Combination of autophagy and NFE2L2/NRF2 activation as a treatment approach for neuropathic pain.
Macroautophagy/autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process, plays an important role in the regulation of immune inflammation and nervous system homeostasis. However, the exact role and mechanism of autophagy in pain is still unclear. Here, we showed that impaired autophagy flux mainly occurred in astrocytes during the maintenance of neuropathic pain. No matter the stage of neuropathic pain induction or maintenance, activation of autophagy relieved the level of pain, whereas inhibition of autophagy aggravated pain. Moreover, the levels of neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased or decreased following autophagy inhibition or activation. Further study showed that inhibition of autophagy slowed the induction, but increased the maintenance of neuroinflammatory responses, which could be achieved by promoting the binding of TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) to K63 ubiquitinated protein, and increasing the levels of p-MAPK8/JNK (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB/NF-κB). Impaired autophagy also reduced the protective effect of astrocytes on neurons against ROS stress because of the decrease in the level of glutathione released by astrocytes, which could be improved by activating the NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2) pathway. We also demonstrated that simultaneous activation of autophagy and the NFE2L2 pathway further relieved pain, compared to activating autophagy alone. Our study provides an underlying mechanism by which autophagy participates in the regulation of neuropathic pain, and a combination of autophagy and NFE2L2 activation may be a new treatment approach for neuropathic pain.
Publication Date: 2021-04-10
In a previous study, EphB4 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of A375-melanoma growth but a negative regulator of tumor vascularization and perfusion. To distinguish between EphB4 forward and ephrinB2 reverse signaling, we used the commercially available EphB4 kinase inhibitor NVP-BHG712 (NVP), which was later identified as its regioisomer NVPiso. Since there have been reported significant differences between the inhibition profiles of NVP and NVPiso, we compared the influence of NVP and NVPiso on tumor characteristics under the same experimental conditions. Despite the different inhibitory profiles of NVP and NVPiso, the comparative study conducted here showed the same EphB4-induced effects in vivo as in the previous investigation. This confirmed the conclusion that EphB4-ephrinB2 reverse signaling is responsible for increased tumor growth as well as decreased tumor vascularization and perfusion. These results are further substantiated by microarrays showing differences between mock-transfected and EphB4-transfected (A375-EphB4) cells with respect to at least 9 angiogenesis-related proteins. Decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiotensin 1 (Ang-1), and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), together with the increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-β2), is consistent with the impaired vascularization of A375-EphB4 xenografts. Functional overexpression of EphB4 in A375-EphB4 cells was confirmed by activation of a variety of signaling pathways, including the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT), rat sarcoma virus/rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (Ras/Raf/MEK), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB) pathways.
Publication Date: 2020-11-07
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
From genoprotection to rejuvenation.
Aging results from aberrations in signaling mechanisms and decline in biologic activities and cellular functions. Anti-aging strategies include a number of dietary, genetic, and pharmacological interventions that converge on a core network of nutrient sensors including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the insulin/insulin-like IIGF) growth factor signaling pathway (IIS), sirtuins, NFkB, and FOXO. Aging can be delayed and life-span and health-span can be extended by calorie and dietary restrictions, administration of NAM, NMN, NR, NAD+, and by antioxidants including hydrogen sulfide. Additional measures for the age related decline in tissue homeostasis include senotherapeutics, senolytics, senomorphics, anti-inflammaging strategies, reactivation of telomerase and prevention of stem cell exhaustion. There is also a possibility to erase the signs of aging and even to reverse aging by epigenetic reprogramming and other emerging measures.
Publication Date: 2020-10-14
Journal: Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition)
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Strategies Based on the Potentiation of Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Prevent Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease.
Accelerated atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is preceded by endothelial dysfunction (ED), which exhibits a proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype and enhanced oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of several compounds with anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties on uremia-induced endothelial dysfunction has been evaluated in an in vitro model.
Endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to sera from uremic patients in the absence and presence of the flavonoids apigenin, genistein and quercetin, the antioxidant enzyme mimetics (AEM) ebselen (glutathione peroxidase mimetic), EUK-134 and EUK-118 (both superoxide dismutase mimetics), and the pharmacological drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We explored changes in the expression of adhesion receptors on the cell surface, by immunofluorescence, the production of radical oxygen species (ROS), by fluorescence detection, and the activation of signaling proteins related to inflammation, by both a phosphospecific antibody cell-based ELISA and immunoblotting techniques.
Uremic media induced a significantly increased expression of ICAM-1, overproduction of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB) in ECs. Quercetin, the AEM and NAC showed a significant inhibitory effect on both ICAM-1 expression and ROS generation (p<0.05). All the compounds reduced p38MAPK activation, but only the AEM, especially ebselen, and NAC, both potentiating the glutathione peroxidase pathway, also inhibited NFkB activation. These two compounds were capable of increasing endothelial glutathione levels, especially in response to uremia.
Our results indicate that the potentiation of the antioxidant pathways can be an effective strategy to improve endothelial dysfunction in uremia and a potential target to reduce the cardiovascular risk in this population.
Publication Date: 2018-11-28
Journal: Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
Inhibition of TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 leads to inhibition of NFKB activation and autophagy activation.
TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) plays a pivotal role in NFKB activation and macroautphagy/autophagy activation induced by TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) signaling. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) in NFKB activation and autophagy activation. PRDX1 interacted with the ring finger domain of TRAF6 and inhibited its ubiquitin-ligase activity. The inhibition on TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 induced the suppression of ubiquitination of an evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT) essential for NFKB activation and BECN1 (beclin 1) required for autophagy activation. An inhibitory effect of PRDX1 on TRAF6 was clearly evidenced in PRDX1-knockdown (PRDX1KD) THP-1, PRDX1KD MDA-MB-231, and PRDX1KD SK-HEP-1 cells. PRDX1KD THP-1 cells showed increases of NFKB activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, NFKB-dependent gene expression induced by TLR4 stimulation, and resistance against Salmonella typhimurium infection. Additionally, migration and invasion abilities of PRDX1KD MDA-MB-231 and PRDX1KD SK-HEP-1 cancer cells were significantly enhanced compared to those of control cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PRDX1 negatively regulates TLR4 signaling for NFKB activation and autophagy functions such as bactericidal activity, cancer cell migration, and cancer cell invasion by inhibiting TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity.
3-MA: 3-methyladenine; BECN1: beclin 1; CHUK/IKKA: conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase; ECSIT: ECSIT signalling integrator; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; NFKB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; IB: immunoblotting; IKBKB/IKKB: inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta; IL1B: interleukin 1 beta; IL6: interleukin 6; IP: immunoprecipitation; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtuble associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAP3K7/TAK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7; MAPK14/p38: mitogen-activated protein kinase 14; mROS: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; PRDX1: peroxiredoxin 1; PRDX6: peroxiredoxin 6; RELA/p65: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; TRAF6 TNF: receptor associated factor 6.
Publication Date: 2018-06-23
Nickel toxicity in P. lividus embryos: Dose dependent effects and gene expression analysis.
Many industrial activities release Nickel (Ni) in the environment with harmful effects for terrestrial and marine organisms. Despite many studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity are available, the understanding about its toxic effects on marine organisms is more limited. We used Paracentrotus lividus as a model to analyze the effects on the stress pathways in embryos continuously exposed to different Ni doses, ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mM. We deeply examined the altered embryonic morphologies at 24 and 48 h after Ni exposure. Some different phenotypes have been classified, showing alterations at the expenses of the dorso-ventral axis as well as the skeleton and/or the pigment cells. At the lowest dose used, Ni mainly induced a multi-spicule phenotype observed at 24 h after treatment. On the contrary, at the highest dose of Ni (0.5 mM), 90% of embryos showed no skeleton and no pigment cells. Therefore, we focused on this dose to study protein and gene expression patterns at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Among the proteins analyzed, i.e. p38MAPK, Grp78 and Mn-SOD, only p38MAPK was induced by Ni treatment. Moreover, we analyzed the mRNA profiles of a pool of genes that are involved in stress response and in development mechanisms, i.e. the transcription factors Pl-NFkB and Pl-FOXO; a marker of DNA repair, Pl-XPB/ERCC3; a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Pl-p38; an ER stress gene, Pl-grp78; an adapter protein, Pl-14-3-3ε; two markers of pigment cells, Pl-PKS1 and Pl-gcm. The spatial expression of mesenchymal marker genes has been evaluated in Ni-treated embryos at both 24 and 48 h after exposure. Our results indicated that Ni acts at several levels in P. lividus sea urchin, by affecting embryo development, influencing the embryonic immune response and activating stress response pathways to counteract the suffered injury and to promote embryos surviving.
