Factors associated with treatment response to CD19 CAR-T therapy among a large cohort of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has demonstrated striking responses among B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but analyses of potential factors associated with poor response and relapse are lacking. Here, we summarize the long-term follow-up of 254 B-ALL treated with CD19 CAR-T cells from 5 clinical trials (NCT03173417, NCT02546739, and NCT03671460 retrospectively registered on May 23, 2017, March 1, 2018, and September 7, 2018, respectively, at www.clinicaltrials.gov ; ChiCTR-ONC-17012829, and ChiCTR1800016541 retrospectively registered on September 28, 2017, and June 7, 2018, at www.chictr.org.cn ). Our data showed that TP53 mutation, bone marrow blasts > 20%, prior CAR-T/blinatumomab treatment, and severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) were associated with a lower complete remission (CR) rate while age, extramedullary disease, complex cytogenetics, history of prior transplant, prior courses of chemotherapy, CAR-T cell dose, and manufacturing source of the cellular product did not affect patients' CR rate. Risk factors related to leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were history of prior transplant, complex cytogenetics, TP53 mutation, severe CRS, neurotoxicity, and CAR-T therapy without consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Age and CAR-T cell dose did not influence LFS and OS. Patients with consolidative allo-HSCT after CAR-T therapy had a superior OS and LFS compared to those who did not. This benefit was also observed in both pediatric and adult patients as well as in patients either in high- or low-risk groups. This large study to identify risk factors of CR, LFS, and OS may help to maximize clinical outcomes of CAR-T therapy. Précis TP53 mutation and BM blasts > 20% are two independent factors associated with the CR rate. Patients with high tumor burden as well as those with bone marrow blasts < 5% can benefit from consolidative allo-HSCT post-CAR-T therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-09
Journal: Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
Development of TP53 mutations over the course of therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: American journal of hematology
Comprehensive Analysis of the Value of SMYD Family Members in the Prognosis and Immune Infiltration of Malignant Digestive System Tumors.
The SET and MYND domain-containing (SMYD) gene family comprises a set of genes encoding lysine methyltransferases. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the expression levels of SMYD family members and the prognosis and immune infiltration of malignant tumors of the digestive system.
The Oncomine, Ualcan, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal, Metascape, and TIMER databases and tools were used to analyze the correlation of SMYD family mRNA expression, clinical stage, TP53 mutation status, prognostic value, gene mutation, and immune infiltration in patients with esophageal carcinoma (ESCA), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD).
In ESCA, the mRNA expression of SMYD2/3/4/5 was significantly correlated with the incidence rate, that of SMYD2/3 with the clinical stage, that of SMYD2/3/4/5 with TP53 mutation status, that of SMYD2/4/5 with overall survival (OS), and that of SMYD1/2/3/4 with relapse-free survival (RFS). In LIHC, the mRNA expression of SMYD1/2/3/4/5 was significantly correlated with the incidence rate, that of SMYD2/4/5 with the clinical stage, that of SMYD3/5 with TP53 mutation status, that of SMYD2/3/4/5 with OS, and that of SMYD3/5 with RFS. In STAD, the mRNA expression of SMYD2/3/4/5 was significantly correlated with the incidence rate, that of SMYD1/4 with the clinical stage, that of SMYD1/2/3/5 with TP53 mutation status, that of SMYD1/3/4 with OS, and that of SMYD1/3 with RFS. Furthermore, the function of SMYD family mutation-related genes in ESCA, LIHC, and STAD patients was mainly related to pathways, such as mitochondrial gene expression, mitochondrial matrix, and mitochondrial translation. The expression of SMYD family genes was significantly correlated with the infiltration of six immune cell types and eight types of immune check sites.
SMYD family genes are differentially expressed and frequently mutated in malignant tumors of the digestive system (ESCA, LIHC, and gastric cancer). They are potential markers for prognostic prediction and have important significance in immunity and targeted therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-08-03
Journal: Frontiers in genetics
TP53 mutations in circulating tumor DNA in advanced epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib.
Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is a tumor suppressor gene and TP53 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the in-depth classification of TP53 and its relationship with treatment response and prognosis in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant tumors treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are unclear. Circulating tumor DNA was prospectively collected at baseline in advanced treatment-naïve EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with gefitinib in an open-label, single-arm, prospective, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial (BENEFIT trial) and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 180 enrolled patients, 115 (63.9%) harbored TP53 mutations. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with TP53-wild type tumors were significantly longer than those of patients with TP53-mutant tumors. Mutations in exons 5-8 accounted for 80.9% of TP53 mutations. Mutations in TP53 exons 6 and 7 were significantly associated with inferior PFS and OS compared to wild-type TP53. TP53 mutation also influenced the prognosis of patients with different EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 and EGFR exon 19 mutations had significantly longer PFS and OS than patients with TP53 and EGFR L858R mutations, and both groups had worse survival than patients with only EGFR mutations. Patients with TP53 mutations, especially in exons 6 and 7, had a lower response rate and shorter PFS and OS when treated with gefitinib. Moreover, TP53 exon 5 mutation divided TP53 mutations in disruptive and non-disruptive types.
Publication Date: 2021-07-01
Journal: Translational oncology
Genomic Sequencing and Insight into Clinical Heterogeneity and Prognostic Pathway Genes in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFβ, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer.
Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFβ, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFβ, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years.
Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Prognostic significance of p53, Sox11, and Pax5 co-expression in mantle cell lymphoma.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To identify molecular biomarkers in MCL, we performed immunohistochemistry tissue arrays using biopsies from 64 MCL patients diagnosed in West China Hospital from 2012 to 2016. TP53 mutation status in those patients was also examined by sequencing. The sequencing results showed TP53 mutations were highly heterogeneous in MCL. We identified four novel TP53 mutations in MCL: P151R, G199R, V218E, and G325R. The MCL patients with TP53 mutations had inferior progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.011). Tissue array results showed the expression of p53, Sox11, or Pax5 alone did not correlate with the patient PFS and OS. However, the MCL patients with triple-positive expression of p53/Sox11/Pax5 had inferior PFS (p = 0.008) and OS (p = 0.002). Such risk stratification was independent to the mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index (MIPI), Ki-67 value, and TP53 mutation status of the patients. The triple-positive patients might represent a subtype of high-risk MCL. Our findings might indicate a novel way to stratify MCL and predict patients' prognosis.
Publication Date: 2021-06-09
Journal: Scientific reports
Features and impacts on the prognosis of gene mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
To explore features and impacts on the prognosis of common gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we assessed mutated status as well as variant allele frequency (VAF) of 24 genes in 81 AML patients by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Eighty-six percentages of patients showed at least one mutation. Mutation in BCOR was associated with lower complete remission (CR) rate, whereas double mutation in CEBPA was associated with a favorable odds ratio for CR achievement. TP53 mutation was associated with inferior overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed the negative effect of adverse cytogenetic abnormalities on survival. Mutation in RUNX1 and ZRSR2 had negative impacts on OS in patients with wild-type TP53. VAF of SRSF2 mutation was observed negatively correlated with OS. In conclusion, our study suggested that mutations in BCOR and spliceosomes might predict worse outcomes, and VAF of gene mutations may play a crucial role in outcomes of AML patients.
Publication Date: 2021-05-18
TP53 mutation and MET amplification in circulating tumor DNA analysis predict disease progression in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer (GC) is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses various molecular subtypes. The molecular mutation characteristics of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), especially the clinical utility of TP53 mutation and MET amplification in ctDNA need to be further explored.
The aim of this study was mainly to assess the clinical utility of TP53 mutation and MET amplification in ctDNA as biomarkers for monitoring disease progression of AGC.
