Development of TP53 mutations over the course of therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: American journal of hematology
The Mutational Landscape of Metastatic Castration-sensitive Prostate Cancer: The Spectrum Theory Revisited.
Emerging data suggest that metastasis is a spectrum of disease burden rather than a binary state, and local therapies, such as radiation, might improve outcomes in oligometastasis. However, current definitions of oligometastasis are solely numerical.
To characterize the somatic mutational landscape across the disease spectrum of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) to elucidate a biological definition of oligometastatic CSPC.
This was a retrospective study of men with mCSPC who underwent clinical-grade sequencing of their tumors (269 primary tumor, 25 metastatic sites). Patients were classified as having biochemically recurrent (ie, micrometastatic), metachronous oligometastatic (≤5 lesions), metachronous polymetastatic (>5 lesions), or de novo metastatic (metastasis at diagnosis) disease.
We measured the frequency of driver mutations across metastatic classifications and the genomic associations with radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and time to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
The frequency of driver mutations in TP53 (p = 0.01), WNT (p = 0.08), and cell cycle (p = 0.04) genes increased across the mCSPC spectrum. TP53 mutation was associated with shorter rPFS (26.7 vs 48.6 mo; p = 0.002), and time to CRPC (95.6 vs 155.8 mo; p = 0.02) in men with oligometastasis, and identified men with polymetastasis with better rPFS (TP53 wild-type, 42.7 mo; TP53 mutated, 18.5 mo; p = 0.01). Mutations in TP53 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.45; p = 0.004) and DNA double-strand break repair (IRR 1.61; p < 0.001) were associated with a higher number of metastases. Mutations in TP53 were also independently associated with shorter rPFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.59; p = 0.03) and the development of CRPC (HR 1.71; p = 0.01) on multivariable analysis. This study was limited by its retrospective nature, sample size, and the use of commercially available sequencing platforms, resulting in a limited predefined set of genes examined.
Somatic mutational profiles reveal a spectrum of metastatic biology that helps in redefining oligometastasis beyond a simple binary state of lesion enumeration.
Oligometastatic prostate cancer is typically defined as less than three to five metastatic lesions and evidence suggests that using radiation or surgery to treat these sites improves clinical outcomes. As of now, treatment decisions for oligometastasis are solely defined according to the number of lesions. However, this study suggests that tumor mutational profiles can provide a biological definition of oligometastasis and complement currently used numerical definitions.
Publication Date: 2021-01-10
Journal: European urology
Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis for Recurrence in Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Despite surgical resection, early lung adenocarcinoma has a recurrence rate of 20-50%. No clear predictive markers for recurrence of early lung adenocarcinoma are available. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is rarely used to identify recurrence-related genes. We aimed to identify genetic alterations that can predict recurrence, by comparing the molecular profiles of patient groups with and without recurrence.
Tissues from 230 patients with resected stage I-II lung adenocarcinoma (median follow-up: 49 months) were analyzed via targeted NGS for 207 cancer-related genes. The recurrence-free survival according to the number and type of mutation was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent predictive biomarkers related to recurrence were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Recurrence was observed in 64 patients (27.8%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, stage, surgical mode, and visceral pleural invasion, the CTNNB1 mutation and fusion genes (ALK, ROS1, RET) were negative prognostic factors for recurrence in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (HR 4.47, p = 0.001; HR 2.73, p = 0.009). EGFR mutation was a favorable factor (HR 0.51, p = 0.016), but the CTNNB1/EGFR co-mutations were negative predictors (HR 19.2, p < 0.001). TP53 mutation was a negative predictor compared with EGFR mutation for recurrence (HR 5.24, p = 0.02).
Targeted NGS can provide valuable information to predict recurrence and identify patients at high recurrence risk, facilitating selection of the treatment strategy among close monitoring and adjuvant-targeted therapy. Larger datasets are required to validate these findings.
Publication Date: 2020-11-04
Journal: Annals of surgical oncology
Genetic variation in APOE, GRN, and TP53 are phenotype modifiers in frontotemporal dementia.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical, genetic, and pathologic heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of APOƐ4, rs5848 in GRN, and rs1042522 in TP53 gene as disease risk factors and/or phenotype modifiers in 440 FTD patients, including 175 C9orf72 expansion carriers. We found that the C9orf72 expansion carriers showing an earlier age at onset (p < 0.001). Among the clinical groups, the FTD-MND (motoneuron disease) showed the lowest survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.12), and the progressive nonfluent aphasia group showed the highest onset age (p = 0.03). In our cohort, the rs1042522 in TP53 was associated with disease onset (p = 0.02) and survival (HR = 1.73) and rs5848 GRN with a significantly shorter survival in CC homozygous patients (HR = 1.98). The frequency of APOƐ4 carriers was significantly increased in the C9orf72 noncarriers (p = 0.022). Although validation of our findings is necessary, our results suggest that TP53, GRN, and APOE genes may act as phenotype modifiers in FTD and should be considered in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2020-09-26
Journal: Neurobiology of aging
Acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 17 abnormalities and long-term outcomes with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Chromosome 17 abnormalities, especially disorders of the 17p region and including TP53 gene mutations, result in very low rates of cure for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treated with conventional chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT). Our retrospective study analyzed outcomes in patients with chromosome 17 (ch17) abnormalities who received conventional chemotherapy followed by allo-HCT versus those who did not receive a transplant. We analyzed whether poor outcomes extend to patients with all types of ch17 abnormalities and the impact of concomitant TP53 gene mutations assessed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) on prognosis.
