Potential therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of Centella asiatica on hepatic fibrosis: a study of network pharmacology.
Liver fibrosis is a common result of the repair process of various chronic liver diseases. This study is a network pharmacology study on the potential therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of Centella asiatica for liver fibrosis.
The chemical components and potential targets of Centella asiatica were screened through TCMSP, PubChem database, and Swiss Target Prediction database. The DisGeNET and GeneCards databases were used to obtain targets of HF. Venn diagrams were used to find key targets, and draw protein interaction maps. Cytoscape software was used to construct an interaction network map of drug-component-target-disease-pathway. The mechanisms of action were predicted through enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis.
In total, 6 main components, 297 drug targets, 337 HF targets, and 48 drug-disease targets were obtained in Centella asiatica. The key targets involved IL6, TNF, VEGFA, TP53, IL1β, MMP9, CXCL8, EGFR, JUN, SRC, MMP2, and TGF-β, among others. A total of 1293 entries were obtained by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, which mainly involved the regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process, the regulation of smooth muscle cells, and the regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment mainly screened 191 pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, the relaxin signaling pathway, and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, among others.
Centella asiatica may have a therapeutic effect on HF through multiple targets and pathways. Its mechanism is mainly related to the MAPK signaling pathway and the relaxin signaling pathway.
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Annals of translational medicine
Therapeutic targets and molecular mechanism of calycosin for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
This study was designed to understand the pivotal anti-cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) targets and pathways of calycosin through network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses. In this study, bioinformatics tools were employed to characterize and identify the pharmacological functions and mechanisms of calycosin for CIRI management. The network pharmacology data identified potential, merged CIRI-associated targets of calycosin including tumor protein p53 (TP53), protein kinase B (AKT1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). Molecular docking analysis indicated the binding efficacy of calycosin with three of the targets, namely TP53, AKT1, and VEGFA. The biological processes of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI are mainly involved in the improvement of endothelial cell proliferation and growth, inflammatory development, and cellular metabolism. In addition, the anti-CIRI actions of calycosin were primarily through suppression of the toll-like receptor, PI3K-AKT, TNF, MAPK, and VEGF signaling pathways. Taken together, the current bioinformatic findings revealed pivotal targets, biological functions, and pharmacological mechanisms of calycosin for the treatment of CIRI. In conclusion, calycosin, a functional phytoestrogen, can be potentially used for the treatment of CIRI in future clinical trials.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Investigating the active compounds and mechanism of HuaShi XuanFei formula for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has exerted positive effects in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. HuaShi XuanFei Formula (HSXFF) was developed to treat patients with mild and general COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China. The present study seeks to explore its potentially active compounds and pharmacological mechanisms against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. All components of HSXFF were harvested from the pharmacology database of the TCMSP system. COVID-19-related targets were retrieved from using OMIM and GeneCards databases. The herb-compound-targets network was constructed by Cytoscape. The target protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were performed to discover the potential key target genes and mechanism. The main active compounds of HSXFF were docked with 3C-like (3CL) protease hydrolase and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The MD simulation confirmed the binding stability of docking results. The herbs-targets network mainly contained 52 compounds and 70 corresponding targets, including key targets such as RELA, TNF, TP53, IL6, MAPK1, CXCL8, IL-1β, and MAPK14. The GO and KEGG indicated that HSXFF may be mainly acting on the IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, etc. The molecular docking results indicated that isovitexin and procyanidin B1 showed the highest affinity with 3CL and ACE2, respectively, which were confirmed by MD simulation. These findings suggested HSXFF exerted therapeutic effects involving "multi-compounds and multi-targets." It might be working through directly inhibiting the virus, improving immune function, and reducing the inflammatory in response to anti-COVID-19. In summary, the present study would provide a valuable direction for further research of HSXFF.
Publication Date: 2021-06-10
Journal: Molecular diversity
Revealing the therapeutic targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin-treated coronavirus disease 2019 via a systematic study of network pharmacology.