We used multigene NGS-panel technology to study the characteristics of ctDNA gene mutations and screen the key mutant genes in AGC patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival probability and log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves of TP53 mutation and MET amplification in ctDNA of AGC patients. The survival time was set from the blood test time to the follow-up time to observe the relationship between the monitoring index and tumor prognosis.
We performed mutation detection on ctDNA in 23 patients with AGC and identified the top 20 mutant genes. The five most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (55%), EGFR (20%), ERBB2 (20%), MET (15%) and APC (10%). TP53 was the most common mutated gene (55%) and MET had a higher frequency of mutations (15%) in our study. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with TP53 mutant in ctDNA had shorter overall survival (OS) than these with TP53 wild (
TP53 and MET are the two common frequently mutant genes in ctDNA of AGC patients.TP53 mutation and MET amplification in ctDNA could predict disease progression of AGC patients.
Publication Date: 2021-05-08
Treatment Patterns and Survival of Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Guided by Comprehensive Genomic Profiling: Real-World Single-Institute Study in China.
Although the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend comprehensive genomic profiling of lung adenocarcinoma, it has not been widely applied in Chinese hospitals. This observational study aimed to determine real-world evidence of whether comprehensive genomic profiling can benefit the survival of patients with lung cancer. We investigated the frequency of genomic alterations, treatment strategies, and clinical outcomes in 233 patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma who were routinely screened using a 508-gene panel. The most prevalent drivers were mutations of EGFR (51%), KRAS (9%), PIK3CA (7%), ALK (7%), MET (6%), and BRAF (5%). Mutations in tumor suppressor genes included TP53, KEAP1, RB1, PTEN, and APC. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly shorter among patients harboring KRAS (mutant, n = 17; WT, n = 154) and TP53 (mutant, n = 103; WT n =68) mutations (11.3
Publication Date: 2021-03-30
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Prognostic impact of the adverse molecular-genetic profile on long-term outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia.
The impact of adverse risk genetic profiles on outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we have profiled somatic mutations at diagnosis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 178 AML patients who received allogeneic HCT. NGS revealed 598 somatic mutations in 165/178 patients (92.7%). Frequently mutated genes include DNMT3A, TET2, NPM1, RUNX1, IDH2, and FLT3. Commonly detected cytogenetic profiles include normal karyotype, trisomy 8, monosomal karyotype (MK), deletion 5, complex karyotype (CK), and monosomy 7. In univariate analyses, TP53 mutation, MK, CK, and monosomy 7 were associated with decreased overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and a higher relapse incidence (RI). We defined adverse molecular-genetic profile as harboring at least one of the molecular/genetic abnormalities of TP53 mutation, MK, CK, monosomy 7, and deletion 5. The patients harboring adverse molecular-genetic profile (n = 30) showed a lower 2-year OS (24.9% vs. 57.9%; p = 0.003), RFS (23.7% vs. 57.9%; p = 0.002), and higher RI (47.2% and 17.2%; p = 0.001) after HCT when compared to patients without those lesions. Multivariate analysis confirmed adverse molecular-genetic profile as an independent prognostic factor, associated with decreased OS (HR 2.19), RFS (HR 2.23), and higher RI (HR 2.94).
Publication Date: 2021-03-27
Journal: Bone marrow transplantation
Genetic Determinants of Outcome in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.
Genetic alterations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) are increasingly well-characterized, but their impact on outcome and prognosis remain unknown.
