and no benefit of resection over chemotherapy.
TP53, KRAS, and CDKN2A alterations were independent prognostic factors in iCCA when controlling for clinical and pathologic variables, disease stage, and treatment. Since genetic profiling can be integrated into pre-treatment therapeutic decision-making, combining clinical variables with targeted tumor sequencing may identify patient subgroups with poor outcome irrespective of treatment strategy.
Publication Date: 2021-03-26
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
Decoding the Evolutionary Response to Ensartinib in Patients With ALK-Positive NSCLC by Dynamic Circulating Tumor DNA Sequencing.
By implementing dynamic circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis, we explored the impact of TP53 mutations on tumor evolution and resistance mechanisms to ensartinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC.
In a multicenter phase 2 trial, patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who progressed on crizotinib were treated with ensartinib. Blood samples for ctDNA analysis were collected at baseline, cycle 3 day 1, and progression disease (PD) and analyzed with a 212-gene panel.
A total of 440 samples were collected from 168 patients. Baseline TP53 mutations (20.2%) significantly correlated with inferior progression-free survival (4.2 mo versus 11.7 mo, p < 0.0001). Patients with TP53 mutations had higher mutation load than those without TP53 mutations at baseline (13.79 ± 3.72 versus 4.67 ± 0.39, p < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in mutation load between these groups at cycle 3 day 1 (5.89 ± 2.25 versus 3.72 ± 0.62, p = 0.425), patients with mutated TP53 developed more mutations at PD (7.07 ± 1.25 versus 3.20 ± 0.33, p = 0.003). Frequency and abundance of secondary ALK mutations G1269A, G1202R, and E1210K increased markedly at PD than baseline. In patients without secondary ALK mutations, we identified ALK-independent resistance mechanisms including bypass signaling activation, downstream effector protein reactivation, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and epigenetic dysregulation.
Our study highlighted the advantage of ctDNA analysis for monitoring tumor evolution. TP53 mutations promoted genetic evolution and accelerated occurrence of resistance. We also unveiled ALK-dependent resistance mechanisms, mainly by G1269A, G1202R, and E1210K mutations, and ALK-independent resistance mechanisms to ensartinib.
Publication Date: 2021-02-16
Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Molecular and immunophenotypic characterization of anal squamous cell carcinoma reveals distinct clinicopathologic groups associated with HPV and TP53 mutation status.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is the most common malignancy of the anal canal, where it is strongly associated with HPV infection. Characteristic genomic alterations have been identified in anal SqCC, but their clinical significance and correlation with HPV status, pathologic features, and immunohistochemical markers are not well established. We examined the molecular and clinicopathologic features of 96 HPV-positive and 20 HPV-negative anal SqCC. HPV types included 89 with HPV16, 2 combined HPV16/HPV18, and 5 HPV33. HPV-positive cases demonstrated frequent mutations or amplifications in PIK3CA (30%; p = 0.027) or FBXW7 mutations (10%). HPV-negativity was associated with frequent TP53 (53%; p = 0.00001) and CDKN2A (21%; p = 0.0045) mutations. P16 immunohistochemistry was positive in all HPV-positive cases and 3/20 HPV-negative cases (p < 0.0001; sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 85%) and was associated with basaloid morphology (p = 0.0031). Aberrant p53 immunohistochemical staining was 100% sensitive and specific for TP53 mutation (p < 0.0001). By the Kaplan-Meier method, HPV-negativity, aberrant p53 staining, and TP53 mutation were associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0103, p = 0.0103, respectively) and inferior recurrence-free survival (p = 0.133, p = 0.0064, and p = 0.0064, respectively). TP53/p53 status stratified survival probability by HPV status (p = 0.013), with HPV-negative/aberrant p53 staining associated with the worst OS, HPV-positive/wild-type p53 with best OS, and HPV-positive/aberrant p53 or HPV-negative/wild-type p53 with intermediate OS. On multivariate analysis HPV status (p = 0.0063), patient age (p = 0.0054), T stage (p = 0.039), and lymph node involvement (p = 0.044) were independently associated with OS. PD-L1 expression (CPS ≥ 1) was seen in 30% of HPV-positive and 40% of HPV-negative cases, and PD-L1 positivity was associated with a trend toward inferior OS within the HPV-negative group (p = 0.064). Our findings suggest that anal SqCC can be subclassified into clinically, pathologically, and molecularly distinct groups based on HPV and TP53 mutation status, and p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry represent a clinically useful method of predicting these prognostic groups.
Publication Date: 2021-01-24
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Mutation profile differences in younger and older patients with advanced breast cancer using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).
Little is known regarding the mutation profiles of ctDNA in the older adult breast cancer population. The objective of this study is to assess differences in mutation profiles in the older adult breast cancer population using a ctDNA assay as well as assess utilization of testing results.
Patients with advanced breast cancer underwent molecular profiling using a plasma-based ctDNA NGS assay (Guardant360) between 5/2015 and 10/2019 at Siteman Cancer Center. The profiling results of a multi-institutional database of patients with advanced breast cancer who had undergone molecular profiling were obtained. Associations between mutations and age group (≥ 65 vs. < 65) were examined using a Fisher's exact test.
In the single-institutional cohort, 148 patients (69.2%) were < 65 years old and 66 patients (30.8%) ≥ 65 years old. ATM, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations were found more frequently in older patients with ER + HER2- breast cancers (p < 0.01). In the multi-institutional cohort, 5367 (61.1%) were < 65 years old and 3417 (38.9%) ≥ 65 years old. ATM, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations were more common in the older cohort (p < 0.0001) and MYC and GATA3 mutations were less common in the older cohort (p < 0.0001). CtDNA testing influenced next-line treatment management in 40 (19.8%) patients in the single-institutional cohort.
When controlling for subtype, results from a single institution were similar to the multi-institutional cohort showing that ATM and PIK3CA were more common in older adults. These data suggest there may be additional molecular differences in older adults with advanced breast cancers.
Publication Date: 2020-11-22
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment
Reassessment of p53 immunohistochemistry thresholds in invasive high grade bladder cancer shows a better correlation with TP53 and FGFR3 mutations.
FGFR3 mutations are frequently mutually exclusive of TP53 mutations in invasive high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC) and p53 immunohistochemistry is often used as a surrogate for TP53 mutations. A 10 % staining cut off has been used in HGUC for designation as p53 positive or negative however, a novel contemporary method we have previously proposed (0% or >50 % - abnormal vs. 1-49 % - wild type) has shown significant correlation with oncologic outcome as well. We aimed to compare how a ≥10 % vs. 0 % and ≥ 50 % cut off p53 assessment method correlates with TP53 and FGFR3 mutation status. Tissue microarrays created from three retrospective cohorts (two cystectomy cohorts (cohort A, n = 206 and cohort B, n = 91; one T1 transurethral resection cohort (cohort C, n = 47)) were stained with p53 and scored by two blinded reviewers using both p53 scoring schemes. 50 cases from cohort A were assessed for TP53 and FGFR3 mutation status using next generation sequencing and FGFR3 mutation status was separately assessed in cohorts B and C using SNaPshot methodology. 202 (58.7 %) and 142 (41.3 %) cases showed abnormal and wild type p53 staining, respectively. Using the 10 % cut off, 254 cases were positive (73.8 %) and 90 cases were negative (26.2 %). 27 (14.4 %) and 15 (30 %) assessed cases demonstrated FGFR3 and TP53 mutations, respectively; 19/27 FGFR3 mutated showed a wild type pattern of p53 expression while 15/15 TP53 mutated tumours showed an abnormal pattern of p53 expression. There was a significant correlation between the contemporary p53 scoring scheme and TP53 and FGFR3 mutations (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Improved sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for TP53 mutation was also seen compared to the 10 % cut off; specifically, the sensitivity and negative predictive value were 100 %. These findings might be of clinical relevance in the era of precision medicine.
Publication Date: 2020-08-30
Journal: Pathology, research and practice
On the complexity measures of mutation hotspots in human TP53 protein.
The role of sequence complexity in 23 051 somatic missense mutations including 73 well-known mutation hotspots across 22 major cancers was studied in human TP53 proteins. A role for sequence complexity in TP53 protein mutations is suggested since (i) the mutation rate significantly increases in low amino acid pair bias complexity; (ii) probability distribution complexity increases following single point substitution mutations and strikingly increases after mutation at the mutation hotspots including six detectable hotspot mutations (R175, G245, R248, R249, R273, and R282); and (iii) the degree of increase in distribution complexity is significantly correlated with the frequency of missense mutations (r = -0.5758, P < 0.0001) across 20 major types of solid tumors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that amino acid pair bias and distribution probability may be used as novel measures for protein sequence complexity, and the degree of complexity is related to its susceptibility to mutation, as such, it may be used as a predictor for modeling protein mutations in human cancers.
Publication Date: 2020-08-06
Journal: Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)
Molecular genetic profiling reveals novel association between FLT3 mutation and survival in glioma.
Recent molecular characterization of gliomas has uncovered somatic gene variation and DNA methylation changes that are associated with etiology, prognosis, and therapeutic response. Here we describe genomic profiling of gliomas assessed for associations between genetic mutations and patient outcomes, including overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS).
Mutations in a 50-gene cancer panel, 1p19q co-deletion, and MGMT promoter methylation (MGMT methylation) status were obtained from tumor tissue of 293 glioma patients. Multivariable regression models for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were constructed for MGMT methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, and gene mutations controlling for age, treatment status, and WHO grade.
Mutational profiles of gliomas significantly differed based on WHO Grade, such as high prevalence of BRAF V600E, IDH1, and PTEN mutations in WHO Grade I, II/III, and IV tumors, respectively. In multivariate regression analysis, MGMT methylation and IDH1 mutations were significantly associated with improved OS (HR = 0.44, p = 0.0004 and HR = 0.21, p = 0.007, respectively), while FLT3 and TP53 mutations were significantly associated with poorer OS (HR = 19.46, p < 0.0001 and HR = 1.67, p = 0.014, respectively). MGMT methylation and IDH1 mutations were the only significant alterations associated with improved RFS in the model (HR = 0.42, p < 0.0001 and HR = 0.37, p = 0.002, respectively). These factors were then included in a combined model, which significantly exceeded the predictive value of the base model alone (age, surgery, radiation, chemo, grade) (likelihood ratio test OS p = 1.64 × 10
This study highlights the genomic landscape of gliomas in a single-institution cohort and identifies a novel association between FLT3 mutation and OS in gliomas.
Publication Date: 2020-06-26
Journal: Journal of neuro-oncology
Clinical impact of clonal hematopoiesis in patients with lymphoma undergoing ASCT: a national population-based cohort study.
Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is suspected of being a risk factor for patients with cancer. This study aimed to assess the clinical consequences of CHIP in patients with lymphoma intended for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in a population-based setting. We identified 892 lymphoma patients who had undergone stem cell harvest at all transplant centers in Denmark. A total of 565 patients had an available harvest sample, which was analysed for CHIP by next-generation sequencing, and the median follow-up was 9.1 years. Of the patients who were intended for immediate ASCT, 25.5% (112/440) carried at least one CHIP mutation. In contrast to previous single-center studies CHIP was not associated with inferior overall survival (OS) in multivariate analyses. However, patients with mutations in genes of the DNA repair pathway (PPM1D, TP53, RAD21, BRCC3) had a significant inferior OS (HR after 1 year of follow-up 2.79, 95% confidence interval 1.71-4.56; p < 0.0001), which also was evident in multivariate analysis (p = 0.00067). These patients had also increased rates of therapy-related leukemia and admission to intensive care. Furthermore, in patients who did not undergo immediate ASCT, a significant inferior OS of individuals with DNA repair mutations was also identified (p = 0.003).
Publication Date: 2020-03-24
Apparently Heterozygous TP53 Pathogenic Variants May Be Blood Limited in Patients Undergoing Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing.
Heterozygous (HET) TP53 pathogenic variants (PVs) are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a dominantly inherited condition causing high risk for sarcoma, breast, and other cancers. Recent reports describe patients without features of LFS and apparently HET TP53 PVs in blood cells but not fibroblasts (FBs), suggesting the variant occurred sporadically during hematopoiesis and rose to high allele fraction through clonal expansion. To explore possible clonal hematopoiesis in patients undergoing hereditary cancer testing, FB testing was performed for patients with apparently HET or mosaic TP53 PVs identified in blood, oral rinse, or buccal specimens via next-generation sequencing panels. Among 291 individuals with TP53 PVs, 146 (50.2%) appeared HET and 145 (49.8%) were mosaic. Twenty-eight HET cases were proven constitutional through familial testing. FB testing was completed for 17 apparently HET and 36 mosaic patients. FB testing was positive in 11 of 17 (64.7%) apparently HET patients, only one of whom met Chompret criteria. Of 36 mosaic patients, 5 (13.9%) were also mosaic in FBs, indicating constitutional mosaicism. Breast cancers in patients with constitutional TP53 PVs were diagnosed at younger ages (P < 0.0001) and more likely to demonstrate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression (P = 0.0003). These results demonstrate the utility of cultured FB testing to clarify constitutional status for TP53 PVs identified on next-generation sequencing panels, particularly for patients not meeting LFS or Chompret criteria.
Publication Date: 2019-12-28
Journal: The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
Targeted sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA to predict response to PD1 inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumor mutational burden is an emerging biomarker of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), whose clinical adoption is challenging. We hypothesized that targeting limited but relevant genetic alterations in plasma cell-free DNA along with early monitoring may non-invasively predict response to ICI in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Plasma samples from patients with progressive NSCLC collected before ICI initiation and at 1 month were profiled from responders (R: PFS > 6 months) and non-responders (NR: progressive disease at first evaluation) using amplicon sequencing of hotspots and coding regions from 36 genes. The molecular profile of ctDNA, and its early kinetics were analyzed.
97 patients were analyzed, of which 86 (39 R, 47 NR) were evaluable. Alterations in ctDNA were detectable in 67/86 baseline samples (78%). The detection of a targetable oncogenic driver was associated with a 2 months PFS. The presence of a PTEN or STK11 mutation was correlated with early progression (HR 8.9, p = 0.09 for PTEN, HR 4.7, p = 0.003 for STK11), while transversion mutations (Tv) in KRAS and TP53 predicted better outcomes (HR 0.36, p = 0.011 for TP53 Tv; HR 0.46, p = 0.11 for KRAS Tv). Patients with a low "immune score" (driver and/or PTEN or STK11 mutation and/or without KRAS or TP53 Tv) derived poor outcomes (median PFS 2 months), compared with patients with a high immune score (no driver, no PTEN or STK11 and with KRAS or TP53 Tv (median PFS 14 months, p = 0.0001, HR 2.96). Early changes in the ctDNA allele fraction (AF) of 65 specimens were correlated with clinical outcomes (14 months PFS if AF decreases vs. 2 months if AF increases, p < 0.0001).
Targeted sequencing of plasma ctDNA and monitoring its early variations can predict response to ICI.
Publication Date: 2019-09-14
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)