Emodin has shown pharmacological effects in the treatment of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we speculated that emodin may possess anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, using bioinformatics databases, we screened and harvested the candidate genes or targets of emodin and COVID-19 prior to the determination of pharmacological targets and molecular mechanisms of emodin against COVID-19. We discovered core targets for the treatment of COVID-19, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), tumor protein (TP53), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), caspase-3 (CASP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), interleukin 1B (IL1B), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), B-cell lymphoma-2-like protein 1 (BCL2L1), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). The GO analysis of emodin against COVID-19 mainly included cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, response to lipopolysaccharide, response to molecule of bacterial origin, developmental process involved in reproduction, and reproductive structure development. The KEGG results exhibited that the molecular pathways mainly included IL-17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, TNF signaling pathway, pertussis, proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, etc. Also, molecular docking results revealed the docking capability between emodin and COVID-19 and the potential pharmacological activity of emodin against COVID-19. Taken together, these findings uncovered the targets and pharmacological mechanisms of emodin for treating COVID-19 and suggested that the vital targets might be used as biomarkers against COVID-19.
Publication Date: 2021-06-06
Network pharmacology identifies IL6 as an important hub and target of tibolone for drug repurposing in traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a complex network of signals mediating inflammatory, proliferative and apoptotic processes during its acute and chronic phases. Current therapies mitigate damage and are mainly for palliative care and there are currently no effective therapies for secondary damage. This suggests a need to discover a compound with a greater spectrum of action that can control various pathological aspects of TBI. Here we used a network pharmacology approach to explore the benefits of tibolone, an estrogen and androgen receptor agonist with broader actions in cells, as a possible repurposing drug for TBI therapy. Using different databases we retrieved the targets significantly associated to TBI and tibolone, obtaining 2700 and 652, respectively. The top 10 GO enriched terms were mostly related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Following protein-protein functional analysis, the top connected proteins were related to kinase activity (MAPK1/14/3, AKT1 PIK3R1), apoptosis (TP53, CASP3), growth factors (EGFR), estrogen signalling (ESR1) and inflammation (IL6, TNF), with IL6 as an important signalling hub belonging to the top GO categories. Thus, we identified IL6 as a cellular node which we then validated using molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MMGBSA) and docking to explore which tibolone metabolite might interact with this protein. Both 3α and 3β-OH tibolone seemed to bind better to IL6 at important sites responsible for its binding to IL6R. In conclusion, our study demonstrates key hubs involved in TBI pathology which indicates IL6 as a target molecule of tibolone as drug repurposing for TBI therapy.
Publication Date: 2021-06-01
Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Explore the Underlying Mechanism of Huangqi Gegen Decoction for Treating Diabetic Nephropathy.
Huangqi Gegen decoction (HGD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat diabetic nephropathy in China, while the pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of HGD for treating diabetic nephropathy (DN).
Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP), UniProt, and SwissTargetPrediction databases were used to search the active ingredients and potential targets of HGD. In addition, multiple disease-related databases were used to collect DN-related targets. Common targets of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were established using the STRING database. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database. At last, AutoDockVina was used to conduct molecular docking verification for the core components and targets.
A total of 27 active ingredients and 354 putative identified target genes were screened from HGD, of which 99 overlapped with the targets of DN and were considered potential therapeutic targets. Further analysis showed that the HGD activity of quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and beta-sitosterol ingredients is possible through VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53 targets involved in TNF, toll-like receptors, and MAPK-related pathways, which have anti-inflammatory, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, and autophagy effects, relieve renal fibrosis and renal cortex injury, and improve renal function, thus delaying the development of DN. The molecular docking results showed that quercetin, formononetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, beta-sitosterol had a good binding activity with VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53.
This study demonstrated that HGD might take part in the treatment of DN through multicomponent, multitarget, and multichannel combined action.
Publication Date: 2021-05-27
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
Deciphering Pharmacological Mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Decoction for Spinal Cord Injury by Network Pharmacology Approach.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of the Chinese herbal formula Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), which is commonly used to treat nerve injuries, in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) using a network pharmacology method.
