pubmed > ESR1 > rs9340799 > 2d 4d
Association of exposure to prenatal phthalate esters and bisphenol A and polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene with the second to fourth digit ratio in school-aged children: Data from the Hokkaido study.
Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) may contribute to the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D), which is considered an index of prenatal exposure to sex hormones. Thus, we investigated whether ESR1 polymorphisms modify the effects of prenatal exposure to phthalates and BPA on 2D:4D in a birth cohort. Maternal serum in the first trimester was used to determine prenatal exposure to these compounds. Six hundred twenty-three children (7 years of age) provided mean 2D:4D from photocopies and were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1, particularly PvuII (T > C, dbSNP: rs2234693), XbaI (A > G, dbSNP: rs9340799), and rs2077647 (A > G). The associations among compound exposure, mean 2D:4D, and ESR1 polymorphisms were assessed by multiple linear regression adjusted for potential cofounding factors. Boys with the AG/GG genotype at rs2077647 in the group exposed to high levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) or Σ Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed feminized 2D:4D compared with boys with the AA genotype at rs2077647 who had low exposure to MEHP or ΣDEHP (MEHP: increase in mean 2D:4D of 1.51%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-2.63; ΣDEHP: increase in mean 2D:4D of 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.25-2.49). No significant differences were found among girls. There were no associations between mean 2D:4D and metabolites other than MEHP or BPA. These data suggest that ESR1 polymorphisms modify the effects of prenatal exposure to DEHP on mean 2D:4D among boys.
Publication Date: 2020-03-14
Association between ESR1 polymorphisms and second to fourth digit ratio in school-aged children in the Hokkaido Study.
The ratio of the lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is considered an index of prenatal exposure to androgen. Indeed, androgen receptors have been linked to digit length, but estrogen receptors are rarely investigated in this context. Thus, we investigated the association between estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genetic polymorphisms and 2D:4D in school-aged children. The 2D:4D ratios were determined using Vernier calipers from photocopies of palms provided by 1800 children aged 7 years who were enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study in Hokkaido, Japan. The children were genotyped using cord blood collected at birth for single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1, specifically PvuII (T > C, dbSNP: rs2234693), XbaI (A > G, dbSNP: rs9340799), and rs2077647 (A > G). The association between ESR1 polymorphisms and 2D:4D was assessed by multiple linear regression adjusted for potential cofounding factors. Boys with the GG genotype at rs9340799 had a significantly lower 2D:4D in the right hand than boys with the AA/AG genotype (-0.96% lower, 95% confidence interval: -1.68 to -0.24). However, this association was detected only in boys born to non-smoking mothers. No significant differences were found between rs9340799 polymorphisms and 2D:4D among girls. There was also no link between 2D:4D and polymorphisms at rs2234693 and rs2077647. These data suggest that rs9340799 polymorphisms in ESR1 may contribute to digit length and 2D:4D.
Publication Date: 2018-11-24