Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanisms of
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of TwHF on CVD remain elusive. This study revealed the pharmacological mechanisms of TwHF acting on CVD based on a pharmacology approach.
The active compounds were selected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database according to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). The potential targets of TwHF were obtained from the SwissTargetPrediction database. The CVD-related therapeutic targets were collected from the DrugBank, the GeneCards database, and the OMIM database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was generated by the STITCH database. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed by R package. The network of drug-targets-diseases-pathways was constructed by the Cytoscape software.
The 41 effective ingredients of TwHF and the 178 common targets of TwHF and CVD-related were collected. Furthermore, AKT1, amyloid precursor protein (APP), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), and cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53) were identified as the core targets involved in the mechanism of TwHF on CVD. Top ten GO (biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions) and KEGG pathways were screened with a
These findings demonstrate that the main active compound of TwHF, the core targets, and pathways maybe provide new insights into the development of a natural therapy for the prevention and treatment of CVD.
Publication Date: 2021-08-27
Journal: BioMed research international
Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Profile of Mantle Cell Lymphoma: An Institutional Experience.
Introduction Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a biologically aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics. Differentiation from other chronic lymphoproliferative disorders is essential for prognostication. Aim This paper aims to study the clinicopathological features of MCL with emphasis on immunohistochemical features and disease correlation. Method To do so, clinicopathological characteristics from 21 cases of MCL (14 males, seven females, M:F=2:1) diagnosed in the last five years i.e. 2015 to 2020, were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with immunohistochemistry (IHC) data. Particularly those pertaining to cyclin D1, SRY-box transcription factor 11 (SOX11), cluster of differentiation (CD) 5, CD23, MIB E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MIB1), tumor protein 53 (TP53), c-myelocytomatosis oncogene product (c-MYC), multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1), mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (EBV-LMP1) expression with its aberrations. Observations This study shows that MCL constituted 4.2% (21/500) of all NHLs with a mean age of 57.5 years (median 60 years, range 30 to 80 years). The disease was nodal in 19, and extranodal in the remaining two cases. 14 of 21 (67%) had generalized lymphadenopathy and 71% had bone marrow (BM) involvement. The nodal involvement was diffuse in 9/17 (53%), 8/21 (38%) had a blastoid morphology, and an in-situ MCL pattern was not seen in any of the cases selected for the study. Cyclin D1 immunoexpression correlated well with SOX11; CD5-negative in five cases; and CD23-positive in three cases. TP53 and c-MYC expression were noted in 17/19 (89.4%) and 8/17 (47%), respectively. MUM1 registered positive in six cases. None of the cases showed immunopositivity for MDM2 and EBV-LMP1. Conclusion In essence, this study indicates that morphological and immunophenotypic subclassification of mantle cell lymphoma with a wider panel of IHC markers is essential for understanding disease biology and better prognostication.
Publication Date: 2021-08-26
Aberrant PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 expression in human scalp and face angiosarcoma.
Angiosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor originating from endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels. The molecular mechanisms of scalp and face angiosarcoma still need to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-like protein (pMAPK), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in scalp and face angiosarcoma and to assess tumor tissue apoptosis.The expression and intracellular distribution of PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 proteins in 21 specimens of human scalp and face angiosarcoma and 16 specimens of human benign hemangioma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.Significantly lower PTEN but higher PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 immunostaining were detected in the angiosarcoma specimens than in the benign hemangioma specimens(P < .01). The angiosarcoma tissues exhibited significantly higher apoptosis indices than the benign hemangioma tissues (P < .01). The positive expression rates of PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 were correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation in the human scalp and face angiosarcoma.The PI3K, MAPK, and TP53 pathways might be involved in angiosarcoma tumorigenesis in humans and may serve as therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of this malignancy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
The regulation of long non-coding RNA 00958 (LINC00958) for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells death through absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) depending on microRNA-4306 and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in vitro.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed as potential targets in OSCC gene therapy. Thus, the study aims to analyze how they exert functions in OSCC. LINC00958, AIM2, Gasdermin D (GSDMD) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) expression levels are analyzed by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) or Western blotting (WB) in OSCC cells lines. The roles of LINC00958 in cell proliferation, cell death, and GSDMD expression respectively were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, flow cytometry and Immunofluorescence (IF) assay. In addition, expressions of pyroptosis- and autophagy-related proteins are evaluated by WB detection. The targeted binding of LINC00958 and miR-4306 or AIM2 mRNA is predicted by bioinformatics analysis and detected by biodual luciferase system. RIP and qPCR assays analyze whether LINC00958 interacts with SIRT1. We found that LINC00958 showed upregulation in OSCC cells compared to normal oral epithelial cells. LINC00958 silencing significantly suppressed OSCC cell proliferation, induced cell death and reduced autophagy. LINC00958 regulated the levels of miR-4306 which binds to the 3'UTR of AIM2, and interacts with and modulates SIRT1 protein expression. LINC00958 regulated GSDMD and AIM2 levels, as well as p53 and SIRT1 levels. SIRT1 overexpression markedly reversed aforementioned effects of LINC00958. LINC00958 not only downregulated miR-4306 levels to activate the pyroptosis pathway mediated by AIM2 and promoted cancer cell survival but also induced a decrease in SIRT protein expression to further reduce p53 levels.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Investigating the Mechanism of
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors, which accounts for approximately 10% of all diagnosed cancers and cancer deaths worldwide per year.
We adopted active constituent prescreening, target predicting, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, differentially expressed gene analysis, and molecular docking to establish a system pharmacology database of SBH against CRC.
A total of 64 active constituents of SBH were obtained and 377 targets were predicted, and the result indicated that quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, and apigenin were the main active constituents of SBH. Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), pPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), transcription factor AP-1 (JUN), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), Myc protooncogene protein (MYC), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and broad substrate specificity ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (ABCG2) were the major targets of SBH in the treatment of CRC. GO analysis illustrated that the core biological process regulated by SBH was the regulation of the cell cycle. Thirty pathways were presented and 8 pathways related to CRC were involved. Molecular docking presented the binding details of 3 key targets with 6 active constituents.
The mechanisms of SBH against CRC depend on the synergistic effect of multiple active constituents, multiple targets, and multiple pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-08-13
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
TCF19 and p53 regulate transcription of TIGAR and SCO2 in HCC for mitochondrial energy metabolism and stress adaptation.
Alteration in glucose homeostasis during cancer metabolism is an important phenomenon. Though several important transcription factors have been well studied in the context of the regulation of metabolic gene expression, the role of epigenetic readers in this regard remains still elusive. Epigenetic reader protein transcription factor 19 (TCF19) has been recently identified as a novel glucose and insulin-responsive factor that modulates histone posttranslational modifications to regulate glucose homeostasis in hepatocytes. Here we report that TCF19 interacts with a non-histone, well-known tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and co-regulates a wide array of metabolic genes. Among these, the p53-responsive carbohydrate metabolic genes Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and Cytochrome C Oxidase assembly protein 2 (SCO2), which are the key regulators of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation respectively, are under direct regulation of TCF19. Remarkably, TCF19 can form different transcription activation/repression complexes which show substantial overlap with that of p53, depending on glucose-mediated variant stress situations as obtained from IP/MS studies. Interestingly, we observed that TCF19/p53 complexes either have CBP or HDAC1 to epigenetically program the expression of TIGAR and SCO2 genes depending on short-term high glucose or prolonged high glucose conditions. TCF19 or p53 knockdown significantly altered the cellular lactate production and led to increased extracellular acidification rate. Similarly, OCR and cellular ATP production were reduced and mitochondrial membrane potential was compromised upon depletion of TCF19 or p53. Subsequently, through RNA-Seq analysis from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, we observed that TCF19/p53-mediated metabolic regulation is fundamental for sustenance of cancer cells. Together the study proposes that TCF19/p53 complexes can regulate metabolic gene expression programs responsible for mitochondrial energy homeostasis and stress adaptation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Exosomes of Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Proper Vehicle for Transfecting miR-145 into the Breast Cancer Cell Line and Its Effect on Metastasis.
