pubmed > TP53 > rb1 > tp53 atrx

Uterine PEComas: correlation between melanocytic marker expression and TSC alterations/TFE3 fusions.
Uterine PEComas often present a diagnostic challenge as they share morphological and immunohistochemical features with smooth muscle tumors. Herein we evaluated a series of 19 uterine PEComas to compare the degree of melanocytic marker expression with their molecular profile. Patients ranged from 32-77 (median 48) years, with six tumors classified as malignant based on the modified gynecologic-specific prognostic algorithm. All patients with malignant PEComas were alive with disease or dead  of disease at last follow-up, while all those of uncertain malignant potential were alive and well (median follow-up, 47 months).Seventeen of 19 (89%) PEComas harbored either a TSC1 or TSC2 alteration. One of the two remaining tumors showed a TFE3 rearrangement, but the other lacked alterations in all genes evaluated. All showed at least focal (usually strong) positivity for HMB-45, with 15/19 (79%) having >50% expression, while the tumor lacking TSC or TFE3 alterations was strongly positive in 10% of cells. Melan-A and MiTF were each positive in 15/19 (79%) tumors, but staining extent and intensity were much more variable than HMB-45. Five of six (83%) malignant PEComas also harbored alterations in TP53, ATRX, or RB1, findings not identified in any tumors of uncertain malignant potential. One malignant PEComa was microsatellite-unstable/mismatch repair protein-deficient.In summary, TSC alterations/TFE3 fusions and diffuse (>50%) HMB-45 expression are characteristic of uterine PEComas. In morphologically ambiguous mesenchymal neoplasms with myomelanocytic differentiation, especially those with metastatic or recurrent disease, next-generation sequencing is recommended to evaluate for TSC alterations; as such, patients can be eligible for targeted therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-06-17
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Integrated mutational landscape analysis of uterine leiomyosarcomas.
Uterine leiomyosarcomas (uLMS) are aggressive tumors arising from the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. We analyzed 83 uLMS sample genetics, including 56 from Yale and 27 from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Among them, a total of 55 Yale samples including two patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and 27 TCGA samples have whole-exome sequencing (WES) data; 10 Yale and 27 TCGA samples have RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) data; and 11 Yale and 10 TCGA samples have whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. We found recurrent somatic mutations in TP53, MED12, and PTEN genes. Top somatic mutated genes included TP53, ATRX, PTEN, and MEN1 genes. Somatic copy number variation (CNV) analysis identified 8 copy-number gains, including 5p15.33 (TERT), 8q24.21 (C-MYC), and 17p11.2 (MYOCD, MAP2K4) amplifications and 29 copy-number losses. Fusions involving tumor suppressors or oncogenes were deetected, with most fusions disrupting RB1, TP53, and ATRX/DAXX, and one fusion (ACTG2-ALK) being potentially targetable. WGS results demonstrated that 76% (16 of 21) of the samples harbored chromoplexy and/or chromothripsis. Clinically actionable mutational signatures of homologous-recombination DNA-repair deficiency (HRD) and microsatellite instability (MSI) were identified in 25% (12 of 48) and 2% (1 of 48) of fresh frozen uLMS, respectively. Finally, we found olaparib (PARPi;
Publication Date: 2021-04-21
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Electrostatic Complementarity of T-Cell Receptor-Alpha CDR3 Domains and Mutant Amino Acids Is Associated with Better Survival Rates for Sarcomas.
While sarcoma immunology has advanced with regard to basic, and even some applied topics, this disease has not been subject to more recent immunogenomics approaches. Thus, we assessed the immune receptor recombinations available from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) sarcoma database via tumor sample exome and RNASeq files. Results indicated that recovery of T-cell receptor-alpha recombination reads (TRA) correlated with a better survival rate, with the expression of T-cell biomarkers, and with tumor sample apoptosis signatures consistent with the longer patient survival times. Furthermore, samples representing TRA complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) net charge per residue (NCPR) based complementarity with the corresponding sarcoma mutanome had a better survival rate, and more granzyme expression, than samples lacking such complementarity. By specifically using RNASeq-recovered TRA CDR3s and related NCPR assessments, three genes, TP53, ATRX, and RB1, were identified as being key components of the mutanome-based complementarity. Thus, these genes may represent key immune system targets for soft tissue sarcomas. Also, several key results from above were reproduced with a pediatric osteosarcoma dataset, work that led to identification of MUC6 mutations as potentially linked to a strong immune response. In sum, TRA CDR3s are likely to be important prognostic indicators, and possibly a beginning tool for immunotherapy development strategies, for adult and pediatric sarcomas.
Publication Date: 2021-02-23
Journal: Pediatric hematology and oncology

Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed mutation patterns of de-differentiated liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
Treating patients with advanced sarcomas is challenging due to great histologic diversity among its subtypes. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and de-differentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are two common and aggressive subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). They differ significantly in histology and clinical behaviors. However, the molecular driving force behind the difference is unclear. We collected 20 LMS and 12 DDLPS samples and performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to obtain their somatic mutation profiles. We also performed RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptomes of 8 each of the LMS and DDLPS samples and obtained information about differential gene expression, pathway enrichment, immune cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment, and chromosomal rearrangement including gene fusions. Selected gene fusion events from the RNA-seq prediction were checked by RT-PCR in tandem with Sanger sequencing. We detected loss of function mutation and deletion of tumor suppressors mostly in LMS, and oncogene amplification mostly in DDLPS. A focal amplification affecting chromosome 12q13-15 region which encodes MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 is notable in DDLPS. Mutations in TP53, ATRX, PTEN, and RB1 are identified in LMS but not DDLPS, while mutation of HERC2 is only identified in DDLPS but not LMS. RNA-seq revealed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 in DDLPS and down-regulation of TP53 and RB1 in LMS. It also detected more fusion events in DDLPS than LMS (4.5 vs. 1, p = 0.0195), and the ones involving chromosome 12 in DDLPS stand out. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing verified the majority of the fusion events in DDLPS but only one event in LMS selected to be tested. The tumor microenvironmental signatures are highly correlated with histologic types. DDLPS has more endothelial cells and fibroblasts content than LMS. Our analysis revealed different recurrent genetic variations in LMS and DDLPS including simultaneous upregulation of gene expression and gene copy number amplification of MDM2 and CDK4. Up-regulation of tumor related genes is favored in DDLPS, while loss of suppressor function is favored in LMS. DDLPS harbors more frequent fusion events which can generate neoepitopes and potentially targeted by personalized immune treatment.
Publication Date: 2020-10-30
Journal: BMC cancer