pubmed > NFKB > reactive oxygen species

Two reactive behaviors of chondrocytes in an IL-1β-induced inflammatory environment revealed by the single-cell RNA sequencing.
To investigate the heterogeneous responses of Human articular chondrocytes were expanded, Two major cell clusters with distinct expression patterns were identified at the initial phase and were with heterogeneous variation that coincides with inflammation progress. They transformed into two terminal cell clusters one of which exhibited OA-phenotype and proinflammatory characteristics through two paths, "response-to-inflammation" and "atypical response-to-inflammation", respectively. The involved cell clusters exhibited intrinsic relationship with cell types within native cartilage from OA patients. Genes controlling cell transformation to OA-phenotype were relating to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway via NFKB, up-regulated KRAS signaling and the IL2/STAT5 signaling pathway and pathways relating to apoptosis and reactive oxygen species. The
Publication Date: 2021-04-22
Journal: Aging

Rac1 Signaling: From Intestinal Homeostasis to Colorectal Cancer Metastasis.
The small GTPase Rac1 has been implicated in a variety of dynamic cell biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell survival, cell-cell contacts, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell motility, and invasiveness. These processes are orchestrated through the fine tuning of Rac1 activity by upstream cell surface receptors and effectors that regulate the cycling Rac1-GDP (off state)/Rac1-GTP (on state), but also through the tuning of Rac1 accumulation, activity, and subcellular localization by post translational modifications or recruitment into molecular scaffolds. Another level of regulation involves Rac1 transcripts stability and splicing. Downstream, Rac1 initiates a series of signaling networks, including regulatory complex of actin cytoskeleton remodeling, activation of protein kinases (PAKs, MAPKs) and transcription factors (NFkB, Wnt/β-catenin/TCF, STAT3, Snail), production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH oxidase holoenzymes, mitochondrial ROS). Thus, this GTPase, its regulators, and effector systems might be involved at different steps of the neoplastic progression from dysplasia to the metastatic cascade. After briefly placing Rac1 and its effector systems in the more general context of intestinal homeostasis and in wound healing after intestinal injury, the present review mainly focuses on the several levels of Rac1 signaling pathway dysregulation in colorectal carcinogenesis, their biological significance, and their clinical impact.
Publication Date: 2020-03-18
Journal: Cancers

Polystyrene nanoplastic induces ROS production and affects the MAPK-HIF-1/NFkB-mediated antioxidant system in Daphnia pulex.
Recently, research on the biological effects of nanoplastics has grown exponentially. However, studies on the effects of nanoplastics on freshwater organisms and the mechanisms of the biological effects of nanoplastics are limited. In this study, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression in the MAPK-HIF-1/NFkB pathway, and antioxidant gene expressions and enzyme activities were measured in Daphnia pulex exposed to polystyrene nanoplastic. In addition, the full-length extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) gene, which plays an important role in the MAPK pathway, was cloned in D. pulex, and the amino acid sequence, function domain, and phylogenetic tree were analyzed. The results show that nanoplastic caused the overproduction of ROS along with other dose-dependent effects. Low nanoplastic concentrations (0.1 and/or 0.5 mg/L) significantly increased the expressions of genes of the MAPK pathway (ERK; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38; c-Jun amino-terminal kinases, JNK; and protein kinase B, AKT), HIF-1 pathway (prolyl hydroxylasedomain, PHD; vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF; glucose transporter, GLUT; pyruvate kinase M, PKM; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HIF1), and CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) along with the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. As the nanoplastic concentration increased, these indicators were significantly suppressed. The protein expression ratio of ERK, JNK, AKT, HIF1α, and NFkBp65 (nuclear transcription factor-kB p65) as well as the phosphorylation of ERK and NFkBp65 were increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activities of other antioxidant enzymes (catalase, total SOD, and CuZn SOD) were significantly decreased upon exposure to nanoplastic. Combined with our previous work, these results suggest that polystyrene nanoplastic causes the overproduction of ROS and activates the downstream pathway, resulting in inhibited growth, development, and reproduction. The present study fosters a better understanding of the biological effects of nanoplastics on zooplankton.
Publication Date: 2020-01-28
Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

Lovastatin inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in microglia by targeting its co-receptor myeloid differentiation protein 2 and attenuates neuropathic pain.
There is growing interest in drug repositioning to find new therapeutic indications for drugs already approved for use in people. Lovastatin is an FDA approved drug that has been used clinically for over a decade as a lipid-lowering medication. While lovastatin is classically considered to act as a hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor, the present series of studies reveal a novel lovastatin effect, that being as a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist. Lovastatin selectively inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4-NF-κB activation without affecting signaling by other homologous TLRs. In vitro biophysical binding and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) show that lovastatin is recognized by TLR4's coreceptor myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2). This finding is supported by molecular dynamics simulations that lovastatin targets the LPS binding pocket of MD-2 and lovastatin binding stabilizes the MD-2 conformation. In vitro studies of BV-2 microglial cells revealed that lovastatin inhibits multiple effects of LPS, including activation of NFkB; mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6 and cyclo-oxygenase 2; production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; as well as phagocytic activity. Furthermore, intrathecal delivery of lovastatin over lumbosacral spinal cord of rats attenuated both neuropathic pain from sciatic nerve injury and expression of the microglial activation marker CD11 in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. Given the well-established role of microglia and proinflammatory signaling in neuropathic pain, these data are supportive that lovastatin, as a TLR4 antagonist, may be productively repurposed for treating chronic pain.
Publication Date: 2019-09-23
Journal: Brain, behavior, and immunity

Selanylimidazopyridine Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice by Targeting Neurotrophins and Inflammatory/Oxidative Mediators.
Inasmuch, as the major depressive disorder (MDD) has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease as the inflammatory processes, neurotrophic factors' dysfunction and oxidative/nitrosative stress are believed to play a vital role in its establishment. Organoselenium compounds stand out due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antidepressant effects. In this sense, the present study investigated the effect of 3-((4-methoxyphenyl)selanyl)-2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (MPI; 20 and 50 mg/kg, intragastrically) pretreatment [30 min prior lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.83 mg/kg)] on acute LPS induced depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. MPI was able to prevent the increased immobility time induced by LPS on the forced swimming test (FST), the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines' expression in the hippocampus (HC) of mice after LPS challenge via NFkB downregulation, and the increase of the reactive oxygen species generation and lipid peroxidation in the prefrontal cortex and HC of mice. It was observed that at the doses tested, MPI protected against reducing levels of BDNF in the cortex and HC of mice challenged with LPS. These observations suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of MPI depends on its capacity to modulate the inflammatory, antioxidant, and neurotrophic systems.
Publication Date: 2018-08-04
Journal: Frontiers in neuroscience

Effect of selected strains of lactobacilli on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sourdough.
Sourdough fermentation of cereal foods is an excellent source of obtaining peptides due to the ability of lactic acid bacteria to activate cereal proteases and produce strain-specific peptidases. With the aim of identifying the lactic acid bacterial strains potentially most effective in producing bioactive peptides, 131 lactobacilli isolates from Italian sourdoughs, used in baking technology, have been screened for proteolytic and peptidase activity. Of these, 23 strains were selected and singly inoculated in liquid sourdoughs from which a Low Molecular Weight fraction containing peptides was obtained. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts was performed on cultured cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage, murine H-end endothelium cells and Human intestinal Caco-2 cells) by assaying Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) content, NFkB/IkB expression level and Interleukin-1β production. As a result, three lactobacilli strains showed a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ability enabling the development of model sourdoughs that will potentially increase the nutritional benefits of bread.
Publication Date: 2018-07-24
Journal: International journal of food microbiology

Inhibition of TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 leads to inhibition of NFKB activation and autophagy activation.
TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) plays a pivotal role in NFKB activation and macroautphagy/autophagy activation induced by TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) signaling. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) in NFKB activation and autophagy activation. PRDX1 interacted with the ring finger domain of TRAF6 and inhibited its ubiquitin-ligase activity. The inhibition on TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 induced the suppression of ubiquitination of an evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT) essential for NFKB activation and BECN1 (beclin 1) required for autophagy activation. An inhibitory effect of PRDX1 on TRAF6 was clearly evidenced in PRDX1-knockdown (PRDX1KD) THP-1, PRDX1KD MDA-MB-231, and PRDX1KD SK-HEP-1 cells. PRDX1KD THP-1 cells showed increases of NFKB activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, NFKB-dependent gene expression induced by TLR4 stimulation, and resistance against Salmonella typhimurium infection. Additionally, migration and invasion abilities of PRDX1KD MDA-MB-231 and PRDX1KD SK-HEP-1 cancer cells were significantly enhanced compared to those of control cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PRDX1 negatively regulates TLR4 signaling for NFKB activation and autophagy functions such as bactericidal activity, cancer cell migration, and cancer cell invasion by inhibiting TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity. 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; BECN1: beclin 1; CHUK/IKKA: conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase; ECSIT: ECSIT signalling integrator; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; NFKB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; IB: immunoblotting; IKBKB/IKKB: inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta; IL1B: interleukin 1 beta; IL6: interleukin 6; IP: immunoprecipitation; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtuble associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAP3K7/TAK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7; MAPK14/p38: mitogen-activated protein kinase 14; mROS: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species; PRDX1: peroxiredoxin 1; PRDX6: peroxiredoxin 6; RELA/p65: RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit; TRAF6 TNF: receptor associated factor 6.
Publication Date: 2018-06-23
Journal: Autophagy

Advanced glycation end products and strontium ranelate promote osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro: Preventive role of vitamin D.
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been demonstrated to induce the osteogenic trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Strontium ranelate (SR) is an anti-osteoporotic agent that has both anti-catabolic and anabolic actions on bone tissue. However, in the last years SR has been associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that SR can increase the osteoblastic trans-differentiation of VSMC and the induction of extracellular calcifications, an effect that could be potentiated in the presence of AGE and inhibited by simultaneous administration of vitamin D. The present results of our in vitro experiments demonstrate that AGE and SR alone or in combination, stimulate L-type calcium channels, causing an increase in reactive oxygen species and activation of both ERK and NFkB, with the final effect of promoting the osteogenic shift of VSMC. Importantly, these in vitro effects of AGE and/or SR can be prevented by co-incubation with vitamin D.
Publication Date: 2017-05-01
Journal: Molecular and cellular endocrinology

Non enzymatic upregulation of tissue factor expression by gamma-glutamyl transferase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Besides maintaining intracellular glutathione stores, gamma-glutamyltransferase(GGT) generates reactive oxygen species and activates NFkB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor key in the induction of Tissue Factor (TF) gene expression, the principal initiator of the clotting cascade. Thus, GGT might be involved in TF-mediated coagulation processes, an assumption untested insofar. Experiments were run with either equine, enzymatically active GGT or human recombinant (hr) GGT, a wheat germ-derived protein enzymatically inert because of missing post-translational glycosylation. TF Procoagulant Activity (PCA, one-stage clotting assay), TF antigen(ELISA) and TFmRNA(real-time PCR) were assessed in unpooled human peripheral blood mononuclear cell(PBMC) suspensions obtained from healthy donors through discontinuous Ficoll/Hystopaque density gradient. Equine GGT increased PCA, an effect insensitive to GGT inhibition by acivicin suggesting mechanisms independent of its enzymatic activity, a possibility confirmed by the maintained stimulation in response to hrGGT, an enzymatically inactive molecule. Endotoxin(LPS) contamination of GGT preparations was excluded by heat inactivation studies and direct determination(LAL method) of LPS concentrations <0.1 ng/mL practically devoid of procoagulant effect. Inhibition by anti-GGT antibodies corroborated that conclusion. Upregulation by hrGGT of TF antigen and mRNA and its downregulation by BAY-11-7082, a NFkB inhibitor, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, was consistent with a NFkB-driven, redox-sensitive transcriptional site of action. GGT upregulates TF expression independent of its enzymatic activity, a cytokine-like behaviour mediated by NFκB activation, a mechanism contributing to promote acute thrombotic events, a possibility in need, however, of further evaluation.
Publication Date: 2016-11-09
Journal: Thrombosis journal

Methylferulate from Tamarix aucheriana inhibits growth and enhances chemosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells: possible mechanism of action.
Natural products are valuable sources for anticancer agents. In the present study, methylferulate (MF) was identified for the first time from Tamarix aucheriana. Spectral data were used for identification of MF. The potential of MF to control cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cancer cell invasion, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) DNA-binding activity and proteasomal activities, as well as the enhancement of chemosensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells, were evaluated. The possible molecular mechanism of MF's therapeutic efficacy was also assessed. Column chromatography and spectral data were used for isolation and identification of MF. MTT, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, in vitro invasion, fluoremetry, EIA and Real time qPCR were used to measure antiproliferative, chemo-sensitizing effects and other biochemical parameters. MF showed a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect on colorectal cancer cells (IC MF showed a multifaceted anti-proliferative and chemosensitizing effects. These results suggest the chemotherapeutic and co-adjuvant potential of MF.
Publication Date: 2016-10-08
Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine

Possible Anticancer Mechanisms of Some Costus speciosus Active Ingredients Concerning Drug Discovery.
Costus speciosus is native to South East Asia, especially found in India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Malaysia. C. speciosus have numerous therapeutic potentials against a wide variety of complains. The therapeutic properties of C. speciosus are attributed to the presence of various ingredients such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, sterols and sesquiterpenes. This review presented the past, present, and the future status of C. speciosus active ingredients to propose a future use as a potential anticancer agent. All possible up-regulation of cellular apoptotic molecules as p53, p21, p27, caspases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and others attribute to the anticancer activity of C. speciosus along the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic agents such as Akt, Bcl2, NFKB, STAT3, JAK, MMPs, actin, surviving and vimentin. Eventually, we recommend further investigation of different C. speciosus extracts, using some active ingredients and evaluate the anticancer effect of these chemicals against different cancers.
Publication Date: 2016-08-16
Journal: Current drug discovery technologies

Integrated genomic approaches identify major pathways and upstream regulators in late onset Alzheimer's disease.
Previous studies have evaluated gene expression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains to identify mechanistic processes, but have been limited by the size of the datasets studied. Here we have implemented a novel meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in published datasets comprising 450 late onset AD (LOAD) brains and 212 controls. We found 3124 DEGs, many of which were highly correlated with Braak stage and cerebral atrophy. Pathway Analysis revealed the most perturbed pathways to be (a) nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in macrophages (NOROS), (b) NFkB and (c) mitochondrial dysfunction. NOROS was also up-regulated, and mitochondrial dysfunction down-regulated, in healthy ageing subjects. Upstream regulator analysis predicted the TLR4 ligands, STAT3 and NFKBIA, for activated pathways and RICTOR for mitochondrial genes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis emphasised the role of NFKB; identified a key interaction of CLU with complement; and linked TYROBP, TREM2 and DOK3 to modulation of LPS signalling through TLR4 and to phosphatidylinositol metabolism. We suggest that NEUROD6, ZCCHC17, PPEF1 and MANBAL are potentially implicated in LOAD, with predicted links to calcium signalling and protein mannosylation. Our study demonstrates a highly injurious combination of TLR4-mediated NFKB signalling, NOROS inflammatory pathway activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in LOAD.
Publication Date: 2015-07-24
Journal: Scientific reports

Mitigation of radiation-induced lung injury with EUK-207 and genistein: effects in adolescent rats.
Exposure of civilian populations to radiation due to accident, war or terrorist act is an increasing concern. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs that may be affected in people receiving partial-body irradiation and radiation injury in lung is thought to be associated with the development of a prolonged inflammatory response. Here we examined how effectively damage to the lung can be mitigated by administration of drugs initiated at different times after radiation exposure and examined response in adolescent animals for comparison with the young adult animals that we had studied previously. We studied the mitigation efficacy of the isoflavone genistein (50 mg/kg) and the salen-Mn superoxide dismutase-catalase mimetic EUK-207 (8 mg/kg), both of which have been reported to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce activity of the NFkB pathway. The drugs were given by subcutaneous injection to 6- to 7-week-old Fisher rats daily starting either immediately or 2 weeks after irradiation with 12 Gy to the whole thorax. The treatment was stopped at 28 weeks post irradiation and the animals were assessed for levels of inflammatory cytokines, activated macrophages, oxidative damage and fibrosis at 48 weeks post irradiation. We demonstrated that both genistein and EUK-207 delayed and suppressed the increased breathing rate associated with pneumonitis. These agents also reduced levels of oxidative damage (50-100%), levels of TGF-β1 expression (75-100%), activated macrophages (20-60%) and fibrosis (60-80%). The adolescent rats developed pneumonitis earlier following irradiation of the lung than did the adult rats leading to greater severe morbidity requiring euthanasia (∼37% in adolescents vs. ∼10% in young adults) but the extent of the mitigation of the damage was similar or slightly greater.
Publication Date: 2012-12-15
Journal: Radiation research

Silibinin modulates lipid homeostasis and inhibits nuclear factor kappa B activation in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased liver-related mortality. Disturbances in hepatic lipid homeostasis trigger oxidative stress and inflammation (ie, lipotoxicity), leading to the progression of NASH. This study aimed at identifying whether silibinin may influence the molecular events of lipotoxicity in a mouse model of NASH. Eight-week-old db/db mice were fed a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks and treated daily with silibinin (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle. Liver expression and enzyme activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase, and expression of liver fatty acid-binding protein were assessed. Hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activities were also determined. Silibinin administration decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and improved liver steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and lobular inflammation in db/db mice fed an MCD diet. Gene expression and activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 were reduced in db/db mice fed an MCD diet compared with lean controls and were increased by silibinin; moreover, silibinin treatment induced the expression and activity of acyl-CoA oxidase and the expression of liver fatty acid-binding protein. Vehicle-treated animals displayed increased hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species and TBARS, 3-NT staining, and iNOS expression; silibinin treatment markedly decreased reactive oxygen species and TBARS and restored 3-NT and iNOS to the levels of control mice. db/db mice fed an MCD diet consistently had increased NFkB p65 and p50 binding activity; silibinin administration significantly decreased the activity of both subunits. Silibinin treatment counteracts the progression of liver injury by modulating lipid homeostasis and suppressing oxidative stress-mediated lipotoxicity and NFkB activation in experimental NASH.
Publication Date: 2012-05-29
Journal: Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine

Possible signaling cascades involved in attenuation of alloxan-induced oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in mice by ethanolic extract of Syzygium jambolanum: drug-DNA interaction with calf thymus DNA as target.
We injected alloxan (100 mg/kg b.w.) in mice (Mus musculus) intra-peritoneally to induce hyperglycemia and divided the hyperglycemic mice into two sub-groups: one was fed ethanolic extract of Syzygium jambolanum (EESJ) (20 mg/kg b.w. for 8 weeks) and the other 85% ethyl alcohol ("vehicle"-control). Chromatographic and mass spectroscopic studies of EESJ revealed two principal components, one corresponding to an iridoid glycoside. We estimated blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucokinase, and fructosamine and analyzed the expression of marker proteins like insulin, GLUT2, and GLUT4. We also studied anti-oxidant biomarkers like lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total thiole and catalase. We assayed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several inflammatory and apoptotic signal proteins like NFkB, IFNγ, iNOS, Bcl(2,) Bax, STAT1 and Caspase3. We further evaluated the effects of hyperglycemia on DNA through comet assay and DNA fragmentation study and assessed drug-DNA interaction by comparative analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectral data and melting temperature profiles (T(m)) of calf thymus DNA treated with or without EESJ. We observed an elevation of all biomarkers for oxidative stress, generation of ROS and activation of NFkB and down regulation in expression of insulin, GLUT2 and glucokinase in hyperglycemic mice. Administration of EESJ reversed these changes. Histo-pathological observations of pancreas, liver and kidney also revealed relevant changes. Data of CD and (T(m)) indicated an interaction of EESJ with calf thymus DNA, indicating change in structure and conformation. Thus, EESJ has anti-oxidant as well as anti-hyperglycemic activities in diabetic mice, and potentially useful in management of hyperglycemia.
Publication Date: 2011-08-16
Journal: European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences

[Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction].
Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are the main pathophysiological mechanisms of several diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, renal failure and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modulate cellular function, receptor signals and immune responses in physiological conditions, but when present in excess, they mediate progressive endothelial damage through growth and migration of vascular smooth muscle and inflammatory cells, alteration of extracellular matrix, apoptosis of endothelial cells, activation of transcription factors (NFkB, AP-1), over-expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 , E-selectin). Recent evidences suggest that the major source of ROS is the NADPH-oxidase, especially activated by angiotensin II, shear stress and hyperglycemia. The unbalance between production of free radicals and the ability to neutralize them by antioxidant systems causes a condition of "oxidative stress". ROS alter vascular tone by increasing concentration of cytosolic calcium and especially causing a decreased availability of nitric oxide, the principal agent of endothelial function with vasodilating action. The data emerged from experimental and clinical studies confirm that endothelium-dependent vasodilation is altered in many diseases.
Publication Date: 2011-02-15
Journal: Minerva medica

Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) stimulates PTGS2 expression and PGF2α synthesis through NFKB activation via reactive oxygen species in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats.
This study was undertaken to investigate how prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) increases PGF(2α) synthesis and PTGS2 expression in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats. We further investigated the molecular mechanism by which PGF(2α) stimulates PTGS2 expression. PGF(2α) (3 mg/kg) or phosphate buffer as a control was injected s.c. on day 7 of pseudopregnancy. Ptgs2 mRNA expression and PGF(2α) concentrations in the corpus luteum were measured at 2, 6, and 24 h after PGF(2α) injection. PGF(2α) significantly increased Ptgs2 mRNA expression at 2 h and luteal PGF(2α) concentrations at 24 h. PGF(2α) significantly decreased serum progesterone levels at all of the times studied. Simultaneous administration of a selective PTGS2 inhibitor (NS-398, 10 mg/kg) completely abolished the increase in luteal PGF(2α) concentrations induced by PGF(2α). PGF(2α) increased NFKB p65 protein expression in the nucleus of luteal cells 30 min after PGF(2α) injection, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that PGF(2α) increased binding activities of NFKB to the NFKB consensus sequence of the Ptgs2 gene promoter. Simultaneous administration of both superoxide dismutase and catalase to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibited the increases of nuclear NFKB p65 protein expression, lipid peroxide levels, and Ptgs2 mRNA expression induced by PGF(2α). In conclusion, PGF(2α) stimulates Ptgs2 mRNA expression and PGF(2α) synthesis through NFKB activation via ROS in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnant rats.
Publication Date: 2010-09-10
Journal: Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

The integration of lipid-sensing and anti-inflammatory effects: how the PPARs play a role in metabolic balance.
The peroxisomal proliferating-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-sensing transcription factors that have a role in embryonic development, but are primarily known for modulating energy metabolism, lipid storage, and transport, as well as inflammation and wound healing. Currently, there is no consensus as to the overall combined function of PPARs and why they evolved. We hypothesize that the PPARs had to evolve to integrate lipid storage and burning with the ability to reduce oxidative stress, as energy storage is essential for survival and resistance to injury/infection, but the latter increases oxidative stress and may reduce median survival (functional longevity). In a sense, PPARs may be an evolutionary solution to something we call the 'hypoxia-lipid' conundrum, where the ability to store and burn fat is essential for survival, but is a 'double-edged sword', as fats are potentially highly toxic. Ways in which PPARs may reduce oxidative stress involve modulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) expression (thus reducing reactive oxygen species, ROS), optimising forkhead box class O factor (FOXO) activity (by improving whole body insulin sensitivity) and suppressing NFkB (at the transcriptional level). In light of this, we therefore postulate that inflammation-induced PPAR downregulation engenders many of the signs and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, which shares many features with the acute phase response (APR) and is the opposite of the phenotype associated with calorie restriction and high FOXO activity. In genetically susceptible individuals (displaying the naturally mildly insulin resistant 'thrifty genotype'), suboptimal PPAR activity may follow an exaggerated but natural adipose tissue-related inflammatory signal induced by excessive calories and reduced physical activity, which normally couples energy storage with the ability to mount an immune response. This is further worsened when pancreatic decompensation occurs, resulting in gluco-oxidative stress and lipotoxicity, increased inflammatory insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Reactivating PPARs may restore a metabolic balance and help to adapt the phenotype to a modern lifestyle.
Publication Date: 2007-05-29
Journal: Nuclear receptor

Human glioblastoma ADF cells express tyrosinase, L-tyrosine hydroxylase and melanosomes and are sensitive to L-tyrosine and phenylthiourea.
Melanocytes and neuroblasts share the property of transforming L-tyrosine through two distinct metabolic pathways leading to melanogenesis and catecholamine synthesis, respectively. While tyrosinase (TYR) activity has been shown to be expressed by neuroblastoma it remains to be established as to whether also glioblastomas cells are endowed with this property. We have addressed this issue using the human continuous glioblastoma cell line ADF. We demonstrated that these cells possess tyrosinase as well as L-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and synthesize melanosomes. Because the two pathways are potentially cyto-genotoxic due to production of quinones, semiquinones, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), we have also investigated the expression of the peroxisomal proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) transcription factor as well the effect of L-tyrosine concentration on cell survival. We report that L-tyrosine down-regulates PPARalpha expression in ADF cells but not neuroblastoma and that this aminoacid and phenylthiourea (PTU) induces apoptosis in glioblastoma and neuroblastoma.
Publication Date: 2006-02-01
Journal: Journal of cellular physiology