BYHWD-related targets were obtained by mining the TCMSP and BATMAN-TCM databases, and SCI-related targets were obtained by mining the DisGeNET, TTD, CTD, GeneCards, and MalaCards databases. The overlapping targets of the abovementioned targets may be potential therapeutic targets for BYHWD anti-SCI. Subsequently, we performed protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, screened the hub genes using Cytoscape software, performed Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and finally achieved molecular docking between the hub proteins and key active compounds.
The 189 potential therapeutic targets for BYHWD anti-SCI were overlapping targets of 744 BYHWD-related targets and 923 SCI-related targets. The top 10 genes obtained subsequently included AKT1, IL6, MAPK1, TNF, TP53, VEGFA, CASP3, ALB, MAPK8, and JUN. Fifteen signaling pathways were also screened out after enrichment analysis and literature search. The results of molecular docking of key active compounds and hub target proteins showed a good binding affinity for both.
This study shows that BYHWD anti-SCI is characterized by a multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway synergy and provides new insights to explore the specific mechanisms of BYHWD against SCI.
Publication Date: 2021-05-13
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
Evaluating the Therapeutic Mechanisms of Selected Active Compounds in Cornus Officinalis and Paeonia Lactiflora in Rheumatoid Arthritis via Network Pharmacology Analysis.
Cornus officinalis Sieb et. Zucc and Paeonia lactiflora Pall. have exhibited favorable therapeutic effects against rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the specific mechanisms of their active compounds remain unclear. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze the therapeutic mechanisms of selected active compounds in Cornus officinalis (loganin, ursolic acid, and morroniside) and Paeonia lactiflora (paeoniflorin and albiflorin) via network pharmacology. The pharmacological properties of the five active compounds were evaluated and their potential target genes were identified by database screening. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional analysis were performed to determine the enriched molecular pathways associated with the active compounds. Using network pharmacology tools, eight genes (IL1β, VEGFA, STAT3, TP53, IL6, TNF, FOS, and LGALS3) were identified as common targets between RA and the five active compounds. Molecular docking simulation revealed the compound-target relationship between the five active compounds and three selected targets from the eight common ones (LGALS3, STAT3, and VEGFA). The compound-target relationships were subsequently validated via preliminary
Publication Date: 2021-05-11
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology
Therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of action of curcumin against Zika virus: In silico and in vitro analyses.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, that could cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), characterized by microcephaly, neurological complications and fetal deaths. No specific treatments for ZIKV are currently available, highlighting the urgent global need to identify and develop therapeutic agents. Drug repositioning of approved natural compounds can provide effective alternative solutions for novel antiviral development. The current study focused on curcumin, a component of turmeric known to exert diverse antiviral effects. We integrated in silico information from publicly available databases to predict interactions between curcumin and potential targets of ZIKV. In our network analysis, we identified four targets, TP53, AKT1, PTEN, and TNF, which were identified as potential targets associated with ZIKV. Based on retrieved targets, we performed molecular docking study and identified curcumin-TNF showed the strongest binding among four targets. The anti-Zika effects of curcumin were validated in vitro with the aid of antiviral and plaque reduction assay. Curcumin at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 μM displayed significant antiviral activity in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In view of its natural abundance and prevalence in the human diet, curcumin holds significant promise for treatment of ZIKV infections.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: European journal of pharmacology
Text Mining-Based Drug Discovery in Osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and degenerative joint disease, which causes stiffness, pain, and decreased function. At the early stage of OA, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the first-line treatment. However, the efficacy and utility of available drug therapies are limited. We aim to use bioinformatics to identify potential genes and drugs associated with OA.
The genes related to OA and NSAIDs therapy were determined by text mining. Then, the common genes were performed for GO, KEGG pathway analysis, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Using the MCODE plugin-obtained hub genes, the expression levels of hub genes were verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The confirmed genes were queried in the Drug Gene Interaction Database to determine potential genes and drugs.
The qRT-PCR result showed that the expression level of 15 genes was significantly increased in OA samples. Finally, eight potential genes were targetable to a total of 53 drugs, twenty-one of which have been employed to treat OA and 32 drugs have not yet been used in OA.