Publication Date: 2018-05-19
Journal: Marine environmental research
Modulation of human osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis by lycopene.
Lycopene is a lipid-soluble pigment that is mainly found in tomato. It is the carotenoid that presents the highest antioxidant potential, and due to that, it has been implicated in a decrease of the risk of several oxidative-stress-related disorders, such as cancer, inflammatory diseases and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, at the present, there is no detailed information about how lycopene affects bone metabolism. The aim of the present work was to characterize the cellular and molecular effects of lycopene on human osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and function. It was observed that lycopene, at levels found in plasma after the ingestion of lycopene-containing products, decreased osteoclast differentiation but did not affect cell density/survival; calcium-phosphate resorbing ability was also decreased. On the other hand, osteoblast proliferation (via a decrease on apoptosis) and differentiation were increased in the presence of lycopene. The observed effects in both cell types appeared to be related to significant changes in MEK signaling pathway, but also in protein kinase C pathway in osteoclasts and NFkB signaling in osteoblasts. In conclusion, lycopene appears to promote an anabolic state of bone metabolism, stimulating osteoblastogenesis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, which may contribute to the promotion of a proper health status of bone tissue. This information might be relevant for the prevention and delay in the progression of osteolytic bone conditions.
Publication Date: 2018-04-15
Journal: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
Autophagy and innate immunity: Insights from invertebrate model organisms.
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D. melanogaster. Although C. elegans has no known pattern recognition receptors, this organism has been particularly useful in understanding many aspects of innate immunity. Indeed, work in C. elegans was the first to show xenophagic targeting of microsporidia, a fungal pathogen that infects all animals, and to identify TFEB/HLH-30, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor, as an evolutionarily conserved regulator of autophagy gene expression and host tolerance. Studies in C. elegans have also highlighted the more recently appreciated relationship between autophagy and tolerance to extracellular pathogens. Studies of simple, short-lived invertebrates such as flies and worms will continue to provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms by which autophagy and immunity pathways intersect and their contribution to organismal survival. Abbreviations Atg autophagy related BECN1 Beclin 1 CALCOCO2 calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 Cry5B crystal toxin 5B Daf abnormal dauer formation DKF-1 D kinase family-1 EPG-7 Ectopic P Granules-7 FuDR fluorodeoxyuridine GFP green fluorescent protein HLH-30 Helix Loop Helix-30 Imd immune deficiency ins-18 INSulin related-18; LET-363, LEThal-363 lgg-1 LC3, GABARAP and GATE-16 family-1 MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase MATH the meprin and TRAF homology MTOR mechanistic target of rapamycin NBR1 neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1 NFKB nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells NOD nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing OPTN optineurin PAMPs pathogen-associated molecular patterns Park2 Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin pdr-1 Parkinson disease related PFTs pore-forming toxins PGRP peptidoglycan-recognition proteins PIK3C3 phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase catalytic subunit type 3 pink-1 PINK (PTEN-I induced kinase) homolog PRKD protein kinase D; PLC, phospholipase C PRKN parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase PRRs pattern-recognition receptors PtdIns3P phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate rab-5 RAB family-5 RB1CC1 RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 RNAi RNA interference sqst SeQueSTosome related SQSTM1 sequestosome 1 TBK1 TANK-binding kinase 1 TFEB transcription factor EB TGFB/TGF-β transforming growth factor beta TLRs toll-like receptors unc-51 UNCoordinated-51 VPS vacuolar protein sorting; VSV, vesicular stomatitis virus VSV-G VSV surface glycoprotein G Wipi2 WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2.