We retrospectively analyzed diagnostic and outcome data on 98 patients treated at our institution from 2012 to 2018 with AML or MDS who possessed ch17 abnormalities by cytogenetic analysis. The presence of TP53 mutations was analyzed by NGS. Primary endpoint of our study was overall survival (OS).
61 patients with AML and 37 with MDS were included. Complete remission (CR) with first line treatment was similar between induction chemotherapy or hypomethylating agents (HMA), 22.9 % versus 21.6 % (p = 0.33). Median OS for all patients (with or without transplant) was 10 months. Patients with abnormal ch17 in conjunction with any TP53 mutation(s) exhibited worse OS compared to patients without a TP53 mutation (10 versus 23 months, p = 0.02). 30 patients (19 AML, 11 MDS) underwent HCT, with a median OS of 11 months. For AML patients who underwent allo-HCT, 18 were in CR (13 with cytogenetic remission) and 1 had persistent disease at transplant. In the MDS cohort, 3 patients were in CR (2 with cytogenetic remission) and 8 had stable disease. Post allo-HCT survival of AML and MDS cohorts did not differ (p = 0.6), although cytogenetic CR at time of HCT trended towards improved OS (17 versus 8 months; p = 0.6).
AML/MDS patients with ch17 abnormalities have poor outcomes with or without HCT. Our results show that patients with ch17 abnormalities and TP53 mutations have a significantly poorer survival compared to patients who have ch17 abnormalities but no TP53 mutations. Drugs targeting abnormalities of the p53 pathway, improvement in depth of response prior to HCT, and novel maintenance strategies are needed for improved outcomes in these patients.
Publication Date: 2020-06-27
Journal: Leukemia research
Atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with ibrutinib: risk prediction, management, and clinical outcomes.
Ibrutinib therapy is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Risk assessment tools and outcomes of AF in these patients are not well described.
We performed a retrospective review of patients with CLL treated with ibrutinib at Mayo Clinic between October 2012 and November 2018.
Two hundred ninety-eight patients were identified with a median time on ibrutinib of 19 months (range 0.23-69.7 months). Fifty-one patients developed treatment-emergent AF; the risk of treatment-emergent AF at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years was 9%, 12%, and 16%, respectively. The following were associated with an increased risk of treatment-emergent AF on multivariable analyses: past history of AF (hazard ratio [HR] 3.5, p = 0.0072) and heart failure (HR 3.4, p = 0.0028). Most patients are able to continue ibrutinib therapy (dose reduced in 43%). Development of treatment-emergent AF was associated with shorter event-free survival (EFS; HR 2.0, p = 0.02) and shorter overall survival (OS; HR 3.2, p = 0.001), after adjusting for age, prior treatment status, TP53 disruption, heart failure, valvular disease, and past history of AF.
Patient comorbidities, rather than CLL-related factors, predict risk of treatment-emergent AF in patients treated with ibrutinib. Although the vast majority of patients with treatment-emergent AF are able to continue ibrutinib (with dose reduction in 43%), treatment-emergent AF appears to be associated with worse outcomes, independent of other adverse prognostic factors.
Publication Date: 2020-06-04
Journal: Annals of hematology
Prognosticators of Long-Term Outcomes of TNM Stage II Colorectal Cancer: Molecular Patterns or Clinicopathological Features.
Patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have a higher risk of recurrence when they have certain risk factors, including clinical and pathological patterns. However, as the prognostic role of molecular patterns for stage II disease is still unclear, this study aimed to investigate it.
A total of 509 patients with stage II CRC were enrolled, and all clinical, pathological, and molecular data were collected. Molecular patterns included microsatellite instability (MSI); elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotides (EMAST) status; and expression of RAS/RAF genes, genes of the APC pathway, and other gene mutations. The endpoints were oncological outcomes, including overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), local recurrence (LR), and distant recurrence (DR). Cox regression analysis was used.
Numerous molecular patterns influenced the oncological outcomes on univariate analysis, but no variable reached significance in LR. On multivariate analysis, a mucinous component (MC) > 50% (P < 0.01) was significant for OS and CSS. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI; P< 0.01), MC > 50% (P < 0.01), and EMAST-H (P = 0.02) significantly influenced DFS, whereas LVI (P < 0.01), MC > 50% (P < 0.01), and TP53 mutation (P = 0.02) were significant for DR.
In this study, MSI, EMAST, and RAS/RAF alterations did not influence the oncological outcomes. Overall, LVI and MC were two significant prognostic factors for DFS and DR. Thus, the histopathology, rather than the genes, plays a major role in the prognosis of patients with stage II CRC.
Publication Date: 2019-09-14
Journal: World journal of surgery