The 15 genes (including PTGS2, NLRP3, MMP9, IL1RN, CCL2, TNF, IL10, CD40, IL6, NGF, TP53, RELA, BCL2L1, VEGFA, and NOTCH1) and 32 drugs, which have not been used in OA but approved by the FDA for other diseases, could be potential genes and drugs, respectively, to improve OA treatment. Additionally, those methods provided tremendous opportunities to facilitate drug repositioning efforts and study novel target pharmacology in the pharmaceutical industry.
Publication Date: 2021-05-07
Journal: Journal of healthcare engineering
Bioinformatics and experimental findings reveal the therapeutic actions and targets of pachymic acid against cystitis glandularis.
Pachymic acid (PA), a bioactive ingredient isolated from Poria cocos Wolf, is reported with potential benefits of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative actions. It is reasoned that PA may play the potential benefits against cystitis glandularis (CG), an inflammation of the bladder tissue. In this study, we aimed to apply the network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses to reveal concrete anti-CG targets and mechanisms of PA, and then the bioinformatic findings were verified by using clinical and animal samples. The methodological data from network pharmacology approach showed that 303 and 243 reporting targets of CG and PA, and other 31 shared targets of CG and PA were identified. Subsequently, all top targets of PA against CG were screened out, including cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, tumor antigen p53 (TP53), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta, proto-oncogene c-jun. Molecular docking data demonstrated that PA exerted potent bonding capacities with TNF, TP53 proteins in CG. In human study, the findings suggested that overactivated TNF-α expression and suppressed TP53 activation were detected in CG samples. In animal study, PA-treated mice showed reduced intravesical IL-1, IL-6 levels, and lactate dehydrogenase content, downregulated TNF-α and upregulated TP53 proteins in bladder samples. Taken together, our bioinformatics and experimental findings identify the key anti-CG biotargets and mechanisms of PA. More markedly, these pivotal pharmacological targets of PA against CG have been screened out and verified by using computational and experimental analyses.
Publication Date: 2021-04-25
Journal: BioFactors (Oxford, England)
Comparative transcriptomics and network pharmacology analysis to identify the potential mechanism of celastrol against osteoarthritis.
Celastrol is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanism of action of celastrol is unclear. This study was aiming to identify the potential function of celastrol on OA and determine its underlying mechanism.
Celastrol targets were collected from web database searches and literature review, while pathogenic OA targets were obtained from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and GeneCards databases. Transcriptomics data was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. Celastrol-OA overlapping genes were then identified followed by prediction of the potential function and signaling pathways associated with celastrol using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. A celastrol-target network was constructed to identify the candidate core targets of celastrol. The predictions were then validated by performing molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies.
In total, 96 genes were identified as the putative celastrol targets for treatment of OA. These genes were possibly involved in cell phenotype changes including response to lipopolysaccharide and oxidative stress as well as in cell apoptosis and aging. The genes also induced the mTOR pathway and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway at the intracellular level. Additionally, results indicated that 13 core targets including mTOR, TP53, MMP9, EGFR, CCND1, MAPK1, STAT3, VEGFA, CASP3, TNF, MYC, ESR1, and PTEN were likely direct targets of celastrol in OA. Finally, mTOR was determined as the most likely therapeutic target of celastrol in OA.
This study provides a basic understanding and novel insight into the potential mechanism of celastrol against OA. Key Points • Our study provides a strong indication that further study of celastrol therapy in OA is required. • mTOR is the most likely therapeutic target of celastrol in OA.
Publication Date: 2021-04-20
Journal: Clinical rheumatology
Integrating network pharmacology and experimental evidence to decipher the cardioprotective mechanism of Yiqihuoxue decoction in rats after myocardial infarction.
"Qi deficiency and blood stasis" syndrome is one of the most common syndromes treated with Traditional Chinese Medicine among ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients in clinic. As a Chinese herbal formula with the function of tonifying Qi and activating blood, Yiqihuoxue Decoction (YQHX) has been frequently proven to be effective in the clinical treatment of IHD.