This bi-institutional study of patients with confirmed iCCA (n=412) used targeted next-generation sequencing of primary tumors to define associations among genetic alterations, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. The most common oncogenic alterations were IDH1 (20%), ARID1A (20%), TP53 (17%), CDKN2A (15%), BAP1 (15%), FGFR2 (15%), PBRM1 (12%), and KRAS (10%). IDH1/2 mutations (mut) were mutually exclusive with FGFR2 fusions (fus), but neither was associated with outcome. For all patients, TP53 (p<0.0001), KRAS (p=0.0001), and CDKN2A (p<0.0001) alterations predicted worse overall survival (OS). These high-risk alterations were enriched in advanced disease but adversely impacted survival across all stages, even when controlling for known correlates of outcome (multifocal disease, lymph node involvement, bile duct type, periductal infiltration). In resected patients (n=209), TP53mut (HR=1.82, 95%CI=1.08-3.06, p=0.03) and CDKN2A deletions (del) (HR=3.40, 95%CI=1.95-5.94, p<0.001) independently predicted shorter OS, as did high-risk clinical variables (multifocal liver disease [p<0.001]; regional lymph node metastases [p<0.001]), whereas KRASmut (HR=1.69, 95%CI=0.97-2.93, p=0.06) trended toward statistical significance. The presence of both or neither high-risk clinical or genetic factors represented outcome extremes (median OS=18.3 vs. 74.2 months, p<0.001), with high-risk genetic alterations alone (median OS=38.6 months, 95%CI=28.8-73.5) or high-risk clinical variables alone (median OS=37.0 months, 95%CI=27.6-NA) associated with intermediate outcome. TP53mut, KRASmut, and CDKN2Adel similarly predicted worse outcome in patients with unresectable iCCA. CDKN2Adel tumors with high-risk clinical features were notable for limited survival and no benefit of resection over chemotherapy.
TP53, KRAS, and CDKN2A alterations were independent prognostic factors in iCCA when controlling for clinical and pathologic variables, disease stage, and treatment. Since genetic profiling can be integrated into pre-treatment therapeutic decision-making, combining clinical variables with targeted tumor sequencing may identify patient subgroups with poor outcome irrespective of treatment strategy.
Publication Date: 2021-03-26
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
Integrative analysis of multi-omics data highlighted TP53 as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of survival in breast invasive carcinoma patients.
The global incidence of breast invasive carcinoma (BRIC) has risen significantly in recent years, so it is important to identify the novel biomarkers for the early detection and treatment of BRIC. The role of the TP53 gene is well studied in the pathogenesis of BRIC but still, observations are conflicting. Therefore, this study was initiated to have a consolidated overview of TP53 contributions in the BRIC initiation and progression by analyzing its mutatome, expression variations, promoter methylation level, clinical outcome, and drug sensitivity analysis in BRIC using cBioPortal, UALCAN, KM plotter, and CCLE GDSC toolkit database. Mutatome analysis revealed that TP53 was mutated in 30 % BRIC cases and among all the noted mutations, missense and truncation mutation were noticed as the most frequent mutations and thought to be involved in the up-regulation of TP53 expression. TP53 transcription, translation, and promoter methylation levels in BRIC patients of various clinicopathological features were high relative to the normal controls. Kaplan Meier overall survival (OS) analysis revealed a good prognostic value of TP53 overexpression for the survival in BRIC patients. Moreover, TP53 overexpression was found to alter the effectiveness of various drugs used in the chemotherapy of BRIC. Collectively, our findings suggested that TP53 might be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for the survival in BRIC patients of various clinicopathological features.
Publication Date: 2021-02-21
Journal: Computational biology and chemistry
PTEN Loss as a Predictor of Tumor Heterogeneity and Poor Prognosis in Patients With EGFR-mutant Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Receiving Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Rapid disease progression of patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been recently associated with tumor heterogeneity, which may be mirrored by coexisting concomitant alterations. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the correlation between loss of function of PTEN and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this population.
Archival tumor blocks from patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC who were administered upfront tyrosine kinase inhibitors were retrospectively collected. The status of 4 genes (PTEN, TP53, c-MET, IGFR) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and it was correlated with overall response rate, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS).
