Primary High Grade Non-Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 364 Cases.
High grade non-anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (HGTC) are carcinomas of follicular cells with prognosis intermediate between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma.
This study includes 364 HGTC patients: 200 patients (54.9%) were diagnosed as poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma based on Turin consensus (HGTC-PDTC) and 164 with high grade features that did not meet Turin criteria (HGTC-nonPDTC).
HGTC are aggressive: 3-year, 5-year, 10-year, and 20-year disease specific survival (DSS) were 89%, 76%, 60% and 35% respectively. Although DSS was similar between HGTC-PDTC and HGTC-nonPDTC, HGTC-PDTC was associated with higher rate of RAI avidity, higher frequency of RAS mutations, lower rate of BRAF V600E mutations, and higher propensity for distant metastasis (DM) compared with HGTC-nonPDTC. Independent clinicopathologic markers of worse outcome were older age, male sex, extensive necrosis, lack of encapsulation for DSS; older age, male sex, vascular invasion for DM free survival; older age, necrosis, positive margin, lymph node metastasis for locoregional recurrence free survival. The frequency of BRAF, RAS, TERT, TP53, and PTEN alterations was 28%, 40%, 55%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. TP53, PTEN, and TERT were independent molecular markers associated with unfavorable outcome independent of clinicopathologic parameters. Coexistence of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutation increased the risk of DM.
The above data supports the classification of high grade non-anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as a single group with two distinct subtypes based on tumor differentiation: HGTC-PDTC and HGTC-nonPDTC.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Cooperation between liver-specific mutations of pten and tp53 genetically induces hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.
Liver cancer, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide and has a poor prognosis due to insufficient understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that the mutations in PTEN and TP53 are the two most common genetic events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we illustrated the crosstalk between aberrant Pten and Tp53 pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.
We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to establish several transgenic zebrafish lines with single or double tissue-specific mutations of pten and tp53 to genetically induce liver tumorigenesis. Next, the morphological and histological determination were performed to investigate the roles of Pten and Tp53 signalling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.
We demonstrated that Pten loss alone induces hepatocarcinogenesis with only low efficiency, whereas single mutation of tp53 failed to induce tumour formation in liver tissue in zebrafish. Moreover, zebrafish with double mutations of pten and tp53 exhibits a much higher tumour incidence, higher-grade histology, and a shorter survival time than single-mutant zebrafish, indicating that these two signalling pathways play important roles in dynamic biological events critical for the initiation and progression of hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish. Further histological and pathological analyses showed significant similarity between the tumours generated from liver tissues of zebrafish and humans. Furthermore, the treatment with MK-2206, a specific Akt inhibitor, effectively suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.
Our findings will offer a preclinical animal model for genetically investigating hepatocarcinogenesis and provide a useful platform for high-throughput anticancer drug screening.
Publication Date: 2021-08-22
Journal: Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
Aberrant PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 expression in human scalp and face angiosarcoma.
Angiosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor originating from endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels. The molecular mechanisms of scalp and face angiosarcoma still need to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-like protein (pMAPK), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) in scalp and face angiosarcoma and to assess tumor tissue apoptosis.The expression and intracellular distribution of PTEN, PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 proteins in 21 specimens of human scalp and face angiosarcoma and 16 specimens of human benign hemangioma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining.Significantly lower PTEN but higher PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 immunostaining were detected in the angiosarcoma specimens than in the benign hemangioma specimens(P < .01). The angiosarcoma tissues exhibited significantly higher apoptosis indices than the benign hemangioma tissues (P < .01). The positive expression rates of PIK3CA, pMAPK, and TP53 were correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation in the human scalp and face angiosarcoma.The PI3K, MAPK, and TP53 pathways might be involved in angiosarcoma tumorigenesis in humans and may serve as therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of this malignancy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Clinical genomic profiling to identify actionable alterations for very early relapsed triple-negative breast cancer patients in the Chinese population.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents about 19% of all breast cancer cases in the Chinese population. Lack of targeted therapy contributes to the poorer outcomes compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Comprehensive genomic profiling helps to explore the clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) and potential therapeutic targets in very-early-relapsed TNBC patients.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue specimens from 23 patients with very-early-relapsed TNBC and 13 patients with disease-free survival (DFS) more than 36 months were tested by FoundationOne CDx (F1CDx) in 324 genes and select gene rearrangements, along with genomic signatures including microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumour mutational burden (TMB).