The cardioprotective mechanisms of YQHX in treating ischemic heart disease were investigated, with emphasis on the key targets and pathways.
In the present study, the potential targets of compounds identified in YQHX were predicted using PharmMapper, Symmap, and STITCH databases, and a "herb-compound-target" network was constructed using Cytoscape. Subsequently, the GO and KEGG functional enrichment analyses were analyzed using the DAVID database. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed using STRING to obtain the key target information. Besides, we used a myocardial ischemia rat model to investigate the cardioprotective effects of YQHX. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting were used to observe apoptotic bodies and confirm protein expressions of key candidate targets, respectively.
Network pharmacology showed that a total of 141 potential targets were obtained from these databases. The functional analysis results revealed that the targets of YQHX were largely associated with apoptosis, and the PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways might represent key functional pathways. The hub genes of network include ALB, TP53, AKT1, TNF, VEGFA, EGFR, MAPK1, CASP3, JUN, FN1, MMP9, and MAPK8. In vivo, YQHX significantly improved cardiac function and suppressed apoptosis in ischemic rat myocardium. Furthermore, YQHX could significantly upregulate Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, and inhibit JNK phosphorylation.
Based on network pharmacology and experimental evidence, this study proves that the cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of YQHX depend on multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway. In particular, YQHX exerts anti-apoptotic effects potentially by regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 and JNK-MAPK pathways.
Publication Date: 2021-03-28
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) versus adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection may lead to one or both diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). The complete interactions of the virus with host cells in both diseases is yet to be determined. This study aims to construct an interaction network for distinct signaling pathways in these diseases based on finding differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HAM/TSP and ATLL.
We identified 57 hub genes with higher criteria scores in the primary protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). The ontology-based enrichment analysis revealed following important terms: positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in meiotic cell cycle and positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter by histone modification. The upregulated genes TNF, PIK3R1, HGF, NFKBIA, CTNNB1, ESR1, SMAD2, PPARG and downregulated genes VEGFA, TLR2, STAT3, TLR4, TP53, CHUK, SERPINE1, CREB1 and BRCA1 were commonly observed in all the three enriched terms in HAM/TSP vs. ATLL. The constructed interaction network was then visualized inside a mirrored map of signaling pathways for ATLL and HAM/TSP, so that the functions of hub genes were specified in both diseases.
Publication Date: 2021-03-25
Journal: BMC research notes
Use of a Recombinant Biomarker Protein DDA Library Increases DIA Coverage of Low Abundance Plasma Proteins.
Credible detection and quantification of low abundance proteins from human blood plasma is a major challenge in precision medicine biomarker discovery when using mass spectrometry (MS). In this proof-of-concept study, we employed a mixture of selected recombinant proteins in DDA libraries to subsequently identify (not quantify) cancer-associated low abundance plasma proteins using SWATH/DIA. The exemplar DDA recombinant protein spectral library (rPSL) was derived from tryptic digestion of 36 recombinant human proteins that had been previously implicated as possible cancer biomarkers from both our own and other studies. The rPSL was then used to identify proteins from nondepleted colorectal cancer (CRC) EDTA plasmas by SWATH-MS. Most (32/36) of the proteins used in the rPSL were reliably identified from CRC plasma samples, including 8 proteins (i.e., BTC, CXCL10, IL1B, IL6, ITGB6, TGFα, TNF, TP53) not previously detected using high-stringency protein inference MS according to PeptideAtlas. The rPSL SWATH-MS protocol was compared to DDA-MS using MARS-depleted and postdigestion peptide fractionated plasmas (here referred to as a human plasma DDA library). Of the 32 proteins identified using rPSL SWATH, only 12 could be identified using DDA-MS. The 20 additional proteins exclusively identified using the rPSL SWATH approach were almost exclusively lower abundance (i.e., <10 ng/mL) proteins. To mitigate justified FDR concerns, and to replicate a more typical library creation approach, the DDA rPSL library was merged with a human plasma DDA library and SWATH identification repeated using such a merged library. The majority (33/36) of the low abundance plasma proteins added from the rPSL were still able to be identified using such a merged library when high-stringency HPP Guidelines v3.0 protein inference criteria were applied to our data set. The MS data set has been deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (PXD022361).