Fifty-one patients were included. In multivariate analysis, PTEN loss (hazard ratio [HR], 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-7.66; P = .002), IGFR overexpression (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.03-4.77; P = .04), liver metastases (HR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.46-8.65; P = .005), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥ 1 (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.04-6.34; P = .04) were significantly associated with shorter PFS. Patients with PTEN loss had a median PFS of 6 months (2-year PFS, 11.6%), whereas patients without PTEN loss had a median PFS of 18 months (2-year PFS, 43.6%) (log-rank P < .005). In the multivariate analysis, PTEN loss (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 2.37-14.81; P < .005), liver metastases (HR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.06-6.51; P = .037), and ECOG PS ≥ 1 (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.15-6.81; P = .024) were significantly associated with shorter OS. Patients with PTEN loss had a median OS of 6 months (2-year OS, 12.2%), whereas in patients without PTEN loss, OS was not reached (2-year OS, 63.9%) (log-rank P < .0005).
A low-cost and reproducible immunohistochemistry assay for PTEN loss analysis represents a potential tool for identifying tumor heterogeneity in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
Publication Date: 2021-02-10
Journal: Clinical lung cancer
Mutated p53 portends improvement in outcomes when bevacizumab is combined with chemotherapy in advanced/recurrent endometrial cancer: An NRG Oncology study.
Successfully combining targeted agents with chemotherapy is an important future goal for cancer therapy. However, an improvement in patient outcomes requires an enhanced understanding of the tumor biomarkers that predict for drug sensitivity. NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Study GOG-86P was one of the first attempts to combine targeted agents (bevacizumab or temsirolimus) with chemotherapy in patients with advanced endometrial cancer. Herein we performed exploratory analyses to examine the relationship between mutations in TP53, the most commonly mutated gene in cancer, with outcomes on GOG-86P.
TP53 mutational status was determined and correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) on GOG-86P.
Mutations in TP53 were associated with improved PFS and OS for patients that received bevacizumab as compared to temsirolimus (PFS: HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31, 0.75; OS: HR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.38, 0.98). By contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in PFS or OS between arms for cases with WT TP53.
This exploratory study suggests that combining chemotherapy with bevacizumab, but not temsirolimus, may enhance PFS and OS for patients whose tumors harbor mutant p53. These data set the stage for larger clinical studies evaluating the potential of TP53 mutational status as a biomarker to guide choice of treatment for endometrial cancer patients. Clintrials.gov: NCT00977574.
Publication Date: 2021-02-06
Journal: Gynecologic oncology
Molecular and immunophenotypic characterization of anal squamous cell carcinoma reveals distinct clinicopathologic groups associated with HPV and TP53 mutation status.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is the most common malignancy of the anal canal, where it is strongly associated with HPV infection. Characteristic genomic alterations have been identified in anal SqCC, but their clinical significance and correlation with HPV status, pathologic features, and immunohistochemical markers are not well established. We examined the molecular and clinicopathologic features of 96 HPV-positive and 20 HPV-negative anal SqCC. HPV types included 89 with HPV16, 2 combined HPV16/HPV18, and 5 HPV33. HPV-positive cases demonstrated frequent mutations or amplifications in PIK3CA (30%; p = 0.027) or FBXW7 mutations (10%). HPV-negativity was associated with frequent TP53 (53%; p = 0.00001) and CDKN2A (21%; p = 0.0045) mutations. P16 immunohistochemistry was positive in all HPV-positive cases and 3/20 HPV-negative cases (p < 0.0001; sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 85%) and was associated with basaloid morphology (p = 0.0031). Aberrant p53 immunohistochemical staining was 100% sensitive and specific for TP53 mutation (p < 0.0001). By the Kaplan-Meier method, HPV-negativity, aberrant p53 staining, and TP53 mutation were associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0103, p = 0.0103, respectively) and inferior recurrence-free survival (p = 0.133, p = 0.0064, and p = 0.0064, respectively). TP53/p53 status stratified survival probability by HPV status (p = 0.013), with HPV-negative/aberrant p53 staining associated with the worst OS, HPV-positive/wild-type p53 with best OS, and HPV-positive/aberrant p53 or HPV-negative/wild-type p53 with intermediate OS. On multivariate analysis HPV status (p = 0.0063), patient age (p = 0.0054), T stage (p = 0.039), and lymph node involvement (p = 0.044) were independently associated with OS. PD-L1 expression (CPS ≥ 1) was seen in 30% of HPV-positive and 40% of HPV-negative cases, and PD-L1 positivity was associated with a trend toward inferior OS within the HPV-negative group (p = 0.064). Our findings suggest that anal SqCC can be subclassified into clinically, pathologically, and molecularly distinct groups based on HPV and TP53 mutation status, and p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry represent a clinically useful method of predicting these prognostic groups.
Publication Date: 2021-01-24
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Alterations in TP53 Are a Potential Biomarker of Bladder Cancer Patients Who Benefit From Immune Checkpoint Inhibition.
In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting CTLA-4 or PD1/PDL1 have achieved remarkable success in the treatment of bladder cancer (BLCA), but only a few patients have shown durable clinical benefits. The prognostic role of a mutant form of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 (TP53-MT) in predicting the efficacy of ICIs is highly controversial; therefore, in this study, we obtained data for 210 patients from an immunotherapy cohort, 412 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-BLCA cohort and 18 BLCA cell lines from Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC), and we performed integrated bioinformatic analysis to explore the relationships between TP53-MT and clinical benefits derived from ICI treatment and the underlying mechanisms. We conclude that TP53-MT is a potential indicator of a relatively good response to ICIs and associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) (log-rank test, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-0.99], p = 0.041). Through integrated analysis with several platforms, we found that TP53-MT patients were more likely to benefit from ICIs than wild-type P53 (TP53-WT) patients, which may be the result of 2 major mechanisms. First, the patients with TP53-MT showed stronger tumor antigenicity and tumor antigen presentation, as indicated by a higher tumor mutational load, a higher neoantigen load and increased expression of MHC; second, the antitumor immunity preexisting in tumors was stronger in samples with TP53-MT than in those with TP53-WT, including enrichment of interferon-gamma, positive regulation of TNF secretion pathways and increased expression of some immunostimulatory molecules, such as CXCL9 and CXCL10. This study provided some clues for identifying patients who would potentially benefit from ICIs at the somatic genomic level, developing new indications for targeted second-generation sequencing and promoting the development of precision medicine.
Publication Date: 2020-12-29
Journal: Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Prognostic and therapeutic impacts of mutant TP53 variant allelic frequency in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.
TP53 mutations are associated with poor outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The prognostic impact of mutant TP53 (TP53mut) variant allelic frequency (VAF) is not well established, nor is how this information might guide optimal frontline therapy. We retrospectively analyzed 202 patients with newly diagnosed TP53-mutated AML who underwent first-line therapy with either a cytarabine- or hypomethylating agent (HMA)-based regimen. By multivariate analysis, TP53mut VAF >40% was independently associated with a significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P = .003) and worse relapse-free survival (P = .001) and overall survival (OS; P = .003). The impact of TP53mut VAF on clinical outcomes was driven by patients treated with a cytarabine-based regimen (median OS, 4.7 vs 7.3 months for VAF >40% vs ≤40%; P = .006), whereas VAF did not significantly affect OS in patients treated with HMA. The addition of venetoclax to HMA did not significantly affect OS compared with HMA without venetoclax, both in the entire TP53-mutated population and in patients stratified by TP53mut VAF. Among patients with TP53mut VAF ≤40%, OS was superior in those treated with higher-dose cytarabine, whereas OS was similarly poor for patients with TP53mut VAF >40% regardless of therapy. The best long-term outcomes were observed in those with 1 TP53 mutation with VAF ≤40% who received a frontline cytarabine-based regimen (2-year OS, 38% vs 6% for all others; P < .001). In summary, TP53mut VAF provides important prognostic information that may be considered when selecting frontline therapy for patients with newly diagnosed TP53-mutated AML.
Publication Date: 2020-11-20
Journal: Blood advances
SMARCA4 mutations in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma: a multi-cohort analysis.
KRAS is a key oncogenic driver in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Chromatin-remodeling gene SMARCA4 is comutated with KRAS in LUAD; however, the impact of SMARCA4 mutations on clinical outcome has not been adequately established. This study sought to shed light on the clinical significance of SMARCA4 mutations in LUAD. The association of SMARCA4 mutations with survival outcomes was interrogated in four independent cohorts totaling 564 patients: KRAS-mutant patients with LUAD who received nonimmunotherapy treatment from (a) The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and (b) the MSK-IMPACT Clinical Sequencing (MSK-CT) cohorts; and KRAS-mutant patients with LUAD who received immune checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy treatment from (c) the MSK-IMPACT (MSK-IO) and (d) the Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center (WFBCCC) immunotherapy cohorts. Of the patients receiving nonimmunotherapy treatment, in the TCGA cohort (n = 155), KRAS-mutant patients harboring SMARCA4 mutations (KS) showed poorer clinical outcome [P = 6e-04 for disease-free survival (DFS) and 0.031 for overall survival (OS), respectively], compared to KRAS-TP53 comutant (KP) and KRAS-only mutant (K) patients; in the MSK-CT cohort (n = 314), KS patients also exhibited shorter OS than KP (P = 0.03) or K (P = 0.022) patients. Of patients receiving immunotherapy, KS patients consistently exhibited the shortest progression-free survival (PFS; P = 0.0091) in the MSK-IO (n = 77), and the shortest PFS (P = 0.0026) and OS (P = 0.0014) in the WFBCCC (n = 18) cohorts, respectively. Therefore, mutations of SMARCA4 represent a genetic factor leading to adverse clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma treated by either nonimmunotherapy or immunotherapy.
Publication Date: 2020-10-28
Journal: Molecular oncology
Risk stratification of EGFR
Panel-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly used for the diagnosis of EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and could improve risk assessment in combination with clinical parameters.
To this end, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 400 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-treated EGFR
EGFR alterations other than exon 19 deletions (non-del19), TP53 co-mutations, and brain metastases at baseline showed independent associations of similar strengths with progression-free (PFS hazard ratios [HR] 2.1-2.3) and overall survival (OS HR 1.7-2.2), in combination defining patient subgroups with distinct outcome (EGFR
EGFR variant, TP53 status and brain metastases predict TKI efficacy and survival in EGFR
Publication Date: 2020-09-02
Journal: Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Stem signatures associated antibodies yield early diagnosis and precise prognosis predication of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
This study was designed to detect patients with early NSCLC with tentatively using the stem signatures associated autoantibodies (AAbs), and to evaluate its latent values in the early diagnosis and precise prognosis prediction.
The serum concentrations of selective antibodies were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a total of 458 cases were enrolled (training set = 401; validation set = 57). TCGA databases were used to analyze the distinct expressions and prognostic values of related genes. The optimal cut-off values were 11.60 U/ml for P53, 4.90 U/ml for MAGEA1, 3.85 U/ml for SOX2, and 7.05U/ml for PGP9.5.
We found that the stem signatures associated antibodies of MAGEA1, PGP9.5, SOX2, and TP53 exhibited high expressions in NSCLC, negatively correlating with the overall survival (OS) (P < 0.05). In the test groups, the diagnosis sensitivity of P53, PGP9.5, SOX2, and MAGEA1 reached to 21.5%, 39.0%, 50.3%, and 35.0%, respectively, and the specificity reached to 98.7%, 99.4%, 92.2%, and 97.4%. The four candidates' panel gave a sensitivity of 71.8% with a specificity of 89%. In the validation group, the detection of the four antibodies in early diagnosis of NSCLC also exhibited high specificity and sensitivity, further consolidating their potential application.
The detection regarding stem signatures associated antibodies could be used as effective tools in early NSCLC diagnosis, but not for localized screening of cancers, and their abnormal expression was in accordance with poorer survival.
Publication Date: 2020-07-22
Journal: Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology