Role of sex steroids in fish sex determination and differentiation as revealed by gene editing.
The involvement of sex steroids in sex determination and differentiation is relatively conserved among non-mammalian vertebrates, especially in fish. Thanks to the advances in genome sequencing and genome editing, significant progresses have been made in the understanding of steroidogenic pathway and hormonal regulation of sex determination and differentiation in fish. It seems that loss of function study of single gene challenges the traditional views that estrogen is required for ovarian differentiation and androgen is needed for testicular development, but it is not so in essence. Steroidogenic enzymes can be classified into two categories based on expression and enzyme activities in fish. One type, encoded by star2, cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a, is involved in estrogen production and exclusively expressed in the gonads. Mutation of these genes results in the up-regulation of male pathway genes and sex reversal from genetic female to male. The other type, encoded by the duplicated paralogs of the above genes, including star1, cyp11a1, cyp17a2 and cyp19a1b, as well as cyp11c1 gene, is dominantly expressed both in gonads and extra-gonadal tissues. Mutation of these genes alters the steroids (androgen, DHP and cortisol) production and spermatogenesis, fertility, secondary sexual characteristics and sexual behavior, but usually does not affect the sex differentiation. For the estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a and esr2b), single mutation failed to, but double and triple mutation leads to sex reversal from female to male, indicating that at least Esr2a and Esr2b are required to mediate the role of estrogen in sex determination proved by gene editing experiments. Taken together, results from gene editing enrich our understanding of steroid synthesis pathways and further confirm the critical role of estrogen in female sex determination by antagonizing the male pathway in fish.
Publication Date: 2021-08-30
Journal: General and comparative endocrinology
Impact of Estrogen Withdrawal and Replacement in Female Mice along the Intestinal Tract. Comparison of E2 Replacement with the Effect of a Mixture of Low Dose Pollutants.
Postmenopausal women represent a vulnerable population towards endocrine disruptors due to hormonal deficit. We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure of ovariectomized C57Bl6/J mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet to a low-dose mixture of chemicals with one dioxin, one polychlorobiphenyl, one phthalate, and bisphenol A triggered metabolic alterations in the liver but the intestine was not explored. Yet, the gastrointestinal tract is the main route by which pollutants enter the body. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic consequences of ovarian withdrawal and E2 replacement on the various gut segments along with investigating the impact of the mixture of pollutants. We showed that genes encoding estrogen receptors (Esr1, Gper1 not Esr2), xenobiotic processing genes (e.g., Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10), and genes related to gut homeostasis in the jejunum (e.g., Cd36, Got2, Mmp7) and to bile acid biosynthesis in the gut (e.g., Fgf15, Slc10a2) and liver (e.g., Abcb11, Slc10a1) were under estrogen regulation. Exposure to pollutants mimicked some of the effects of E2 replacement, particularly in the ileum (e.g., Esr1, Nr1c1) suggesting that the mixture had estrogen-mimetic activities. The present findings have important implications for the understanding of estrogen-dependent metabolic alterations with regards to situations of loss of estrogens as observed after menopause.
Publication Date: 2021-08-28
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health
Effects of an environmentally relevant PFAS mixture on dopamine and steroid hormone levels in exposed mice.
In the present study, we investigated the dopaminergic and steroid hormone systems of A/J mice fed environmentally relevant concentrations of a perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) mixture over a period of 10 weeks. The PFAS mixture was chosen based on measured PFAS concentrations in earthworms at a Norwegian skiing area (Trondheim) and consisted of eight different PFAS. Dietary exposure to PFAS led to lower total brain dopamine (DA) concentrations in male mice, as compared to control. On the transcript level, brain tyrosine hydroxylase (th) of PFAS exposed males was reduced, compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed on the transcript levels of enzymes responsible for DA metabolism, namely - monoamine oxidase (maoa and maob) and catechol-O methyltransferase (comt). We detected increased transcript level for DA receptor 2 (dr2) in PFAS exposed females, while expression of DA receptor 1 (dr1), DA transporter (dat) and vesicular monoamine transporter (vmat) were not affected by PFAS exposure. Regarding the steroid hormones, plasma and muscle testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels, as well as transcripts for estrogen receptors (esr1 and esr2), gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh) and aromatase (cyp19) were unaltered by the PFAS treatment. These results indicate that exposure to PFAS doses, comparable to previous observation in earthworms at a Norwegian skiing area, may alter the dopaminergic system of mice with overt consequences for health, general physiology, cognitive behavior, reproduction and metabolism.
