Genomic Sequencing and Insight into Clinical Heterogeneity and Prognostic Pathway Genes in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFβ, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.
Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFβ, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFβ, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years.
Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Sum of High-Risk Gene Mutation (SHGM): A Novel Attempt to Assist Differential Diagnosis for Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Benign Adenoma, Based on Detection of Mutations of Nine Target Genes.
There has been no research on applying gene detection to differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). We attempted to explore a novel auxiliary method for differential diagnosis between ACC with benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), based on mutations of target genes in tissues. Nine genes were chosen as target genes, including TP53, CTNNB1, ARMC5, PRKAR1A, ZNRF3, RB1, APC, MEN1, and RPL22. Exons sequencing of target genes were performed in 98 cases of tissue samples by FastTarget technology, including 41 ACC tissues, 32 ACA tissues, and 25 normal adrenal gland tissues. Significant mutations were detected and identified, and the clinical information was collected, for further comparative analysis and application to assist differential diagnosis of ACC. We identified 132 significant gene mutations and 227 significant mutation sites in 37 ACC tissues, much more than ACA and normal adrenal gland tissues. Mutation rates of 6 genes in ACC tissues were obviously higher than ACA tissues, including ZNRF3, ARMC5, TP53, APC, RB1, and PRKAR1A, regarded as high-risk genes. The sum of mutated high-risk genes detected in each sample was denominated sum of high-risk gene mutation (SHGM), and the rates of SHGM > 0 and SHGM > 1 in ACC tissues were 73.0% and 62.2%, respectively, both obviously higher than those in ACA tissues, with significant statistic differences. Especially for 8 cases of ACC with diameter < 5 cm, SHGM > 0 and SHGM > 1 were found in 6 samples (75%) and 4 samples (50%), respectively. However, no relevance was found between SHGM and clinical characteristics of ACC. We identified 6 high-risk genes in ACC tissues, with significantly higher mutation rates than ACA or normal adrenal gland tissues. The sum of mutated high-risk genes detected in ACC tissues was denominated SHGM, which was potential to assist the differential diagnosis of ACC with ACA, especially for the small-size ACC.
Publication Date: 2021-02-11
Journal: Biochemical genetics
Neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed neuroendocrine‒non-neuroendocrine neoplasm of the stomach: a clinicopathological and exome sequencing study.
The gene mutation profiles of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular pathology of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and mixed neuroendocrine‒non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) of the stomach. Surgical cases of gastric NEC (n = 7) and MiNEN (n = 6) were examined by clinical review, immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis and whole-exome sequencing. NEC cases consisted of small- (n = 2) and large-cell types (n = 4). All cases of MiNEN were histologically composed of large-cell type NEC and tubular adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing analysis detected recurrent mutations in TP53 in 8 cases (62%), and they were more frequently observed in MiNEN than in NEC (100% vs. 29%). Frameshift mutations of APC were observed in two cases of MiNEN. One case of large-cell type NEC had a frameshift mutation with loss of heterozygosity in RB1. The other mutated genes (e.g., ARID1 and KRAS) were detected in a single case each. A high level of MSI was confirmed in one case of MiNEN, which harbored mutations in two well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET)-related genes (MEN1 and ATRX1). In cases of MiNEN, two histological components shared mutations in TP53, APC and ZNF521, whereas alterations in CTNNB1, KMT2C, PTEN and SPEN were observed in neuroendocrine components only. In conclusion, TP53 is a single, frequently mutated gene in gastric NEC and MiNEN, and alterations in other genes are less common, resembling the mutation profiles of gastric adenocarcinomas. Gene mutations frequently observed in well-differentiated NET were uncommon but not entirely exclusive.
Publication Date: 2020-12-29
Journal: Human pathology
Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study.
The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36 cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma. Detailed clinical data were collected, and all cases were examined using targeted next-generation sequencing. On the basis of the literature, the first mutated gene in these tumors was reported to be KRAS in 11.3% of cases, followed by TERT promoter mutations in 28.5%. In addition to KRAS and TERT, other genes were also found to be frequently mutated in primary bladder adenocarcinoma, including TP53, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, APC, FBXW7, IDH2, and RB1. In our series, the most frequent gene mutations in primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas were as follows: TP53 (56%); BRCA2, KMT2B (both 33%); NOTCH2, KDR, ARID1B, POLE, PTEN, KRAS (all 28%); in urachal enteric adenocarcinoma they were as follows: TP53 (86%); PTEN, NOTCH (both 43%); in primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas they were as follows: KRAS, GRIN2A, AURKB (all 67%); and, in intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma, they were as follows: APC, PRKDC (both 60%); ROS1, ATM, KMT2D (all 50%). No specific mutational pattern was identified using cluster analysis for any of the groups. Herein, we describe the pathologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns traditionally used in the differential diagnoses of glandular lesions of the bladder in routine surgical pathology. We outline the mutational landscape of these lesions as an aggregate of published data with additional data from our cohort. Although diagnostically not discriminatory, we document that the most common genetic alterations shared between these glandular neoplasms include TP53, APC (in the Wnt pathway), and KRAS (in the MAPK pathway) mutations.
Publication Date: 2020-06-11
Journal: Advances in anatomic pathology