Publication Date: 2017-11-14
Lipopolysaccharide induced Interleukin-6 production is mediated through activation of ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK, MEK, and NFκB in chicken thrombocytes.
Thrombocytes express Toll-like receptor 4 and apparently use both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) pathways for nuclear signaling. However, it is not well known if the same enzyme systems found in mammalian cells are fully functional in chickens. Therefore, kinase inhibitors were used with thrombocytes to block kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells to determine if interleukin (IL)-6 expression and production would be diminished. Results demonstrated that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways influence gene expression of IL-6 through treatment with either ERK or p38 MAPK inhibitor. In addition, thrombocyte lysates from cells treated with ERK, p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase (IKK) inhibitor showed different levels of the phosphorylated form of ERK1/2, p38 and NFκB. Furthermore, IL-6 gene expression and production were significantly upregulated in LPS stimulated thrombocytes relative to all inhibitor-treated cells.
Publication Date: 2017-03-28
Journal: Developmental and comparative immunology
Role of edaravone in managemant of septic peritonitis.
Sepsis is a complex rapidly progressive infectious disease that remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims. Edaravone a novel free radical scavenger was approved in 2001 in Japan for treatment of acute cerebral and myocardial infarction. Hence, in this work we attempt to evaluate its role in cases of septic peritonitis (SP).
This is a prospective randomized observer-blinded study carried out in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) after approval by Hospital Ethical Committee. After admission to ICU patients were randomly divided into two groups of thirty patients each-Group (C): Control group managed according to the routine protocol of sepsis and Group (E): Edaravone treated SP managed according to the routine protocol of sepsis + edaravone at dose of 30 mg/12 h intravenous infusion for 2 weeks. All patients were monitored for invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, heart rate, temperature, urine output, total fluid balance, and routine investigation. Blood sample was taken weekly for 2 weeks to measure the following parameters: Nuclear transcription factor kappa B activity (NFKB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).
There was significant decrease (
SP treatment with edaravone could significantly improve the inflammatory and oxidative states with better patient outcomes.
Publication Date: 2017-01-18
Journal: Journal of anaesthesiology, clinical pharmacology
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erdosteine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.
Erdosteine is widely used as a mucolytic agent and also has free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine. We investigated the effect of erdosteine on the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB/inhibitor of NFkB (IkB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with erdosteine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Western blotting, pretreatment with erdosteine inhibited the IkBα degradation induced in RAW 264.7 cells by LPS. LPS-induced IkB kinase (IKK) activity and NF-kB transcription were inhibited by pretreatment with erdosteine. Production of IL-6 and IL-1β was also inhibited by erdosteine pretreatment. However, erdosteine did not inhibit LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine in mouse macrophages is mediated through inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kB activation.
Publication Date: 2016-06-19
Thyroid active agents T3 and PTU differentially affect immune gene transcripts in the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss).
In mammals, numerous reports describe an immunomodulating effect of thyroid-active compounds. In contrast, only few reports have been published on this subject in fish. We previously demonstrated that immune cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) and that exposure of trout to the thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) or the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) alters immune cell transcript levels of THR and several immune genes. The present study aims to further characterize the immunomodulating action of thyroid-active compounds in trout immune cells. We report here the use of a custom-designed 60-mer oligo immune-targeted microarray for rainbow trout to analyze the gene expression profiles induced in the head kidney by T3 and PTU. Morphometric analyses of the thyroid showed that PTU exposure increased the size of the epithelial cells, whereas T3 induced no significant effects. Both T3 and PTU had diverse and partly contrasting effects on immune transcript profiles. The strongest differential effects of T3 and PTU on gene expressions were those targeting the Mitogen Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK), NFkB, Natural Killer (NK) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways, a number of multipath genes (MPG) such as those encoding pleiotropic transcription factors (atf1, junb, myc), as well as important pro-inflammatory genes (tnfa, tnf6, il1b) and interferon-related genes (ifng, irf10). With these results we show for the first time in a fish species that the in vivo thyroidal status modulates a diversity of immune genes and pathways. This knowledge provides the basis to investigate both mechanisms and consequences of thyroid hormone- and thyroid disruptor-mediated immunomodulation for the immunocompetence of fish.
Publication Date: 2016-03-11
Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Short-term diesel exhaust inhalation in a controlled human crossover study is associated with changes in DNA methylation of circulating mononuclear cells in asthmatics.
Changes in DNA methylation have been associated with traffic-related air pollution in observational studies, but the specific mechanisms and temporal dynamics therein have not been explored in a controlled study of asthmatics. In this study, we investigate short-term effects of diesel exhaust inhalation on DNA methylation levels at CpG sites across the genome in circulating blood in asthmatics.
A double-blind crossover study of filtered air and diesel exhaust exposures was performed on sixteen non-smoking asthmatic subjects. Blood samples were collected pre-exposure, and then 6 and 30 hours post-exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA methylation was interrogated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Array. Exposure-related changes in DNA methylation were identified. In addition, CpG sites overlapping with Alu or LINE1 repetitive elements and candidate microRNA loci were also analyzed.
DNA methylation at 2827 CpG sites were affected by exposure to diesel exhaust but not filtered air; these sites enriched for genes involved in protein kinase and NFkB pathways. CpG sites with significant changes in response to diesel exhaust exposure primarily became less methylated, with a site residing within GSTP1 being among the significant hits. Diesel exhaust-associated change was also found for CpG sites overlapping with Alu and LINE1 elements as well as for a site within miR-21.
Short-term exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in DNA methylation changes at CpG sites residing in genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress response, repetitive elements, and microRNA. This provides plausibility for the role of DNA methylation in pathways by which airborne particulate matter impacts gene expression and offers support for including DNA methylation analysis in future efforts to understand the interactions between environmental exposures and biological systems.
Publication Date: 2014-12-10
Journal: Particle and fibre toxicology
CYLD-mediated signaling and diseases.
The conserved cylindromatosis (CYLD) codes for a deubiquitinating enzyme and is a crucial regulator of diverse cellular processes such as immune responses, inflammation, death, and proliferation. It directly regulates multiple key signaling cascades, such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B [NFkB] and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways, by its catalytic activity on polyubiquitinated key intermediates. Several lines of emerging evidence have linked CYLD to the pathogenesis of various maladies, including cancer, poor infection control, lung fibrosis, neural development, and now cardiovascular dysfunction. While CYLD-mediated signaling is cell type and stimuli specific, the activity of CYLD is tightly controlled by phosphorylation and other regulators such as Snail. This review explores a broad selection of current and past literature regarding CYLD's expression, function and regulation with emerging reports on its role in cardiovascular disease.
Publication Date: 2014-10-25
Journal: Current drug targets
Insulin acutely triggers transcription of Slc2a4 gene: participation of the AT-rich, E-box and NFKB-binding sites.
The insulin-sensitive glucose transporter protein GLUT4 (solute carrier family 2 member 4 (Slc2a4) gene) plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Decreased GLUT4 expression is a current feature in insulin resistant conditions such as diabetes, and the restoration of GLUT4 content improves glycemic control. This study investigated the effect of insulin upon Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression, focusing on the AT-rich element, E-box and nuclear factor NF-kappa-B (NFKB) site.
Rat soleus muscles were incubated during 180 min with insulin, added or not with wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform (PI3K)-inhibitor), ML9 (serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) inhibitor) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, GLUT4 repressor), and processed for analysis of GLUT4 protein (Western blotting); Slc2a4, myocyte enhancer factor 2a/d (Mef2a/d), hypoxia inducible factor 1a (Hif1a), myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (Nfkb1) messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)); and AT-rich- (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-binding site), E-box- (hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A)- and myoblast determination protein 1 (MYOD1)-binding site), and NFKB-binding activity (electrophoretic mobility assay).
Insulin increased Slc2a4 mRNA expression (140%) and nuclear proteins binding to AT-rich and E-box elements (~90%), all effects were prevented by wortmannin and ML9. Insulin also increased Mef2a/d and Myod1 mRNA expression, suggesting the participation of these transcriptional factors in the Slc2a4 enhancing effect. Conversely, insulin decreased Nfkb1 mRNA expression and protein binding to the NFKB-site (~50%). Furthermore, TNF-induced inhibition of GLUT4 expression (~40%) was prevented by insulin in an NFKB-binding repressing mechanism. GLUT4 protein paralleled the Slc2a4 mRNA regulations.
Insulin enhances the Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression in the skeletal muscle by activating AT-rich and E-box elements, in a PI3K/AKT-dependent mechanism, and repressing NFKB-site activity as well. These results unravel how post-prandial increase of insulin may guarantee GLUT4 expression, and how the insulin signaling impairment can participate in insulin resistance-induced repression of GLUT4.
Publication Date: 2014-08-16
Journal: Life sciences
Dual orexin receptor antagonist 12 inhibits expression of proteins in neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization.
Sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptors is implicated in prevalent and debilitating orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides that function to regulate many physiological processes and are reported to modulate nociception. To determine the role of orexins in an inflammatory model of trigeminal activation, the effects of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA-12) on levels of proteins that promote peripheral and central sensitization and changes in nocifensive responses were investigated. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, mRNA for orexin receptor 1 (OX₁R) and receptor 2 (OX₂R) were detected in trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). OX₁R immunoreactivity was localized primarily in neuronal cell bodies in the V3 region of the ganglion and in laminas I-II of the STN. Animals injected bilaterally with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsule exhibited increased expression of P-p38, P-ERK, and lba1 in trigeminal ganglia and P-ERK and lba1 in the STN at 2 days post injection. However, levels of each of these proteins in rats receiving daily oral DORA-12 were inhibited to near basal levels. Similarly, administration of DORA-12 on days 3 and 4 post CFA injection in the TMJ effectively inhibited the prolonged stimulated expression of protein kinase A, NFkB, and Iba1 in the STN on day 5 post injection. While injection of CFA mediated a nocifensive response to mechanical stimulation of the orofacial region at 2h and 3 and 5 days post injection, treatment with DORA-12 suppressed the nocifensive response on day 5. Somewhat surprisingly, nocifensive responses were again observed on day 10 post CFA stimulation in the absence of daily DORA-12 administration. Our results provide evidence that DORA-12 can inhibit CFA-induced stimulation of trigeminal sensory neurons by inhibiting expression of proteins associated with sensitization of peripheral and central neurons and nociception.
Publication Date: 2014-04-02
Metabolomic and network analysis of pharmacotherapies for sensorineural hearing loss.
Different pharmacotherapies for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are interconnected in metabolic networks with molecular hubs.
Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit worldwide. Dozens of drugs have shown efficacy against SNHL in animal studies and a few in human studies. Analyzing metabolic networks that interconnect these drugs will point to and prioritize development of new pharmacotherapies for human SNHL.
Drugs that have shown efficacy in treating mammalian SNHL were identified through PubMed literature searches. The drugs were analyzed using the metabolomic analysis and the "grow-tool function" in ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The top 3 most interconnected molecules and drugs (i.e., the hubs) within the generated networks were considered important targets for the treatment of SNHL.
A total of 70 drugs were investigated with IPA. The metabolomic analysis revealed 2 statistically significant networks (Networks 1 and 2). A network analysis using the "grow-tool function" generated one statistically significant network (Network 3). Hubs of these networks were as follows: P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38 MAPK), p42/p44 MAP kinase (ERK1/2) and glutathione for Network 1; protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) and ERK for Network 2; and dexamethasone, tretinoin, and cyclosporin A for Network 3.
Metabolomic and network analysis of the existing pharmacotherapies for SNHL has pointed to and prioritized a number of potential novel targets for treatment of SNHL.
Publication Date: 2013-12-18
Journal: Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
The oxytocin-bone axis.
We recently demonstrated a direct action of oxytocin (OT) on skeletal homeostasis, mainly mediated through stimulation of osteoblasts (OBs) formation and through the reciprocal modulation of osteoclast (OCs) formation and function. Thus, mice lacking the hormone or its receptor develop a low turnover osteoporosis that worsens with age in both sexes. The skeletons of OT (Ot) and OT receptor (Oxtr) null mice display a pronounced decrease in vertebral and femoral trabecular volume. At the cellular level, OBs from Ot KO and Oxtr KO mice exhibit lower mineralization activity and, at the mRNA level, all master genes for osteoblast differentiation are down-regulated. Moreover, OT has dual effects on OCs: it increases osteoclast formation both directly, by activating nuclear factor kB (NFkB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and, indirectly, through the up-regulation of receptor activator nuclear factor-kappaB ligand synthesis by OBs. On the other hand, it inhibits bone resorption by triggering cytosolic Ca(2+) release and nitric oxide synthesis in mature OCs. OT is locally produced by osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulators of bone formation modulated by oestrogens. The oestrogen signal involved in this feedforward circuit is nongenomic because it requires an intact MAPK kinase signal transduction pathway, instead of the classical nuclear translocation of oestrogen receptor. The ability of oestrogen to increase bone mass in vivo is to some extent OXTR-dependent. Thus, Oxtr KO mice injected 17β-oestradiol did not show any effects on bone formation parameters, whereas the same treatment increases trabecular and cortical bone in wild-type mice. An intact OT autocrine-paracrine circuit appears to be essential for optimal skeletal remodelling.
Publication Date: 2013-11-14
Journal: Journal of neuroendocrinology
Development of liver fibrosis during aging: effects of caloric restriction.
Liver is the central metabolic organ of the body and diet is considered one of the main environmental factors that can impact on aging liver. In the elderly stage liver function is relatively well conserved although there are a variety of not well defined morphological changes related to liver fibrosis which is commonly associated with an inflammatory state. The aim of this paper is to study these alterations during the physiological process of aging in Wistar rats and also test if caloric restriction (CR) could ameliorate them. As fibrosis is associated to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) function we also analyzed these cells during aging. Livers from five groups of male Wistar rats (3-, 8-, 24-months old ad libitum and 8- and 24-months caloric restricted rats) were used in this study. Histological analysis, expression of genes implicated in liver fibrosis and the status of inflammatory step-pathways as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) isoforms, p50 and p65, in cytosolic and nuclear fractions were performed. During elderly, associated with morphological change of HSC, there is a progressive increase in collagen deposition due to an inhibition in collagen degradation. Higher expression of cytokines and the activation of inflammatory pathways are associated with aging. CR ameliorates these circumstances being more effective when it started in middle age. In conclusion elderly stage is associated to a mild fibrotic and inflammatory state in the liver which could be ameliorated after CR.
Publication Date: 2013-07-09
Journal: Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
Bradykinin promotes Toll like receptor-4 expression in human gingival fibroblasts.
Bacterial infections are a potent mechanism for enzymatic generation of kinins such as bradykinin (BK), a universal mediator for inducing inflammatory reaction by associating with the B2 receptor and stimulating liberation of arachidonic acid and synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In this study we evaluate the role of bradykinin in regulating the expression of TLR4 receptor in human gingival fibroblasts. We examine the ability of bradykinin to modulate inflammatory response of human gingival fibroblasts to Gram-negative components and evaluated the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4 in the co-operation between bradykinin and bacterial pathogens. We show that treatment with bradykinin promotes TLR4 receptor expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and amplifies inflammatory responses to the bacterial components of Gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4 expression induced by bradykinin was blocked with Hoe 140, a B2R antagonist. When HGF cells were incubated with BK resulted of an increased in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Bradykinin and lipopolysaccharide, a specific TLR4 ligand stimulated COX-2 expression. In other series of experiments we found that ERK, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, protein kinase C and NFkB are involved in BK promoted-increased in TLR4 expression. The results demonstrate that bradykinin up-regulates the expression of TLR4 and promotes an additive increase in inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides.
Publication Date: 2012-08-30
Journal: International immunopharmacology