Publication Date: 2021-08-10
Journal: Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Altered Expression of
Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancy. Estrogen-related pathways genes, such as estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and their coregulators, proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase c-Src (SRC) are involved in ovarian cancer induction and development, still they require in-depth study. In our study, tissue samples were obtained from 52 females of Caucasian descent (control group without cancerous evidence (
Publication Date: 2021-07-03
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
Assessment of Correlation between Craniofacial Proportions and Genetic Indicators.
To assess correlation among craniofacial proportions and genetic indicators using estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2).
A total of 128 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with age range 12-18 years of both genders were included. Lateral cephalogram of all subjects were taken. Vertical and sagittal parameters were studied on these cephalogram. Saliva was used for DNA extraction. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for assessment of genetic indicators in ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) and in ESR2 (rs4986938 and rs1256049).
The mean SN cranial base was 68.4 mm, ANB (sagittal jaw relationship) was 2.8°, Ptm-A maxillary length was 46.2 mm, Go-Pg (mandibular body length) was 68.2 mm, Co-Gn (total mandibular length) was 112.8 mm, lower anterior facial height (ANS-Me) was 58.4 mm, N-Me (total anterior facial height) was 108.4 mm, lower posterior facial height (Co-Go) was 58.7 mm, and S-Go (total posterior facial height) was 72.4 mm. It was found that rs4986938 in ESR2 was linked with S-N dimension, with patients having CC genotype possessing negative correlation values (
Evaluation of ESR1 and ESR2 may show role of genetic markers in disparity of craniofacial dimensions in individuals.
This study provides an outlay and supports the concept of possible correlation between genetic markers and craniofacial measurements.
Publication Date: 2021-02-12
Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice
G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor, GPER1, Offers a Novel Target for the Treatment of Digestive Diseases.
There are gender differences between men and women in many physiological functions and diseases, which indicates that female sex hormones may be important. Traditionally, estrogen exerts its biological activities by activating two classical nuclear estrogen receptors, ESR1 and ESR2. However, the roles of estrogen in the regulation of physiological functions and the pathogenesis of diseases become more complicated with the identification of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1). Although many GPER1-specific ligands have been developed, the therapeutic mechanisms of exclusively targeting GPER1 are not yet well understood. Translational applications and clinical trial efforts for the identified GPER1 ligands have been focused primarily on the reproductive, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. More recently, research found that GPER1 may play an important role in regulating the digestive system. Cholesterol gallstone disease, a major biliary disease, has a higher prevalence in women than in men worldwide. Emerging evidence implies that GPER1 could play an important role, independent of the classical ESR1, in the pathophysiology of cholesterol gallstones in women. This review discusses the complex signaling pathways of three estrogen receptors, highlights the development of GPER1-specific ligands, and summarizes the latest advances in the role of GPER1 in the pathogenesis of gallstone formation.
Publication Date: 2020-12-08
Journal: Frontiers in endocrinology
The role of estrogen receptors in rat Sertoli cells at different stages of development.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) on the expression of the proteins involved with proliferation (CCND1) and differentiation (CDKN1B and CTNNB) of Sertoli cells from rat in different stages of development. ESR1-selective agonist PPT, but not ESR2-selective agonist DPN, increased CCND1 expression in Sertoli cells from 5- and 15-day old rats. PPT did not have any effect on CCND1 expression in Sertoli cells from 20- and 30-day-old rats. DPN, but not PPT, increased CDKN1B expression in Sertoli cells from 15-, 20-, 30-day-old rats. DPN did not have any effect on Sertoli cells from 5-day-old rats. 17β-estradiol (E2) and PPT enhanced the [Methyl-
Publication Date: 2020-11-10
Letrozole targets the human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium current in glioblastoma.
Aberrant expression of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels has been implicated in the pathophysiology of glioblastoma (GBM). Letrozole has demonstrated efficacy in pre-clinical GBM models. The objective of this research was to assess the potential for hERG inhibition by letrozole to mediate efficacy in GBM. hERG currents were assessed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in an overexpression system during treatment with letrozole, exemestane or vehicle (dimethyl sulphoxide). Relative to vehicle, peak hERG tail current density was reduced when treated with 300 nmol/L and 1 µmol/L letrozole but not when treated with exemestane (up to 1 µmol/L). Cell proliferation was assessed in cultured glioblastoma cell lines (U87 and U373) treated with letrozole, exemestane, doxazosin (hERG blocker) or vehicle. Letrozole, but not exemestane, reduced cell proliferation relative to vehicle in U87 and U373 cells. The associations between expression of hERG (KCNH2), aromatase (CYP19A1) and the oestrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and time to all-cause mortality were assessed in GBM patients within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. hERG expression was associated with reduced overall survival in the TCGA GBM cohort. Future work is warranted to investigate hERG expression as a potential biomarker to predict the therapeutic potential of hERG inhibitors in GBM.
Publication Date: 2020-10-12
Journal: Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
The effects of bisphenol A and bisphenol S on adipokine expression and glucose metabolism in human adipose tissue.
The environmental endocrine disruptors, bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. We aim to study the effects of BPA or BPS exposure on adipokine expression in human adipose tissue and on adipocyte glucose uptake.
Human subcutaneous adipose tissue was treated for 24 or 72 h with environmentally-relevant and supraphysiological concentrations of BPA or BPS (1-10
Adipose tissue treated with BPA for 24 h had reduced expression of the proinflammatory genes (IL6, IL1B, TNFA) and adipokines (ADIPOQ, FABP4). BPA and BPS had no effect on the expression of other proinflammatory genes (IL33), adipokines (LEP), or receptors (ESR1, ESR2) after 72-h exposure. Adipose tissue treated with environmentally-relevant concentrations of BPA for 24 h had reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, without altered gene and protein levels of key insulin signalling pathway markers.
We found that human adipose tissue treated with environmentally-relevant concentrations of BPA for 24 h, but not BPS, reduced expression of proinflammatory genes and adipokines. Furthermore, BPA reduced glucose uptake in adipocytes independently of insulin signalling. Such mechanisms can contribute to the development of insulin resistance associated with BPA exposure.
Publication Date: 2020-09-26
PvuII and XbaI in Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Endometriosis Risk.
Studies have shown that variants in PvuII and XbaI loci are associated with the occurrence and progression of endometriosis (EM), while the results were in great debate.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the role of PvuII and XbaI polymor-phisms in estrogen receptors (ESR1). The primary sources of the reviewed studies through December 2018, with restriction on the language of English and Chinese, were Pubmed and Embase and CNKI. The pooled odds ratio 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of Pvull and Xbal polymorphisms with the risk of EM by using the STATA 14.0 software.
A total of 18 studies with 4,975 patients, 2,222 in the case group, 2,753 in the control group, were in the final analysis. Overall pooled outcomes did not indicate significant correlations between the ESR1 Pvull/Xbal polymorphisms and the EM development. In subgroup analysis, PvuII was associated with endometriosis only for stage I - III and only under a recessive model (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.07; p = 0.03). Xbal was associated with endometriosis only for the non-PCR-RFLP genotype method and also only under a recessive model (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.21 to 4.47; p = 0.04).
This present meta-analysis reported that polymorphisms of PvuII or Xbal were not related to the susceptibility to EM except for a slight association of stage I-III endometriosis and non-PCR-RFLP under recessive model. Future, well-designed large studies are eagerly awaited to confirm our conclusions.
Publication Date: 2020-08-11
Journal: Clinical laboratory
Exposure to phthalates impaired neurodevelopment through estrogenic effects and induced DNA damage in neurons.
Phthalates are commonly used in plastic products in daily life. The endocrine-disrupting effects of phthalates have been widely reported. Accumulating evidence from human cohorts and lab animals indicate exposure to phthalates might impair neurodevelopment. However, the direct causal relationship and mechanism between phthalates with neurodevelopment and neurotoxicity have not been firmly established. We found that phthalates (i.e. DBP, DINP, BBP) disrupted the expression of estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b), and impaired neurogenesis in the brain of zebrafish during embryonic development. Moreover, the abnormal expression of estrogen receptors, especially esr2a, was partly rescued in zebrafish which exposed to phthalates, with the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Hence, impaired neurogenesis of zebrafish exposed to phthalates was partly reversed by tamoxifen treatment. Moreover, our results show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived human neurons exposed to phthalates triggered double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. Overall, this study demonstrates that exposure to phthalates affects neurodevelopment in zebrafish embryos and induces neurotoxicity in human neurons partly through disrupting the expression of estrogen receptors.
Publication Date: 2020-03-18
Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Onset of calciotropic receptors during the initiation of mandibular/alveolar bone formation.
Mandibular/alveolar (m/a) bone, as a component of the periodontal apparatus, allows for the proper tooth anchorage and function of dentition. Bone formation around the tooth germs starts prenatally and, in the mouse model, the mesenchymal condensation turns into a complex vascularized bone (containing osteo-blasts, -cytes, -clasts) within only two days. This very short but critical period is characterized by synchronized cellular and molecular events. The m/a bone, as others, is subjected to endocrine regulations. This not only requires vasculature to allow the circulation of active molecules (ligands), but also the expression of corresponding cell receptors to define target tissues. This contribution aimed at following the dynamics of calciotropic receptors´ expression during morphological transformation of a mesenchymal condensation into the initial m/a bone structure. Receptors for all three calciotropic systemic regulators: parathormone, calcitonin and activated vitamin D (calcitriol), were localized on serial histological sections using immunochemistry and their relative expression was quantified by q-PCR. The onset of calciotropic receptors was followed along with bone cell differentiation (as checked using osteocalcin, sclerostin, RANK and TRAP) and vascularization (CD31) during mouse prenatal/embryonic (E) days 13-15 and 18. Additionally, the timing of calciotropic receptor appearance was compared with that of estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2). PTH receptor (PTH1r) appeared in the bone already at E13, when the first osteocalcin-positive cells were detected within the mesenchymal condensation forming the bone anlage. At this stage, blood vessels were only lining the condensation. At E14, the osteoblasts started to express the receptor for activated vitamin D (VDR). At this stage, the vasculature just penetrated the forming bone. On the same day, the first TRAP-positive (but not yet multinucleated) osteoclastic cells were identified. However, calcitonin receptor was detected only one day later. The first Sost-positive osteocytes, present at E15, were PTH1r and VDR positive. ESR1 almost copied the expression pattern of PTH1r, and ESR2 appearance was similar with VDR with a significant increase between E15 and E18. This report focuses on the in vivo situation and links morphological transformation of the mesenchymal cell condensation into a bone structure with dynamics of cell differentiation/maturation, vascularization and onset of receptors for calciotropic endocrine signalling in developing m/a bone.
Publication Date: 2019-10-16
Journal: Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Equine chorionic gonadotropin increases estradiol levels in the bovine oviduct and drives the transcription of genes related to fertilization in superstimulated cows.
In the bovine oviduct, estradiol (E2) stimulates secretion and cell proliferation, whereas progesterone (P4) suppresses them. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of two superstimulatory protocols (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] or FSH combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin [eCG]) on the oviductal levels of E2 and P4 and its outcome on oviductal cells. Compared with the control group (a single pre-ovulatory follicle), we have observed that the cows submitted to FSH/eCG treatment showed a higher concentration of E2 in the oviduct tissue, together with a higher abundance of messenger RNA encoding steroid receptors (ESR1 and progesterone receptor), and genes linked to gamete interactions and regulation of polyspermy (oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1, heat-shock protein family A member 5, α-l-fucosidase 1 [FUCA1], and FUCA2) in the infundibulum and ampulla segments of the oviduct. However, we did not observe any modulation of gene expression in the isthmus segment. Even though the FSH protocol upregulated some of the genes analyzed, we may infer that the steady effect of FSH combined with eCG on oviduct regulation might benefit fertilization and may potentially increase pregnancy rates.
Publication Date: 2019-07-30
Journal: Molecular reproduction and development
A human-derived prostate co-culture microtissue model using epithelial (RWPE-1) and stromal (WPMY-1) cell lines.
The development and normal function of prostate tissue depends on signalling interactions between stromal and epithelial compartments. Development of a prostate microtissue composed of these two components can help identify substance exposures that could cause adverse effects in humans as part of a non-animal risk assessment. In this study, prostate microtissues composed of human derived stromal (WPMY-1) and epithelial (RWPE-1) cell lines grown in scaffold-free hydrogels were developed and characterized using immunohistochemistry, light microscopy, and qRT-PCR. Within 5 days after seeding, the microtissues self-organized into spheroids consisting of a core of stromal WPMY-1 cells surrounded by epithelial RWPE-1 cells. The RWPE-1 layer is reflective of intermediate prostatic epithelium, expressing both characteristics of the luminal (high expression of PSA) and basal (high expression of cytokeratins 5/6 and 14) epithelial cells. The response of the microtissues to an androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and an anti-androgen (flutamide) was also investigated. Treatment with DHT, flutamide or a mixture of DHT and flutamide indicated that the morphology and self-organization of the microtissues is androgen dependent. qRT-PCR data showed that a saturating concentration of DHT increased the expression of genes coding for the estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and decreased the expression of CYP1B1 without affecting the expression of the androgen receptor. With further development and optimization RWPE-1/WPMY-1 microtissues can play an important role in non-animal risk assessments.
Publication Date: 2019-06-04
Journal: Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
Establishment of three estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b) knockout lines for functional study in Nile tilapia.
Estrogens play fundamental roles in regulating reproductive activities and they act through estrogen receptors (ESRs) in all vertebrates. To date, distinct roles of estrogen receptors have been characterized only in human and model organisms, including mouse, rat, zebrafish and medaka. Physiological role of estrogen/receptor signaling in reproduction remains poorly defined in non-model organisms. In the present study, we successfully generated esr1, esr2a and esr2b mutant lines in tilapia by CRISPR/Cas9 and examined their phenotypes. Surprisingly, the esr1 mutants showed no phenotypes of reproductive development and function in both females and males. The esr2a mutant females showed significantly delayed ovarian development and follicle growth at 90 and 180 dah, and the development caught up later at 360 dah. The esr2a mutant males showed no phenotypes at 90 dah, and displayed smaller gonads and efferent ducts, less spermatogonia and more abnormal sperms at 180 dah. In contrast, the esr2b mutants displayed abnormal development of ovarian ducts and efferent ducts which failed to connect to the genital orifice, and which in turn, resulted in infertility in female and male, respectively, although they produced gametes in their gonads. Taken together, our study provides evidence for differential functions of esr1, esr2a and esr2b in fish reproduction.
Publication Date: 2019-05-13
Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
Morphological changes of telocytes in camel efferent ductules in response to seasonal variations during the reproductive cycle.
Telocytes (TCs) are a distinct stromal cell type described in many organs. The present study investigated the existence of TCs within the efferent ductules in camel and the changes that occur in their morphology and activity during active and inactive reproductive seasons. TCs in the camel had a cell body and multiple telopodes (TPs), and most TCs had indented nuclei that exhibited prominent intranucleolar chromatin. TCs exhibited seasonal differences which were evaluated by histochemistry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), Transimition electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of TCs in camel efferent ductules has been confirmed by CD34 positive immunostaing. In addition to the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which was stronger in the summer season. TCs exhibited stronger immunoreactivity for progesterone and oestrogen alpha receptors (ESR1) in the spring than in the summer. In addition, TCs showed strong positive immunostaining for both vimentin and androgen receptor (AR). Several ultrastructural changes were observed in TCs during the two seasons. TPs in the summer season had delicate ramifications whereas, in the spring, TPs displayed fine arborization and became more corrugated. TCs acquired signs of exaggerated secretory activities in the spring; TPs became expanded and packed with secretory vesicles. Thus, we conclude that, hormonal alterations during the reproductive cycle impact the morphology and secretory behavior of TCs.
Publication Date: 2019-03-16
Journal: Scientific reports
Sex hormones modulate pathogenic processes in experimental traumatic brain injury.
Clinical and animal studies have revealed sex-specific differences in histopathological and neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The impact of perioperative administration of sex steroid inhibitors on TBI is still elusive. Here, we subjected male and female C57Bl/6N mice to the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI and applied pharmacological inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis, that is, letrozole (LET, inhibiting estradiol synthesis by aromatase) and finasteride (FIN, inhibiting dihydrotestosterone synthesis by 5α-reductase), respectively, starting 72 h prior CCI, and continuing for a further 48 h after CCI. Initial gene expression analyses showed that androgen (Ar) and estrogen receptors (Esr1) were sex-specifically altered 72 h after CCI. When examining brain lesion size, we found larger lesions in male than in female mice, but did not observe effects of FIN or LET treatment. However, LET treatment exacerbated neurological deficits 24 and 72 h after CCI. On the molecular level, FIN administration reduced calpain-dependent spectrin breakdown products, a proxy of excitotoxicity and disturbed Ca
Publication Date: 2019-02-23
Journal: Journal of neurochemistry
Plasticity of Lh cells caused by cell proliferation and recruitment of existing cells.
Luteinizing hormone (Lh) and follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) control reproduction in vertebrates. Using a transgenic line of medaka, in which green fluorescent protein expression is controlled by the endogenous lhb promotor, we studied development and plasticity of Lh cells, comparing juveniles and adults of both genders. Confocal imaging and 3D reconstruction revealed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of Lh cells in both genders from juvenile to adult stages. We show that Lh cell hyperplasia may be caused by recruitment of existing pituitary cells that start to produce lhb, as evidenced by time lapse recordings of primary pituitary cell cultures, and/or through Lh cell proliferation, demonstrated through a combination of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incubation experiments and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. Proliferating Lh cells do not belong to the classical type of multipotent stem cells, as they do not stain with anti-sox2. Estradiol exposure in vivo increased pituitary cell proliferation, particularly Lh cells, whereas pituitary lhb and gpa expression levels decreased. RNA-seq and in situ hybridization showed that Lh cells express two estrogen receptors, esr1 and esr2b, and the aromatase gene cyp19a1b, suggesting a direct effect of estradiol, and possibly androgens, on Lh cell proliferation. In conclusion, our study reveals a high degree of plasticity in the medaka Lh cell population, resulting from a combination of recruitment and cell proliferation.
Publication Date: 2018-12-30
Journal: The Journal of endocrinology
Association between polymorphisms in genes encoding estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and excreted bisphenol A levels after orthodontic bracket bonding: a preliminary study.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is released from orthodontic composites used for bracket bonding. Genetic variations could modify the metabolism of this chemical within the organism. Considering that free BPA binds to estrogen receptors causing harmful effects to health, the present in vivo study aimed to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and excreted BPA levels in orthodontic patients.
Quantification of BPA levels in the urine of 16 patients was performed in a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer before (T0), at 24 h (T1), and 1 week (T2) after bracket bonding. DNA was extracted from saliva, and one genetic polymorphism in ESR1 (rs2234693) and two in ESR2 (rs4986938 and rs1256049) were analyzed by real-time PCR. Increases in BPA levels in the urine at T1 and T2 were grouped according to the genotype, and mean differences were compared by unpaired T test or Mann-Whitney test according to the normality of the data. The established alpha was 5%.
BPA levels increased significantly at T1 and T2. There were no statistically significant differences in the increases in BPA levels according to the genotype for any genetic polymorphism (P > 0.05), at neither 24 h nor 1 week after bracket bonding.
The results suggested that there are no association between excreted BPA levels after bracket bonding and the evaluated genetic polymorphisms in ESR1 and ESR2. Further research should be performed in order to confirm these results.
Publication Date: 2018-07-03
Journal: Progress in orthodontics
Beta-Estradiol Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Estrogen Receptors in Telocytes from Human Myometrium.
Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs) contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy. For this purpose, we employed patch-clamp recordings, ratiometric Fura-2-based calcium imaging analysis, and qRT-PCR techniques for the analysis of cultured human myometrial TCs derived from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine samples. In human myometrial TCs from both non-pregnant and pregnant uterus, we evidenced by qRT-PCR the presence of genes encoding for voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav3.1, Ca3.2, Cav3.3, Cav2.1), estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2, GPR30), and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3). Pregnancy significantly upregulated Cav3.1 and downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, ESR1, ESR2, and NCOA3, compared to the non-pregnant condition. Beta-estradiol treatment (24 h, 10, 100, 1000 nM) downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Cav1.2, ESR1, ESR2, GRP30, and NCOA3 in TCs from human pregnant uterine myometrium. We also confirmed the functional expression of voltage-gated calcium channels by patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging analysis of TCs from pregnant human myometrium by perfusing with BAY K8644, which induced calcium influx through these channels. Additionally, we demonstrated that beta-estradiol (1000 nM) antagonized the effect of BAY K8644 (2.5 or 5 µM) in the same preparations. In conclusion, we evidenced the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from non-pregnant and pregnant human uterine myometrium and their gene expression regulation by beta-estradiol in pregnant conditions. Further exploration of the calcium signaling in TCs and its modulation by estrogen hormones will contribute to the understanding of labor and pregnancy mechanisms and to the development of effective strategies to reduce the risk of premature birth.
Publication Date: 2018-05-12
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences