Mixed Neuroendocrine/Non-neuroendocrine Neoplasm (MiNEN) of the Ovary Arising from Endometriosis: Molecular Pathology Analysis in Support of a Pathogenetic Paradigm.
Primary ovarian neuroendocrine neoplasms (Ov-NENs) are infrequent and mainly represented by well-differentiated forms (neuroendocrine tumors - NETs - or carcinoids). Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (Ov-NECs) are exceedingly rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature. A subset of Ov-NECs are admixed with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, as it occurs in other female genital organs, as well (mostly endometrium and uterine cervix), and may be assimilated to mixed neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) described in digestive and extra-digestive sites. Here, we present a case of large cell Ov-NEC admixed with an endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary, arising in the context of ovarian endometriosis, associated with a uterine endometrial atypical hyperplasia (EAH). We performed targeted next-generation sequencing analysis, along with a comprehensive immunohistochemical study and FISH analysis for TP53 locus, separately on the four morphologically distinct lesions (Ov-NEC, endometrioid carcinoma, endometriosis, and EAH). The results of our study identified molecular alterations of cancer-related genes (PIK3CA, CTNNB1, TP53, RB1, ARID1A, and p16), which were present with an increasing gradient from preneoplastic lesions to malignant proliferations, both neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine components. In conclusion, our findings underscored that the two neoplastic components of this Ov-MiNEN share a substantially identical molecular profile and they progress from a preexisting ovarian endometriotic lesion, in a patient with a coexisting preneoplastic proliferation of the endometrium, genotypically and phenotypically related to the ovarian neoplasm. Moreover, this study supports the inclusion of MiNEN in the spectrum ovarian and, possibly, of all gynecological NENs, among which they are currently not classified.
Publication Date: 2021-08-04
Journal: Endocrine pathology
Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study.
The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36 cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma. Detailed clinical data were collected, and all cases were examined using targeted next-generation sequencing. On the basis of the literature, the first mutated gene in these tumors was reported to be KRAS in 11.3% of cases, followed by TERT promoter mutations in 28.5%. In addition to KRAS and TERT, other genes were also found to be frequently mutated in primary bladder adenocarcinoma, including TP53, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, APC, FBXW7, IDH2, and RB1. In our series, the most frequent gene mutations in primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas were as follows: TP53 (56%); BRCA2, KMT2B (both 33%); NOTCH2, KDR, ARID1B, POLE, PTEN, KRAS (all 28%); in urachal enteric adenocarcinoma they were as follows: TP53 (86%); PTEN, NOTCH (both 43%); in primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas they were as follows: KRAS, GRIN2A, AURKB (all 67%); and, in intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma, they were as follows: APC, PRKDC (both 60%); ROS1, ATM, KMT2D (all 50%). No specific mutational pattern was identified using cluster analysis for any of the groups. Herein, we describe the pathologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns traditionally used in the differential diagnoses of glandular lesions of the bladder in routine surgical pathology. We outline the mutational landscape of these lesions as an aggregate of published data with additional data from our cohort. Although diagnostically not discriminatory, we document that the most common genetic alterations shared between these glandular neoplasms include TP53, APC (in the Wnt pathway), and KRAS (in the MAPK pathway) mutations.
Publication Date: 2020-06-11
Journal: Advances in anatomic pathology