Despite recent advances in scientific knowledge and clinical practice, management, and treatment of breast cancer, as one of the leading causes of female mortality, breast cancer remains a major burden. Recently, methods employing stem cells and their derivatives, i.e., exosomes, in gene-based therapies hold great promise. Since these natural nanovesicles are able to transmit crucial cellular information which can be engineered to have robust delivery and targeting capacity, they are considered one of the modes of intercellular communication. miR-145, one of the downregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in various cancers, can regulate tumor cell invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, and proliferation and stem cell differentiation.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomes secreted from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for miR-145 transfection into breast cancer cells in order to weaken their expansion and metastasis.
Here, we exploited the exosomes from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exo) to deliver miR-145 in the T-47D breast cancer cell line. Lentiviral vectors of miR-145-pLenti-III-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and empty pLenti-III-eGFP as the backbone were used to transfect MSCs and T-47D cells. In order to find the efficiency of exosomes as a delivery vehicle, the expression level of some miR-145 target genes, including Rho-Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 1 (ROCK1), Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ERBB2), Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and Tumor Protein p53 (TP53), was compared in all treatment groups (T-47D cells treated by miR-145-transfected MSCs and their derivatives or their backbone) and control group (untransfected T-47D cells) using real-time PCR.
The obtained data represented the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on apoptosis induction and metastasis in both direct miR-treated groups. However, exosome-mediated delivery caused an improved anticancer property of miR-145.
Restoration of miR-145 using MSC-Exo can be considered a potential novel therapeutic strategy in breast cancer in the future.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: BioMed research international
Study on HOXBs of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Detection of New Molecular Target.
Our study examined the transcriptional and survival data of HOXBs in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from the ONCOMINE database, Human Protein Atlas, and STRING website. We discovered that the expression levels of HOXB3/5/6/8/9 were significantly lower in ccRCC than in normal nephritic tissues. In ccRCC, patients with a high expression of HOXB2/5/6/7/8/9 mRNA have a higher overall survival (OS) than patients with low expression. Further analysis by the GSCALite website revealed that the methylation of HOXB3/5/6/8 in ccRCC was significantly negatively correlated to gene expression, while HOXB5/9 was positively correlated to the CCT036477 drug target. As DNA abnormal methylation is one of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that HOXB5/6/8/9 are potential therapeutic targets for patients with ccRCC. We analyzed the function of enrichment data of HOXBs in patients with ccRCC from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment and the PANTHER pathway. The results of the analysis show that the function of HOXBs might be associated with the Wnt pathway and that HOXB5/6/8/9 was coexpressed with multiple Wnt pathway classical genes and proteins, such as MYC, CTNNB, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), and tumor protein P53 (TP53), which further confirms that HOXBs inhibit the growth of renal carcinoma cells through the Wnt signaling pathway. In conclusion, our analysis of the family of HOXBs and their molecular mechanism may provide a theoretical basis for further research.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Journal of oncology
The Enigmatic Role of TP53 in Germ Cell Tumours: Are We Missing Something?
The cure rate of germ cell tumours (GCTs) has significantly increased from the late 1970s since the introduction of cisplatin-based therapy, which to date remains the milestone for GCTs treatment. The exquisite cisplatin sensitivity has been mainly explained by the over-expression in GCTs of wild-type TP53 protein and the lack of TP53 somatic mutations; however, several other mechanisms seem to be involved, many of which remain still elusive. The findings about the role of TP53 in platinum-sensitivity and resistance, as well as the reported evidence of second cancers (SCs) in GCT patients treated only with surgery, suggesting a spectrum of cancer predisposing syndromes, highlight the need for a deepened understanding of the role of TP53 in GCTs. In the following report we explore the complex role of TP53 in GCTs cisplatin-sensitivity and resistance mechanisms, passing through several recent genomic studies, as well as its role in GCT patients with SCs, going through our experience of Center of reference for both GCTs and cancer predisposing syndromes.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
Integration of clinicopathological and mutational data offers insight into lung cancer with tumor spread through air spaces.
Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS) was defined as a unique tumor invasion pattern in adenocarcinoma (ADC) by The World Health Organization Classification of Lung Tumors in 2015. Since then, STAS had been shown to be associated with local recurrence and poor survival results, as the typical signature and potential mechanisms of STAS remained unclear. Our objectives were to comprehensively demonstrate the clinicopathological and genetic signatures in STAS-positive lung cancer patients.
The clinicopathological and gene alteration characteristics of 878 STAS-positive lung cancer patients were presented. Associations between parameters were evaluated using the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. The capture-based targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) with a platform of 68 lung cancer-related genes was conducted in 139 cases, and the mutational spectrum was summarized.
STAS was identified in 391 female and 481 male patients, of which ADC accounted for the majority of cases (92.6%). The concomitant solid or micropapillary subtype was observed in 92.12% patients with ADC. Poorly differentiated histological subtypes were more frequent and negatively correlated with tumor size in smaller tumor cases (P=0.036, Pearson's R=-0.075). Furthermore, in the subgroup of nodules within 3 cm, the distribution of the solid and micropapillary subtypes were significantly frequent in lymph node-positive patients (P<0.001). Tumor protein p53 (TP53) alterations were more frequent in smoking patients (27.6%, P=0.007), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) alterations were more common in female (10.8%, P=0.025), while Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) (20.3%, P=0.024) and TP53 (45.9%, P=0.003) were more prevalent in males.
Poorly differentiated histological subtypes likely played a crucial role in promoting the invasiveness of STAS, especially in small tumor-size cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TP53, KARS, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and ROS proto-oncogene 1 (ROS1) were the five most frequent alterations in STAS-positive ADC.
Publication Date: 2021-07-20
Journal: Annals of translational medicine
Genome-wide expression analysis reveal host genes involved in immediate-early infections of different sheeppox virus strains.
This study explored the transcriptome of lamb testis cells infected with sheeppox virus (SPPV) wild strain (WS) and vaccine strain (VS) at an immediate-early time. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed highly connected (DEHC) gene network were found to be involved in SPPV-VS infection compared to SPPV-WS. Further, the signaling pathways were mostly involved in SPPV-VS infection than SPPV-WS. SPPV modulates the expression of several important host proteins such as CD40, FAS, ITGβ1, ITGα1, Pak1, Pak2, CD14, ILK leading to viral attachment and entry; immune-related DEGs such as MAPK, JNK, ERK, NFKB, IKB, PI3K, STAT which provide optimal cellular condition for early viral protein expression; and FOXO3, ATF, CDKNA1, TCF, SRF, BDNF which help in inducing apoptosis and MPTP, BAD and Tp53 inhibits apoptosis or cell death at the immediate-early time. The results captured the specific genes and enabled to understand distinct pathogenic mechanisms employed by VS and WS of SPPV.
Publication Date: 2021-07-19
TP53 mutations in circulating tumor DNA in advanced epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib.
Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is a tumor suppressor gene and TP53 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the in-depth classification of TP53 and its relationship with treatment response and prognosis in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant tumors treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are unclear. Circulating tumor DNA was prospectively collected at baseline in advanced treatment-naïve EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib in an open-label, single-arm, prospective, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial (BENEFIT trial) and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 180 enrolled patients, 115 (63.9%) harbored TP53 mutations. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with TP53-wild type tumors were significantly longer than those of patients with TP53-mutant tumors. Mutations in exons 5-8 accounted for 80.9% of TP53 mutations. Mutations in TP53 exons 6 and 7 were significantly associated with inferior PFS and OS compared to wild-type TP53. TP53 mutation also influenced the prognosis of patients with different EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 and EGFR exon 19 mutations had significantly longer PFS and OS than patients with TP53 and EGFR L858R mutations, and both groups had worse survival than patients with only EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 mutations, especially in exons 6 and 7, had a lower response rate and shorter PFS and OS when treated with gefitinib. Moreover, TP53 exon 5 mutation divided TP53 mutations in disruptive and non-disruptive types.