Publication Date: 2021-03-24
Journal: Journal of proteome research
Network Pharmacology Interpretation of Fuzheng-Jiedu Decoction against Colorectal Cancer.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) believes that the pathogenic factors of colorectal cancer (CRC) are "deficiency, dampness, stasis, and toxin," and Fuzheng-Jiedu Decoction (FJD) can resist these factors. In this study, we want to find out the potential targets and pathways of FJD in the treatment of CRC and also explain from a scientific point of view that FJD multidrug combination can resist "deficiency, dampness, stasis, and toxin."
We get the composition of FJD from the TCMSP database and get its potential target. We also get the potential target of colorectal cancer according to the OMIM Database, TTD Database, GeneCards Database, CTD Database, DrugBank Database, and DisGeNET Database. Subsequently, PPI analysis, KEGG pathways analysis, and GO biological processes analysis were carried out for the target of FJD in the therapy of colorectal cancer. In addition, we have also built a relevant network diagram.
In this study, we identified four core compounds of FJD in the therapy of colorectal cancer, including quercetin, kaempferol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. At the same time, we also obtained 30 core targets, including STAT3, INS, TP53, VEGFA, AKT1, TNF, IL6, JUN, EGF, CASP3, MAPK3, MAPK1, MAPK8, SRC, IGF1, CCND1, ESR1, EGFR, PTEN, MTOR, FOS, PTGS2, CXCL8, HRAS, CDH1, BCL2L1, FN1, MMP9, ERBB2, and JAK2. FJD treatment of colorectal cancer mainly involves 112 KEGG pathways, including FoxO (hsa04068) signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt (hsa04151) signaling pathway, HIF-1 (hsa04066) signaling pathway, T cell receptor (hsa04660) signaling pathway, and ErbB (hsa04012) signaling pathway. At the same time, 330 GO biological processes were summarized, including cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune.
In this study, we found that FJD can regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and immunity, and angiogenesis through PI3K-Akt signaling pathway to play an anti-CRC effect.
Publication Date: 2021-03-11
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
[Mechanism of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules in treating constipation based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].
To explore the mechanism of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules in treating constipation by means of network pharmacology and molecular docking approach. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and Bioinfoematics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN) were applied to obtain chemical components and potential targets of eight herbs in Shouhui Tongbian Capsules according to the screening principles of oral availability(OB)≥30% and drug-like property(DL)≥0.18. Disease targets relating to constipation were screened out through GeneCards, PharmGkb and other databases, drug targets were integrated with disease targets, and intersection targets were exactly the potential action targets of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules for treating constipation; PPI network of potential targets was constructed using STRING platform, and GO(gene ontology) analysis and KEGG(Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathway data were obtained to conduct enrichment analysis and predict its mechanism of action. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to construct a network of "medicinal materials-chemical components-drug targets", and the network topology analysis was carried out on the PPI network to obtain its main components and key targets. Molecular docking between components and key targets of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules verified the accuracy of network pharmacological analysis results. The PPI network analysis showed 92 chemical components, including quercetin, stigmaste-rol, aloe-emodin, rhein, and key targets for instance AKT1, MAPK1, IL6, JUN, TNF and TP53. The enrichment analysis of KEGG screened out 157 signal pathways(P<0.01), mainly involving interleukin 17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, thyroid hormone signaling pathway. Quercetin, resveratrol and lysine with top degree value had a rational conformation in docking site of protein crystal complexes. This study preliminarily showed that various active ingredients in Shouhui Tongbian Capsules could regulate multiple signaling pathways, increase intestinal smoothness and peristalsis function, ensure smooth intestinal lumen, and play a role in treating constipation by acting on key targets, such as AKT1, MAPK1, IL6 and JUN.
Publication Date: 2021-03-02
Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
Using Network Pharmacology to Explore the Mechanism of Peach Kernel-Safflower in the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.
The mechanism of peach kernel-safflower in treating diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated using network pharmacology.
Network pharmacology methodology was applied to screen the effective compounds of peach kernel-safflower in the SymMap and TCMSP databases. Potential targets were then screened in the ETCM, SEA, and SymMap databases to construct a compound-target network. This was followed by screening of DN targets in OMIM, Gene, and GeneCards databases. The common targets of drugs and diseases were selected for analysis in the STRING database, and the results were imported into Cytoscape 3.8.0 to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Next, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed. Finally, Schrödinger molecular docking verified the reliability of the results.
A total of 23 effective compounds and 794 potential targets resulted from our screening process. Quercetin and luteolin were identified as the main effective ingredients in peach kernel-safflower. Furthermore, five key targets (VEGFA, IL6, TNF, AKT1, and TP53), AGE-RAGE, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, IL-17, and HIF-1 signaling pathways may be involved in the treatment of DN using peach kernel-safflower.
This study embodies the complex network relationship of multicomponents, multitargets, and multipathways of peach kernel-safflower to treat DN and provides a basis for further research on its mechanism.
Publication Date: 2021-02-20
Journal: BioMed research international
Analyzing the potential therapeutic mechanism of Huashi Baidu Decoction on severe COVID-19 through integrating network pharmacological methods.
Huashi Baidu Decoction (HSBD) is a novel complex prescription which has positive effects on severe COVID-19. This study was aimed to discover key Chinese materia medica, main active compounds, hub therapeutic target proteins and core signal pathways in the potential therapeutic mechanism of HSBD on severe COVID-19 through integrating network pharmacological methods.
TCMSP, TCMID and STITCH databases were used to screen out active compounds and target proteins of HSBD. GeneCards database was used to screen out disease genes of severe COVID-19. The potential therapeutic targets of HSBD on severe COVID-19 were used to construct protein-protein interaction network through STRING database and the hub target proteins were discovered. Next, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were carried out to discover core signal pathways. Finally, the network diagram of "Chinese materia medica-active compounds-therapeutic target proteins" was built, then key Chinese materia medica and main active compounds were selected.
HSBD might treat severe COVID-19 through 45 potential target genes, among them, there were 13 hub target genes: RELA, TNF, IL6, IL1B, MAPK14, TP53, CXCL8, MAPK3, MAPK1, IL4, MAPK8, CASP8, STAT1. Meanswhile, GO_BiologicalProcess and KEGG signaling pathways analysis results showed that the core signal pathways were inflammation and immune regulation pathways. Finally, 4 key Chinese materia medica and 11 main active compounds were discovered in the HSBD. In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of HSBD on severe COVID-19 might involve its pharmacological effects of anti-inflammation and immune regulation via acting on 45 disease-related proteins of severe COVID-19.
Viral Pneumonia, COVID-19, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Septic Shock, Chinese Herbal Medicine.
Publication Date: 2021-02-02
Journal: Journal of traditional and complementary medicine
Study on mechanism of matrine in treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury by network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of matrine in treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury. Potential targets related to matrine, COVID-19 and liver injury were identified from several databases. We constructed PPI network and screened the core targets according to the degree value. Then, GO and KEGG enrichment were carried out. Molecular docking technology was used to verify the affinity between matrine and the crystal structure of core target protein. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the effects of matrine on hub gene expression in liver tissue of liver injury mice and lung tissue of lung injury mice to further confirm the results of network pharmacological analysis. The results show that six core targets including AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6, BCL2L1 and ATM were identified. The potential therapeutic mechanism of matrine on COVID-19 combined with liver injury is closely related to regulate antiviral process, improve immune system and regulate the level of inflammatory factors. Molecular docking showed that matrine could spontaneously bind to the receptor protein and had strong binding force. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that matrine could significantly reduce the expression of AKT1, TP53, TNF, IL6 and ATM in mice with liver injury or lung injury (P < 0.05), and increase the expression of BCL2L1 to a certain extent (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that matrine can achieve simultaneous intervention of COVID-19 combined with liver injury by multi-dimensional pharmacological mechanism.
Publication Date: 2021-02-02
Journal: Drug delivery