Genomic Sequencing and Insight into Clinical Heterogeneity and Prognostic Pathway Genes in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFβ, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.
Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFβ, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFβ, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years.
Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Mutation of the PTCH1 gene predicts recurrence of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and some patients develop recurrence after standard therapy. Effective predictors are urgently needed to detect recurrence earlier. The activation of Hedgehog signaling in breast cancer is correlated with poor prognosis. PTCH1 is an essential membrane receptor of Hedgehog. However, there are few reports about mutations in Hedgehog genes in breast cancer. We conducted a comprehensive study via an experimental and bioinformatics approach to detect mutated genes in breast cancer. Twenty-two breast cancer patients who developed recurrence within 24 months postoperatively were enrolled with 22 control cancer patients. Targeted deep sequencing was performed to assess the mutations among individuals with breast cancer using a panel of 143 cancer-associated genes. Bioinformatics and public databases were used to predict the protein functions of the mutated genes. Mutations were identified in 44 breast cancer specimens, and the most frequently mutated genes were BRCA2, APC, ATM, BRCA1, NF1, TET2, TSC1, TSC2, NOTCH1, MSH2, PTCH1, TP53, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1. Mutation of these genes was correlated with protein phosphorylation and autophosphorylation, such as peptidyl-tyrosine and protein kinase C phosphorylation. Among these highly mutated genes, mutations of PTCH1 were associated with poor prognosis and increased recurrence of breast cancer, especially mutations in exons 22 and 23. The public sequencing data from the COSMIC database were exploited to predict the functions of the mutations. Our findings suggest that mutation of PTCH1 is correlated with early recurrence of breast cancer patients and will become a powerful predictor for recurrence of breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2019-11-11
Journal: Scientific reports