pubmed > NFKB > tissue

The inhibition of NFкB signaling and inflammatory response as a strategy for blunting bile acid-induced hepatic and renal toxicity.
The cholestatic liver injury could occur in response to a variety of diseases or xenobiotics. Although cholestasis primarily affects liver function, it has been well-known that other organs such as the kidney could be influenced in cholestatic patients. Severe cholestasis could lead to tissue fibrosis and organ failure. Unfortunately, there is no specific therapeutic option against cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, finding the mechanism of organ injury during cholestasis could lead to therapeutic options against this complication. The accumulation of potentially cytotoxic compounds such as hydrophobic bile acids is the most suspected mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. A plethora of evidence indicates a role for the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here, the role of nuclear factor-kB (NFkB)-mediated inflammatory response is investigated in an animal model of cholestasis. Bile duct ligated (BDL) animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SSLZ, 10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) as a potent inhibitor of NFkB signaling. The NFkB proteins family activity in the liver and kidney, serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum markers of organ injury, and the liver and kidney histopathological alterations and fibrotic changes. The oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory-related indices were monitored in the kidney and liver at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant increase in serum and urine markers of organ injury, besides changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue histopathology, were evident in the liver and kidney of BDL animals. The activity of NFkB proteins (p65, p50, p52, c-Rel, and RelB) was significantly increased in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. Serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TNF-α, and INF-γ) were also higher than sham-operated animals. Moreover, TGF- β, α-SMA, and tissue fibrosis (Trichrome stain) were evident in cholestatic animals' liver and kidneys. It was found that SSLZ (10 and 100 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The effect of SSLZ on NFkB signaling and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines could play a significant role in its protective role in cholestasis. Based on these data, NFkB signaling could receive special attention to develop therapeutic options to blunt cholestasis-induced organ injury.
Publication Date: 2021-06-06
Journal: Toxicology letters

CXCR4 signaling at the fetal-maternal interface may drive inflammation and syncytia formation during ovine pregnancy†.
Early pregnancy features complex signaling between fetal trophoblast cells and maternal endometrium directing major peri-implantation events including localized inflammation and remodeling to establish proper placental development. Proinflammatory mediators are important for conceptus attachment, but a more precise understanding of molecular pathways regulating this process is needed to understand how the endometrium becomes receptive to implantation. Both chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed by fetal and maternal tissues. We identified this pair as a critical driver of placental angiogenesis, but their additional importance to inflammation and trophoblast cell survival, proliferation, and invasion imply a role in syncytia formation at the fetal-maternal microenvironment. We hypothesized that CXCL12 encourages both endometrial inflammation and conceptus attachment during implantation. We employed separate ovine studies to (1) characterize endometrial inflammation during early gestation in the ewe, and (2) establish functional implications of CXCL12 at the fetal-maternal interface through targeted intrauterine infusion of the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100. Endometrial tissues were evaluated for inflammatory mediators, intracellular signaling events, endometrial modifications, and trophoblast syncytialization using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Endometrial tissue from ewes receiving CXCR4 inhibitor demonstrated dysregulated inflammation and reduced AKT and NFKB, paired with elevated autophagic activity compared to control. Immunohistochemical observation revealed an impairment in endometrial surface remodeling and diminished trophoblast syncytialization following localized CXCR4 inhibition. These data suggest CXCL12-CXCR4 regulates endometrial inflammation and remodeling for embryonic implantation, and provide insight regarding mechanisms that, when dysregulated, lead to pregnancy pathologies such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia.
Publication Date: 2020-11-04
Journal: Biology of reproduction

Protective effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra supplementation against methotrexate-induced hepato-renal damage in rats: An experimental approach.
In traditional medicine, Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as liquorice, is known to possess promising pharmacological properties including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, gastro, hepato and nephro-protective activities. The present study investigated the protective effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome extract (GGE) on MTX-induced hepato-renal damage in Wistar albino rats. Rats were pre-treated with GGE (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) from day 1 to 15 and administered MTX (20 mg/kg) on day 4. Methotrexate-induced hepato-renal damage was assessed by serum toxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine), oxidative stress estimation (MDA, GSH, SOD, CAT, peroxidase and glutathione reductase), interleukins profiling (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12), tissue histopathology and immunohistochemical (caspase-3 and NFkB) examination. MTX induced hepato-renal damage resulted in elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines concentration and accumulation of MDA and reduced levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Conversely, co-treatment with GGE dose-dependently ameliorated oxidative stress, serum interleukins, hepato-renal toxicity biomarkers (p < 0.001), preserved tissue architecture and downregulated both caspase-3 and NFkB expression in hepato-renal tissue. The above results suggested that GGE can alleviate MTX-induced hepato-renal damage by decreasing oxidative stress and suppressing the ensuing activation of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory pathways.
Publication Date: 2020-08-02
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology

Clinical and molecular markers in retinal detachment-From hyperreflective points to stem cells and inflammation.
Retinal detachment (RD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed ophthalmologic conditions requiring prompt surgical intervention. Combination of proper surgical technique and new diagnostic markers, both clinical and molecular, can help improve the diagnosis and prognosis of RD treatment. 12 patients with rhegmatogenous RD (rRD) were included into the study after obtaining patient consent and Regional Ethical Approval (average age: 58.1 ± 17.4 years). OCT was performed before and after 23G vitrectomy for RD. Pure subretinal fluid (SRF) was collected during surgery and analyzed by protein array profiling on a panel of 105 inflammatory cytokines (Human XL Cytokine Array), while the effect of SRF upon human macrophages-driven phagocytosis of apoptotic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells ex vivo was quantified by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of retinectomized tissue due to PVR caused by RD was performed to determine presence of markers for microglial cells (CD34), macrophages and activated microglia (CD68), regulator of the immune response to infection (NFkB), progenitor and stem cell marker (Sox2), pluripotency marker (Oct4) and intermediate filament markers (GFAP and Nestin). OCT of fresh RD patients contained pre-operatively hyper reflective points (HRPs) at the detached neuroretina border and proximal to the RPE layer-their size and number decreased following successful reattachment surgery. IHC of the retinectomized tissue from detached retina due to severe PVR showed presence of cell conglomerates at the detached neuroretina border which were positive for CD68, NFkB, Sox2 and GFAP, less positive for CD47 and Nestin and negative for Oct4 and CD34. The SRF contained at least 37 cytokines with higher, and 4 cytokine with lower concentration compared to that in vitreous from non-RD pathology; when used as conditional medium to human macrophages ex vivo, the SRF doubled their capacity for engulfing dying RPEs. Fresh RD can be hallmarked by presence of HRPs at the detached neuroretina border on OCT; the HRPs decrease in size and number after successful reattachment surgery, and likely resemble the macrophage conglomerates seen by IHC. The neuroretina in RD contains progenitor/stem-like cells and signs of inflammatory reaction, while the SRF contains inflammatory cytokines and other factors which increase the ability of professional phagocytes to engulf dying RPE, or for that matter, other dying cells in the retina.
Publication Date: 2019-06-12
Journal: PloS one

Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Is Enriched in Eyelid Specimens of Rosacea: Implications for Pathogenesis and Therapy.
To assess the role of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFKB) in cutaneous specimens of rosacea and unaffected tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the activated, phosphorylated variant of NFKB (pNFKB) in eyelid specimens of rosacea (n = 12) and normal, healthy tissue (n = 12). The numbers of positively staining cells/40× microscopic field were counted across 5 consecutive fields. Additionally, quantitative Western blotting was carried out for pNFKB and NFKB in specimens of rosacea (n = 15) and normal controls (n = 14). Statistical comparisons were performed via a dedicated software package. The mean number of cells/40× microscopic field that stained positively for pNFKB was 18.4 (standard deviation = 15.3) for control patients and 39.3 (standard deviation = 16.9) for rosacea patients, and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P = .0024). On Western blotting, the mean ratios of pNFKB:NFKB for control and rosacea patients measured 0.58 (standard deviation = 0.81) and 3.11 (standard deviation = 3.53), respectively. The 2 groups were statistically significantly different (P = .0002). The activated form of NFKB is enriched in rosacea, indicating a role for this pathway in the pathogenesis of this disease. Interference with NFKB signaling may represent a novel therapy for rosacea as clinical agents become available. NOTE: Publication of this article is sponsored by the American Ophthalmological Society.
Publication Date: 2019-02-01
Journal: American journal of ophthalmology

Antagonism of adenosinergic system decrease SWD occurrence via an increment in thalamic NFkB and IL-6 in absence epilepsy.
Epilepsy is a major pathological condition, characterized by recurrent seizures and affecting approximately 1% of the population. Many studies have shown a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation. The adenosinergic system contributes to inflammation and epilepsy by regulating the release of neurotransmitters through its various receptors. This study investigates the effect of agonist and antagonist of adenosinergic system on seizure activity and cytokine levels in the WAG/Rij strain, a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. The WAG/Rij rats used in our study were assigned to saline, Tween 20, adenosine, and caffeine groups. Tripolar electrodes were implanted on the skull, and EEG activities recorded for 3 h. ELISA was used to determine the NFkB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the cortical and thalamic brain regions, as well as the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the blood samples. Administration of caffeine to rats resulted in a decreased SWD number at 30 and 60 min as determined by EEG recording after baseline (p < .05), and a significant increase in NFkB and IL-6 levels in the thalamic tissue (p < .05). Administration of adenosine to rats did not change seizures and cytokine levels. Our results show that an increase in thalamic IL-6 and NFkB levels may related with a decrement in absence epilepsy. This study clearly shows the contribution of adenosinergic system in absence seizure in WAG/Rij rats. These results also support the importance of the thalamus on occurrence of SWD in the thalamocortical loop.
Publication Date: 2018-11-14
Journal: Journal of neuroimmunology

Oxidized LDL phagocytosis during foam cell formation in atherosclerotic plaques relies on a PLD2-CD36 functional interdependence.
The uptake of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is tightly controlled in the body. Macrophages are not well suited to counteract the cellular consequences of excess cholesterol leading to their transformation into "foam cells," an early step in vascular plaque formation. We have uncovered and characterized a novel mechanism involving phospholipase D (PLD) in foam cell formation. Utilizing bone marrow-derived macrophages from genetically PLD deficient mice, we demonstrate that PLD2 (but not PLD1)-null macrophages cannot fully phagocytose aggregated oxidized LDL (Agg-Ox-LDL), which was phenocopied with a PLD2-selective inhibitor. We also report a role for PLD2 in coupling Agg-oxLDL phagocytosis with WASP, Grb2, and Actin. Further, the clearance of LDL particles is mediated by both CD36 and PLD2, via mutual dependence on each other. In the absence of PLD2, CD36 does not engage in Agg-Ox-LDL removal and when CD36 is blocked, PLD2 cannot form protein-protein heterocomplexes with WASP or Actin. These results translated into humans using a GEO database of microarray expression data from atheroma plaques versus normal adjacent carotid tissue and observed higher values for NFkB, PLD2 (but not PLD1), WASP, and Grb2 in the atheroma plaques. Human atherectomy specimens confirmed high presence of PLD2 (mRNA and protein) as well as phospho-WASP in diseased arteries. Thus, PLD2 interacts in macrophages with Actin, Grb2, and WASP during phagocytosis of Agg-Ox-LDL in the presence of CD36 during their transformation into "foam cells." Thus, this study provides new molecular targets to counteract vascular plaque formation and atherogenesis.
Publication Date: 2018-04-16
Journal: Journal of leukocyte biology

Uridine Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice.
Uridine, one of the four components that comprise RNA, has attracted attention as a novel therapeutic modulator of inflammation. However, very little is known about its effect on intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of intracolonic administered uridine against DSS induced colitis in male C57BL/6 mice. Intracolonic instillation of 3 doses of uridine 1 mg/Kg (lower dose), 5 mg/Kg (medium dose), and 10 mg/Kg (higher dose) in saline was performed daily. Uridine at medium and high dose significantly reduced the severity of colitis (DAI score) and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF in serum as well as mRNA expression in colon were significantly reduced in the uridine treated groups. Moreover, colon tissue myloperoxidase activities, protein expression of IL-6, TNF- α, COX-2, P-NFkB and P-Ikk-βα in the colon tissues were significantly reduced in medium and high dose groups. These findings demonstrated that local administration of uridine alleviated experimental colitis in male C57BL/6 mice accompanied by the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and NF-κB signaling. Thus, Uridine may be a promising candidate for future use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
Publication Date: 2017-06-22
Journal: Scientific reports

Calpain inhibition decreases inflammatory protein expression in vessel walls in a model of chronic myocardial ischemia.
Emerging data suggest a link between calpain activation and the enhanced inflammatory response of the cardiovascular system. We hypothesize that calpain activation associates with altered inflammatory protein expression in correlation with the proinflammatory profile of the myocardium. Our pig hypercholesterolemic model with chronic myocardial ischemia was treated with calpain inhibitors to establish their potential to improve cardiac function. Yorkshire swine, fed a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks then underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex artery. Two weeks later, animals received either no drug (high-cholesterol control group, n = 8), a low dose of calpain inhibitors (0.12 mg/kg, n = 9), or a high dose of calpain inhibitors (0.25 mg/kg; n = 8). The high-cholesterol diet and calpain inhibitors were continued for 5 weeks, after which the pig was euthanized. The left ventricular myocardial tissue (ischemic and nonischemic) was harvested and analyzed for inflammatory protein expression. Data were statistically analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc test. Calpain inhibitor treatment coincides with increased expression of IKB-α and decreased expression of macrophages, NFkB, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the ischemic myocardial tissue as compared with the control group. An NFkB array revealed decreased expression of IRF5, JNK1/2, JNK2, CD18, NFkB p65, c-Rel, Sharpin, TNF R1, TNF R2, and DR5 in the ischemic myocardium of the group treated with a high dose of calpain inhibitors compared with the control. Calpain activation in metabolic syndrome is a potential contributor to cardiac dysfunction in metabolic disorders with ischemic background. We suggest that calpain inhibition downregulates NFkB signaling in the vessel walls, which might be useful for improving myocardial blood flow in ischemic conditions.
Publication Date: 2016-12-28
Journal: Surgery

Non enzymatic upregulation of tissue factor expression by gamma-glutamyl transferase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Besides maintaining intracellular glutathione stores, gamma-glutamyltransferase(GGT) generates reactive oxygen species and activates NFkB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor key in the induction of Tissue Factor (TF) gene expression, the principal initiator of the clotting cascade. Thus, GGT might be involved in TF-mediated coagulation processes, an assumption untested insofar. Experiments were run with either equine, enzymatically active GGT or human recombinant (hr) GGT, a wheat germ-derived protein enzymatically inert because of missing post-translational glycosylation. TF Procoagulant Activity (PCA, one-stage clotting assay), TF antigen(ELISA) and TFmRNA(real-time PCR) were assessed in unpooled human peripheral blood mononuclear cell(PBMC) suspensions obtained from healthy donors through discontinuous Ficoll/Hystopaque density gradient. Equine GGT increased PCA, an effect insensitive to GGT inhibition by acivicin suggesting mechanisms independent of its enzymatic activity, a possibility confirmed by the maintained stimulation in response to hrGGT, an enzymatically inactive molecule. Endotoxin(LPS) contamination of GGT preparations was excluded by heat inactivation studies and direct determination(LAL method) of LPS concentrations <0.1 ng/mL practically devoid of procoagulant effect. Inhibition by anti-GGT antibodies corroborated that conclusion. Upregulation by hrGGT of TF antigen and mRNA and its downregulation by BAY-11-7082, a NFkB inhibitor, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, was consistent with a NFkB-driven, redox-sensitive transcriptional site of action. GGT upregulates TF expression independent of its enzymatic activity, a cytokine-like behaviour mediated by NFκB activation, a mechanism contributing to promote acute thrombotic events, a possibility in need, however, of further evaluation.
Publication Date: 2016-11-09
Journal: Thrombosis journal

Analysis of Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Gene Expression Signature Reveals Tubulins, Nfe2l2, Nfkb, Cd44, and S100a4 as Treatment Targets.
We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines. Of these, celecoxib and sirolimus were recently reported to have a disease-modifying effect in in vivo animal models of epilepsy. Other compounds revealed by the analysis were BRD-K91844626, BRD-A11009626, NO-ASA, BRD-K55260239, SDZ-NKT-343, STK-661558, BRD-K75971499, ionomycin, and desmethylclomipramine. Network analysis of overlapping genes revealed the effects on tubulins (Tubb2a, Tubb3, Tubb4b), Nfe2l2, S100a4, Cd44, and Nfkb2, all of which are linked to TBI-relevant outcomes, including epileptogenesis and tissue repair. Desmethylclomipramine modulated most of the gene targets considered favorable for TBI outcome. Our data demonstrate long-lasting transcriptomics changes after TBI. LINCS analysis predicted that these changes could be modulated by various compounds, some of which are already in clinical use but never tested in TBI.
Publication Date: 2016-08-18
Journal: Scientific reports

A Novel Mutation in the DNA Binding Domain of NFKB is Associated with Speckled Leukoplakia.
Activation and inactivation of nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB) is tightly regulated to ensure effective onset and cessation of defensive inflammatory signaling. However, mutations within NFKB, or change in activation and inactivation molecules have been reported in a few cancers. Although oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in India, with a development associated with malignant transformation of precancerous lesions, the genetic status of NFKB and relative rates of change in oral precancerous lesions remain unknown. Hence in the present study we investigated all twenty four exons of NFKB gene in two precancerous lesions, namely oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral leukoplakia (OL) to understand its occurrence, incidence and assess its possible contribution to malignant transformation. Chromosomal DNA isolated from twenty five each of OSMF and OL tissue biopsy samples were subjected to PCR amplification with intronic primers flanking twenty four exons of the NFKB gene. The PCR amplicons were subsequently subjected to direct sequencing to elucidate the mutation status. Sequence analysis identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.419T>A causing substitution of leucine with glutamine at codon 140 (L140Q) in an OL sample. The identification of a substitution mutation L140Q within the DNA binding domain of NFKB in OL suggests that NFKB mutation may be relatively an early event during transformation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to have identified a missense mutation in NFKB in OL.
Publication Date: 2016-08-12
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP

Strength Training Prevents Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation Independent of Weight Loss in Fructose-Fed Animals.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, strength, and combined training on metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet. Wistar rats (120 days old) were randomized into five groups (n = 8-14): C (control diet and sedentary), F (fed the fructose-rich diet and sedentary), FA (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to aerobic exercise), FS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to strength exercise), and FAS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to combined aerobic and strength exercises). After the 8-week experiment, glucose homeostasis, blood biochemistry, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation were evaluated and analyzed. The strength protocol exerted greater effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and liver lipid contents than other protocols (all P < 0.05). All three exercise protocols induced a remarkable reduction in inflammation, tissue triglyceride content, and inflammatory pathways, which was achieved through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and factor nuclear kappa B (NFkB) activation in both the liver and the muscle. Our data suggest that strength training reduced the severity of most of the metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet and could be the most effective strategy to prevent or treat fructose-induced metabolic diseases.
Publication Date: 2016-08-05
Journal: Scientific reports

Biology of p62/sequestosome-1 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).
p62/sequestosome-1 is a multidimensional protein that interacts with many signaling factors, and regulates a variety of cellular functions including inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Our previous work has revealed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that p62 promotes autophagy and simultaneously enhances an Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response to protect against acute oxidative stress. Several recent studies demonstrated that p62 contributes to NFkB mediated inflammation and inflammasome activation under certain circumstances, raising the question of whether p62 protects against or contributes to tissue injury. Herein, we will review the general characteristics of p62, focusing on its pro- and anti-cell survival roles within different physiological/pathological contexts, and discuss the potential of p62 as a therapeutic target for AMD.
Publication Date: 2015-10-03
Journal: Advances in experimental medicine and biology

Molecular Marker Expression Is Highly Heterogeneous in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Does Not Predict a Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy.
A reliable method to identify pathologic complete responders (pCR) or non-responders (NR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NAT) would dramatically improve therapy for esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate if a distinct profile of prognostic molecular markers can predict pCR after neoadjuvant therapy. Expression of p53, Her-2/neu, Cox-2, Beta-catenin, E-cadherin, MMP-1, NFkB, and TGF-B was measured by immunohistochemistry in pre-treatment biopsy tissue and graded by an experienced pathologist. A pCR was defined as no evidence of malignancy on final pathology. Molecular profiles comparing responders to non-responders were analyzed using classification and regression tree analysis to investigate response to NAT and overall survival. Nineteen patients were pCRs and 34 were NRs. pCRs were more likely to be alive at follow-up than NRs (p < 0.01). Thirty-seven distinct profiles were identified. Expression of molecular markers was highly heterogeneous between patients and did not correlate with a response to NAT, survival (p = 0.47) or clinical stage (p = 0.39) when evaluated either as individual markers or in combination with other expression patterns. NAT dramatically impacts survival through a mechanism independent of known molecular markers of esophageal cancer, which are expressed in a highly heterogeneous fashion and do not predict response to NAT or survival.
Publication Date: 2015-09-24
Journal: Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract

Low-dose 17-β-estradiol cream for vaginal atrophy in a cohort without prolapse: Serum levels and vaginal response including tissue biomarkers associated with tissue remodeling.
Describe the effect of 50 mcg vaginal 17-β-estradiol (E2) cream on vaginal maturation, serum estrogen levels, atrophic symptoms, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue remodeling in postmenopausal women without prolapse. Seventeen women, 65 years or older, applied intravaginal E2 cream nightly for eight weeks, then twice weekly for eight weeks. Vaginal biopsies, serial blood draws, and atrophic symptoms were obtained at baseline, eight, and sixteen weeks. Changes in atrophic symptoms, vaginal maturation indices (VMI), and serum E2 were measured. Immunohistochemical staining characterized levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and thrombospondin (TSP). Serum E2 levels (pg/ml) were unchanged from baseline (mean (SD)) 7.7 (3.3) to eight 9.7 (5.7) and sixteen 8.7 (5.8) (p=0.24) weeks. VMI (mean (SD)) improved from baseline 34.2 (18.3) to eight 56.7 (13.1) and sixteen 54.5 (11.3) (p<0.001) weeks with no difference between eight and sixteen weeks. Vaginal dryness (p=0.03) and itching (p=0.02) improved. Tissue biomarker levels did not change (TGF-β p=0.35, NFKB p=0.74, eNOS p=0.80, iNOS p=0.24, TSP p=0.80). Vaginal E2 improved atrophic symptoms and VMI without elevating serum E2. Tissue remodeling biomarkers did not change.
Publication Date: 2015-06-28
Journal: Maturitas

Salutary effect of pre-treatment with an Nrf2 inducer on ischemia reperfusion injury in the rat liver.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common phenomenon occurring during liver surgery, transplantation, and trauma. IRI causes oxidative stress which plays a critical role in causing organ damage. The Nrf2 is the master regulator of numerous genes, encoding antioxidant, detoxifying, and cytoprotective molecules. Nrf2 dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory disorders, cancer, and aging. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Nrf2 pathway activator (dh404) on warm liver IRI in a rodent model. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with dh404 or vehicle. Dh404 was dissolved in sesame oil and was given orally (1.5mg/kg) the night before and 5 hours before procedures. Rat livers were subjected to 60 minutes of 70% ischemia followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Serum ALT and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined and liver tissue was processed for histological examination, and determination of apoptosis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, ADP/ATP ratio, and expressions of Nrf2, eNOS, anti-oxidant enzymes, and inflammatory mediators. Serum ALT and MDA levels and tissue MPO activity were significantly lower, expression of the anti-oxidant enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase were significantly higher, whereas expression of NFkB and COX-2 was unchanged in the dh404-treated group. Although the total Suzuki histology score did not differ significantly, the extent of sinusoidal congestion, vacuolization, and apoptosis was significantly reduced in the dh404 treated compared to the untreated group (P<0.01). Pre-treatment with dh404 resulted in partial attenuation of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.
Publication Date: 2015-01-06
Journal: Gastroenterology and hepatology

Baicalin down regulates the expression of TLR4 and NFkB-p65 in colon tissue in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.
Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated with baicalin (100 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) twice daily by intragastric injection for 7 days after colitis induced were defined as treated group. Then the mice were sacrificed and the colon samples were collected. Toll-like receptor-2, 4, 9 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Signaling proteins such as TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Cytokine's mRNA include TNF-α, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Modified disease activity index were used to analyse the severity of the disease by assessed of diarrhea, stool (occult) blood and body weight loss of the mice. Compared with control and model groups, modified disease activity index in baicalin and mesalazine treated, mice decreased gradually. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the expression of TLR4, but not TLR2 and TLR9, in the mucosa of mice colon were decreased. Western blot analysis showed that in colitis model, the expression of NF-κB p65 and TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of MyD88 increased significantly compared to control group, and MyD88 expression can not be repressed by baicalin (P < 0.05). Baicalin and mesalazine treatment suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA (P < 0.05), yet up-regulated the expression of IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05), compared to the DDS and control groups. Baicalin administration by intragastric injection ameliorates the severity of colon inflammation. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by baicalin may involve in the blocking of the TLR4/NF-κB-p65/IL-6 signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2015-01-01
Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental medicine

Differences in irradiated lung gene transcription between fibrosis-prone C57BL/6NHsd and fibrosis-resistant C3H/HeNHsd mice.
We compared pulmonary irradiation-induced whole-lung, gene transcripts over 200 days after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation in female fibrosis-prone C57BL/6NHsd mice with fibrosis-resistant C3H/HeNHsd mice. Lung specimens were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) and changes over time in representative gene transcript levels were correlated with protein levels using western blot. C3H/HeNHsd mice showed a significantly longer duration of elevation of gene transcripts for stress-response genes nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nfkb), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), transcription factor SP1 (SP1), activator protein 1 (AP1), radioprotection gene manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2), and endothelial cell-associated genes von Willebrand factor (Vwf) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf). C57BL/6NHsd mice showed acute elevation then down-regulation and a second elevation in gene transcripts for Nfkb, connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (Igfbp7), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) Ctgf, Igfbp7, Tnfa, collagen 1a, and toll like receptor 4 (Tlr4). There were reciprocal patterns of elevation and decrease in levels of transcripts for epigenetic reader proteins bromodomain coding protein 1 (Brd1)Brd2,-3, and -4 between mouse strains. Regulatory pathways linked to radiation pulmonary fibrosis may identify new targets for mitigators of radiation-induced fibrosis.
Publication Date: 2014-03-19
Journal: In vivo (Athens, Greece)

Artemisia dracunculus L. extract ameliorates insulin sensitivity by attenuating inflammatory signalling in human skeletal muscle culture.
Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI 5011) have been shown to improve insulin action by increasing insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. However, it was not known if PMI 5011's effects are retained during an inflammatory condition. We examined the attenuation of insulin action and whether PMI 5011 enhances insulin signalling in the inflammatory environment with elevated cytokines. Muscle cell cultures derived from lean, overweight and diabetic-obese subjects were used. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inflammatory response of human myotubes were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Insulin signalling and activation of inflammatory pathways in human myotubes were evaluated by multiplex protein assays. We found increased gene expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and TNFα (tumour necrosis factor alpha), and basal activity of the NFkB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) pathway in myotubes derived from diabetic-obese subjects as compared with myotubes derived from normal-lean subjects. In line with this, basal Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) was significantly higher, while insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) was lower in myotubes from normal-overweight and diabetic-obese subjects compared with normal-lean subjects. PMI 5011 treatment reduced basal phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in the presence of cytokines in human myotubes. PMI 5011 treatment led to an inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of inflammatory signalling pathways such as Erk1/2 and IkBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha)-NFkB and moreover, NFkB target gene expression, possibly by preventing further propagation of the inflammatory response within muscle tissue. PMI 5011 improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic-obese myotubes to the level of normal-lean myotubes despite the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Publication Date: 2014-02-14
Journal: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism

tumor necrosis factor-alpha(4)

tumour necrosis factor(2)

tnf-α il-1β(3)

factor vegf(3)

nfkb tnf-α(3)

lenalidamide anti-angiogenesis(3)

p65 nfkb(3)

kappa-b nfkb(3)

nfkb ap1(2)

il-6 tnf-α(2)

factor tnf(2)