Diagnosis and Molecular Profiles of Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma With Potential Targets for Therapy.
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) together with small cell carcinoma (SCLC) and typical and atypical carcinoids form the group of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. LCNEC and SCLC are high-grade carcinomas. Although both can be found outside the thoracic cavity, they are most common in the lung. LCNEC differs from SCLC by morphologic pattern, and by cytological features such as nuclear size, nucleoli, chromatin pattern, but also by genetic differences. Originally thought to represent a single entity, it became evident, that three subgroups of LCNEC can be identified at the molecular level: a SCLC-like type with loss of retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1) and TP53 mutations; a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-like type with wildtype RB1, TP53 mutation, and activating mutations of the phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K-CA), or loss of PTEN; and a carcinoid-like type with MEN1 gene mutation. These subtypes can be identified by immunohistochemical staining for RB1, p53, and molecular analysis for PI3K and MEN1 mutations. These subtypes might also respond differently to chemotherapy. Immuno-oncologic treatment has also been applied to LCNEC, however, in addition to the evaluation of tumor cells the stroma evaluation seems to be important. Based on personal experiences with these tumors and available references this review will try to encompass our present knowledge in this rare entity and provoke new studies for better treatment of this carcinoma.
Publication Date: 2021-07-27
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Prevalence of TP-53/Rb-1 Co-Mutation in Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and highly aggressive high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm, which can arise from anywhere in the body. Due to its rarity there is a lacuna in our understanding of LCNEC's molecular biology. In 2016, Rekhtman and colleagues presented one of the largest molecular sequencing series of pulmonary LCNEC. They differentiated genomic profiles of LCNEC into two major subsets: small cell lung cancer (SCLC)-like, characterized by TP53 + RB1 co-mutation/loss, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-like, characterized by the lack of co-altered TP53 + RB1. This finding is of significance because at present LCNEC patients are often treated like SCLC. However, the universal genomic SCLC biomarker of TP53 and RB1 co-mutation was only found in 40% of their cohort. Since then various other scientists have looked into molecular profiling of LCNEC with markedly discordant results. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of publicly available next generation sequencing (NGS) data to evaluate the prevalence of TP53 + RB1 co-mutation in LCNEC.
We conducted a literature search using PubMed. Seven studies including 302 patients with pulmonary LCNEC and four studies including 20 patients with extra-pulmonary LCNEC underwent final analysis.
The prevalence of TP53 + RB1 co-mutation was 36% (109/302) among pulmonary LCNEC patients and 35% (7/20) among the extra-thoracic LCNEC cohort. This finding is in stark contrast to >90% TP53 + RB1 co-mutation in SCLC.
It is now well established that LCNEC is molecularly distinct from SCLC. LCNEC seems to have two molecularly defined sub-cohort based on TP53 + RB1 co-mutation status. Future studies should look into prognostic and predictive implication of TP53 + RB1 co-mutation status in LCNEC. Prospective studies should be designed to characterize molecular subtypes and direct treatment accordingly. We are currently conducting a prospective pilot clinical trial wherein LCNEC patients are treated based on TP53 + RB1 co-mutation status. The study is currently enrolling. "Next Generation Sequencing-Based Stratification of Front Line Treatment of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (PRECISION-NEC).
ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04452292.
Publication Date: 2021-06-19
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with a solitary brain metastasis and low Ki-67: a unique subtype.
Stage IV large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung generally presents as disseminated and aggressive disease with a Ki-67 proliferation index (PI) 40-80%. LCNEC can be subdivided in two main subtypes: the first harboring TP53/RB1 mutations (small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)-like), the second with mutations in TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 (non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-like). Here we evaluated 11 LCNEC patients with only a solitary brain metastasis and evaluate phenotype, genotype and follow-up.
Eleven LCNEC patients with solitary brain metastases were analyzed. Clinical characteristics and survival data were retrieved from medical records. Pathological analysis included histomorphological analysis, immunohistochemistry (pRB and Ki-67 PI) and next-generation sequencing (TP53, RB1, STK11, KEAP1 and MEN1).
All patients had N0 or N1 disease. Median overall survival (OS) was 12 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5-18.5 months). Mean Ki-67 PI was 59% (range 15-100%). In 6/11 LCNEC Ki-67 PI was ≤40%. OS was longer for Ki-67 ≤40% compared to >40% (17 months (95% CI 11-23 months) vs 5 months (95% CI 0.7-9 months), P = 0.007). Two patients were still alive at follow-up after 86 and 103 months, both had Ki-67 ≤40%. 8/11 patients could be subclassified, and both SCLC-like (n = 6) and NSCLC-like (n = 2) subtypes were present. No MEN1 mutation was found.
Stage IV LCNEC with a solitary brain metastasis and N0/N1 disease show in the majority of cases Ki-67 PI ≤40% and prolonged survival, distinguishing them from general LCNEC. This unique subgroup can be both of the SCLC-like and NSCLC-like subtype.
Publication Date: 2019-11-22
Journal: Endocrine connections