Publication Date: 2021-07-01
Journal: Translational oncology
Circulating tumour DNA reveals genetic traits of patients with intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.
To investigate the genetic alterations of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with and without intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P).
We performed targeted sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA on 161 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) with IDC-P and 84 without IDC-P. Genomic alterations were compared between these two groups. The association between genetic alterations and patients' survival outcomes was also explored.
We identified that 29.8% (48/161) and 21.4% (18/84) of patients with and without IDC-P harboured genomic alterations in DNA repair pathways, respectively (P = 0.210). Pathogenic germline DNA repair alterations were frequently detected in IDC-P carriers compared to IDC-P non-carriers (11.8% [19/161] vs 2.4% [two of 84], P = 0.024). Germline BReast CAncer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2) and somatic cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) defects were specifically identified in IDC-P carriers relative to PAC (BRCA2: 8.7% [14/161] vs 0% and CDK12: 6.8% [11/161] vs 1.2% [one of 84]). Patients with IDC-P had a distinct androgen receptor (AR) pathway alteration, characterised by an enrichment of nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) mutations compared with patients with pure PAC (21.1% [34/161] vs 6.0% [five of 84], P = 0.004). Increased AR alterations were detected in patients harbouring tumours with an IDC-P proportion of ≥10% vs those with an IDC-P proportion of <10% (6.4% [five of 78] vs 18.1% [15/83], P = 0.045). For IDC-P carriers, tumour protein p53 (TP53) mutation was associated with shorter castration-resistant-free survival (median 10.9 vs 28.9 months, P = 0.026), and BRCA2 alteration was related to rapid prostate-specific antigen progression for those receiving abiraterone treatment (median 9.1 vs 11.9 months, P = 0.036).
Our findings provide genomic evidence explaining the aggressive phenotype of tumours with IDC-P, highlighting the potential therapeutic strategies for this patient population.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: BJU international
High tumour mutational burden and EGFR/MAPK pathway activation are therapeutic targets in metastatic porocarcinoma.
Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare skin cancer arising from the eccrine sweat glands. Due to the lack of effective therapies, metastasis is associated with a high mortality rate.
To investigate the drivers of EPC progression.
We carried out genomic and transcriptomic profiling of metastatic EPC (mEPC), validation of the observed alterations in an EPC patient-derived cell line, confirmation of relevant observations in a large patient cohort of 30 tumour tissues, and successful treatment of a patient with mEPC under the identified treatment regimens.
mEPC was characterized by a high tumour mutational burden (TMB) with an ultraviolet signature, widespread copy number alterations and gene expression changes that affected cancer-relevant cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and proliferation, including a pathogenic TP53 (tumour protein 53) mutation, a copy number deletion in the CDKN2A (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) region and a CTNND1/PAK1 [catenin delta 1/p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1] gene fusion. The overexpression of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), PAK1 and MAP2K1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1; also known as MEK1) genes translated into strong protein expression and respective pathway activation in the tumour tissue. Furthermore, a patient-derived cell line was sensitive to EGFR and MEK inhibition, confirming the functional relevance of the pathway activation. Immunohistochemistry analyses in a large patient cohort showed the relevance of the observed changes to the pathogenesis of EPC. Our results indicate that mEPC should respond to immune or kinase inhibitor therapy. Indeed, the advanced disease of our index patient was controlled by EGFR-directed therapy and immune checkpoint inhibition for more than 2 years.
Molecular profiling demonstrated high TMB and EGFR/MAPK pathway activation to be novel therapeutic targets in mEPC.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: The British journal of dermatology
Therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism of calycosin for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study was designed to understand the pivotal anti-cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) targets and pathways of calycosin through network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses. In this study, bioinformatics tools were employed to characterize and identify the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of calycosin for CIRI management. The network pharmacology data identified potential, merged CIRI-associated targets of calycosin including tumor protein p53 (TP53), protein kinase B (AKT1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Molecular docking analysis indicated the binding efficacy of calycosin with three of the targets, namely TP53, AKT1, and VEGFA. The biological processes of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI are mainly involved in the improvement of endothelial cell proliferation and growth, inflammatory development, and cellular metabolism. In addition, the anti-CIRI actions of calycosin were primarily through suppression of the toll-like receptor, PI3K-AKT, TNF, MAPK, and VEGF signaling pathways. Taken together, the current bioinformatic findings revealed pivotal targets, biological functions, and pharmacological mechanisms of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI. In conclusion, calycosin, a functional phytoestrogen, can be potentially used for the treatment of CIRI in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Long non-coding RNAs correlate with genomic stability in prostate cancer: A clinical outcome and survival analysis.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in the regulation of genomic stability. Understanding their biological functions can help us identify the mechanisms of the occurrence and progression of cancers and can provide theoretical guidance and the basis for treatment.
Based on the mutation hypothesis, we proposed a computational framework to identify genomic instability-related lncRNAs. Based on the differentially-expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs), we constructed a genomic instability-derived lncRNA signature (GILncSig) to calculate and stratify outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. It is an independent predictor of overall survival. The area under the curve = 0.805. This value may be more significant than the classic prognostic markers TP53 and Speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) in terms of outcome prediction.
In summary, we conducted a computation approach and resource for mining genome instability-related lncRNAs. It may turn out to be highly significant for genomic instability and customized decision-making for patients with prostate cancer. It also may lead to effective methods and resources to study the molecular mechanism of genomic instability-related lncRNAs.
Publication Date: 2021-06-27
The preventive effects of aspirin on preeclampsia based on network pharmacology and bioinformatics.
This study aimed to reveal the key targets and molecular mechanisms of aspirin in preventing preeclampsia. We used bioinformatics databases to collect the candidate targets for aspirin and preeclampsia. The biological functions and signaling pathways of the intersecting targets were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Then, the hub targets were identified by cytoscape plugin cytoHubba from the protein-protein interaction network. We collected 90 targets for aspirin in preventing preeclampsia. The biological processes of the intersecting targets are mainly involved in xenobiotic metabolic process, inflammatory response, negative regulation of apoptotic process, and protein phosphorylation. The highly enriched pathways were FoxO signaling pathway, circadian rhythm, insulin resistance, arachidonic acid metabolism, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. The hub targets for aspirin in preventing preeclampsia were tumor protein p53 (TP53), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor (ESR1), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). Molecular docking results showed good bindings between the proteins and aspirin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the key targets and molecular mechanisms of aspirin in preventing preeclampsia.
Publication Date: 2021-06-26
Journal: Journal of human hypertension
Combined Histopathologic Risk Score using TP53 Protein Expression, CD8+ T-cell Density, and Intratumoural Budding is an Independent Predictor of Neoadjuvant Therapy Response in Rectal Adenocarcinoma.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the recommended treatment for locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma; however, there remains significant variability in response to therapy. TP53 has been associated with therapy response and prognosis with conflicting data. Recently, we demonstrated that immune cell density and intratumoural budding (ITB) are predictive factors in rectal cancer. We investigated the predictive value of TP53 immunohistochemistry with CD8+ T-cell density and ITB on pre-treatment biopsies of rectal adenocarcinoma for response to neoadjuvant therapy.
Pre-treatment biopsies of rectal adenocarcinoma from 117 patients with neoadjuvant therapy were analyzed for TP53 expression by immunohistochemistry, ITB, CD8+ T-cell density, and mismatch repair protein (MMR) status. Most rectal adenocarcinomas displayed aberrant TP53 expression (86/117, 74%). Compared to TP53 wild-type, aberrant TP53 expression was associated with proficient MMR status (P=0.003) and low CD8+ T-cell density (P=0.001). Aberrant TP53 was significantly associated with a partial to poor response to neoadjuvant therapy (OR=2.42, 95% CI 1.04-5.62, P=0.04). A combined histopathologic risk score (HRS) was created using CD8+ T-cell density, ITB, and TP53 expression. Patients were separated into low (0-1 factors) and high (2-3 factors) HRS categories. In the multivariable model, patients with a high HRS were 3.25-fold more likely to have a partial or poor response to neoadjuvant therapy (95% CI 1.48-7.11, P=0.003).
Our study demonstrates that aberrant TP53 expression, high ITB, and low CD8+ T-cell density in pre-treatment biopsies can help predict response to neoadjuvant therapy. These biomarkers may be helpful in identifying patients at risk for therapy resistance.
Publication Date: 2021-06-15
Multi-Omics Data Analyses Construct a Six Immune-Related Genes Prognostic Model for Cervical Cancer in Tumor Microenvironment.
The cross-talk between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an important factor in determining the tumorigenesis and progression of cervical cancer (CC). However, clarifying the potential mechanisms which trigger the above biological processes remains a challenge. The present study focused on immune-relevant differences at the transcriptome and somatic mutation levels through an integrative multi-omics analysis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The objective of the study was to recognize the specific immune-related prognostic factors predicting the survival and response to immunotherapy of patients with CC. Firstly, eight hub immune-related prognostic genes were ultimately identified through construction of a protein-protein interaction network and Cox regression analysis. Secondly, 32 differentially mutated genes were simultaneously identified based on the different levels of immune infiltration. As a result, an immune gene-related prognostic model (IGRPM), including six factors (chemokine receptor 7 [CCR7], CD3d molecule [CD3D], CD3e molecule [CD3E], and integrin subunit beta 2 [ITGB2], family with sequence similarity 133 member A [FAM133A], and tumor protein p53 [TP53]), was finally constructed to forecast clinical outcomes of CC. Its predictive capability was further assessed and validated using the Gene Expression Omnibus validation set. In conclusion, IGRPM may be a promising prognostic signature to predict the prognoses and responses to immunotherapy of patients with CC. Moreover, the multi-omics study showed that IGRPM could be a novel therapeutic target for CC, which is a promising biomarker for indicating the immune-dominant status of the TME and revealing the potential mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenesis and progression of CC.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Frontiers in genetics
Revealing the therapeutic targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin-treated coronavirus disease 2019 via a systematic study of network pharmacology.
Emodin has shown pharmacological effects in the treatment of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we speculated that emodin may possess anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, using bioinformatics databases, we screened and harvested the candidate genes or targets of emodin and COVID-19 prior to the determination of pharmacological targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin against COVID-19. We discovered core targets for the treatment of COVID-19, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), tumor protein (TP53), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), caspase-3 (CASP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 1B (IL1B), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), B-cell lymphoma-2-like protein 1 (BCL2L1), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). The GO analysis of emodin against COVID-19 mainly included cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, response to lipopolysaccharide, response to molecule of bacterial origin, developmental process involved in reproduction, and reproductive structure development. The KEGG results exhibited that the molecular pathways mainly included IL-17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, TNF signaling pathway, pertussis, proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, etc. Also, molecular docking results revealed the docking capability between emodin and COVID-19 and the potential pharmacological activity of emodin against COVID-19. Taken together, these findings uncovered the targets and pharmacological mechanisms of emodin for treating COVID-19 and suggested that the vital targets might be used as biomarkers against COVID-19.
Publication Date: 2021-06-06