In total, 137 CRGAs were detected in the 23 very-early-relapsed TNBC patients, averaging six alterations per sample. The mean TMB was 4 Muts/Mb, which was higher than that in non-recurrence patients, and is statistically significant. The top-ranked altered genes were TP53 (83%), PTEN (35%), RB1 (30%), PIK3CA (26%) and BRCA1 (22%). RB1 mutation carriers had shorter DFS. Notably, 100% of these patients had at least one CRGA, and 87% of patients had at least one actionable alteration. In pathway analysis, patients who carried a mutation in the cell cycle pathway were more likely to experience very early recurrence. Strikingly, we detected one patient with ERBB2 amplification and one patient with ERBB2 exon20 insertion, both of which were missed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also detected novel alterations of ROS1-EPHA7 fusion for the first time, which has not been reported in breast cancer before.
The comprehensive genomic profiling can identify novel treatment targets and address the limited options in TNBC patients. Therefore, incorporating F1CDx into TNBC may shed light on novel therapeutic opportunities for these very-early-relapsed TNBC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-08-17
Journal: Annals of medicine
Circulating tumor cell heterogeneity in neuroendocrine prostate cancer by single cell copy number analysis.
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that may arise de novo or develop from pre-existing prostate adenocarcinoma as a mechanism of treatment resistance. The combined loss of tumor suppressors RB1, TP53, and PTEN are frequent in NEPC but also present in a subset of prostate adenocarcinomas. Most clinical and preclinical studies support a trans-differentiation process, whereby NEPC arises clonally from a prostate adenocarcinoma precursor during the course of treatment resistance. Here we highlight a case of NEPC with significant intra-patient heterogeneity observed across metastases. We further demonstrate how single-cell genomic analysis of circulating tumor cells combined with a phenotypic evaluation of cellular diversity can be considered as a window into tumor heterogeneity in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-08-14
Journal: NPJ precision oncology
Systematic Next Generation Sequencing is feasible in clinical practice and identifies opportunities for targeted therapy in women with uterine cancer: Results from a prospective cohort study.
Both incidence and mortality of uterine cancer are on the rise and mortality is higher for African American women. The aim of our study was to evaluate how Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) may facilitate identification of and intervention for treatment disparities when integrated into clinical workflows.
Our cohort included 159 uterine cancer patients with recurrent/progressive and newly diagnosed advanced stage and/or high-risk histology. The most common tumor histological subtypes included EEC (n = 67), SEC (n = 34), UCS (n = 20), and mixed (n = 14). Black patients were most likely to present with aggressive histology: (SEC, 34.0%) and carcinosarcoma (UCS, 14.0%). The four most common mutations across all subtypes were TP53, PIK3CA, PTEN, and ARID1A. There was racial disparity between Black versus non-Black patients who were initiated on targeted therapy (28.2% vs. 38.2%, respectively) and clinical trial (15% vs. 22.6%, respectively). Compared to non-Black patients, Black patients had a significantly higher percentage TP53 mutations (p < 0.05) and a significantly lower percentage ARID1A mutations (p < 0.05).
NGS for uterine malignancies provides actionable information for targetable mutations and/or clinical trial enrollment in most patients; further investigation is necessary to identify potentially modifiable factors contributing to current disparities that may improve targeted therapy uptake and clinical trial participation.
Publication Date: 2021-08-11
Journal: Gynecologic oncology
Diagnosis and Molecular Profiles of Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma With Potential Targets for Therapy.
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) together with small cell carcinoma (SCLC) and typical and atypical carcinoids form the group of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. LCNEC and SCLC are high-grade carcinomas. Although both can be found outside the thoracic cavity, they are most common in the lung. LCNEC differs from SCLC by morphologic pattern, and by cytological features such as nuclear size, nucleoli, chromatin pattern, but also by genetic differences. Originally thought to represent a single entity, it became evident, that three subgroups of LCNEC can be identified at the molecular level: a SCLC-like type with loss of retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1) and TP53 mutations; a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-like type with wildtype RB1, TP53 mutation, and activating mutations of the phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K-CA), or loss of PTEN; and a carcinoid-like type with MEN1 gene mutation. These subtypes can be identified by immunohistochemical staining for RB1, p53, and molecular analysis for PI3K and MEN1 mutations. These subtypes might also respond differently to chemotherapy. Immuno-oncologic treatment has also been applied to LCNEC, however, in addition to the evaluation of tumor cells the stroma evaluation seems to be important. Based on personal experiences with these tumors and available references this review will try to encompass our present knowledge in this rare entity and provoke new studies for better treatment of this carcinoma.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Modeling High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma using a combination of in vivo fallopian tube electroporation and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer. High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) accounts for most ovarian cancer cases, and it is most frequently diagnosed at advanced stages. Here we developed a novel strategy to generate somatic ovarian cancer mouse models using a combination of in vivo electroporation and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing. Mutation of tumour suppressor genes associated with HGSOC in two different combinations (Brca1, Tp53, Pten with and without Lkb1) resulted in successfully generation of HGSOC, albeit with different latencies and pathophysiology. Implementing Cre lineage tracing in this system enabled visualization of peritoneal micrometastases in an immune-competent environment. Additionally, these models displayed copy number alterations and phenotypes similar to human HGSOC. Because this strategy is flexible in selecting mutation combinations and targeting areas, it could prove highly useful for generating mouse models to advance the understanding and treatment of ovarian cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-07-25
Journal: Cancer research
Differential impact of tumor suppressor gene (TP53, PTEN, RB1) alterations and treatment outcomes in metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.
Altered tumor suppressor genes (TSG-alt) in prostate cancer are associated with worse outcomes. The prognostic value of TSG-alt in metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (M1-HSPC) is unknown. We evaluated the effects of TSG-alt on outcomes in M1-HSPC and their prognostic impact by first-line treatment.
We retrospectively identified patients with M1-HSPC at our institution treated with first-line androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel (ADT + D) or abiraterone acetate (ADT + A). TSG-alt was defined as any alteration in one or more TSG. The main outcomes were Kaplan-Meier-estimated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival, analyzed with the log-rank test. Clinical characteristics were compared with the χ
We identified 97 patients with M1-HSPC: 48 (49%) with ADT + A and 49 (51%) with ADT + D. Of 96 patients with data available, 33 (34%) had 1 TSG-alt, 16 (17%) had 2 TSG-alt, and 2 (2%) had 3 TSG-alt. The most common alterations were in TP53 (36%) and PTEN (31%); 6% had RB1 alterations. Median PFS was 13.1 (95% CI, 10.3-26.0) months for patients with normal TSGs (TSG-normal) vs. 7.8 (95% CI, 5.8-10.5) months for TSG-alt (P = 0.005). Median PFS was lower for patients with TSG-alt vs TSG-normal for those with ADT + A (TSG-alt: 8.0 [95% CI, 5.8-13.8] months vs. TSG-normal: 23.2 [95% CI, 13.1-not estimated] months), but not with ADT + D (TSG-alt: 7.8 [95% CI, 5.7-12.9] months vs. TSG-normal: 9.5 [95% CI, 4.8-24.7] months). On multivariable analysis, only TSG-alt predicted worse PFS (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.42-3.96; P < 0.001).
The presence of TSG-alt outperforms clinical criteria for predicting early progression during first-line treatment of M1-HSPC. ADT + A was less effective in patients with than without TSG-alt. Confirmation of these findings may establish the need for inclusion of molecular stratification in treatment algorithms.
Publication Date: 2021-07-24
Journal: Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
AR gene rearrangement analysis in liquid biopsies reveals heterogeneity in lethal prostate cancer.
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is driven by AR gene aberrations that arise during androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapy. AR amplification and mutations have been profiled in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), but whether AR gene rearrangements can be assessed in CTCs is unknown. In this study, we leveraged CRPC cell lines with defined AR gene rearrangements to develop and validate a CTC DNA analysis approach that utilized whole genome amplification and targeted DNA-sequencing of AR and other genes important in CRPC. We tested the utility of this approach by analyzing matched CTC DNA and plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from a case series of ten CRPC patients. One of ten CTC samples and two of ten cfDNA samples were positive for AR gene rearrangements. All AR gene rearrangements were discordant between matched liquid biopsy samples. One patient harbored separate AR gene rearrangements in CTC DNA and cfDNA, but concordant AR amplification and AR T878A mutation. This patient also displayed concordant loss of TP53 and PTEN, but the loss of RB1 in cfDNA only. The overall frequency of discordant alterations in these genes between matched CTC DNA and cfDNA was high. This study establishes the technical feasibility of analyzing structural rearrangements, mutations, and copy number variants in AR and other CRPC genes using two different sources of DNA from a single blood sample. Paired CTC DNA and cfDNA analysis may have utility for capturing the heterogeneity of genetic alterations in CRPC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-07-20
Journal: Endocrine-related cancer
Clinicopathological and genomic features in patients with head and neck neuroendocrine carcinoma.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the head and neck is a rare type of malignancy, accounting for only 0.3% of all head and neck cancers, and its clinicopathological and genomic features have not been fully characterized. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 27 patients with poorly differentiated NEC of the head and neck seen at our institution over a period of 15 years. Patient characteristics, adopted therapies, and clinical outcomes were reviewed based on the medical records. Pathological analysis and targeted sequencing of 523 cancer-related genes were performed using evaluable biopsied/resected specimens based on the clinical data. The most common tumor locations were the paranasal sinus (33%) and the oropharynx (19%). Eighty-one percent of the patients had locally advanced disease. The 3-year overall survival rates in all patients and in the 17 patients with locally advanced disease who received multimodal curative treatments were 39% and 53%, respectively. Histologically, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was the predominant subtype (58% of evaluable cases), and the Ki-67 labeling index ranged from 59 to 99% (median: 85%). Next-generation sequencing in 14 patients identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in TP53, RB1, PIK3CA-related genes (PREX2, PIK3CA, and PTEN), NOTCH1, and SMARCA4 in six (43%), three (21%), two (14%), two (14%), and one (7%) patients, respectively. Sequencing also detected the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gene in one patient. The median value of the total mutational burden (TMB) was 7.1/Mb, and three patients had TMB ≥ 10. Regardless of the aggressive pathological features, our data revealed favorable clinical characteristics in the patients with locally advanced disease who received curative treatment. The lower TP53 and RB1 mutation prevalence rates compared to those described for small cell lung cancer suggests the biological heterogeneity of NEC in different parts of the body. Furthermore, the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion gene and mutations in genes encoding the components of the NOTCH and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways found in our study may be promising targets for NEC of the head and neck.
Publication Date: 2021-07-12
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Genomic Analysis Revealed Mutational Traits Associated with Clinical Outcomes in Osteosarcoma.
The limited understanding of correlation between genomic features and biological behaviors has impeded the therapeutic breakthrough in osteosarcoma (OS). This study aimed to reveal the correlation of mutational and evolutionary traits with clinical outcomes.
We applied a case-based targeted and whole exome sequencing of eleven matched primary, recurrent and metastatic samples from three OS patients characterized by different clinical behaviors in local recurrence or systematic progression pattern.
Extensive OS-associated driver genes were detected including TP53, RB1, NF1, PTEN, SPEN, CDKN2A. Oncogenic signaling pathways including cell cycle, TP53, MYC, Notch, WNT, RTK-RAS and PI3K were determined. MYC amplification was observed in the patient with shortest disease-free interval. Linear, branched or mixed evolutionary models were constructed in the three OS cases. A branched evolution with limited root mutation was detected in patient with shorter survival interval. ADAM17 mutation and HEY1 amplification were identified in OS happening dedifferentiation. Signatures 21 associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) was identified in OS patient with extra-pulmonary metastases.
OS was characterized by complex genomic alterations. MYC aberration, limited root mutations, and a branched evolutionary model were observed in OS patient with relatively aggressive course. Extra-pulmonary metastases of OS might attribute to distinct mutational process pertaining to MSI. Further research in a larger number of people is needed to confirm these findings.
Publication Date: 2021-07-09
Journal: Cancer management and research
Clinical likelihood ratios and balanced accuracy for 44 in silico tools against multiple large-scale functional assays of cancer susceptibility genes.
Where multiple in silico tools are concordant, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) framework affords supporting evidence toward pathogenicity or benignity, equivalent to a likelihood ratio of ~2. However, limited availability of "clinical truth sets" and prior use in tool training limits their utility for evaluation of tool performance.
We created a truth set of 9,436 missense variants classified as deleterious or tolerated in clinically validated high-throughput functional assays for BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, PTEN, and TP53 to evaluate predictive performance for 44 recommended/commonly used in silico tools.
Over two-thirds of the tool-threshold combinations examined had specificity of <50%, thus substantially overcalling deleteriousness. REVEL scores of 0.8-1.0 had a Positive Likelihood Ratio (PLR) of 6.74 (5.24-8.82) compared to scores <0.7 and scores of 0-0.4 had a Negative Likelihood Ratio (NLR) of 34.3 (31.5-37.3) compared to scores of >0.7. For Meta-SNP, the equivalent PLR = 42.9 (14.4-406) and NLR = 19.4 (15.6-24.9).
Against these clinically validated "functional truth sets," there was wide variation in the predictive performance of commonly used in silico tools. Overall, REVEL and Meta-SNP had best balanced accuracy and might potentially be used at stronger evidence weighting than current ACMG/AMP prescription, in particular for predictions of benignity.
Publication Date: 2021-07-08
Journal: Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
A deep imputation and inference framework for estimating personalized and race-specific causal effects of genomic alterations on PSA.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level in the serum is one of the most widely used markers in monitoring prostate cancer (PCa) progression, treatment response, and disease relapse. Although significant efforts have been taken to analyze various socioeconomic and cultural factors that contribute to the racial disparities in PCa, limited research has been performed to quantitatively understand how and to what extent molecular alterations may impact differential PSA levels present at varied tumor status between African-American and European-American men. Moreover, missing values among patients add another layer of difficulty in precisely inferring their outcomes. In light of these issues, we propose a data-driven, deep learning-based imputation and inference framework (DIIF). DIIF seamlessly encapsulates two modules: an imputation module driven by a regularized deep autoencoder for imputing critical missing information and an inference module in which two deep variational autoencoders are coupled with a graphical inference model to quantify the personalized and race-specific causal effects. Large-scale empirical studies on the independent sub-cohorts of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PCa patients demonstrate the effectiveness of DIIF. We further found that somatic mutations in TP53, ATM, PTEN, FOXA1, and PIK3CA are statistically significant genomic factors that may explain the racial disparities in different PCa features characterized by PSA.
Publication Date: 2021-07-07
Journal: Journal of bioinformatics and computational biology
The CRISPR/Cas9 Minipig-A Transgenic Minipig to Produce Specific Mutations in Designated Tissues.
The generation of large transgenic animals is impeded by complex cloning, long maturation and gastrulation times. An introduction of multiple gene alterations increases the complexity. We have cloned a transgenic Cas9 minipig to introduce multiple mutations by CRISPR in somatic cells. Transgenic Cas9 pigs were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and were backcrossed to Göttingen Minipigs for two generations. Cas9 expression was controlled by FlpO-mediated recombination and was visualized by translation from red to yellow fluorescent protein. In vitro analyses in primary fibroblasts, keratinocytes and lung epithelial cells confirmed the genetic alterations executed by the viral delivery of single guide RNAs (sgRNA) to the target cells. Moreover, multiple gene alterations could be introduced simultaneously in a cell by viral delivery of sgRNAs. Cells with loss of TP53, PTEN and gain-of-function mutation in KRAS
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Dynamics of circulating tumor DNA during postoperative radiotherapy in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective observational study.
This study was performed to evaluate circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) kinetics during postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with residual triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) at surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
Stage II/III patients with post-NAC residual TNBC who required PORT were prospectively included in this study between March 2019 and July 2020. For 11 TNBC patients, next-generation sequencing targeting 38 genes was conducted in 55 samples, including tumor tissue, three plasma samples, and leukocytes from each patient. The plasma samples were collected at three-time points; pre-PORT (T0), after 3 weeks of PORT (T1), and 1 month after PORT (T2). Serial changes in ctDNA variant allele frequency (VAF) were analyzed.
Somatic variants were found in the tumor specimens in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. Mutated genes included TP53 (n = 7); PIK3CA (n = 2); and AKT1, APC, CSMD3, MYC, PTEN, and RB1 (n = 1). These tumor mutations were not found in plasma samples. Plasma ctDNA variants were detected in three (27.3%) patients at T0. Mutations in EGFR (n = 1), CTNNB1 (n = 1), and MAP2K (n = 1) was identified with ctDNA analysis. In two (18.2%) patients, the ctDNA VAF decreased through T1 and T2 while increasing at T2 in one (9.1%) patient. After a median follow-up of 22 months, no patient showed cancer recurrence.
Among patients with post-NAC residual TNBC, more than a quarter exhibited a detectable amount of ctDNA after curative surgery. The ctDNA VAF changed variably during the course of PORT. Therefore, ctDNA kinetics can serve as a biomarker for optimizing adjuvant treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-06-22
Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment
Formation of autotriploid Carassius auratus and its fertility-related genes analysis.
Formation of triploid organism is useful in genetics and breeding. In this study, autotriploid Carassius auratus (3nRR, 3n = 150) was generated from Carassius auratus red var. (RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) and autotetraploid Carassius auratus (4nRR, 4n = 200) (♂). The female 3nRR produced haploid, diploid and triploid eggs, whereas the male 3nRR was infertile. The aim of the present study was to explore fertility of potential candidate genes of 3nRR.
Gonadal transcriptome profiling of four groups (3 females RCC (FRCC), 3 males 4nRR (M4nRR), 3 males 3nRR (M3nRR) and 3 females 3nRR (F3nRR)) was performed using RNA-SEq. A total of 78.90 Gb of clean short reads and 24,262 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs), including 20,155 in F3nRR vs. FRCC and 4,107 in M3nRR vs. M4nRR were identified. A total of 106 enriched pathways were identified through KEGG enrichment analysis. Out of the enriched pathways, 44 and 62 signalling pathways were identified in F3nRR vs. FRCC and M3nRR vs. M4nRR, respectively. A total of 80 and 25 potential candidate genes for fertility-related in F3nRR and M3nRR were identified, respectively, through GO, KEGG analyses and the published literature. Moreover, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction of these fertility-associated genes were performed. Analysis of the PPI networks showed that 6 hub genes (MYC, SOX2, BMP4, GATA4, PTEN and BMP2) were involved in female fertility of F3nRR, and 2 hub genes (TP53 and FGF2) were involved in male sterility of M3nRR.
Establishment of autotriploid fish offers an ideal model to study reproductive traits of triploid fish. RNA-Seq data revealed 6 genes, namely, MYC, SOX2, BMP4, GATA4, PTEN and BMP2, involved in the female fertility of the F3nRR. Moreover, 2 genes, namely, TP53 and FGF2, were related to the male sterility of the M3nRR. These findings provide information on reproduction and breeding in triploid fish.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: BMC genomics
Somatic Mutation Profiling of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas by Whole-exome Sequencing and Its Relationship with Clinical Characteristics.
The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the tumorigenesis of PTCs have remained largely unknown. Next-generation-sequencing (NGS) provides new ways to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of PTCs. To characterize the somatic alterations associated with PTCs, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of PTCs from 23 Chinese patients. This study revealed somatic mutations in genes with relevant functions for tumorigenesis, such as BRAF, BCR, CREB3L2, DNMT1, IRS2, MSH6, and TP53. We also identified novel somatic gene alterations which may be potentially involved in PTC progression. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the cellular response to hormone stimulus, epigenetic modifications, such as protein/histone methylation and protein alkylation, as well as MAPK, PI3K-AKT, and FoxO/mTOR signaling pathways, were significantly altered in the PTCs studied here. Moreover, Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network analysis of our mutated gene selection highlighted EP300, KRAS, PTEN, and TP53 as major core genes. The correlation between gene mutations and clinicopathologic features of the PTCs defined by conventional ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) were assessed. These analyses established significant associations between subgroups of mutations and respectively taller-than-wide, calcified, and peak time iso- or hypo-enhanced and metastatic PTCs. In conclusion, our study supplements the genomic landscape of PTCs and identifies new actionable target candidates and clinicopathology-associated mutations. Extension of this study to larger cohorts will help define comprehensive genomic aberrations in PTCs and validate target candidates. These new targets may open methods of individualized treatments adapted to the clinicopathologic specifics of the patients.
Publication Date: 2021-06-10
Journal: International journal of medical sciences
Perspective: Humanized Pig Models of Bladder Cancer.
Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th most common neoplasia worldwide and holds expensive treatment costs due to its high recurrence rates, resistance to therapy and the need for lifelong surveillance. Thus, it is necessary to improve the current therapy options and identify more effective treatments for BC. Biological models capable of recapitulating the characteristics of human BC pathology are essential in evaluating the effectiveness of new therapies. Currently, the most commonly used BC models are experimentally induced murine models and spontaneous canine models, which are either insufficient due to their small size and inability to translate results to clinical basis (murine models) or rarely spontaneously observed BC (canine models). Pigs represent a potentially useful animal for the development of personalized tumors due to their size, anatomy, physiology, metabolism, immunity, and genetics similar to humans and the ability to experimentally induce tumors. Pigs have emerged as suitable biomedical models for several human diseases. In this sense, the present perspective focuses on the genetic basis for BC; presents current BC animal models available along with their limitations; and proposes the pig as an adequate animal to develop humanized large animal models of BC. Genetic alterations commonly found in human BC can be explored to create genetically defined porcine models, including the BC driver mutations observed in the FGFR3, PIK3CA, PTEN, RB1, HRAS, and TP53 genes. The development of such robust models for BC has great value in the study of pathology and the screening of new therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to the disease.
Publication Date: 2021-06-04
Journal: Frontiers in molecular biosciences
Modeling clonal structure over narrow time frames via circulating tumor DNA in metastatic breast cancer.
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) offers minimally invasive means to repeatedly interrogate tumor genomes, providing opportunities to monitor clonal dynamics induced by metastasis and therapeutic selective pressures. In metastatic cancers, ctDNA profiling allows for simultaneous analysis of both local and distant sites of recurrence. Despite the promise of ctDNA sampling, its utility in real-time genetic monitoring remains largely unexplored.
In this exploratory analysis, we characterize high-frequency ctDNA sample series collected over narrow time frames from seven patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, each undergoing treatment with Cabozantinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (NCT01738438, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01738438 ). Applying orthogonal whole exome sequencing, ultra-low pass whole genome sequencing, and 396-gene targeted panel sequencing, we analyzed 42 plasma-derived ctDNA libraries, representing 4-8 samples per patient with 6-42 days between samples. Integrating tumor fraction, copy number, and somatic variant information, we model tumor clonal dynamics, predict neoantigens, and evaluate consistency of genomic information from orthogonal assays.
We measured considerable variation in ctDNA tumor faction in each patient, often conflicting with RECIST imaging response metrics. In orthogonal sequencing, we found high concordance between targeted panel and whole exome sequencing in both variant detection and variant allele frequency estimation (specificity = 95.5%, VAF correlation, r = 0.949), Copy number remained generally stable, despite resolution limitations posed by low tumor fraction. Through modeling, we inferred and tracked distinct clonal populations specific to each patient and built phylogenetic trees revealing alterations in hallmark breast cancer drivers, including TP53, PIK3CA, CDK4, and PTEN. Our modeling revealed varied responses to therapy, with some individuals displaying stable clonal profiles, while others showed signs of substantial expansion or reduction in prevalence, with characteristic alterations of varied literature annotation in relation to the study drug. Finally, we predicted and tracked neoantigen-producing alterations across time, exposing translationally relevant detection patterns.
Despite technical challenges arising from low tumor content, metastatic ctDNA monitoring can aid our understanding of response and progression, while minimizing patient risk and discomfort. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for high-frequency monitoring of evolving genomic features, providing an important step toward scalable, translational genomics for clinical decision making.
Publication Date: 2021-05-22
Journal: Genome medicine